Henry VIII
February 1537, 6-10

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1890

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'Henry VIII: February 1537, 6-10', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 12 Part 1: January-May 1537 (1890), pp. 154-198. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=103357 Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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February 1537, 6–10

6 Feb.
R. O.
348. SIR THOS. BOTELER to CROMWELL.
I have sent into the country to know what company the lord Monteagle had prepared, and how far they were set forward, of which I send a certificate. I have delivered the King's letters to my lord of Derby, Sir John Biron, Sir Ric. Houghton, and Sir Thos. Southworth. The two former have certified already. Houghton will either come up himself or certify by me, "and I do think your Lordship shall have a marvellous certificate of the said Sir Ric. Houghton, and ye shall well perceive thereby that the country was in much more danger than I thought it had been in, for he knows more than I did know therein." If all things are at rest I intend shortly to be with your Lordship. The country is more corrupted than I thought. The common people murmur for their wages, and I fear if there was any more business they would not be so well minded as they were. If wages come it will have a very good effect. Credence for bearer. At my poor house, 6 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Privy Seal. Endd.
6 Feb.
R. O.
349. DARCY to FITZWILLIAM.
Wrote lately by his servant, Ralph Medilton, that he would this Hilary term send some of his counsel to Fitzwilliam about the occupation of his offices in the honour and castle of Pontfract, of which Fitzwilliam has the reversion. Intended to send Mr. Chaloner and Mr. Babthorp, but they and all other his counsel learned are in attendance on the Lieutenant, and cannot go till Easter term, when he intends to come up in person. Writes in consideration of his promise. Pontfret castle, 6 Feb. 1537.
At the coming of the said lord Lieutenant all Darcy's rooms "of the honour, Knasborough, Snaith, abbeys and others" were in perfect stay and quietness. Trusts the Lieutenant has, as promised, written so to the King.
Corrected draft, p. 1. In Darcy's hand. Endd.: This letter sent by the King's footman, that was my 1. Sands' servant, to my 1. Admiral.
6 Feb.
R. O.
350. POMFRET CASTLE.
"Remains made in Pontfret castle," 6 Feb. 28 H. VIII.: delivered to George Nevell.
Wheat, 17 qrs. 6 bu., at 10s. 4d. a qr.; barley malt, 17½ qrs. at 6s. 4d. and barley at malting, 40 qrs. at 5s. Beeves, 6 stall fed oxen at 20s, 6 stotts quick at 16s., 7 kye at 16s., and 1¼ beef in salt at 16s. apiece. Muttons, 6¼ at 2s. 10d. a piece. "Frisheacats":—2 capons 12d., 17 hens 4s. 6d., 4 conies 8d., 38 woodcocks 6s. 4d., 17 partridges 2s. 10d., 7 great birds 2½d., ½ lamb 15d., butter 18½d., 131 eggs 13d. Fish:—3 ling 3s., 11 salt fish 9s. 2d., half a salmon baik 12d. By Mr. Challiner:—1 capon 10d. 1 hen 3d., 4 partridges 6d., 2 cocks 3d., 2 sausages _ (blank) a piece bacon 6d: "I present." Store:—white herrings, red herrings and sprotts, "afore prassed." Spices:—3 lb. sugar at 8d. a lb.; ½ lb. maces 3s.; ½ lb. cloves 2s. 4d., 2 lbs. pepper 4s. 4d., 3 lbs. almonds 12d.
Total 46l. 6s. 10d.
P. 1. Endd.: "Remains in Pontfret Castle contrary to the report of G. D." (fn. 1)
6 Feb.
R. O.
351. SIR ANTHONY BROWNE to HENRY VIII.
Arrived at Berwick on Saturday last and sent for the gentlemen to be here this day, but Cuthbert Charlltun, Edw. Charlltun, Harry Robsun, Chr. and David Mylburne, and Sandy Hall came not. Is informed by my lord of Durham, whom he could not have done without, and also by Sir William Evers, Sir John Witherington, Robert à Collingwood, and many more, that they be very evil men and will not come in for fear of their evil deeds. The country is marvellously out of order; the gentlemen in Northumberland at deadly feud, as the Grayes and the Caers, the Foesters, the Ogles, and the Halls whom he today commanded to be friends in the King's name. They all said whatever the King commanded they would do, and each agreed to set his hand to an instrument. In Northumberland all desire to serve the King, but would fain be revenged on Tynedale and Riddesdale, which have spoiled them so sore that many are weary of their lives. Trusts shortly, however, that pledges will be sent in and redress made; for Riddesdale has already sent 7 or 8 pledges. Is more afraid of Tynedale, for both Tynedale and Riddesdale say they would never have broken, but by command of Sir Reynold Carnaby in the King's name, and they of Northumberland say they only stirred to defend themselves from Tynedale and Riddesdale. "The f[irst] that came with nawette (naughty) letters came out of the Bishopric by one John Lomnaye to Alnwick, and there met him Sir Ingram Percy. And at that time Sir Thomas Percy was not there." Today ministered the oath to all the gentlemen and the deputy wardens which was not a little comfort to them to be your Highness' servants. Delivered, also their patents. Believes they will think long till they have done service in recompence thereof. Berwick, 6 Feb. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add.
6 Feb.
Shrewsb. MSS. P. f. 37. Coll. of Arms.
352. JOHN MORETON to the EARL OF SHREWSBURY.
Mr. Hynde and Mr. Mullyneux have spoken divers times with the Chancellor of the Augmentations for Flaunfforde. The matter was debated in the Court of Augmentations on Sat. last. The suppression is deferred for the Earl's pleasure till 3 March next. Could obtain nothing more as the King had given sentence on it. Advises quick suit to be made to the King and no other officer to "rede" it before that day, or else to show sufficient to discharge it from the name of a proriy, of which he is doubtful, as the institution and leases made in the name of a prior touch the statute.
Reginald Beire can provide 100 quarters of wheat at 12s. if he knows by the second week in Lent, but the measure is not so good in Kent as in those parts. Sends a letter from the prior of Wormesley, with the copy of his confirmation and recognisance. London, 6 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: To my lord. Endd.: From Sir John Moreton the x. day of February, Anno xxviij.
6 Feb.
R. O.
353. JOHN HUSEE to LORD LISLE.
With Allan Redman, Mr. London's servant, I sent your Lordship a letter of my lord Privy Seal's with another of mine concerning your great horses, that if your Lordship would send over two they would be well bestowed; for I hope you will have the fee simple. I received from your Lordship by Thomas Rogers a warrant. Two pair of hosen shall be sent with the first. If Sir Francis Bigot be taken he will suffer, but the skirmish between him and Mr. Eldercar was nothing so sore as reported. Lord Lumley's son and heir and Sir Thomas Percy are in the Tower and some think will soon suffer. The Garethes are rid according to their demerits, and it is presumed that the Tower will be better funished with prisoners ere long. There is to be a general assembly here on the 17th. Our new spears are now nothing spoken of, nor yet the pensioners. "For the abridging of the King's house all those matters sleepeth." Mr. Bassett wants to know what time he is to come over, that he may prepare. Mr. Popley sends you a letter with a release and a letter of attorney concerning Irem Acton, which he has bought of Sir John Dudley. Fearing that, as Dudley is going to sea as vice-admiral, if any ill happen to him all the money adventured will be lost, Popley says he will set your Lordship as good surety for the payment of your yearly rent in London as you or any other in your name shall require of him. Wishes Lisle to thank Mr. Surveyor, who has been earnest in his cause with my lord Privy Seal. If Lisle's great horses would learn to speak by the way they would be better heard than many men suitors who have been long here; and though they cannot speak they will be received with signs and proffers. Howbeit one of them must be for Mr. Richard Cromwell, who has Lisle's bill of preferment. Allan King wishes the passport he left at Calais. The Frenchman must deliver Lisle the bond with a general quittance, and be bound that neither Richard nor John Pysshons nor John del Soll shall demand nor trouble me thenceforth, and Husee will pay the 10l. here. Mr. Onley looks for his tun of Gascon wine. London, 6 Feb.
The King removes to York Palace or Westminster Palace on the 10th.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.
6 Feb.
R. O.
354. JOHN HUSEE to LADY LISLE.
I have received your sundry letters. As to such necessaries as you have given in remembrance to my fellow, Kent, you will receive from my lady Rutland the parcels contained in the enclosed bill, and more if possible. Mr. Skut says the fashion of nightgowns is such as your ladyship has already, made of damask, velvet, or satin. Two bonnets of ermine are bespoken for your ladyship. The waiscoats are to be made of white satin, edged, and turned up at the band with ermines. The clerk of the Closet (fn. 2) once made a promise, but nothing is to be got from him. Means will be made for hangings out of the Queen's wardrobe and carpets. You will receive a letter from Mr. Rolles enclosing one from John Davy, with a little fardel of canvas which the bearer will deliver to you. I have received a barrel of herring which I have delivered to Mr. Basset. I have not received the bill of spices, but will send you by the next ship such parcels as I think meet. Sprats were never worse, but I will send you two cades. Mr. Skryven is not yet come out of the country. My lord of Hartfforde (Hereford) would like a piece. of French wine. As to Justyce, Mr. Wingfield was not in fault, for what was done was by the King's commandment. Mrs. Pole has promised to prepare the gear you wrote for. Mr. Popley has bought the reversion of Irene Acton of Sir John Dudley, and now he fears, because Dudley is made vice-admiral and goes to sea, that if he should miscarry, all the money he has delivered to him will be lost. He has therefore written to my lord, desiring him to seal and sign a letter of attorney and a release to Sir John Dudley, and he offers my lord as good sureties as can be desired for his rent here in London. Mr. Popley thinks my lord will be good lord to him, for if Sir John Dudley should miscarry, Mr. Popley stands in danger to lose all his money, while if he set sureties my lord can be no loser. Jesu make you in time a glad mother. London, 6 Feb.
Here is no news which you will like, for they are matters of execution. I trust Mr. Coffyn will be a mean for the preferment of Mrs. Katharine, but I know not his full mind.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.: At Calais. Endd.. Per Johannem Hyde.
6 Feb.
R. O.
355. ELLENOR WHALLEY, silk woman, to LADY LISLE.
Desires to be recommended to lord Lisle. Thanks for good cheer made to her and her husband, and for the French wine and barrel of herring. Asks her favour for the bearer, Thos. Bryan, a kinsman of hers, who has a suit for land in the mayor's court in Calais and can get no judgment. The lord Chancellor and Privy Seal have written to the mayor and aldermen in his behalf. Other learned men have also put to their hands. London, 6 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Of Calais.
6 Feb.356. SIR ROBERT WINGFIELD.
See GRANTS in FEBRUARY, No. 11.
6 Feb.
Lamb. MS. 602. f. 133.
357. MARTIN PELLYS to [CROMWELL].
The Irish, both within and without the English pale, are of such a subtle disposition as "doth almost pass the capacity of any man, without it be your Lordship or other like that have been 'ewcesid' to have communication with them or by writing from them that be continuers and dwellers among them." They are always taking counsel to expel all English and wish no Englishman to know anything of the land, though some of them say the contrary, as the bearer can testify by his experience in the duke of Norfolk's time and now. All the King's and [Cromwell's] orders should be sent to the Deputy, Treasurer, prior of Cellmaynam and Master of the Rolls, commanding them above all to avoid covetousness. Nothing can be done so long as the Irish know as much of the King's counsel as the English who are of the Council. The Butlers are of a high courage and live like princes. They would be loth to live in subjection if they can prevent it. All this country prays daily that the Butlers may not be their rulers, but that they may have more Englishmen among them to bear rule. They pray also for [Cromwell's] prosperity, saying it was he moved the King "to go so graciously through with this country." Wishes [Cromwell] would come into the land for 3 months. It would be the noblest journey that ever was made, both for his honor and wealth. Advises the King to have the land between Dublin and Waterford planted. Then Ireland would be clearly won and the King be put to little cost. If [Cromwell] come over he could redress many things that men now think will never be redressed. Dublin, 6 February.
Hol., pp. 4. Endd.
6 Feb.
Vesp. C. xiii. 340. B. M.
358. JOHN HUTTON to WRIOTHESLEY.
Since receipt of my lord Privy Seal's letters ordering him to solicit restitution of a ship laden with brassell, and like piracies, he has been occupied with these matters. Mons. de Bevars and all the captains of ships which armed out for the wars were summoned by the Council and alleged that the King's subjects had permitted the Emperor's subjects to be taken by the French in English waters. The Council said the Queen would send a commission to the Emperor's ambassador in England to make answer in the matter. Hutton replied that if the King had wished the matter settled in that way he would have moved it directly to the ambassador and not sent letters to the Queen. The Council considered again and said the Queen would write her answer to the King, which Hutton should receive from the audiencer Pensart. The letter is delayed, although two posts have gone to the Emperor's ambassador since. The King should be somewhat stiff therein; for the crimes are too manifest to be attributed to ignorance; for but for the news (happily false) that the Northern men were up again with more extremity than ever, the ships had been set at liberty long ago.
The Turk has sent to the Venetians to know whether they will be French or Imperial. He will attack Sicily this summer. This news, if true, will disturb the Emperor.
Begs him to move the lord Privy Seal to get the writer the gift of the King's part of such "brokes as shall be levied here by virtue of our ordinance during this Cold and Pasmart," which perchance would be 100l. Has shipped a lion and a spaniel to the lord Privy Seal and sends two sable skins to Wriothesley. Has bespoken his mares to be sent out of Holland. 6 Feb.
Hol., pp. 4. Add.: At London.
7 Feb.
R. O.
359. LETHERINGHAM PRIORY.
A bundle of papers relating to the priory of Letheringham, including a schedule of rewards given by the King's commissioners at the dissolution of the priory, 7 Feb., 28 Hen. VIII.
7 Feb.
R. O.
360. WILLIAM Prior of Bath to CROMWELL.
Sends him a poor gift of their grant of 5l. yearly, not wishing to bind Cromwell to anything unworthy of his Lordship. Is grateful for defending him against secret and sinister efforts made against him. My lord of Bath has taken order according to Cromwell's letters, which the writer trusts will tend to the good and quietness of all. Wishes such liberties for recreation as are granted to the abbey of Glastonbury. Bath, 7 Feb.
P. 1. Add.: Privy Seal. Endd. by Wriothesley.
7 Feb.
R. O.
361. THOMAS MEGGES to CROMWELL.
On Candlemas day, 2 February, the vice-alderman of Trinity Guild of Walsoken sent me word that, by enforcement of Balam and Rede, the brethren would, the Monday following, elect a new master. As I had promised your Lordship to delay the election till I knew the King's pleasure, I absented myself and sent them your letters, but Balam, not regarding your letters, gave them comfort to proceed. So they elected a chaplain of the Bishop's and admitted him a brother; but I think the election is void without the consent of the alderman or his deputy. My certificate of the master's incontinent living is true. I have sent unto you an honest brother who was at the election; I beg you to give him credence. I trust your Lordship will not let the matter rest here or I shall take asoyle and rebuke, what for the serving of the privy seal and now for this election. Downam within the Isle, 7 February.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.: Lord Privy Seal. Endd. Sealed.
7 Feb.
R. O.
362. NORFOLK to HENRY VIII.
I write by my lord of Cumberland's servant. I have received the oath of the gentlemen and others named in the schedule enclosed, as well of the three Ridings as of this city, none making any opposition. Within three days I will send it under your great seal to such parts as I cannot go to, and trust there shall be no business, as I shall first swear all the head men of the country. On Monday last divers malicious persons resorted to Richmond to have made a new commotion, but I so prevented them that the inhabitants of that town would not condescend to their opinion, and they and others of Wensladale, Dent, Sadbere, and Mashamshire, departed without anything done. I hope shortly to have some of the ringleaders, unless they flee the country. There are yet many malicious persons untaken, and divers countries ready for new commotions "if they saw not likelihood shortly to be met withal." Sir Thomas Tempest's letters, which I received last night, will show you the state of those parts, and how one who brought letters from Bigod, being taken by young Sir Ralph Evers and the bailey of Durham, and delivered to my lady of Westmoreland, the commons there arose and took the bailey, and would have stricken off his head unless he had found means to get the fellow out of my said lady's custody. Cannot be in so many places at once, but quod differtur non aufertur. I cannot promise the apprehension of Bigod, but hope to hear good news of him and his brother and servants. On Saturday next I sit in this town on the indictments of those apprehended for the new business, and on Monday proceed according to justice. I have in hand, spiritual and temporal, 18 persons, of whom many will be found guilty; and I trust shortly to have more. At Pomfret I had no small business between lord Darcy and his son Sir George. The father would only have the keeping of the castle, the son, having your letters, would not let him have it alone, unless I commanded him. To prevent "business" between them, and as lord Darcy offered to lie there in person, and put your Highness to no charge, I appointed him to keep it, and Sir George to be ready at an hour's warning to come to me with his power. He will serve you against his father and all the world. "I pray God the father be as good in heart as the son, which by the proof only I shall believe." Your rents and others' cannot yet be levied, but I trust soon shall be. Mr. Par, amongst others, can get none in many places, and I dare not yet send him to Kendal, Dent, or Sedbare. My lord of Durham dare not come from Norham. Many be more afraid than within 15 days I hope they shall be. Force must be "medled" here with pleasant words. I have received a letter from your Council that those of Tyndale and Riddesdale, whom I named in a bill (as unfit to receive your fees) should, notwithstanding my letter to Sir Anthony Browne, be admitted according to your first determination. I at once sent to Sir Anthony to admit them; trusting to show that no one less favours murderers and thieves than I, and still less traitors and rebels; at the return of Sir Anthony I doubt not ye shall know I wrote the truth of those persons. York, 7 Feb., at night. Signed.
