An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Westmorland. Originally published by His Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1936.
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This Volume contains (in addition to the official Report) a series of general articles on the County as a whole, a Sectional Preface, which, under subject-headings, calls attention to any particularly interesting examples mentioned in the Inventory; an illustrated Inventory, with a concise account of the monuments visited; a list of monuments that the Commissioners have selected as especially worthy of preservation; an armorial of heraldry before 1550; a glossary of the architectural, heraldic and archaeological terms which occur in the volume; a map showing the topographical distribution of the scheduled monuments, and an index.
The monuments will be found, as in the Huntingdonshire and Herefordshire Inventories, under the heads of the parishes arranged alphabetically, with an introductory paragraph calling attention to the more noticeable among them in each parish. The chronological sequence chosen is not perhaps scientifically perfect, but it has been found a workable basis for classification. The order adopted is as follows:—
(1) Roman monuments and Roman earthworks.
(2) English ecclesiastical monuments.
(3) English secular monuments.
(4) Unclassified monuments, both prehistoric and later.
In addition to dwelling-houses, the English secular class (3) includes such earthworks as mount and bailey castles, homestead moats, etc. To the section of unclassified monuments (4) are assigned all earthworks, not Roman or definitely mediæval, whether dated or not; this permits the grouping together of earthworks of the same type, some of which may have been excavated and their date determined.
The descriptions of the monuments are of necessity much compressed, but the underlying principle on which accounts of any importance are based is the same throughout.
In the first place, the Parish is located by letters in brackets which refer to the square where it is to be found in the map at the end of the volume; reference is also given where necessary to the Ordnance sheets (scale 6 inches to the mile) by small letters in front of the number of each monument. In the case of churches, the description begins with a few words on the situation and material of the monument, together with a statement as to the development of its various parts. A second paragraph calls attention, when necessary, to its more remarkable features. This is followed by a concise description, mainly architectural, of its details. A fourth paragraph deals with the fittings in alphabetical order, while the concluding sentence gives a general statement as to structural condition. The accounts of less important buildings, whether secular or ecclesiastical, are still further compressed, and, in the case of secular monuments, consist of a single paragraph, or of a mere mention of their situation if they belong to a group with certain characteristics described in a covering paragraph.
The standardization of the spelling of proper names in the Commission's inventories has always presented considerable difficulties, and almost any system is open to criticism. It is well known that during the period covered by our terms of reference, and indeed to a much later date, the art of spelling was in a very fluid state, proper names especially being subject to a wide variation, dictated partly by their phonetic values and partly by individual caprice. In the absence, therefore, of any final court of appeal, it has been thought best to abide, in the matter of place-names, by the spelling adopted by the Ordnance Survey, without prejudice as to its accuracy.
In the matter of personal names, in treating of individual funeral-monuments, etc., the actual spelling of the memorial has been reproduced, while in the rest of the text the normal spelling of the name has been followed.
The illustrations are derived from photographs taken expressly for the Commission, and reproduced by H.M. Stationery Office, whose work, I think, deserves special recognition. They have been chosen for their educational and for their aesthetic value. Had appearance alone been made the test of selection, many more might easily have been included. The map at the end of the Inventory shows the distribution of the monuments, and incidentally throws some light on the influence of physical features, on the siting of particular categories of monuments such as early village-settlements, as well as on the concentration of population in the county at various times before the year 1714.
To ensure clearness of description, all ancient churches not illustrated by historically hatched plans have been provided with key-plans to a uniform scale of 48 feet to the inch, with the monumental portions shown in solid black. The dimensions given in the Inventory are internal unless otherwise stated.
It may also be well again to draw attention to the fact that our Record Cards for the County may be consulted by properly accredited persons who give notice of their intention to our Secretary at 29, Abingdon Street, Westminster, S.W.1. The cards contain photographs, drawings of tracery and mouldings, as well as plans and sketches of the monuments—forming in truth the complete National Inventory. Copies of the photographs may be purchased on application to the Secretary.
We have followed our unbroken practice of including no monument that has not actually been inspected, and the account of every monument of importance has been checked in situ by a member of our own investigating staff. In a work of such intricate detail there must be mistakes. But I hope these are neither numerous nor serious. A further guarantee of accuracy lies in the fact that my fellow Commissioners, Dr. James, Sir Charles Peers and Professor Hamilton Thompson, have revised the reports of the Inventories of secular and ecclesiastical monuments, while my fellow Commissioner Mr. Montgomerie, and Mr. O. G. S. Crawford have supervised the reports on earthworks. The proofs of the Inventory have furthermore been read and revised by Professor R.G. Collingwood, F.B.A., F.S.A., and Mr. W. T. McIntire, F.S.A. The heraldry of the Inventory has been checked by the Reverend E. E. Dorling, F.S.A.; the description of glass by Dr. M. R. James, O.M., F.S.A.; the descriptions of brasses by Mr. Mill Stephenson, F.S.A.; and the accounts of Roman monuments by Dr. R. E. M. Wheeler, V.P.S.A. (Keeper of the London Museum and Assistant Commissioner). Nevertheless, I shall welcome any corrections and criticisms that may be sent to me with a view to their possible inclusion in some future edition.
CRAWFORD & BALCARRES.