Pp. 2. Add. Endd.
7 Feb.
R. O.
363. THIBAULT ROUAULT (Sieur de Riou) to LORD LISLE.
Jean Semyth once told me you offered to get me some Flemish horses. I send the bearer to request that you will send Jean Semyth thither to choose four; two ought to be very strong, and other two moderately so. Write to me what money you think they will cost, and I will have it ready when Jehan Semyth returns to Calais. Two are for my nephew. Abbeville, 7 Feb. Signed.
Fr., p. 1. Add.
7 Feb.
R. O.
364. JOHN HUTTON to CROMWELL.
After long suit by reason of the Queen's (fn. 3) sickness, obtained a letter to the King, which he sends to Cromwell. The Council send by the bearer information of the allegations made before them by the lords of Bevars and Bradrowd, who were partners in the rigging out of those ships which have done all the spoils on the English coast and within the King's dominion, as the ship laden with brasell and others. The said lords claim half the prizes. "The captains have declared before the Council of divers of the Emperor's subjects that they their ships and goods should be taken by the Frenchmen out of the King's dominions and approved and followed without any justice done or recompence" which he trusts cannot be proved. It is also asserted that Mons. du Beis, captain of Boulogne, has taken divers of the Emperor's subjects within the English pale; and that suit was made to the deputy of Calais without redress. They hope the King will do justice as he wills them to do. They would have referred the answer of the King's letter to the Emperor's ambassador, till Hutton was obliged to be somewhat plain with them. Considers that the King's friends in these parts are the duke of Arskot, the marquis of Barowgh, the earl of Bewre, the lord of Liskyrke, Mr. Stoar and Mr. Jois Aemson. These are ordinary of the Council, and are very desirous to do the King pleasure, and so is the Queen. Since coming hither from the court, has heard that men of York, Newcastle, and Hull buy many sculls, splints, and other harness. Barough, 7 Feb.
Hol., pp. 2. Add.: Privy Seal. Endd.
7 Feb.
Otho C. IX. 114. B. M.
365. SIR CLEMENT WEST to HENRY VIII.
Nine new cardinals are consecrated, one an Englishman. There are in wages 12,000 men "and mo syk[ys] ... nat seyd bot feryth the Torke." Card. Sybo is "dysspreevyde" (deprived). The Emperor is gone from Jenys into Spain, promising to return. He has received promise of ships from the king of Portugal, and has given Milan to the said king's brother.—Arabs late come from Tunis do them many displeasures—"From Lyons the eryll Seynt Poulle yn c ... Cardynal Loryn be yn Pyamont and ... farre as Varsells and lost sum men." French navy at Marseilles. Preparations of the Turk against Naples, Rome, and Mal[ta]. Venetian navy. It is no pleasure to write of these things as Englishmen have no commands as captains of ships or galleys; nor have had since the departure from Rhodes, although there have been expeditions since to Modon, Goletta, Tunis, and of late to Tripoli. Asked for the galleys as ancient, but the command was given to one who has not been here three years ("and I 40") because his brother is a captain with the French king. Sir Giles Russell's request for a galley was also ignored. The Englishmen here have therefore signed a supplication for remedy or they will appeal to the King. Malta, 7 Feb.
Hol., pp. 3. Mutilated. Add.
7 Feb.
Add MS. 28,589, f. 193. B. M.
366. CHARLES V. AND PORTUGAL.
Instructions given by Charles V. to the Portuguese ambassador, Alvaro Mendez de Vasconcelo, who departed from Valladolid, 7 Feb. '37.
Instructions touching the marriage of the Infant Don Luys with the Princess of England are given in letters, reports (relaciones) and memorial herewith, upon which he now requires the King's opinion.
Damage done by French ships and request that they may not be sheltered in Portuguese ports.—In favour of the Inquisition.—Request that the King will dismiss the French ambassador Honorato from his court. Valladolid 9 Feb. 1537,
Spanish. Modern copy from the Archives at Simancas, pp. 10.
* Another copy of this is in Rymer Transcripts in R. O. Vol. 154, taken from the Archives of Torre do Tombo. It also bears the date 9 Feb. 1537.
Ib. f. 198. B. M.2. Instructions given to the ambassador Alvaro Mendez touching the marriage of the Infant Don Luys with the princess of England, 7 Feb. 1537. To be related to the king of Portugal and the Infant in order that when they know what has been done they may let the Emperor know their pleasure.
The said ambassador knows what proposals the Emperor wrote to his ambassador in England from Gaeta a year ago, and afterwards from Savillian, touching the said marriage. Has given him copies of these writings, a report of what the ambassador has lately written, and notice of the insurrection in England. Considering the importance of the business, the Emperor had determined to send a special personage upon it; but seeing that Mendez was going he has commended the office to him. As to the succession of England which is the point upon which the king of England and his Council make difficulties, because the King has used the Queen, her mother, and the Princess, as all the world knows; although he now treats the Princess like a daughter, still he represents that the said marriage must be made with reservation of the succession to children, male or female, of his present marriage or of any other he may make. And although the King's withdrawal from the Church, the insurrection of his subjects and the state in which he now stands with them are difficulties, yet the importance of the marriage both to Portugal and the Emperor must be considered.
As to the succession, the Princess should be declared heiress in default of male issue, or if this cannot be obtained then no mention should be made in the marriage contract of the succession. Failing these the dowry should he as large as possible and well assured. Seeing what the ambassador in England writes of the unlikelihood of the King having children by the present queen or by any other he may marry at his age, and also the love all the realm has for the Princess, the reservation if made could be disputed on the ground of the notorious illtreatment of the Princess, and the means her father has used to make her obey him, and she might make a secret protestation (se podria hazer protestacion aparte) for safeguard of her right. Even if the King had other children they would be left very young and less powerfully related (aparentados) than the Princess, and the succession might go to the Princess's children. Once get the dowry and good success may be expected in the rest. Moreover the Princess has 200,000 "doblas" in right of her mother and other rights.
The matter requires haste considering the inconstancy of the king of England and the insurrection, which may well perplex him; for he might, by constraint of his subjects and the importunity with which, as the ambassador writes, the marriage of the Princess is solicited for the duke of Orleans, either have to agree to that marriage or perhaps leave the kingdom with the said Princess, which would be equally prejudicial to her right. And if he did not take the Princess with him his subjects would marry her to one of themselves and beneath her rank. Meanwhile seeing the urgency of the matter the Emperor has despatched letters to his ambassador in England, saying he is glad to hear of the goodwill of the King to the marriage, and has informed the king of Portugal and the Infant, who will send a special envoy in the matter. This will keep the negociations (platicas) alive and prevent the King from embracing others.
The Emperor thinks that, as he has commenced the matter, he should send a special envoy, to whom the king of Portugal and the Infant might give letters of credence; for, as the ambassador writes, the King might pretend an inclination to this merely to quiet his subjects and to strengthen himself with France, and it would injure the king of Portugal's reputation to send a personage if the affair fell through.
The king of England and his Council desire the said marriage as a means of concluding a league with the Emperor and Portugal against France, and perhaps of recovering what he claims in France, and even of defending himself against the Pope and his own subjects. The personage the Emperor sends will therefore, with the ambassador, assure the King that a suitable league will be made and that personages of higher quality will come to conclude the marriage. If the King require that the Princess should jointly with the Infant swear to the statutes he has made in his realm he may be put off with good words, such as that there is no necessity for it in his life- time, and if it must be done then suitable protestation could be made. If the marriage be concluded the Infant must reside in England to acquire the goodwill of the people, and be ready for any event; and once there, considering his personal qualities, things would succeed as desired. Although the King is obstinate in the things which he undertakes, those which he promises and assents to he observes entirely. Given at Valladolid, ...
The passage which follows is cancelled because as appears by a note it was intended for the ambassador:—There is a custom in that realm, taken from France, i.e., that when princes treat with the Kings any matter of importance they must give presents and pensions to the most influential councillors to obtain their favour. The ambassador writes that he hears the king of France has given Cremuel, the most influential person about the King, who hitherto has taken the Emperor's part against the French, a good sum of money and an annual pension, and that the King has licensed him to receive it. The ambassador also writes that to facilitate the business Cromwell and the other chief councillors should have presents, and the English ambassador here has said as much to one of the Emperor's council.
Spanish, pp. 13. Modern copy from the Archives at Simancas.
Ib. f. 205. B. M.3. Copies of the Emperor's letters to his ambassador in England touching the marriage of the Infant Don Luis with the Princess, sent to Portugal with Alvaro Mendez.
(1.) Letter from Gaeta, 28 March 1536 [see Vol. x. 575].
(2.) From Savillan, 30 June [see Vol. x. 1227].
Spanish, pp. 7. Modern copy from the Archives of Simancas.
Ib. f. 209. B. M.4. Report (relacion) on the state of Christendom sent to Portugal to the ambassador with the despatch of 9 (7 ?) Feb. 1537.
Instructions and requests sent from Nice by the Emperor on his return out of France to the Pope by the Secretary Ambrosius, and to the Venetians by Pero Gonzales de Mendoça.—Reply of the Venetians.—Pero Luys, the Pope's son's mission to the Emperor at Genoa.—The Emperor is well fortified in Italy and Germany. The duke and duchess of Savoy remain at Nice. Montferrat is delivered to the duke of Mantua. Movements of the Turk. Duke Alexander was murdered by treachery of his servants, without the knowledge of the citizens. The exiles (foraxidos) began to collect men and no doubt the king of France will favour them, but the Emperor has sent forces thither from Genoa, and hopes to preserve that state to his allegiance.
Spanish, pp. 6. Modern copy from the Archives of Simancas.
7 Feb.Brady's Episc. Succ. II. 281.367. CARDINAL. POLE.
7 Feb. 1537. The Pope created Cardinal Pole legate de latere and destined him to arrange the affairs of England.
Lat. Printed from a Barberini MS. at Rome (see also Baronius, XXXII. 451).
Poli Epp., II. cclxxiv.368. [CARD. POLE to PAUL III.].
"Holy Father," if the service for which God fitted me only consisted in the determination at which I long ago arrived, to expose my life for your Holiness, the favours and honours done me bind me to do as a duty what formerly I did for choice. As to the work in which your Holiness designs to make use of me, I will explain all that occurs to me, leaving your Holiness to judge.
Desires, first of all, to have the prayers of the Pope for the sake of his country and himself, because the way is long and he not robust enough to make any extraordinary diligence. Necessity of expedition as an answer to the manly and Christian demonstration those people are making. If any news came to necessitate the alteration of his commission, it could be sent after him by letter, it being very necessary to have time to act before the Parliament which is spoken of. The emissary of the Pope in the cause of religion should be assisted in his journey through France and Germany, so that there may be no check or delay; and for this the Pope should summon the ambassadors of the Emperor and French King, and get them to write to their princes of it, telling them also that the Pope takes occasion of Pole's going to urge them to peace, and declare the preparations of the Turk; also to urge the matter of heresies and speak of the Council. Desires to have instructions upon all these points, and particular briefs and writings necessary for England; and first of all, his bull as legate (della legazione), which must be very ample and honourable in word and faculty, to show the honour done to that nation. As these faculties might be required in places where he could not well go, such as Ireland, he desires power to delegate them to such as he thinks fit, to carry them even into Scotland. He might have a general brief to the whole kingdom, which, being public, the King would rather be pleased with than annoyed. Is he to write to the King, Queen, and Princess; and in what terms ?
Thinks what is desired in England is that the King restore everything to the state in which it was before he made these disorders, "e che si comandi tutto quello che non si puo comportare prima de dogmi della fede e religione senza un minima diminuzioue;" then to restore the accustomed obedience and authority in that realm both from himself and from all, both ecclesiastic and secular, as it was before; doing all that may conduce to this and to recovering the grace of God, and of his Holiness and the faithful. Asks for an information of what matters the Church of England used to communicate with the Holy See (di quello che era solita di communicar la Chiesa di Anglia con questa Santa Sede), in order that they may know to what to return and the manner in which the King ought to be received to penitence; although, if he could not be reduced to that to which he, more than the rest, ought to be ready, the Pope would be content with anything within the bounds of duty. From the good mind these people are said to have lately shown to the Holy See, rather an increase than a diminution of devotion may be expected; yet they might wish for some alteration, and the time of the Parliament or other might not permit of its being referred to Rome. Pole, therefore, desires power to make some admissions not essential to the Dogmas, rather than risk spoiling all by standing firm.
As to the Council, Lutheran matters, and heresies published by these disorders of the King, asks instructions. Thinks, however, it may be left to him to pardon and legitimise everything in the state in which he finds it, ordering recourse to the Court upon everything which depends here, "come delli provisti delle chiese dapoi che fu levata l'obedienza." Leaves the matter of the allowance to himself, and his company to the Pope's experience.
One thing he must not omit. It may be that the King has sought, by asking for the people's petitions, and pretending to approve them, and promising to accept them, to escape their fury, with the intention of not observing anything when he is out of danger, and of getting rid of the authors of the sedition upon one pretext or another. To provide against this, there should be some one to exhort the people, in the Pope's name, to stand firm, and a provision of money would be necessary. And it would be well that in that part of Flanders which should be most free, there should be a credit with the Fuccari and Belzeri, and the greater the better, to be employed when Pole sees necessary. Cipher and other particulars may be discussed afterwards.
Italian
8 Feb.
R. O.
369. BIGOD'S REBELLION.
Examination in the Tower, 8 Feb. 1536, by Thomas lord Cromwell and Drs. John Tregonwell, Ric. Layton, and Thos. Legh, "in presentia mei Jo. Rice, &c."
George Lumley, son and heir to lord Lumley, says that hearing they were up in Lincolnshire and Aske was gone to stir Holderness, his father and he fled into Newcastle; and then, mistrusting the commons there, his father went to Sir Thomas Hilton's house and himself to a house of his father's called the Isle. Soldiers from Richmondshire asked him to go to lord Latomer or else they would spoil his father's goods. Went and found lord Latomer with 8,000 or 10,000 mustering before Awklande, the bp. of Durham's house. Thither came Mr. Bowes with an answer from the earl of Westmoreland. Sir James Strangwishe, young Bowes, Sir Ralph Bowmer, and another knight that married with, and dwells nigh lord Latomer, came in with companies. Lord Latomer asked him to send word to his father to come in, and gave him the oath. Returned to the Isle and, hearing from Chr. Arnolde that his own house and wife were in danger, went home next day. Found Sir Thos. Percy had raised all that quarter of Yorkswold. After two days, he went to York to one Beck's wife's. In York, at Sir George Lawson's house, he met Sir Thos. Percy, Sir Nic. Ferfox, Sir Oswald Wolsethorpe, and others; and expected to meet his father. Heard Percy praise the abbot of Byrlington for sending them two brethren, "the tallest men that he saw." Ferfox said as it was a spiritual matter all churchmen should go forth in person. Ferfox therefore went to the abbot of St. Mary's and ext., at Sir Thos. Percy's command, to St. Saviour's of Newburgh, Bylande, Revieulx, Whitby, Malton, and Kirkeham, sending John Lambert, his servant, to Mountgrace, Birlington, and Guysborough. This was to move the abbots or priors and two brethren from each to come forward with their best crosses. The abbots of Bylande, Newburgh, and Whitby gave him 40s. each of their own accord; those of Revieulx and Guysborough promised to come in person, but were countermanded by Aske. The prior of Guysborough came to York, where ext. showed him Aske's countermand. Aske wrote to him at Whitby to get the abbot to send carriage and benevolence, but tarry himself at home. Returned and found the whole company beside Pomfret. Reported to Percy that he had done his message, and tarried there with his father till the duke of Norfolk came and made a truce. The causes of insurrection were the pulling down of abbeys and reports of taxes on christenings and weddings, and that "no poor man should eat white bread," &c. Robert Aske was ringleader. An abbot, "a tall lusty man," said at Aukland at the muster, "I hear say that the King doth cry xviijd. a day, and I trust we shall have as many men for viijd. a day." Thinks it was the abbot of Jerveulx; his chaplain carried bow and arrows. Sir Thos. Percy and one Rudston were next to Aske as ringleaders.
2. To the 2nd article:—Thinks every spiritual man gave them money, for all the abbots he was with said they had already sent aid to Sir Thos. Percy. Each township gave its soldiers 20s. apiece. His servants of Thwyng had that; but gentlemen had no wages. Sir Thos. Percy can say more. Heard Aske say, at Lord Darcy's house of Templehirst, he had given a copy of the oath to a gentleman of Norfolk who would forward the matter in the South.
3. The bruit was at Doncaster that the South would not fight against them. All the letters he knows of were written by Aske or his servants.
4. Heard Aske say he devised the oath. Knows not who devised the articles: he was then sick in bed.
5. One Tuesday morning after he had been with Sir Ralph Yvers, he was in bed at his house at Thwyng, when Ric. Sympson, constable of that town, came to him and said the country had been warned that night to muster at Setterington. The constable did not know who called the muster; but warning had been sent from constable to constable. After deliberating with his wife and the constable, he thought best to go; for, if the assembly were for the King, it was his duty, and if for some new commotion, he might stay them. Went with his servants Ralph Lumley and Robert Harryson to Setterington to a "howe" where 30 or 40 persons were assembled who knew no cause for assembling except that the beacon of Setterington had been burned, and that the constables had warned them. Then came Sir Francis Bigod with 100 or more horse and ext. asked to speak with him apart, (fn. 4) but he replied he would speak nothing that all were not privy to.
Then Bigod got on the top of a hillock and declared they had many things to look to or they should be destroyed; the gentry had deceived the commons; the Bishopric and Cleveland were up for their articles, and I trust (he said) you will not desert them. My lord of Norfolk is coming with 20,000 men to take Hull, Scarborough, and other haven towns unless we take them before; and so I and my fellow Halom purpose to do; for we meet this night at Beverley to raise the country and take Hull. I think you should command Mr. Lumley here to go with you to take Scarborough castle and town, and keep the port there. I have written to the bailiffs of Scarborough to aid you. (Here Bigod delivered ext. the letter and commanded him to see it conveyed; and another letter to the old lady of Northumberland to stir Sir Thos. Percy to come forwards, when the commons would put him in possession of Northumberland's lands, which letter he forwarded. Afterwards showed the effect of these letters to Sir Oswald Wolsethorpe and my lord of Norfolk). You are deceived, continued Bigod, "by a colour of a pardon" which is but a proclamation (here he read the pardon): it is as if I should say the King will give you a pardon, and bade you go to the Chancery for it. You are called rebels, by which you will acknowledge yourselves to have acted against the King, which is contrary to your oath. (Here one of the commons said, "The King hath sent us the faucet and keepeth the spiggot himself;" another said it mattered not whether they had a pardon or not, for they had never offended). A parliament is appointed, but neither the place nor the time. Here is that the King "should have cure both of your body and soul," which is against the Gospel. If you take my part I will not fail you: and who will do so, hold up your hands. On that they held up their hands with a great shout; and Bigod departed towards Hull, and ext., with a company of 40, towards Scarborough.
There was with Bigod a tall man, like a priest, who said, if they went not forward all they had done was lost. Bigod said the fat benefices of non-resident priests in the South and the money of suppressed abbeys would pay the poor soldiers. Bygod commanded ext's. men to see that he raised Dykring and the rest of the country. Mustered the men of Dickring at Monyhouse and took two of each town and went towards Scarborough. The commons were discontented at the smallness of the company, and commanded him to raise Pickering Lythe; so he warned the constable of Semere to muster Pickering Lythe by the next day at Spittels, and he would come thither from Scarborough. Entered Scarborough with six or seven score, and proclaimed that they should pay for their food and not "quarrel against any that belonged toward young Sir Rauph Yvers upon any old grudge for keeping the castle in times past." The commons, fearing the castle would be entered by force against them, wished to seize it, but ext. said it was the King's house and against their oath to enter it. Set a watch round it. Sent his servant Chr. Lambert about midnight to warn old Sir Ralph Yvers that, if young Sir Ralph were there, he should not attempt to enter the Castle that night because of the watch; also to say he trusted shortly to despatch the company. Next day he met the officers of the town at the Grey Friars, and sware them according to Bygod's letter. The oath was like the former oath, with this addition, that they should counsel none to sit still till they had obtained their articles. The commons demanded that Guy Fishe, one Lockwood, and Lancelot Lacy, servants to young Sir Ralph Yvers should be killed for having kept the castle with Sir Ralph Yvers before. Ext. stayed them from this and also from entering the castle, Lockwood aforesaid being "there and then present." Then because ext. said he had business at home, they took one Wyvel for captain. Took away the soldiers who came with him and promised to send Wyvel some more. Met divers of Pickering Lithe and desired them to send aid to Scarborough for that night. Found the assembly at the Spittels departed, for he was late. There he dismissed the soldiers who were with him, and said he would show their doubts to the duke of Norfolk; so they departed, promising to rise again for no man except him or Sir Thos. Percy. Lancelot Lacy aforesaid was present. On the morrow, which was Thursday or Friday, he wrote to Wyvel and the company at Scarborough, to depart home, for he heard the King would come to York about Whitsuntide to hold Parliament and have the Queen crowned, and that Norfolk was coming "only with a train mete for a duke" and to pacify the country. Sent this by John Corte, his servant: he had learned the tidings by a letter, from Sir Robt. Constable to young Sir Marmaduke Constable, which a servant of Sir Robt. Lacye brought him. Went to York to one Beck's wife's to be away from the commons who had promised to rise only for him. Hearing the lord mayor had order to attach him or his servants, he sent for Sir Oswald Wolsethorpe, whom he informed of this, saying that, lest he should seem to flee, he would stay there though he had intended to go to the duke of Norfolk. Tarried there two or three days, and then, as my lady his mother sent for him to Lord Scrope's house at Bolton, he went there for one day and told "my lord" of Bigod's commotion. Returned to York for a day and then went towards his own house. At Stamford Bridge he received a letter from Sir Oswald Wolsethorpe advising him to return to York, which he did the same night, and was attached by Sir Oswald and afterwards brought to the duke of Norfolk.
To the rest of the articles:—Heard the commons say "Blessed was the day that Sir Francis Bygod, Rauf Fenton, John Halom, and the friar of Saint Robert's met together, for and if they had not set their heads together this matter had never been bulted out." Heard Sir George Conyers say, at old Sir Ralph Yvers' house, that Boynton had a book that was made by Bygod to stir the people.
Examined what moved his father to go first to Newcastle:—His father was hunting the hare about the Isle when word came from Sir Thos. Hilton that the bp. of Durham had fled from Awkland at midnight, and Sir Thomas warned him to get to some sure place. His father, seeing the Maison Dieu at Newcastle was his strongest house, packed up his plate and jewels and gat him to Lumley Castle that night, sent ext. by night with the plate into Newcastle, and next day came thither himself and tarried two days till Sir Thos. Hilton arrived. Hearing the commons there would join the rebels, his father went to Sir Thos. Hilton's, and ext. never saw him again till they met on the heath at Doncaster.
Went to York to show himself, because his wife had written to him to come home, for his house was threatened. Did not send a servant to the muster at Setterington where he met Bygod, because he thought he should do more good himself. Said "Sir Thomas Percy was the lock, key, and wards of this matter," because the commons said they would rise for none but him or Sir Thos. Percy; also he heard at a town between York and Bolton Castle that the country would rise if Sir Thomas would set forward; also because of Bigod's letter to the old lady of Northumberland; also because at the first insurrection the people proclaimed him twice a lord Percy and showed more affection for him than for any other; also because he was the best of the Percyes next to the lord of Northumberland. Said so to stay the people.
In Ap Rice's hand, pp. 15, worn. Endd.: Thanswers of G. Lumley.
R. O.370. HALLAM'S REBELLION.
"Abridgement of the examination of John Halom and his complices." John Halom, of Calkehill, yeoman, examined, says, the first insurrection began at Beverley on Sunday before St. Wilfred's day. On that day he rebuked his curate for leaving St. Wilfred's day "unbidde." The Monday following he went to Beverley, and there, at one Cowper's house, found one Woodmansey, (fn. 5) who had been sent into Lincolnshire to enquire about the business there, and Guy Keme and Thos. Doonne, all newly come out of Lincolnshire. They said two hosts were there up and six knights in each (fn. 6)
John Webster, Kitchyn, and Wilson, (fn. 7) of Beverley, were ringleaders. Keme and Doonne said they were up in Lincolnshire because (fn. 8) the King's visitors "should come to Lowthe and there take away the reliques and spoil the church;" also because of plucking down abbeys, of first fruits, tenths, &c. (detailed). They desired aid of Yorkshire. A friar of St. Robert's of Knaresborough (fn. 9) , there present, wrote to all the townships about to assemble at Hunsley on St. Wilfred's day. Examinate was then and there sworn to the commons' part. They assembled first at Hunsley and then at Arows, Wighton Hill, and Hunsley again. They then went to York and returned to Hull and mustered again at Hunsley. Robert Howtham, Harry Newarke, Wm. Cowrser, and examinate had been named captains, but the others became suspected and examinate remained sole captain. Upon word from Mr. Aske and Mr. Ruddeston to come to Pomefret they joined the whole host at Scawsby lease. In their first journey to York they sold as spoils Copyndale's sheep, and flocks of the abp. of York's brother and one Creke. Wm. Stapleton was captain of Beverley, chosen against his will, Barker, Amler, and Tenande ringleaders of Holderness, and George of Bawne and Gilbert Wedyll, leaders of Nafferton. Aske, Rudston, and Metam were captains over all. During the truce at Doncaster examinate took a ship at Scarborough, Edward Waters, master, with 100l. of the King's money. 10l. was sent them from Watton Abbey by one Horsekey. Certain "riding men" of the South whom they took, and also one Thomas Lownde, said the commons of the South would have taken their part. The articles given at Doncaster were devised by Aske alone. When the pardon was proclaimed examinate said they had liever have had some of their petitions granted. After the pardon tales went about that the King would fortify Hull and Scarborough for subduing the commons as in Lincolnshire. On 8 January, called "ploughday," Halom swore one Langdale, servant to the prior of Watton, lest he should bewray "them" to his master, because he had been in London and was not sworn. Showed Langdale, Horsekeye, and Utye that Hull and Scarborough should be fortified by the duke of Suffolk; and to know the truth sent Langdale to William Levenyng and Robert Bowmer or else William Constable, Horsekey to Sir Robert Constable, and went himself to Hull. On Wednesday following Sir Francis Bygode brought him to Watton abbey and showed him the pardon was not good, and that the King ought not to have cure of souls; showing also a book of his own making on the power of pope, bishop, and king. They agreed that Hull and Scarborough should be taken for the country till Parliament time. Bygode thought the country about Bylande or Newburgh would take and swear Norfolk to them; but Halom said no man would withstand the duke of Norfolk, though they would the duke of Suffolk. Bygode and Halom advised the sub-prior and brethren to elect a new prior, for the other was unlawfully chosen. On the Friday next Bygode departed, and on Saturday sent for Halom to come to Setterington, which he did on Sunday morning, and found there Ralph Fenton and the friar of St. Robert's. Bygode said a servant of Lord Latomer had told him they were up again in the West and in the Bpric, and lord Latomer and Mr. Frankleyn were fled, and the goods of the latter and of Robert Bowes spoiled. On Monday night Bygode wrote to him to assemble on the morrow and go take Hull, whereupon he sent to Kitchyn of Beverley to warn William Nycholson of Preston to be, with his neighbours of Holderness, at Hull on the morrow. Nicholson had urged the taking of Hull to be avenged on one Myffyn, who had before fled from the commons. Wrote that Monday to Thomas Lownde, Wm. Horsekey, Philip Utye, and others, to meet him at Beverley. It was Nicholson's advice to go separately to Hull on the market day. Bygode was to take Scarborough the same day, and the bailey of Snathe had promised then to take Pomfret "at" (and) Doncaster. Entered Hull 16 Jan. with some 20 persons or more, and these by name;—Philip Utye, Hugh Langdale, Wm. Horsekey, John Robynson, Andrew Cant, John Prowde, one Lawnce, Clement and Anton of Watton, Roger Kitchyn of Beverley, one Marshall, clerk of Beswik; and Nicholson who, having received no warning had brought no men. Saw there was no chance and left the town, but Marshall, seeing the gates shutting, said "Fie ! Will ye away and leave all your men behind you ?" Returned to the gates where Mr. Knolls and Mr. Eyland attacked him and he was finally taken.
His confederates were Sir Francis Bygode, principal, Nicholson of Preston, Wilson and Kitchyn of Beverley, and the clerk of Beswik.
William Nycholson, of Preston in Holderness, examined. Heard at Preston of the first insurrection. They assembled there at alarum and were sworn at Nuttlease, the vicar of Preston holding the book. Was one of those left to keep Hull after it was taken. On St. Stephen's day last, as he and Halom were in Watton abbey, came Langdale from his master the prior from London and said to the brethren, "My lord my master hath him heartily commended unto you." Halom said, "He is no lord here, and if ye call him lord any more I shall find him within this mile that shall leave you neither cow nor ox." Confesses to saying that, if there was another rising he would be glad to help to the driving of Myffyn's goods because he ran away from the commons before. The Saturday following he heard Halom say at Beverley that Hull and Scarborough must be taken. On Tuesday, 16 Jan., he saw Halom led towards the prison in Hull, and asked "what they meant to murder men so," and they fell upon him and took him also.
Roger Kitchyn, of Beverley, glover, examined. Heard of the insurrection in Lincolnshire from Wilson and Woodmanse. Has since heard that Robert Raphills, "one of the xij men of Beverley," had a letter from Mr. Aske before that but kept it secret. On Sunday after he, Wilson, Woodmanse, Ric. Neudike, and Sir John Tuvie, priest, rang the common bell, declared why they rose in Lincolnshire, and sware all the people. On Monday, 15 Jan., he and Wilson and one Fraunces were at Halom's house at Calkhill. Wilson promised Halom men from Beverley to help in taking Hull. Promised to go to Holderness when required and desire Richard Wharton, John Thomson, the bailey of Bryanesburton, Wm. Barker, and Wm. Nycholson, to meet Halom at Hull. About midnight Halom sent to bid him do the message. Rode betimes towards Holderness and met the vicar of Preston, who said Nycholson was gone forth. Went no further but returned to Hull and was there taken. Saw Halom, Wilson, and the friar of St. Roberts commune together since Christmas, and heard Halom say the friar was gone abroad.
William Horsekey, of Watton, yeoman, examined, says Halom, in the first commotion, raised Watton, Huton, and Craneswike, and the country between that and Dryffelde, and was captain. Heard Halom at Christmas say Hull and Scarborough must be taken. Describes, as in Halom's deposition, the meeting of Langdale, Halom, and himself, on Monday, "called ploughday, at Watton." Next day Robert Aske assembled the people at Beverley and declared the King's goodness o them. Halom asked how it happened that the tenths were gathered still, and Aske answered he thought it was not the tenths but some other arrearages. After Bygod and Halom had met at Watton abbey, the latter said Bygod had showed him "that all Swadale, Wensladale, and all the dales were up," and Sir Thos. Percy with them; and that they were to take Hull and Bygod would take Scarborough. The Tuesday following they went with Halom to Hull. He, Langdale, and Utye disclosed Halom's purpose to Crockey (fn. 10) of Hull who showed it to the mayor. Chief stirrers in the new commotion besides Bygod and Halom, were the clerk of Beswick, Nicholson, James Horsekeper at Watton, the subprior, confessor of the nuns, vicar of Watton, and one Anthony, chanons of Watton. All the canons of Watton favoured the business and bore great grudge to their prior.
Hugh Langdale, of Watton, yeoman, examined. Was not in the country at the first insurrection. Halom sware him the Monday after he came home. Halom had learnt of one W[a]ters, taken in a ship at Scarborough, that the King would fortify Hull and Scarborough "to close in the country about." After Sir Francis Bygod and Halom met at Watton the latter commanded the brethren to choose a new prior, and the sub-prior sent examinate to Beverley to fetch one Thurlande, a notary. Describes Halom's going to Hull, and how he. Horsekey and Utye disclosed it to Crockey. They durst not disobey Halom, "for he was so cruel a man over them that he took displeasure with."
William Crockey, deputy customer of Hull, deposes how Horsekey, Langdale, and Utye declared the matter to him and he to the mayor.
John Fraunces, of Beverley, says (among other things) he heard Sir Francis Bygode say he had sent the friar of St. Robert's to the Bishopric to report whether they were up there.
Thomas Lownde, of Watton, husbandman, went to London with a letter to Langdale from his wife. On the way he heard servants of Mr. Bowes, receiver of Nottingham, say they wished the Northern men had come forward, "for then they should have had more to take their part." Heard a "corser" dwelling between Smithfield and Cow Cross wish the same.
Andrew Cant, John Lowry, John Robynson, John Prowde, Launcelot Wilkinson, and Ant. West depose as to Halom's going to Hull.
Harry Guyll, subprior of Watton, examined, says, that upon a letter, and to save their goods, they sent 10l. to the captains of the first insurrection, and horses to Sir Thos. Percy, Wm. Howtham, John Halom, and Wm. Cowrser; also Robert Aske had of them by threats a spice plate of silver "which was a pledge of the earl of Northumberland's." The only letters they had were one in the abp. of York's name, charging every clerk to go a procession every day, and "to write their minds touching the commons' petitions out of Holy Scripture and the iiij doctors of the Church," which letter they sent to one Wade, B.D., dwelling by; also a letter from Halom "about the taking of the ship at Scarborough. Halom and Aske were the only stirrers of the insurrection. Dr. Swynborne and Dan Thomas Ashton, a brother of Watton made books on the "supreme head" before the meeting at Doncaster. Gives account of Bygod and Halom's conspiracy, mentioning the prior of Ellerton and Dr. Swynburne as witnesses. Halom was moved against the prior of Watton for denying him a farmhold, and in the first insurrection came with soldiers, and in the presence of the p[r]iors of Ellerton and of St. Andrew's, York, commanded the brethren to elect a new prior; and suggested the prior of Ellerton, whom they then named prior for fear of the commons. After Bygod and Halom "were of late together at Watton" they made a writing of nomination of the prior of Ellerton as prior and left it with one Wade, dwelling thereby, to be shown to the people in case of a new insurrection. The prior of Ellerton "gave them no comfort" but departed next morning homewards.
Dan Thos. Lathar, "cellarer of the granar," agrees with the subprior concerning aids to the commons. Mr. Aske, Mr. Rudston, and John Halom were the principal "stirrers." Knew of no books or letters but that made by Dr. Swynburne. Heard Sir Francis Bygod find faults in the pardon—that it was not the same as that read at Doncaster, and there was a fault in the date. Election of a new prior (Bygod drew up a writing for them to seal, in which the prior was called only prior of St. Catharine's). Taking of Hull and Scarborough.
Dan Ric. Wilkinson, cellarer of the kitchen, agrees with the subprior. Heard Bygod say if he were sheriff he durst make any man forfeit his lands and goods in spite of the pardon. John Jackson said he would never take the prior as prior or master. Harry Weddall, servant to Sir Thos. Percy, commanded them at the first insurrection, never to take him as prior. For safety they chose Dan James Laurence prior. Heard Bygod's letter to Halom read by the subprior.
Pp. 17. Faded, with marginal headings and notes, on the first page, by the King. Endd.: "li. 2us."
R. O.2. "Interrogatories to be ministered to Halom and his complices at their examination."
1. Who made the first motion to him of the late insurrection, what were the causes alleged, his answers, their meeting place, ringleader, and the best learned of them ? 2. What money did they receive ? 3. Who sent them letters or messages, and what friends had they in the South ? 4. Who devised each of the articles put in at the last meeting at Doncaster? 5. What communications had Halom afterwards touching the pardon or the insurrection? 6. Where and why they undertook a new insurrection; who advised the taking of Hull, Scarborough, &c. 7. Who gave them money or received it of them for his good will? 8. Who counselled him to give so much money at New Year's tide to his neighbours, and what was the whole amount? 9. What letters, &c. he received since the pardon, and what answers he made? 10. How many were in the conspiracy, and what each advised; have any of "these parts" sent them messages since the pardon?
Pp. 2. In Wriothesley's hand (except heading) and signed by Cromwell. Endd.
ii. Memoranda in another hand: George Willen (?): Wm. Sanders Atkynson: Sir Water Browne.
R. O.3. Another copy of the preceding interrogatories.
Pp. 2. Stained and mutilated.
8 Feb.
R. O.
371. [LORD DARCY.]
Pomfret Castle, "the v[i]ijth day of Febr.," 28 H. VIII.
Md. for my son Sir Arthur Darcy to show my lord of Norfolk, the King's Lieutenant in the North.
1. For better observing of my oath with others' made at Pomfret Abbey before his Grace; that I may have "onn of the saym" under the seal, as his Grace promised, for me and my friends. 2. To know his pleasure touching Thos. Strangwayssh, who concludes to stay about Whitbe Abbey or Gisburgh among his friends and trust on the King's pardon, for Sir Oswald Woilsthorpe his cousin and others have told him my lord Privy Seal is his enemy, and he would not that I or any of his friends should be troubled t[o] keep [him]; and so afore Sir Arthur, Wm. Frost, Mr. Chaloner, and Mr. Gryce, he is ready to depart my service. 3. To show my lord's Grace that all within my rooms is quiet and I am furnishing here according to the King's command. 4. That his Grace may command me to any service he requires.
In Darcy's hand, pp. 2.
8 Feb.
R. O. St. P. v. 64.
372. HENRY EARL OF CUMBERLAND to HENRY VIII.
Has received the King's letter dated Greenwich 24 Jan., touching his agreement with lord Dacres and will follow the King's pleasure. Never intended any displeasure to Dacres though by the King's command he put his goods in safeguard and was at his indictment. Has also received a letter from the Council, dated Greenwich the last day of February (January), notifying that the King has advanced him to the Order of the Garter and that he is not to occupy the wardenship of the West Marches. Will obey with his whole heart. York, 8 Feb. Signed.
Add. Sealed.
8 Feb.
R. O.
373. CUMBERLAND to the COUNCIL.
Has received their letter dated Greenwich 31 Jan., showing that it is the King's pleasure to advance him to the Order of the Garter and that he has appointed new officers to the wardenship of the East and Middle Marches, desiring Cumberland to be agreeable that like surety be taken for the West Marches. Will be always ready to follow His Highness' pleasure. York, 8 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add. Endd.
8 Feb.
R. O.
374. CUMBERLAND to CROMWELL.
Thanks him for his kind advertisements. Has made answer to the King's letters and Cromwell's and others of the Council as he will see by the copies enclosed. York, 8 Feb. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Lord Privy Seal. Endd.
R. O.2. Copy of his letter to the King.
R. O.3. Copy of his letter to the Council.
8 Feb.
R. O.
375. ANNE ROUAUD (Madame de Bours) to LADY LISLE.
Mons. de Riou, my brother, is sending the bearer to my lord to get horses for him and for Montmorency my son. He has lost two lately. I beg you to get my lord to send Jensemy (John Smyth) where some may be got. Your daughter (fn. 11) does not write news. My daughter of Agincourt has taken her with her to Amiens for this Shrovetide. She would have had little pleasure here because I wear mourning ("pour l'amour que je porte le doeul.") She will come back soon. Abbeville, 8 Feb. Signed.
P 1. Add.
8 Feb.
R. O.
376. JEHAN DES GARDINS, Priest, to LADY LISLE.
Recommendations to lord Lisle. George her son is well and progresses well in Latin, and is tractable and diligent in his studies. Is told by Peter the bearer that she wishes him to speak to Charles Joisne, junior, farrier, about having back a horse which her servant John left with him. It is still at St. Omer at the house of la Heuze. Joisne is away, and at his return his servant will tell him her pleasure. 8 Feb.
Hol. Fr., p. 1. Add.: Madame la femme Mons. le Debite de Calles.
[8] Feb.
Vit. B. XXI. 132*. B. M.
377. THOS THEABOLD to BEDELL.
There was lately near Carstate an earthquake, which caused part of a great hill to sink so deep that no man can find the bottom. A continual smoke comes out of the hollow, such as we read of at Mount Etna We have also seen, in the West, cometa, of which our astronomers prognosticate war to come, and one has prophesied that the bp. of Rome shall die this year.
I dare not write to my lord Privy Seal because I know not how he accepted my other letters. I request you to tell him the contents and so let me know whether I shall write to him from Italy. Tub[ingen] in Hie Almayne, Thursday after Candlemas Day.
Hol., p. 1. Mutilated. Add. Endd.
9 Feb.
Harl. MS. 283, f. 83. B. M.
378. EARL OF SUSSEX to DUKE OF NORFOLK.
By your letters of the 4th inst. I am glad to perceive how welcome you were in those parts and how earnestly the gentlemen do their duties, though not without some constraint for their own safeguards yet, I think, not against their wills. (fn. 12) [Albeit, when I showed your said letters to his Majesty, his Grace noted that, notwithstanding the promise made at Doncaster, the gentlemen had not taken possession in any religious houses to his Grace's use, because, as you write, they durst not, and said he saw not but if the gentlemen have broken promise with him he might much better break promise with them; yet in the end I could not perceive that he purposes to take any advantage thereof, so as all things proceed to his satisfaction. His Highness much commends your proceedings, and so do all the lords of the Council]. Greenwich, 9 Feb.
Draft, pp. 2. Endd. by Wriothesley: "My lord of Sussex' answer to my lord of Norff. letters of the 4 of Feb."
9 Feb.
R. O.
379. TRINITY GUILD OF STEE DICHE, in WALSOKYN, to CROMWELL.
Cromwell's letters, dated 11 Jan., were delivered to them 5 Feb., and read openly to the fraternity. The master, whose life has been falsely reported to the Council to be incontinent and infamous, died on Jan. 24. In accordance with their ordinances, corroborated by the King's charter, elected one of the bishop of Ely's chaplains, of good conversation, virtuous life, and competent literature, to preach God's word among them. During the election, on Feb. 5, Cromwell's letters were delivered to them by Laurence Daniell of Wisbiche. All answered that their late master was of honest conversation to their knowledge. Cannot send up their foundation or a copy thereof. Complain that Daniel will not allow them to read Cromwell's letter again or have a copy thereof, so that they can give a direct answer. He has charged the late master's executors in the King's name, but it is supposed without commission, not to deliver to the new master nor to the brethren, the foundation, or a copy thereof, or other implements belonging to the guild, so that they cannot send it. Ask him to write to Daniel. The church of the Trinity of Stey Diche, 9 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Lord Cromwell, lord of the Privy Seal. Endd.
9 Feb.
R. O.
380. The LINCOLNSHIRE REBELLION.
"The examination of the monk late of Louth Park." York, 9 Feb. 28 Hen. VIII.
Sir William Morland, priest, late monk of Louth Park, Linc., deposes that on Our Lady's Eve of her Nativity before the late insurrection in Lincolnshire he was in the abbey of Louth Park, among others, suppressed, and had his capacity at Bone (Borne) on Holyrood Day following. Has ever since gone in secular habit, saving when he was at Pomfret with Sir Robert Constable, and then he wore a white jacket and a scapulary. But while he remained in the county of Lincoln he continued for the most part in a little town called Kedyngton, a quarter of a mile from Louth Park. While staying there he went from thence to Borne for his said capacity and brought home with him to Kedyngton 26 other capacities besides his own which were delivered to him by Sir Robert _ (fn. 13) canon of Borne, then also suppressed. He continued about Kedyngton or Louth till the morrow of St. Luke's day, lodged in the house of one Thomas Wrightson, except when he went for the said capacities and two nights besides, when he lay in the house of one Chr. Berry of Louth with two or three of his late brethren. While at Kedyngton, about three weeks before Michaelmas, a great rumour was spread (especially after (fn. 14) the commissary's visitation kept at Louth church in St. Peter's choir there by one Mr. Peter, then scribe to the commissary of Lincoln, Dr. Prynne) that the chalices of parish churches should be taken away and that there should be but one parish church within six or seven miles' compass, and that every parson and vicar should be examined by their learning whether they were sufficient for the cure of souls; wherewith this deponent was right glad, thinking he might happen to succeed to the room of some of the unlettered parsons. This inquiry and visitation was to have been kept at Louth the Monday after Michaelmas day. And the same Sunday when the insurrection first began he had ridden forth by four in the morning on a bay gelding borrowed of dan Thomas Lilburne, late sub prior of Louth Park, to Markby and Hawneby to deliver 10 of the said capacities to divers of the brethren of the monasteries lately suppressed. That same afternoon, about 3 p.m., he returned to Kedyngton and heard that the vicar of Louth, called Mr. _ * Kendale, had made a certain collation to his parishioners there, in which he advised them to go together and look well on such things as should be inquired of in the visitation next day. That Sunday after evensong, he heard, for he was not there, that the parishioners, discussing this matter together, fell at such diversity of opinion among themselves that the poor men took the keys of the church from the rich men and churchwardens, saying that they would keep the keys themselves. And that night, he heard say, they put 10 or 12 of their neighbours into the church to keep the same.
On Monday morning this deponent arose, and when he had said matins, hearing of the ruffling that was among them at Louth the night before, went to Louth to the shop of Robert Bailby, where he found Robt. Bailly (sic), Wm. Asheby, Robt. Golsmythe, and John Smithe, of whom he enquired what business had been there the night before. They told him as above, except of the vicar's collation. He would then have gone into the church to hear mass, but those who kept the church would not suffer him or any others to enter, except such as they liked. Henry Plummer and one Great James a tailor were the most quick and chiefest rulers of the company within the church. From the church he went to the house of Wm. Hert, butcher, where he found Nicholas _ * servant to lord Borough, Sir Robt. Hert, priest, late monk of Louth, and divers others. They conversed about the business done at Louth the night before, and while sitting at breakfast with puddings, suddenly the common bell was rung by those within the church, and Nicholas said that some of them that ordered themselves after this fashion would be hanged. The butcher answered, "Hold thy peace Nicholas, for I think as much as thou dost, but if they heard us say so then would they hang us." All the commoners of the town at this ringing ran to the house of Robert Proctor with such weapons as they had and took Mr. John Hennage, who had newly come thither, putting him in fear to have killed him. And when the noise and "skrye" arose so hideous, this deponent went to the same house, and coming thither found a number of the commoners leading Mr. Hennage towards the church. This deponent with others of the most honest men of the parish thrust themselves into the throng, and by force and also with fair words helped to convey Mr. Hennage into the church and so into the choir, and locked the choir door between him and the commoners. Then all the commons cried that they would have him sworn to them, and so he was and all the other persons which had "contraried" them the night before, with this deponent also. And one _ (fn. 15) Melton whom they named Captain Cobbler was the most chief and busy man among these commoners. The effect of the oath was that every man should be true to the commoners upon pain of death and take such part as they did.
After this, as they were returning homewards, suddenly upon the coming into the town of Mr. John Frankishe, registrar to the bp. of Lincoln, the common bell was rung again, and all ran with weapons as before to the house of William Golsmythe where the registrar alighted. There they took from the registrar all his books, and John Taylor of Louth, webster, brought out of the house a great brand of fire and the commons carried the books into the market place. Deponent hearing this ruffle came and overtook them at Guy Keyme's door and said, "What advise you now to do ?" They answered they would burn the said books. Then deponent said "Masters, for the Passion of Christ, take heed what ye do, for by this mischievous act which ye be about to do we shall be all casten away"; but they all together said they would burn them. He said "Will ye burn those books that ye know not what is in them ?" Then they carried deponent under the High Cross and set him and other six who were learned to look what was in the books. As deponent was looking on the King's commission, it being hard for him to declare the tenor thereof at first sight, those who were on the cross looking on the other books upon the hideous clamour of those beneath flung all the books down, and every man below got a piece of them and hurled them into the fire. Meanwhile part of the people brought the registrar from Wm. Golsmythe's house and caused him by a ladder to climb up to the altitude or highest part of the cross. And as he came up he said to deponent "For the Passion of Christ, priest, if canst, save my life; and as for the books that be already brent I pass not of them, so as a little book of his reckonings of such money as he had laid out might be saved and also the King's commission." Deponent promised to do his best. Then all cried out that he should come down and burn the books himself, and deponent went down before him and delivered to Mr. Hennage, who had come thither, the King's commission and kept the book of reckonings. The commons caused the registrar to cast the residue of the books yet unburnt into the fire. Then they drew round deponent and demanded what were the books he had in his hands, and he told them it was a book of reckonings. This they would not believe but carried him "the brede of all the market stede" to the shop window of Thos. Granteham, tailor, where he read parts of the book, and at length was suffered to keep it. Went then to drink at the house of one Colingwod and afterwards was walking down the street with the book in his hand to deliver it to the registrar when 300 or 400 commons came about him and called him "false perjured harlot to the commons for saving of that book, for therein was contained, they said, that thing which should do unto them most tene." They then pulled the book from him, and one _ (blank; "Alexander" in the margin) Page took it out of his sleeve and kept it. Went then to Golsmythe's house and told the registrar how the book had been taken from him and was in safe keeping. The registrar thanked him and paid for his dinner and promised him "his letters of his orders with such other pleasures as he could for him during his life." In the afternoon he helped to convey the registrar out of the town. Whilst deponent was at dinner with the registrar the commons went to Lekeborne monastery a mile and a half off and brought thence one Myllocente and John Bellowe, servants to my lord Privy Seal, and put them in great fear and jeopardy. As deponent was going in the midst of the market stede, his friends advised him to keep away from the commons or it might cost him his life, so he went into one Wm. Newton's house and tarried an hour. Meanwhile they imprisoned Mellecente, John Bellou, and one George Parker, whom they took at the town's end on their return from Lekeborne. Then the commons assembled at the High Cross and made proclamation for all to be there, with their neighbours between the ages of 60 and 16, on the morrow. Then the people scattered and deponent came forth and went to the said Page whom he met at one Manby's door. Demanded of this Page (in margin Alexander) the said book; but Page refused to deliver it, saying he had deceived the commons, and one Mr. _ Cunstable, servant to Sir Wm. Skipwithe, affirmed the same, saying he had found other things in the book than deponent said. Returned that night to his lodging at Kedington.
On Tuesday morning, by daylight, the common bell at Louth was rung and deponent with others repaired thither. When the people were gathered the foresaid _ Melton and John Taillor made proclamation for all to be ready to set forward towards Castre at the next ringing of the common bell. They appointed four spiritual men to go to Castre with them, viz.:—Sir Thomas Lincolne, priest, this deponent by the name of Dan William Boreby alias Morland late monk of Louth Park," Sir Wm. Dicheham and Sir Thos. More, priests of Louth; and with them four temporal men, Ric. Cussune, Will. King, and two others; who were all to have gone and spoken on the commons' behalf to the Commissioners at Castre who were sitting for the King, viz.:—lord Burgh, Sir Rob. Tirwhit, Sir Will. Ascue, Sir Thos. Misseldene, Sir Edw. Madison, Master Bothe and others. Went on foot to Castre with the commons till he came to Urthefurthe, where two men of the town borrowed for him of the prioress there a white trotting gelding ready bridled and saddled; and so he rode to Castre. At the hill above Rothewell they were about to have concluded that but 100 men of their company should go to the Commissioners; "and when about to appoint out these 100 men the residue of the comynalte would not be stayed by them, and so a dozen of them that were horsed were appointed to ride before, whereof this deponent was one, having no manner of harness or weapon on him, but only a little white staff with a pike in it." At Castre Hill found about 1,000 persons of the commons and country, without weapons, but as they were wont to do riding to fairs or markets. Asked them for the Commissioners, and they said "they were ridden down Castre More towards Kettilby." While they were talking, certain of the company saw Sir Will. Ascue, Sir Thos. Misseldene, Sir Edw. Madeson, and Master Bouthe near them riding towards Sir Will. Ascue's place, and at the request of the company this deponent with 18 or 20 others on horseback rode and overtook them. This deponent was the first that came to them, and with cap in hand desired them in the name of all the company to return and speak with the commons for certain matters which they had in hand. Sir William asked what was the cause of the assembly. Deponent answered that the commons were set on ill opinions, and that he and the gentlemen in his company might set some stay among them. Sir William asked, "Trowest thou that if I should come amongst them I should do any good, and be in surety of my life" ? He replied, "Let two of your servants lead me between them, and if they do any hurt to your person, then let me be the first that shall die." On this Sir Wm. Ascue, Sir Edw. Madyson, and Mr. Bothe returned with this deponent towards the commons, and in returning one of Sir Wm. Ascue's servants struck him on the back saying, "Why have ye letten go Sir Thos. Mysseldenne who is escaped away yonder thorough the verres (furze) or whins ?" Deponent then looked back and said angrily towards his company, "Why have ye suffered them to escape from us ?" He then returned to Sir Wm. Ascue who agreed to ride on to know their minds.
Then this deponent returned towards Much Lymber and overtook by the way Mr. Bouthe who returned with him. And before he got back to the commons Sir Wm. Ascue and Sir Edw. Madyson were sworn. And when Mr. Bouthe came he was sworn by the said Sir Wm. Ascue, and no ill word spoken to him. Being examined how many men were in company with the said Sir Wm. Ascue and the others at the time of their thus taking, says they were under 20 men. And at the swearing of these gentlemen there was much joy among the commons. In the same way other commoners took the said Sir Robert Tyrwhit and swore him. As to the chasing or the following of the lord Bourgh, others did it, this deponent not being there "to his thinking by the space of three miles at no time." On his return this deponent found all the commons crying out at the forenamed Nicholas, servant to the lord Borough, saying that he was the occasion of the said lord's escape, and had given him warning. There were so many striking at him as he never saw man escape such danger. At last when he had fled evermore backward from them almost a quarter of a mile, saving himself always among the horsemen, he was stricken down by the footmen of Louth and Loutheske. They then cried for a priest for him, and with much pain this deponent came to him, and at length caused him to be conveyed into the town, where he confessed him, and sent two surgeons to him from Louth, leaving him in the keeping of Mr. Barnard Myssylden and three or four honest men of the town. That night deponent returned home to his old lodging at Kedington. And this Tuesday at night Sir Edw. Madyson was sent by the commons in post to the King with what message this deponent knoweth not.
On Wednesday morning went to Louth again, and the night before they had fette Sir Wm. Skipwith to Louth before he knew. Met him with Sir Wm. Ascue going to church to mass, and went with them. After mass there arose a cry among the commons that lord Borough was coming with 15,000 men on Rasen More to destroy them all. Then the commons cried, "Ring the common bell." Which the gentlemen would in nowise should be done, and deponent got the bell-rope three times to be cast up into the window that it should not be rung. But at last the commons rang the common bell, saying they would hang him up by the rope thereof if he resisted any more. At length as they were going to a place without the town of Louth called Juliane Bower, Sir Wm. Skipwith helped to get this deponent a bay horse, and he rode off at his request to see whether the lord Borough was thus coming or not. Came to Horncastle where he saw William Leeche come to Sir William Sandon, Sir John Coupildike, Mr. Dymmok, the sheriff of the shire, Mr. Lytylbery and divers others assembled with the commons there, desiring them to deliver to the commons one Thomas Wulcie, and they were willing to deliver for him one Stephen Haggar: wherewith the sheriff was then content; but it were too long to express the great labour, instance and jeopardy that deponent was in to save Wulcie from hanging. He returned home that night to Louth bringing with him the articles which they of Horncastle devised to be sent to the King. Also there was no such stirring of men by the lord Borough as was supposed. In this journey he wore a sword and buckler lent to him before he went out of Louth, by whom he knows not. It was the first time he wore any weapon. On his return home that night 12 men were appointed by the gentlemen at Louth to be sent to the lord Hussey. The chief of them were Mr. Mone, Mr. Pormer, Robert Spencer, Guy Keyme, Robt. Bayly, Wm. King and others. This night he returned again to his own lodging at Kedington, and on Thursday morning he returned again to Louth. There were then come to the company of commons there Sir Andrew Billisby, knight, and Mr. Forset, to whom this deponent showed that he was beggared that night, for his horse was stolen from him, and begged them to pardon him that he could not go with them. Sir Wm. Skipwith answered that he had sent for four horses, and when they came he should have one: for rather than this deponent should tarry at home, he said he would leave behind him 40 other commoners, for this deponent was well heard among the commons. During these words came in Guy Keyme and said he would lend him a bay ambling mare. Which he did. This Thursday they all mustered at a place called Towese of Lyngis, and went that night to market Reyson. By the way this deponent was appointed to be under Mr. Etton, a petty captain of Louth. On Friday they removed all together to the heath beside Netelham "and as they rode by the way at the request of the said Mr. Etton this deponent did bear his javelin for the space of five miles, and at Rasen, the same Friday in the morning, the said Sir William Skipwith lent to this deponent a breast plate, an apron, and two sleeves of mail and a gorget; and more harness than this he never had, saving that one Richard Beverley of Louth lent unto him a elmen bow and eight shafts." That Friday night they lay in Lincoln. And this Friday, he, at the request of Etton and others, gave his attendance on the footmen by the space of three miles or thereabouts. And further order or conduct than these three miles he never took upon him. Examined how many of the gentlemen of the country there were the most busy setters forth of the Insurrection, he takes it upon his soul that as far as he could see both all the gentlemen and honest yeomen of the country were weary of this matter, and sorry for it, but durst not disclose their opinion to the commons for fear of their lives.
On Saturday morning 500 men were appointed by Sir William S[ki]pwith, whereof this deponent was one, to go fetch to them the lord Hussey. Before they came to the said Lord's place, he was gone; fled, as it was said, to the lord Steward. And this night most of these 500 men lay in the bp. of Lincoln's castle at Sleaford, and in the town there; to whom lady Hussey sent that night beer, bread, and salt fish. Sir Chr. Ascue was chief captain of these 500 men. On Sunday morning they all returned towards Lincoln, but as they were going remembered Sir John Thymbylby, for whom they sent his own brother Mr. Ric. Thymbylby of Grimsby, and four score men, of whom this deponent was one. Next morning, Monday, the said Sir John Thymolby came with his two sons, and about 60 men with him in harness. And this Sunday at night the said four score men returned to Sleaford, and next morning went again to Lincoln. During this time the commons at Lincoln broke up the bp's palace, and did as much hurt there as they could On Tuesday this deponent returned to Kedington, riding through Louth by the way, and as he rode by the tolbooth he saw the commons of the town in great number, intending, as he saw, to murder the said three persons there in prison who were brought from Lekborne as before declared. Then by means of this deponent and other honest men of the town their ill intent was ceased. But the commons had taken from them 6l. in money, which was put into the hands of Robt. Brown of Louth. And when all the great company of the commons were gone, the prisoners desired that, of the said money, should be given to this deponent two crowns, the one of 5s., and the other of 14 groats, and to make up just 10s. they gave him 4d. in silver. On Wednesday he came again to Louth, and there made him a cloak of black cloth, and rode that night again into Lincoln. During his absence it was imagined by the commons that he had ridden home to Louth to set the beacons on fire; which he never thought to do. But this surmise put him out of credit both among the gentlemen and the commons till two indifferent men were sent to Louth to know the truth who reported that no such thing was done. This night came to them the King's herald, and next morning, Thursday, every man was commanded to be in the castle garth at Lincoln to hear the Proclamation. And when that was done, some that night, and the rest next morning, went home, except the men of worship with their servants.
Examined how many priests, monks, canons, and friars were among them; he says there were very many, but he cannot estimate them, but refers to those who took the musters. On Saturday it was notified openly that all the gentlemen should repair to Stamford to meet the duke of Suffolk, which they did. And then this deponent went home again to Kedington, where he remained all Sunday. On Monday he rode to Tetney to John a Wood, his kinsman, came back the same day to Louth, and returned to his bed at Kedington, where he remained all Tuesday. On Wednesday, St. Luke's day, it was bruited about that 100 men had come in to the Duke with halters about their necks; which was not so. "For the avoiding whereof the friends of this deponent (in margin—Guy and John Keme), thinking that priests should be worst handled of all others," advised him to go to Yorkshire for three or four weeks; and next morning he crossed the Humber at a place called Clye, carried over by Wm. Franke, of Clye, and lay that night in the town of Esington at the house of Wm. Marshall, where he continued from Friday to Monday. During this time Hull was taken by Mr. Rudston and the commons of Yorkshire. It was suspected that he lay at Esington as a spy; so on Tuesday eight men were sent for him, and brought him to Hull, where he was examined next day by Sir John Cunstable of Holderness, Sir Chr. Hilyard, and the mayor and aldermen of Hull, being then captains of the town taken before by the commons. They found no fault in him, and let him? go. That night he went to Beverley, and lay there at John Flecher's house, where he continued Thursday and Friday. On Saturday he went to a town called Dyke, and lay there that night, and on Sunday to Howden, where he lay that night at the house of Wynflete, a widow. There he hired a horse to bring him back to Beverley, and continued there all that week till Thursday next week. On the Thursday he went to a town two miles from thence, called Wawne, where he continued to Tuesday following; and on Wednesday went and lodged at Sawtey in Holderness. On Thursday he went to Esington, next day to Hedon, and next day, Saturday, to Hull, where he lay at Wm. Painter's house. On Sunday he made suit to Sir Robert Constable, then at Hull, to be good master to him, and he retained him in his service. On St. Andrew's eve he went with Sir Robert from Hull to Holme in Spalding More, and on St. Andrew's day to lord Darcy at Templehirst. Next day they all went together to Pomfret, this deponent being in a pair of Almain rivets given him by Sir Robert at Holme, but carrying no weapon except Sir Robert's banner, lapped up in his hand about a round stick. Continued with Sir Robert at Pomfret till Monday se'nnight after, lying always in the house of John Waltham; and was at Holme in Spalding More and at Skipwith, by his commandment, until the Tuesday se'nnight after he came from Pomfret. Then Sir Robert gave this deponent 20s., and bad him pray for all Christian souls where he would till my lord of Norfolk came down into Yorkshire. And he said he would labour to the same Duke for this deponent's pardon by name. Thereupon he departed and went that night to Dyke. Thence, on St. Thomas' eve before Christmas, he went to Wawne, where he lay at one Brewster's house, or near thereabouts from that time "unto the eight days after, 20th day" (i.e. of January), which was the day of SS. Fabian and Sebastian, being Saturday. And this Saturday he went to Skerne, where he remained all Sunday and Sunday night. Lodged there with one Sir Thomas Justice "born in the town of Barraby, where he was born." And Monday he went to Malton, where he lay at a vintner's house; and on Tuesday to Byland, where he lay at a mason's house without the abbey. There he met with Mr. Richard Lassells, showed him the necessity in which he stood, and offered to serve any man a year for only meat and drink. He bad this deponent come to him next morning, and as he fared so should this deponent fare. And further covenant made he none with him. On Wednesday he went to Rivers, where he remained till night, at which time Richard Lassells came home from hunting, with whom he has continued ever since. Since then he has been in sundry companies, who have talked of the taking of Hallam. And as he was at Wawne the same day and night that Hallam was taken, has corrected false reports about it. Has also testified to divers persons of the flight of Sir Francis Bigod as he heard of it at Wawne. Was never acquainted with these two persons in all his life, nor could have known them when he met them. Denies that he ever wrote or knew of the writing of any letters of the new insurrection in Yorkshire. Signed.
Pp. 35, besides title page. Endd. in the same hand.
9 Feb.
R. O.
381. NORFOLK to CROMWELL.
Received yesterday a letter from his servant Mondy declaring Cromwell's assured friendship. Begs that before the end of the term he may hear good news of his daughter's cause, and such of his own as Hare shall sue for. Yesterday, caused one of the sheriff's officers to be set on the pillory and for ever put out of office for speaking ill of Cromwell. If the matter would have served by law he should, on Tuesday next, have stretched an halter with others. Almost all the gentlemen and substantial yeomen of the shire will bear him witness that he is neither Papist nor favourer of traitors. York, 9 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Add.: Lord Privy Seal. Endd.
9 Feb.
R. O.
382. NORFOLK to the COUNCIL.
Has received this afternoon, by Sir Arthur Darcy, a letter from the King and one from the Council. Thanks them for their news, and excuses himself for not writing his opinion at this time, he is so full of business against the sessions to-morrow. Will write his opinion by the next, though it will be hardly needful, so many wise men having the matter in hand there. York, 9 Feb.
Hol., p. 1. Sealed. Add. Endd.
9 Feb.
R. O.
383. SIR ARTHUR DARCY to LORD DARCY.
The duke of Norfolk is minded to expel the King's rebels out of Salley, and advised him to prove his friends and get company to him, feigning the cause was his own. Asks lord Darcy to send to his friends and kinsmen to accompany him to the Duke, so that it may be thought he has both kin and friends. A great number are going with the Duke. Will have an answer to-day to his father's bill of memoranda. York, 9 Feb.
The Duke intends forwards on Tuesday, so Sir Arthur's company may be on Wednesday at Leeds. Asks for an answer.
Hol., p. 1. Add. Endd.: Lord Darcy. Since the pardon by the way of excuse for staying of the commons until the Duke's coming. Divers letters from the lord of Northf. to my lord Privy Seal, and from the lord Steward to the lord Darcy.
9 Feb.
R. O.
384. SIR JAMES LAYBURN to CROMWELL.
I have endeavoured this "besse" (busy) time all I can to stay the commons within the barony of Kendal and thereabouts. Sundry persons of no substance and the parish priest of Kendal Church, Sir Walter Browne, on Sunday, 4 February, did bid the beads in the church, and prayed for the bp. of Rome as Pope, against the will of the 24 appointed for the weal of the church. About a month before, the said misruled persons, about 300 in number, did cry all at once and bade cast the other parish priest, Sir Robert Appylgarthe, and the 24 into the water, for refusing to name the bp. of Rome to be Pope. Thomas Hawcrofte has been here, and will show the King and you of my demeanour. I would have been with the King and your Lordship afore this, but have been "vyssyde" with sickness this quarter of a year or more; but for the King's comfortable letters and yours, I know well my time would have been short. I would know the King's pleasure and yours by this bearer. Asheton, 9 February. Signed.
P. 1. Add: Lord Privy Seal. Endd.
9 Feb.
R. O.
385. SIR ROBERT WYNGFELD to CROMWELL.
I wrote on the 30th ult. that I had sent your Lordship two pieces of Auserois, and I trust you will find the wine good. I hear from my nephew John Wyngffeld that you desire to have a harness of mine. I have therefore sent to my nephew a complete harness, which was made for me at Insbroke in Awstryk, and given me by the late Emperor Maximilian. A fairer, or of better metal, cannot be found. Calais, 9 Feb. 1536. Signed.
P. 1. Add.: Lord Privy Seal. Sealed. Endd.
9 Feb.
Chigi MS.
386. CARDINAL POLE'S MISSION.
Notice (from the Diaria Martinellis) of the secret consistory, Friday, 9 Feb. 1537, in which was created legate to the King of England and of the whole realm, Reginaldus Arnaldus (sic), the new cardinal of England, in order, if possible, to bring back that erring (devius) King to the Faith, and to a right rule of living; and, joined with him, Jo. Matthew bp. of Verona was by the Cardinals despatched as his associate to the King's Court, "et ante Capellam Majorem."
Latin. From a modern copy in R. O.
9 Feb.387. CHARLES V. and PORTUGAL.
See 7 Feb. No. 366.
10 Feb.
R. O.
388. REDLINGFIELD PRIORY.
A file of papers relating to the dissolution of the monastery of Redlyngefelde, Suff.
i. Depositions of Grace Sampson, the prioress, before Sir Anth. Wyngefeld and the other commissioners, 25 Aug. 28 Henry VIII., viz., that the house is a head house, &c. with seven religious (names given) and 23 servants, of whom two are priests, 17 hinds, and four women servants.
P. 1.
ii. Rewards given there, 10 Feb. 28 Hen. VIII., to the nuns, who each received 23s. 4d., except the prioress who had nothing, the two priests (25s. each), and 13 other servants, who received sums varying from 15s. to 2s. 6d. Total, 15l. 2s. 6d.
iii. Sale of stuff, 10 Feb. 28 Hen. VIII., according to inventory. Sir Edmund Bedyngefelde purchases stuff at the high altar for 22s., a pair of organs in the choir for 13s. 4d., an antiphone with a grayle, 6s. 8d.; stuff in the vestry, 66s. 8d.; and in the Lady chapel, 2s. The prioress has the stuff in the new chamber for 10s. Other articles, and also the corn and cattle, appraised without purchasers named. Total, 52l. 7s. 10d.
iv. Valuation of the lead and bells; certified, 90l.
v. Debts.—Disbursements of Edmund Purry for my lady prioress, 13l. 4s. 2d.
10 Feb.
R. O.
389. CARRIAGE OF LETTERS.
10 Feb. 1536.—Wm. Rede, of Oxford, baker, examined, says that being at Whalley Abbey in Lancashire, and intending to go towards Oxford, he asked the abbot whether he would have anything (conveyed) to his scholar at Oxford. He said yes, and begged him to wait for a letter. After dinner he delivered to him a letter to be conveyed to his scholar and another to the abbot of Hayles, whom he desired this examinate to inform that he was sore stopped and acrased, and to beg him to send word when he intended to come to Lancashire, "for I would be glad," he said, "to see him once ere I departed out of this world, seeing I brought him up here of a child." He had also another letter of the proctor of Blackburn to be conveyed to the said scholar, and departed towards Oxford, having but 5d. of the said abbot for the carriage of the said letters. By the way he turned in to the schoolmaster of Nuttesforthe's house, where he was wont to have refreshing when he travelled between Oxford and Lancashire. Next morning the schoolmaster gave him a packet of letters closed within one paper, and prayed him to deliver it to his son Philip at Oriel College to his own hands, showing it to no man by the way. Next morning this examinate came to Wotton, where he turned into the constable's house and warmed him. Said that he had letters from my lord of Whalley and others to deliver at Oxford, and wished they were delivered, for he was sick by the way and wished to return to his friends in Lancashire. The constable desired to see them, and he showed them. On which the constable said he would go to Kenilworth castle and show them to Mr. Flemoke. This examinate went thither with him, and on the way the constable opened the letters and read them, then brought them to Mr. Flemoke, who, on sight of the letters, put this examinate in prison. Asked whether the schoolmaster bade him do any other message, he says no. And he was privy to nothing else contained in the letters.
In Ap Rice's hand, pp. 2. Endd.
10 Feb.
R. O.
390. DARCY to ASKE.
Is responsible to the King for the surety of this castle, and therefore requests him to re-deliver, secretly, to bearer, Darcy's constable, all arrows, bows, and spears he took from the castle. Pontfret Castle, 10 Feb. "T. D."
Copy, p. 1. Endd.: Copy of my Lord's letter to Mr. Aske, 10 Feb. 1537.—Lord Darcy.
10 Feb.
R. O.
391. DARCY to SIR ARTHUR DARCY.
I received your letter by Bale, your servant, this Saturday at noon, showing that my lord Lieutenant will advance to drive the rebels out of Sawlley, and asking what men I shall make to meet you at Leddes on Wednesday next; you do not say whether in harness, and whether at wages, and what number you desire. There is no doubt but friends and good fellows will be as ready as any others upon so short warning. Saturday, 9 (fn. 16) Feb., at 2 p.m. Signed: T. D.
P.S.—Desires particulars at once. Thinks the company should be ready at Leeds on Thursday at 8 a.m.
P. 1. Endd.: "Sir Arthur Darcy's letter and answer, the xth day of February, Ao. rr. H. 8, 28."
R. O.392. THE NORTHERN REBELLION.
Confession of William Stapulton:—
i. That there was a common bruit in Yorkshire that divers parish churches should be put down and the g[oods] thereof taken to the King's use, so that several parishes should be thrown into one. It was said the parishes of Wyghell, Walton, and Thorparche should be put down and be either the parish of Tadcaster or Bolton Percy, and that those of Askam Richard and Askam Bryeton should be the parish of Marston. After which bruit one Dr. Palmes happened to sit at Tadcaster, as it was said, by the King's commission for the above purpose, and it was reported he commanded the churchwardens to bring an inventory of the churches' goods. This confirmed the rumour, and it was said that after taking the inventory the goods should be seized at the next sitting, and that chalices of copper had come to serve the churches; and that this with the suppression of religious houses, the putting down of certain holidays, new opinions, raising of farms, sore taking of gressomes or incomes, pulling down of towns and husbandries, inclosures, "intails of the common (intakes of the commons ?), worshipful men taking of farms and yeomens' offices; all which with other mo they take to be not only an occasion of great dearth, but as well to the great decay of the Commonwealth," and they desire the same to be reformed by Parliament.
ii. "The manner of the taking of the said William and of the beginning of the rebellion at Beverley."
Wednesday, 4 Oct.—1. Being in company with Chr. Stapulton, his eldest brother, who then lay in the Grey Friars at Beverley, a very weak man, owing to continual sickness and lame both foot and hand for 16 years, who was there for change of air, as he was the summer before from May till Midsummer, and the winter before at Hull, he proposed next day to cross the Humber towards London to the Term. The said 4th day at 10 p.m. he took leave of his brother and his brother's wife, intending to cross at the tide at Hull at 7 a.m. At three o'clock that morning Christopher's servant, John Wading, brought him word at his bedside that all Lincolnshire was up from Barton to Lincoln, and his brother persuaded him to tarry till Sunday following, the 8th, for it was said that Grantham way was stopped as well as Lincoln.
Sunday the 8th.—This Sunday Lionel Burgh, servant to Brian Stapulton, son and heir to the said Chr., told the said William that one Roger Kechyn, of the same town, said that upon a letter sent to Beverley by Robert Aske moving them to rise, he would that day ring the common bell or die for it. On this the said William advised his brother to send his servant, the said John Wadinham, being a very sober fellow, to Chr. Saunderson to inform him and to stay the ringing, if possible. The said John returned to his master and said it was too late, for the common bell was ringing. "And then the said William, more inclining to the natural love of his said brother, who ever had been loving and liberal unto him, than to the duty of his allegiance unto his sovereign liege lord, ever thinking that it should be slanderous to him to leave his said brother in that extremity, who for extreme fear, being so feeble and weak, neither able to flee nor make resistance, was like without great help to fall in sound (swoon), wherein the said William, moved with natural pity, did comfort him, promising not to flee from him, and therein he took great comfort." The said William then moved his brother to command all his folks to keep within the house, except a simple fellow named George Bell, who was sent to the market place to see what was [doing], and brought answer that one Ric. Endyke made procl[amation] for every man to come and take his oath to the commons on pain of death, one Ric. Wilson, with the oath in one hand and a [book] in the other, swearing them. Soon after, proclamation was made to appear at the Hall garth upon like pain. What they did there the said William knoweth not, but supposes they dispatched a letter to the h[ost] in Lincolnshire by one Wm. Woodmancy, promising them aid under their common seal. Proclamation was afterwards made for every man to appear at Westwood green near the said Friars with such horse and harness as they could. Notwithstanding the orders to keep within the house the said Christopher's wife went forth and stood in a close where great numbers came "of" the other side of the hedge. And she saying "God's blessing have ye, and speed you well in your good purpose," they asked why her husband had not come with his folk, and she said, "They be in the Freers. Go pull them out by the heads." Which being disclosed to the said Christopher he was in greater perplexity than ever, and said to her "What do ye mean, except ye would have me, my son and heir, and my brother cast away ?" She replied, it was God's quarrel. As soon as night came the said Chr., by his brother's advice, sent for Chr. Saunderson to know their acts that day, which, he said, were chiefly revenges of old grudges on one another by reason of a great suit betwixt the bp. of York and them for their liberties, some taking part with the bp. and some with the town. One Wythes, an earnest supporter of the bp., was almost slain that day, and great quarrels picked to Robt. Rafles. The said William urged him and other honest men to drive a stay, if possible, and if he could not, that he, with others, would be mean for my brother, in that because by his impotency he could do them no good, to spare him, the said Brian, and William.
Monday the 9th.—That Monday every man kept his hour at Westwood green; and all the town being sworn, they sent Ric. Faireclif, under-steward of the town to master Page, Ric. Wharton of Hullbridge, who was taken for a very substancial man, the said Chr. Saunderson and others, to young Sir Ralph Ellerker to know if he would do as they did. He refused, but was content to come and give them his best advice if they would let him pass and repass without swearing him, for he was sworn to the King. This they would not agree to. It was then moved among the wild people that remained on the green—the said Friars being in their sight—why the said Chr. Stapulton, Brian and William did not come in; and many of them bade burn the Friars and them within it, as one Sir Thomas Johnson, otherwise called Bonaventure, an Observant friar, told them, who was sworn and had been much with the said Chr., both at Wyghell and Beverley, and before that time had been assigned to the said house of Beverley by Dr. Vausar, warden of the Grey Friars at York. "And the said Bonaventure rejoiced much their rising, and was very busy going betwixt the wife of the said Christopher and the said wild people, oft laying scriptures to maintain their purpose, noting the same to be goodly and specially to the said William; howbeit certain more honest men persuaded them from the said uncharitable opinion, excusing the same by reason of his impotence," and determined to send some honest men to his house to take his oath, and two of his servants to wait upon him and to bring to the said green with them the said Brian Stapulton and William and the rest of their folks to be sworn. With this message were sent one Hornclif, bailiff of Beverley, an aged man called White, and the said Richard Wilson, with others. They then swore the said Chr., and the said John Wadingham and John Lelome, his servants, and took with them the said Brian and William with the rest of their folks to the green, where the wild people were mustered to the number of 400 or 500, who, crying with terrible shouts "Captains, Captains," came towards them [and] did swear them. After which oath the said William, seeing the wild disposition of the people and the fear honest men were in by the said dissension among themselves, was much stirred thereby to take the rule of the said people, who all cried "Master William Stapulton shall be our captain"; which he thinks was due to the said Observant setting forth his praises, as they did not know him. After this oath the wife of the said Chr. and the said Observant were very joyous, and the Observant offered to go himself in harness to the field, "and so did to the first stay taken at Uncastre (Doncaster)" when Sir Ralph Ellerker and Bowes came up, when he took his leave of the said Chr., saying he would go to their house at the Newcastle. Thus the said William agreed to take the lead, and they promised to be ordered by him so that it were not against the oath. He then stayed their old grudges and moved them to proceed in this quarrel as brothers and not make spoil of any man's goods, and in order to tract time, made proclamation for every man to depart that night; after which the said Roger Kichen came riding out of the town like a man distraught and cried "As many as be true unto the commons, follow me," moving them that night to raise Cottingham, Hessell, and other towns about. That night certain of them went privily to fire Hunsley beacon, which was not standing but lay on the ground, howbeit they made great fires of hedges and haystacks, wherewith they stirred th towns adjoining.
Tuesday, 10th.—This day the people met at the green, and by reason of the said fire came one Fober, from Newbalde, and John Stakehouse, from Cottingham, to know when we would set forward, saying they were ready to do as we did. That day the said William had great business to stay them from going forward; but he, with Richard Wharton, Ric. Faircliff, the bailiff and others, stayed them till an answer was received to a letter they had sent to the host in Lincolnshire. The said William moved them to have Brian Stapulton, his nephew, to join with him, and to have Ric. Wharton and the bailey of Beverley as their petty captains. This the commons agreed to, and gave orders that they should proceed to no act without the assent of the said William or, in his absence, of the said Brian or his deputy. The said William ever moved them to abstain from spoils, for he would not be called a captain of thieves. And that day the said William sent Chr. Saunderson for old Sir Ralph Ellerker against the morrow to help to stay the town. To which the said Sir Ralph consented. And that day one Sir Robert, a friar of St. Robert's of Knasborough, and limitor for the same houses in those parts, sued to the said William for a passport, offering to raise all Rydale and Pickering byth (sic), which the said William made him.
Wednesday, 11th.—The people assembled at the green and Sir Ralph came to Sanderson's to breakfast, to whom came the said William and Brian with Sir John Mylner and others to consult of the same stay. And they being at breakfast one came from North Cave with a letter from the inhabitants by reason of the said fire, "knowing when we would forward." We told him the cause of our stay and made Ric. Faierclif to write a letter to the town not to stir till they had knowledge from Beverley by writing under the common seal. Immediately after breakfast the said Sir William and Brian with other honest men repaired to the green and the said Ralph made long persuasions to the people for the said stay. And in coming towards the said place the said William desired of Sir John Milner, who took great pain about the stay, some honest men to go to Hessell to meet with the message from Lincolnshire so as to amend it if necessary in opening it to the commons. Meanwhile came the said William Woodmancy, who was messenger into Lincolnshire, riding as fast as he could, and said the Lincolnshire host had sent messengers with him to them, by whom they had sent their whole mind. Soon after came Guy Keme, Anthony Curteis, and Thos. Donne in message from the said host. Sir Ralph would have had their letters and credence showed first to four or five apart, but they insisted on having them read openly; whereupon Guy Kyme delivered a letter to Sir Ralph, which he opened, saying he knew it was Sir William Ascue's hand, and the said Guy confirmed it, saying the whole letter was his hand, but was signed by Sir Robt. Tyrwhit, Sir Wm. Skipwith, Sir Wm. Ascue, and divers others. Supposes the said Ralph has the letter, which expressed thanks to them of Beverley for their kind offer, and left much of their minds to be declared by the credence of the bearer, Guy Kyme, whose credence was to declare the manner of their beginning when they were fewer than six persons in Louth of small reputation, and grew in one day to the number of 10,000, and the next day to 20,000, "which was like to come of the Holy Ghost." The messenger praised their goodly army lying in two several places, the one under the men of worship who signed the letter, the other under the sheriff, Mr. Dymmoke and Sir John Thilbilbe (sic). Both armies he praised very much, accounting them able to give battle to any king christened, "and then no words but still 'Forward.'" The said Guy declared also the great amity grown between Sir Robt. Tyrwit and Sir Wm. Ascue, who had long been enemies; "also the great present of the abbot of Barlings with his comfortable words than any man counted themselves half shamed to be so far behind them, and then longer stay could not be taken, yet the said William suffered the said Sir Ralph to depart unsworn." The said Guy also delivered a bill of articles of the cause of their rebellion signed by the aforenamed and others, as Thomas Portington, John Rudde, Moigne, &c. The said William also suffered the said Sir Ralph to remain at home contrary to the minds of most of the commons, for which he sent him thanks by one Ogle who married his daughter. That night fire was set to Hunsley beacon and Tranbye beacon, of Humberside, and proclamation made for every man to be next day at nine at Hunsley beacon, four miles from Beverley, with horse and harness, and to send knowledge to Cottingham and Hessell to be there. And the said William had Anth. Curteys, of Grayes Inn, to dinner, [who] praised their host, and after dinner said he must into Holderness, after which the said William never saw him.
Thursday, 12 Oct.—The country came to the beacon and it was moved to send for Smytheley, a man of law at Brantingham, to come in. Certain persons were sent for him, and Hugh Clitheroe of the same town, his great enemy, went to take him. He found him sick in bed and took his oath, "who sent with them one Pickering, his clerk, horsed and harnessed, with many fair words," but the commons thought it feigned and would have had him brought in a cart, as Kyme said that Master Skipwith, serjeant-at-arms, was carried so with their host; but with much pain the said William stayed them. It was also suggested to the said William that great treasure of the King's lay at Beckwith's house at South Cave, which came from the abbeys of Feryby and Hawtenprice. So to please the people and save the goods, if any were there, the said Wm. took with him certain honest persons, keeping light persons away as much as possible, found a woman keeping the house, lighted off his horse and went in with not more than six persons while the rest stood at the door. He asked where the priest was that kept the house, who was hid for fear of light persons who had been there just before and threatened to spoil the goods and slay (fn. 17) the priest. But when the priest knew who asked for him he came forth quivering and shaking for fear. The said Wm. asked him what treasure was in the two great iron chests. He answered, Nothing but evidences. The said Wm. to satisfy the commons said it was like to be so, yet it was like to have been plate, and bade him be merry, for he should have no harm, and set forth meat if he had any. After eating the said William and the honest men departed, and, at the request of the priest, made proclamation at the church stile that no man should meddle with any goods there on pain of death, and if they did the town should resist them or give knowledge to him of the takers. The priest finding the said Wm. so reasonable showed him a letter in Beckwith's hand for the conveyance of the said chests, by which it appeared they were evidences. News came the same day that Robt. Aske had raised all Howdenshire and Marshland, and would be that night about Wighton, desiring us to muster in the morning at Wighton Hill; and he would muster on another hill on the other side of Wighton, that each company might see the other. The said Guy Keme and Thos. Donne much rejoicing thereat said they would not into Lincolnshire with their finger in their mouth, but would tarry and see our musters to be able to declare the same to their host, for they supposed that Anthony Curteys had gone over to show their host how far they had gone, and they were therefore encouraged to remain at the beacon. Word was also brought that all Holderness was up, to the sea side, and had taken Sir Chr. Helyarde, one Grymeston, and one Clifton, whom they hurt in the taking, Ralph Constable, one John Wright, and others; and how Sir John Constable, Sir John his son, Sir Wm. Constable, young Sir Ralph Ellerker, Edward Roos, Walter Clifton, son to the said Clifton, of Grayes Inn, Philip Myffyn, and John Hedge, of Bilton, the King's servant, were all fled to Hull. That night we sent Ric. Wharton and Ric. Wilson from Beverley, and Wm. Grymeston and one Smythe from Cottingham, to Hull to know of the mayor and aldermen if they would do as we did or be against us; charging our messengers to bring their answers next day to Wighton Hill where our musters were appointed. The mayor, after consulting with the aldermen, made answer that he would never appoint as we did, and would send certain persons to the said hill next day with their full minds.
Friday 13th.—They of Hull, according to their promise, sent four men with their full answer, viz., Brown and Harrison who had been sheriffs, and Kemesey and one Sall. Brown, according to their former promise, made offer of their town by the commandment of the mayor and aldermen with as gentle words as they could, and the others confirmed his message, which was thankfully received by the commons, the said Guy Kyme and Thos. Donne being present, who showed what extremities they of Lincolnshire had used towards those who fled from them in spoiling their goods. That day came in Robt. Hothom, servant to the earl of Westmoreland in Yorkeswold, James Constable of the Clyff, Philip Wawdebye, and one Lygerd of Hullshire, George Bawne, Halom, and others. And George Bawne told the said Wm. that Sir George Conyers, Ralph Ewer, Tristram Teshe, Copindale and others had fled into Scarborough Castle and he would go win them or hasard his life. We determined for shortness of time to take with us divers gentlemen, leaving the rest to keep the place in array, and having with us both the messengers of Lincolnshire and of Hull, to go to Aske and his company and let them know what we had done. Before coming to Wighton we met Aske and two Rudstons and Sir Thomas Metham's son and heir coming towards us. Aske made a great declaration of the circumstances of his taking in Lincolnshire, which was the first time the said Wm. saw Aske or heard from him since they were at London the term before. We then caused these messengers both of Lincolnshire and of Hull to declare their messages. Aske asked them of Lincolnshire if they had any letter to him, for he knew the state of their host as well as they, having been at their musters. They answered they had none but to the town of Beverley. Then Aske, the two Rudstons and young Metham, consulted together apart, and Aske desired that we would appoint four gentlemen to counsel with them. Whereupon were appointed Brian and Wm. Stapulton, Philip Wawdebye and Robt. Hotsom, and it was concluded that Nic. Rudston and young Metham for them, and the said Wm. and Robt. Hotsom for us, should that night go to Hull to speak with the mayor and take the town according to their promise, and to keep with us three of their men for pledges. And so we did, and took with us Saull and left the others, but we lost Robt. Hotsom amongst the men; and so we three went that night and came very late to Hull. That night Guy Keme and Thos. Donne took their leave to go over at the tide. That night also Aske determined to lie about Shipton and next day to Pokelington, and so towards York, and we to meet next day at Wighton hill where they should know how we sped at Hull, so as to advance or retreat as the case required. At our coming to Hull, Sawll spoke with the mayor, who consulted with his brothers, and Sawll told us the mayor could not speak with us that night; which we liked not. Next day we were sent for to the church to speak with the gentlemen that were fled, and there was much discussion between Rudston and Sir John Constable the elder, who was determined rather to die than come to us, saying he had rather die with honesty than live with shame. After long communications we departed and went to breakfast; after which we were sent for to the church, where the mayor and aldermen and all the said gentlemen being present made answer that they would keep their town as the King's town,—that if any would come to us they should have liberty, but neither horse, harness, meat, nor money, contrary to their former promise. On this we would have departed, but they would not suffer us till they had security for the safe return of their messengers; and we made promise under our hands that they should either come home that night or we would yield ourselves into the town again. Sir Ralph Ellerker offered, if we thought him meet, to go with such articles as we would send to the King and either he would do our message truly or strike off the heads of Ralph, his son and heir, and Thomas his brother whom we had amongst us, but he would in no wise agree to come in to us.
Saturday 14th. This day we left Hull with the said messengers and came to Wighton Hill where all the country was looking for us: and then despatched the messengers of Hull before we declared our message for fear of the wildness of the people, "and made them good countenance notwithstanding that the substance of their message declared to us was affirmed to be untrue by the mayor." We then sent young Metham to Aske to show how we had sped. Word was then brought how Holderness men had come to Beverley and how Sir Chr. Helyarde and others waited for some of our gentlemen to speak with them at Bishop Burton. And so Rudston, Brian Stapulton, and William, with others, went thither, leaving all their people to keep array till their return. Consulted with the said gentlemen and arranged to lie round about Hull next day, meeting in the morning at 9 o'clock at Windeoke within the lordship of Cottingham. Sent word to Therman (fn. 18) by Rudston of our conclusion. The men of Beverley took great displeasure at the said William and Brian because they sent and did not come themselves " and some light persons bade down with them, the gentlemen counselled too much and would betray them." In our coming to Beverley the three captains of Holderness, Barker, Tenaunte, and Ombler, were mustering their men on Westwood green, 300, and so for that night departed.
Sunday 15th. This day every man kept his hour at Wyndoke; "in their which going forward of Beverley" the said William called them together and complained of the unkindness they had shown him and his horse the night before, when he had taken so much more pains than any of them in riding to Hull and other places "and also they to have suspect in him, thanked them that they were contented to be ruled and governed by him being but a stranger amongst them, desiring them to make a new captain, for he nor the said Brian would meddle no more, but whosoever they made captain they would obey him, like as they had done to them. Wherein they made a great shout, saying, we will have none other captain, and whosoever after spoke against the captain, the rest to strike him down. Then with long persuasions there was no remedy." He then caused proclamation to be made for spoils and for every man to pay honestly for what he took; and so went forth to the said Oak where it was determined that some should go back towards York to Aske and some to lie against Hull. The said Brian and William made suit that they would suffer them to pass towards York as their harness lay at Wighill six miles west from York; which Beverley men would not agree to unless they went also. So they kept the said Brian and Wm. amongst themselves continually against Hull and all other places for 15 days without harness, and all those that belonged to the said Chr. Stapulton. Then it was arranged that Rudstone should go back and take with him Yorkswold, and that Holderness, Hall shere (Hull shire), Beverley, and Cottingham should lie against Hull. And so Rudston departed. Then it was determined that Barker and Tenaunte with their 200 should lie on Holderness side with the footmen who then lay against Hull and continually had done since their rising. And they to lie on the one side of Hull water and the said Wm. and Brian with Beverley at Skowcottes on the other side, and next them towards Humber Thos. Ellerker with the lordship of Cottingham, and at Hull Armitage, by Humberside Oumbler with his 100, with whom was Sir Chr. Helyarde and all Hullshire. And so they lay continually from that Sunday to Thursday the 19th.
There also came that Sunday a letter from Aske, then lying at Kexby Bridge upon the Derwent 6 miles from York, and others of his company at Sutton Bridge, for it was said that Sir Oswald Wilstrope with Ainsty had taken part with the city of York and would pull down the said bridges, and stop him at the said river; but it was not so. "Aske's letter was for the articles of Lincolnshire, to show to them why he had raised [the country] between the rivers of Ouse and Derwent; which articles, as he doth remember, could not be found." While lying there certain men of the said water towns offered to burn all the ships in Hull haven and all that part of the town. Does not know their names. Warned them in any wise not to disclose the same, otherwise the plan would be prevented by policy, but in truth if it had been opened it would not have been in his power to save the town. Another said that with a barrel of pitch fired and sent down by the tide, he would burn all the ships in the haven. "And great displeasures the said William suffered in saving the windmills at the gate of Hull called Beverley gates; and yet with fair words he saved the same, saying that notwithstanding this great business he trusted both [we] should have our reasonable requests and the King's highness [should] take us *o his mercy"; adding that when peace returned we should repent the loss and injury inflicted on the town. The people in all their wildness hoped that the King would concede their reasonable requests and no harm was done, except that we of Beverley lying at Skowcottes, at a house of the mayor of Hull's, made free with some hay and grass for our horses, and 75 oxen which they of Beverley had taken before, belonging to Mr. Lee, brother and treasurer to the bishop of York, which, in that they were his, it lay not with the said William to stay, and also one crane of the said mayor's, one peacock, one "cade lame," and two or three young swine. Also the said William took 10 or 11 wethers coming towards the town, hoping by keeping victuals from them to win them without danger; which sheep he restored at the winning thereof to James Barbour, the owner, unrequired. Also one Hornclif, of Grimsby, while we were lying before the town, brought a letter from Lincolnshire, signed by one Hempringham and others, which also referred to the credence of the bearer, which was that Lincolnshire was down. They of Holderness called out that the letter was forged, and bade keep the messenger fast. Accordingly, as there came no news since the departure of Guy Kyme, who had promised to advertise them continually of their proceedings, the messenger was detained, and the letter, enclosed within another, complaining of the unkindness of Lincolnshire to them, who rose by their motions, in sending them no intelligence. They also sent word that Hull varied from their promise made in the presence of Guy Kyme and Thos. Donne, and that news had been received at the writing of the letter that York was won and Sir Thomas Percy taken by the commons. This letter was sent by Wm. Woodmansey because he was known to them, "who was taken there." After sending it we had more knowledge of the taking of Sir Thos. Percy by one James Aslaby, who came from the said Sir Thomas desiring the said William, by word without letter or passport, to suffer him to pass into Hull to persuade Sir Ralph Ellerker, who would be much advised by him. When he had been some time with Sir Ralph he returned to us, and the said William wrote a letter to Sir Thomas marvelling that he would send men to him without letter or token, especially to pass among their enemies in such extreme business. Also during the siege came Sir Robert the friar of Robert's, saying that he had raised all Malton and that quarter, and that Richmondshire was up, and how the lord Latimer was taken, and desired that he might go into the forest of Knasborough, but had no money. And they of Beverley gave him 20s., and he had a horse of the prior of Malton, for he had tired his own. During the siege also there were spoilings and privy pickings in spite of the proclamations. On which some honest men moved the said William for redress, else they should be robbed themselves. He ordered watch to be kept, and they took one Barton, a fletcher, whom the said William had put in trust to keep their victuals, and also a naughty fellow, a sanctuary man of Beverley and a common picker. Where-upon the whole company made exclamation, and he caused the said two to be taken, and made them believe they should die, assigned them a friar to confess them, and he believes they did confess, looking for nothing but death. He then called for one Spalding, a waterman, and in presence of all men caused them to be called out. The sanctuary man was tied by the middle with a rope to the end of the boat, and so hauled over the water, and several times put down with the oar over the head. The other, seeing him, expected to be so handled, but, at the request of honest men, he, being a house-keeper, was suffered to go unpunished, and so both banished the host. After which there was never spoil in the said William's company.
While lying before the town also, there came John Wright, who was under Ombler and had spoken with Sir Ralph Ellerker by appointment, and said that Sir Ralph and Sir Wm. Constable were content to come out of the town and speak with us at the Charterhouse, and if [we] would be reasonable to come to us and do as we did. With this we agreed; and that he should give knowledge to Sir Chr. Hilyard and we to those near us, and appointed 9 (?) o'clock in the morning, being Wednesday the 18th. Which appointment was kept. Sir Chr. Hilyard and others appointed Wm. Stapulton and one of the captains of Holderness to receive the said gentlemen, but the said William refused unless he were accompanied by a gentleman, on which they appointed Marmaduke, younger son to Sir William Constable, of Rudstone. And so they received them. Sir Ralph said that if we would neither swear them nor make them captains they were content to do as we did. The said William agreed, for he was of opinion that the oath did no good, as it would make a man neither better nor worse, and he never swore any but two young merchants of York at Hansley beacon, riding between Hull and York at the first musters, and sent with them their oath to York, as he was compelled to do by the commons. When they had brought Sir Ralph and Sir William to the Charterhouse, the former requested that every captain would go to his company and persuade them neither to hurt those that came in nor any that belonged to them. Which was done, and the commons well pleased; for he was sore afraid of the commons, especially of Holderness. Sir Ralph then said if Sir John Constable were forth of Hull, the town would soon yield, " and moved if we would be contented to suffer him still (steal) away. Whereunto the said William answered that he would never be privy to his stealing away, in that he lay there to win him and other; but if he went that he knew not of, God be with him." And after the coming in of these gentlemen we had some discussion about a letter sent to Aske from the said William, when he was certain of the winning of York, for more aid to enable them to win Hull. Also hearing of the fall of Lincolnshire, came Rudston at Hull Armitage, with 400 or 500 in array against the town. Sir Ralph, when he saw them, asked the said William if he knew and could stay them, which the said William said he reckoned he could do, and so went to stay them. Upon the sight of these men the town yielded and sent us the offer of the same by Elande and Knolles, aldermen, so that Rudston, seeing all at a stay, lodged his men about and came himself to the Charterhouse to hear the offer of the men of Hull. And before our coming to them both the Sir John Constables had come in, and Edward Roose, with all others except Philip Myssyn (sic), who was fled; and then, because it was late, we would not enter the town for fear of spoil; and that night Sir Ralph Ellerker and Rudston lay together at the Charterhouse.
Friday the 20th.—The appointment was kept, and there came Ellaunde, Knolles, and John Thorneton, and made offer of the town, "and the gates set open;" but the said William obtained that no man was sworn. A council at Hunslee beacon was appointed, Eland and Knolles to be there for Hull. There it was decided, as we were assured of the fall of Lincolnshire, to send certain articles of our griefs to the duke of Suffolk at Lincoln, and desire him to be our petitioner to the King. To carry this message were appointed Grymeston of Cottingham, John Write of Holderness, and Wm. Worme, sometime servant to the earl of Northumberland; who, with said Wm. Stapulton, were to draw up the articles. While we were penning them came a post from Aske from Pomfret, saying my lord Steward was about to give him battle. We were "amazed" seeing the sudden fall of Lincolnshire and the advance of my lord Steward, and leaving our former purpose, sent 200 of Holderness to keep Hull. That night Sir Ralph Ellerker undertook to keep the beacon "and that not to be feared unless he saw apparent cause;" for if the news were true, it was too far for us to come to the relief of Aske. However, the said William proclaimed that all should be ready at 7 in the morning "as many as was appointed which was ... of Beverley."
Saturday the 21st.—Sir Ralph sent for him at Beverley to come towards York, and he would tarry for him. Did so, and met Sir Ralph, and together they rode to Rudstone's house at Hayton, and took him with them. Had a letter by the way of the taking of Pomfret Castle, "and in it the bishop of York and my lord Darcy, with divers other, and how my lord of Northumberland was taken with the commons." That night we came to York, and heard how Sir Thomas Percy and Sir Nicholas Fayerfax, with the abbot of St. Mary's, had gone towards Pomfret with a goodly band the same day. The said day Sir Ralph Ellerker and Rudstone rode from York to Shirborn, and Brian Stapulton and William to Wighell, Chr. Stapulton's house, and lodged their folk a mile off at Tadcaster. On the way to Wighell they met one Wm. Percye of Ryton riding post, and crying "Forward," for Doncaster Bridge on the water of Dune was broken. That night came to Wighell, Robert Conyers, who has married the sister of the said William, being servant to Sir James Strangwish, and said he had just left his master, who was coming forward with lords Nevell and Latimer, and was lodged at Wetherby, and had appointed their muster for the morrow at Brameham Moor. The said William and Brian were in their bed at Wighell about midnight when a post came from Ellerker and Rudstone, from Shirborn, for them to be at Pomfret, 10 miles off, by 9 next morning. Were at Pomfret with their company by 9 o'clock, and there for the second time he saw Aske. That day came to Pomfret after them lords Nevell and Latimer, Sir James Strangewish, Sir John and Sir William Bulmer, young Bowes, Roger Lasells, and Robert Bowes, with others of Richmondshire and the Bpric., 5,000 in number. Sir Chr. Danby, Sir Ralph Bulmer, Sir Wm. Mallere, John Norton of Norton, young Markenfeld, and Ingilbye, Wannesfourth, Richard Bowes, and Ralph Gower of Richmond, with others, were gone through Wenslee Dale into Craven to take my lord of Cumberland and lord Scrope and then repair to the host. After this coming to Pomfret was held a council, to which the said William was not called. There were the said lords with lord Darcy, Sir Robert Constable, Sir John Dawnye, Sir Wm. Faierfax, Sir Oswald Walstrop, k., Sir Robert Nevill, Robert Challener, Thos. Grice, Wm. Babthorpe, and others of the West of York. And in that council they divided their battle, committing the "vauntaward" to Sir Thomas Percy, "and under him to Easte Reading (the East Riding), wherein the said William was by reason of Beverley." Proclamation was then made for every man of the East parts to void the town on pain of death, and draw to Wentbridge to wait upon Mr. Percy. Sir Ralph Ellerker, Sir Wm. Constable, Rudstone, the said William and Brian, with the captains of Holderness set forward accordingly; and it was said that Darcy and Sir Richard Tempest, with the West Riding, should have the middle ward, and my lords Nevell, Latimer, and Lumley, with Aske, the rear ward. "Also the said William axed, at Wighell, who raised Ainsty, being betwixt the rivers of Owst, Nydd, and Wharfe." They said young Akelome and Edwyn, petty captains to Aske, raised them, and took Sir Oswald Willestrop, who, after he was taken, raised all the country about Whetherby and Spofforth, and took one Plumpton and Brian Rokelife, "and so kept their musters part beside Bilburgh, four miles west of York, and the other about Akome, and so came Sir Oswald with a great company into York."
Tuesday.—That day they went forward towards Doncaster, and, beside Barnesdale, came Lancaster herald with a letter from the lords at Doncaster, which he delivered to the lords and the said Aske, who, after taking council apart, assigned Robert de la Royer and Anthony Brakinbury to keep company with the said herald, and Aske rode back to lord Darcy, who had not yet come from Pomfret, much to the displeasure of the commons, "and so for that night lodged under Hampall the nunnery."
Wednesday.—That day a skirmish rose in the host owing to certain spears of the other side being seen and chased, when all men ran to their horses and never stopped till they came to Skawsby leas above Doncaster, where with much pain they stayed the people from setting upon Doncaster. It was said the herald was despatched that night; but all that time the said William was never called to council, and he was better contented. "That night we lodged at Pigberne, where also we had a little skirmish and a man of Beverley chasing a sheep a little hurt with a spear. And so continued till Friday after, with small doings," and then a "continuance" was taken and both hosts broke by appointment, Sir Ralph Ellerker and Bowes came to the King with our articles; and in the return of the said Wm. to Wighell he parted with the men of Beverley at Tadcaster, desiring them to keep good rule in the meantime. "After his which departure the Saturday before he never came at Beverley nor they at him, but at general meetings, as at York at the Council there," where he was appointed one of the twelve for the East Riding, and also at Pomfret, where he was appointed one of the 300 to wait upon the King's Commissioners at Doncaster. Meanwhile he meddled with no matters, but he and Brian with other serving men belonging to the said Christopher, did either hunt or shoot; and as soon as the King's free pardon was proclaimed at Pomfret upon the Saturday (conclusion taken at Doncaster the Tuesday after), came towards London contrary to the advice of many in that country who distrusted the King's said pardon. The said William never did so, for he was one of the first that came up, and at Newark was taken to be Aske, so that a rumour arose that Aske had gone to the King, which the said William at that time knew not. After the coming up of Sir Ralph Ellerker and Bowes, the said William, according to his duty, upon Allhallowen Even, went to Wressell to wait upon the lord of Northumberland. And at York it was told him, the same day, that Aske and Sir Thomas Percy were at St. Mary's abbey at dinner, and after dinner would to Wressell. The said Wm. sent to them to say that if they would tarry he would wait upon them, but they did not, and he only saw them when he came into Wressell castle, where Aske was above with my lord, moving him to be good to his brother and make him lieutenant of the one march and Sir Ingram of the other. But my lord would by no means grant that Sir Thomas should have any meddling under him; and Aske departed to his chamber where he and Sir Thomas that night lay together. The said William then sent to my lord to know his pleasure, and was admitted to his presence where he lay in bed; "and when he saw the said William he fell in weeping, ever wishing himself out of the world, which the said William was sore to see." The said William departed to his lodging that night in the town at one Humfleye's, and next morning after mass and breakfast Aske went to my lord "with his labours again," but my lord was in the same mind that he was before. Aske then moved my lord if he would consent to what he and the lords would do; and he yielded to Aske's great importunacy for fear, but would in no wise see the said Sir Thomas. Wherewith the said William was half angry with my lord, seeing what danger he was in, for it was openly said in the field, "Strike off the head of the Earl and make Sir Thomas earl." Also Sir Thos. Hilton asked where my lord was, saying "He is now crept into a corner and dare not show himself, he hath made a many of knaves gentlemen to whom he had disposed much of his living and all now to do nought himself." All which words the said William opened to my said lord, desiring him to speak with Sir Thomas for fear of the worst. At this and all other times he was very earnest against the commons in behalf of the King and my lord Privy Seal, against whom the commons continually railed; and when the said William spoke of the danger to him, he always said he did not care, he should die but once, let them strike off his head and rid him of much pain. He was in the same mind at his lying at York, wherewith oftimes they fell out. So Aske and Mr. Percy departed, Aske that night to Beverley, and next day to Hull, as he said, and would have had the said William with him, but he would not; Mr. Percy to Seymer, to my lady his mother, the morrow after towards Northumberland, as he said; and the said William to his brother's house. He was moved by a letter from Sir Thomas Wharton, who had married his sister, of the continual danger he was in among the commons of Westmoreland of loss both of life and substance, and thought that by reason of his wife's friends, he should live more quietly in Yorkshire. He thereupon rode to Templehurst, to my lord Dacre's (Darcy's) house, and without knowledge of the said Sir Thomas, obtained from Aske a safe conduct for his goods and passport for himself to come to Yorkshire. But neither for this passport, nor for any other writing sent him by Aske, would the said Sir Thomas come into Yorkshire. These were all the times the said William was with Aske, except at common meetings, and if there were any privy matter between him and lord Darcy, it was kept from the said William. That night he confessed that he had not above 300 men at the winning of Pomfret Castle; for one Metham and one Saltmarshe met him at York, disdaining that he should be above them. Also on St. Andrew's even at Wetherby, three miles from his brother's house, they took Berwick pursuivant at arms and brought him, with the King's coat armour upon his back, to the said William, to his said brother's house to search him. Who, according to his duty, received him, and he showed the said William two letters from the duke of Norfolk, one to lord Conyers and one to Robert Bowes; but as these letters came from one of the greatest peers of the realm he would not have opened them but have sent them to Aske, but that Berwick, for his better speed, desired him to open them, and said he would report to the Duke that he did so at his suit. He accordingly did so. The letters were to know the state of the castle of Midlam and Barnny Castle, and what provision was about them both for horse meat. Which letters being of no great weight he published to the said men, saying that the matter was like to come to good stay in that the Duke should come into that country: and so, as the man was an officer at arms, he would make no search of him. "And as for spoils, bribery, or polling the said William took none, and yet he was offered money of Robert Gray's wife of Beverley, whose goods, in the absence of her husband, he saved; and so he did of one Richard Tower and of one Richard Brown, without taking one penny of all the world, abbey or other, saving 20 nobles he did take of the prior of Feryby, which was distributed among the soldiers for suffering him to be at home; and it was done openly, he being noted to have deceived the King at the suppression of his house great goods." Also at the suit of the men of Swanland, being in the parish of Feryby, when Sir Wm. Fairfax, farmer of the same, was disposed to make away the goods of the house, to make some stay, as in the case of other houses, he bade them to put two brothers of the same house to lie within it and see nothing wasted till some way were taken with all the houses; for many of the commons thought the houses ill-bestowed of such as he who would neither keep house nor men about him, which oversight of the King's farmers has done much hurt in these parts, especially of him, a man of fair possessions, keeping a very small port and no men about him. To conclude, the said William is very sorry for his offences against the King, and herein has confessed all that he can remember, submitting to his Highness' mercy.
In another hand: "At the sitting at York, after that Bowes had declared their acts done before the King and his Council, then he declared the goodness of my lord Privy Seal to the commons, promised by his word, and therewith he stayed; and Sir Robert Constable bade him go forth, and therewith he read a letter sent from my said lord to Raufe Euers, which letter was taken by water (qu. Edw. Waters?), and the contents thereof, as they took it, contrary to his said promise." At the same sitting Robt. Bowes moved that "my said lord" had discharged him and Sir Ralph Ellerker of the stay of Dent and Sedbar and undertaken it himself. On this Sir Nic. Fairfax moved that notwithstanding their promise to the King, these two parishes, might rise and raise both Lancashire and Cheshire. Also Sir Robt. Constable moved, upon certain letters shown there from the King to gentlemen of Lancashire, that there be no meeting at Doncaster rather than lose Lancashire and Cheshire, who were ready to rise; and thus he brought the said William and others to his opinion until Wm. Babthorpe proved the contrary. The said William, seeing my lord his master in danger at Wressyll, advised him "to she[w himself amo]ngist the commons, after which he might sit sty[ll] ... without further danger."
Pp. 25. Apparently a transcript showing numerous clerical errors. With marginal annotations in another hand. Endd.: Liber tercius.
10 Feb.
R. O.
393. SIR THOMAS PERCY.
"Xmo Februarii anno et loco supradictis."
Sir Thomas Percy, examined, to the "first article" says:—(1.) Was at my lady his mother's house in Yorkshire when it was rumoured they were up in Lincolnshire. Within three days heard from one Stringer, who brought a tegg from Wressyll to my lady, that Aske had stirred up the commons of Wrysyll and Holden, and cried at the gates of Wrysyll, "Thousands for a Percy." In a day or two prepared to steal away home, and took "but a man or two and his boy," put on one of his servant's coats and led his "male horse" himself. They met one Percey, who asked if he knew where Sir Thomas Percy was. Answered he heard he was at my lady his mother's. Percey said they were assembled at Malton and had laid watch for Sir Thomas, and would have him or leave his mother never a penny. Hearing this, returned to his mother's to Semer, and said he was stopped from passing home, "whereupon she wept and sore lamented." About 2 p.m. came many commons with three or four gentlemen, their captains, one of them named Preston. Preston said they were assembled for the weal of all; that lord Latimer, lord Nevell, Mr. Danby, Mr. Bowes, and others were with them, and that they came to fetch him. Preston read the oath and he was sworn, and appointed to be on the morrow with them at the Wold beyond Spyttell. Went and found there 3,000 or 4,000. Next day they spoiled Mr. Chamley's house. Would have stayed them, but they cried, "Strike off his head." Went that night to his mother's to reassure her, and tarried there next day, and thence went to the muster at Malton, where he sent for Sir Nich. Farfox. There were there about 10,000. Aske commanded him to the siege of York, but, York being won, countermanded him to Hull. Were at Semer on their way when they heard Hull was won, and were countermanded to Pomfret, but when they arrived it was already won by Aske's company. Next day came lord Nevell and Mr. Bowes with 3,000 or 4,000 from the Bishopric, and to lord Darcy, being at dinner in the castle, Aske introduced the gentlemen of the Bishopric. Then Darcy and Robert Aske called into a window lord Nevell, Mr. Bowes, Roger Lassels, Sir Robt. Constable, Sir Ralph Ellerker, jun., Rudston, this examinate, and others, and said that, as Norfolk and Shrewsbury were advancing, Ferry Bridge, as a "straight passage," must be watched that night, and that the men of the Bishopric should go thither. Mr. Bowes answered that they and their horses were weary; so examinate, Sir Ralph Ellerker, Sir Wm. Constable, and Rudston, with 3,000 or 4,000, were sent. On the morrow came the whole host, except lord Darcy and the Archbishop, who were left in Pomfret castle, and they went to a little nunnery beyond Doncaster, beside Robin Hood's Cross. Next day they had a skirmish with some 30 horsemen from Doncaster. On the morrow, or the day after, lord Darcy and the Archbishop came to the field against Doncaster, and there began the treaty between both parties. (2.) Causes of the insurrection: It was to maintain the rights of the Church, abbeys, and old usages, and for the statute of uses, "ingressum takings" and new taxes on christenings, ploughs, &c. (3.) Aske was chief ringleader, but all the gentlemen seemed willing, and lord Darcy was very earnest. (4.) Every town found men; gentlemen went at their own cost. (5.) Had 20 nobles of the abbot of St. Mary's, with whom Sir Nich. Farfox and Sir Oswald Wolsethorpe had been before him. Thinks that, as Sir Oswald caused the abbot, against his will, to go with his cross before the commons through the city of York, Sir Oswald had not been pleased by the abbot. Advised the abbot to steal away, which he did at the town's end, "leaving his cross behind him." Had also aids from the abbots of Whitby and Watton. (6.) There was a bruit that lord Derby would join them. (7.) They intended to go to London to sue the King to have certain statutes revoked and the makers punished. (8.) At York and Pomfret the commons called him lord Percy, whereupon he "lighted of his horse, and took off his cap, and desired them that they would not so say." (9.) Heard of Sir Francis Bygod's insurrection by a letter from Bygod to his (examinate's) mother, which she sent him by one Hawkins, with the words that he "should take a substantial way in that matter upon her blessing." The letter desired him to bring a force from Northumberland and the Bishopric, and Bygod would put him in possession of the earl of Northumberland's lands. (10.) Thought his mother's words meant that he should not meddle. (11.) Told the messenger Hawkins that had he not come from my lady his motber he would have sent him and the letter up to the King. As it was, "he would neither make nor meddle in that matter." Hawkins showed him that Bygod and Halom were gone to Hull and Mr. Lumley to Scarborough, to take and keep them. (12.) The parson of Lekenfelde, examinate's chaplain, was in Beverley at the time, and told Bygod his master was in Northumberland, and would rise for no man. His chaplain came home to him before the said letter. (13.) Heard the last commotion was to take Hull and Scarborough and "prevent my lord of Norfolk." (14.) A month or six weeks before, he received (fn. 19) a supplication from the abbot of Salley, with a token, desiring advice touching the putting down of his house. Answered, by the messenger, he should follow the King's pleasure, as every gentleman would, since the King had given them their pardon.
In Ap Rice's hand, pp. 9, with numerous corrections. Endd.: "Thanswers of Sir T. Percy."
R. O.2. Fair copy of the above, with marginal headings and numberings.
Pp. 10, worn and mutilated, with annotations, mostly by Ap Rice. Endd.: "Liber septimus."
10 Feb.
R. O. St. P. II. 408.
394. DEPUTY AND COUNCIL OF IRELAND to HENRY VIII.
Before Christmas, were admonished by the lord Cromwell to send their advice how best to employ the army this year. Wrote then that they could not be all together until this Parliament, when they would send a final answer; but they thought the reducing of Leinster would be the most necessary. Have now all agreed that Leinster should be reduced to obedience, especially where McMorgho, the Byrnes, and the Tolles dwell, between Dublin and Waterford, as in a book now sent with the lord Treasurer. Refer to their other letters in June last. Dublin, 10 Feb. Signed by Grey, Trymletiston, George abp. of Dublin, Ossory, lord James Butler, Rawson, Brabazon, Aylmer, Luttrell, Fynglas, and Alen.
Commences "May it please your Majesty."
R. O.
St. P. II. 409.
394. DEPUTY AND COUNCIL OF IRELAND to HENRY VIII.
2. "A memorial or a note for the winning of Leinster, to be presented to the King's Majesty and his Grace's most honourable Council."
The situation and extent of Leinster and its history. The harm done by McMorgho, and his kinsmen the Cavenaghs, O'Byrne, and the Tholes, who must be expelled and the country inhabited afresh. Many of the army are "light fellows," unsuitable for this, and perhaps so many Englishmen could not be spared out of England. There are, however, many Irishmen in England, and 3,000 or 4,000 of honest substance might be sent over to inhabit the country. Give the towns which should be thus peopled, with repairs, &c. necessary, i.e., Wicklow, Arkelow, Fernes, Innyscorthi, Roosse, Leighlen Bridge, Carlaugh, and Castledermot. A number of gentlemen of Ireland, younger brethren of good discretion, should also be appointed as follows:—One to Pourescourte, Fasagh Roo, Rathdowne, and all Fercullen; another to Newcastle McKenegan; another to Castellkeven and the Ferture; another to be lord of Wicklow with all the lands between that and Arklow; another to be lord of Arklow and Innykynshelan; another to O'Morgho's country; another to Innyscorthi and the barony there; another to Old Roosse and Fasagh Bentry; another to the abbey of Dusque and barony adjoining; another to Woodstock and the barony of Reban; another to Rathangan and the barony of Ofayly. Each of these must keep soldiers in wages for two or three years, and allot lands in freehold to them. Wm. Sayntlow should be one of these captains. The head captain should be called earl of Carlaugh and lord of Fernes, and have the manors of Carlaugh and Fernes, the barony of Odrone, abbey of Balkynglas, lordship of Rathvillie, Clonmore, and all James FitzGerald's lands thereabouts. The captains and their servants will not be sufficient to inhabit the country; so the common people may be suffered to remain, as there are no better earth tillers, or more obedient if kept from war. Estimate of men necessary for the work. Victual to be sent from Chester, Lirpole, Wales, and Bristol to Wicklow, Arklow, Wexford, and Rosse. The King cannot expect much revenue from this, but will be enabled to defend his other borders without cost to England. Sketch of the first conquest of Ireland and the disinterested action of those who undertook it. Quote the example of "the poor Scots of the out Isles, being but naked men, which having neither wages of any men, neither succour ne help within the land, have not only of late conqueste in the North parts of this land, as great a portion in manner as this is, but also have builded there great garrisons, and in manner made subject all the Irishmen bordering to them." Three things may let the enterprise—the insurrection of Irishmen, default of victuals, and lack of money. Effect of these. When Thos. FitzGerald and his uncles were apprehended and all the Irish in such fear that we could have done what we would, wages were so much in arrear (some 11 months) that no enterprise could be attempted. Instance the failure of the expedition of Munster through this cause. Have so pressed O'Chonour and the Tholes that they had been exiled ere this if the attack could have been continued.
Add. MS. 4763, f. 485 b. B.M.3. Imperfect modern copy of § 2.
Pp. 25.
Lamb. MS. 602, f. 162.4. Devices for ordering of the Cavenaghes, the Byrnes, Toles, and O'Mayles, for their lands in Carlagh, its marches, and the marches of co. Dublin.
He that is now called McMorugh and all the gentlemen of the Cavenaghes have lands appointed to them and the heirs of their bodies, to be held of the King by knight's service.
Since these counties do not border upon the Irish but the counties of Dublin, Kildare, and Kilkenny lie between them and the Irish, the gentlemen are no more to take coyne and livery nor keep any galloghglas or kerne. No such charges to be made except by the Deputy in time of great need, when he charges the county of Dublin in like manner. Writs to run in Carlage, as in Dublin, Myth, Uryell, and Kyldare.
The castles of Carlagh, Leyghelyn, Duske Abbaye, Balkynglas, Fernes, Tynterne, Arclowe, and Wyclowe, are to be occupied by those whom the King or Deputy shall appoint, and no man of inheritance dwelling beyond the water of Barrowe is to meddle with any of them.
The inhabitants to relinquish Irish dress, except the harness.
The Byrnes, Toles, and O'Mayles to be ordered in like manner.
Since Waterford has no Irishmen dwelling in it and is surrounded on all sides by the sea and a river, passable only by boat, by Kilkenny, which is wholly under the earl of Ormond, and by Dungarvan, which that Earl now has of the King's gift, it is thought better that the inhabitants should answer the King's writs and wear English apparel, and that coyne and livery should cease to be taken unless by licence of the Deputy and Council.
Considering the good inclination of the Cavanaghs, Byrnes, and Toles, and the force the King now has in Ireland, it is thought that the rest of the English in Mounster, as the earl of Desmond and his kinsman, the White Knight, lord Barry, lord Roche, and others, will follow their example for their own advantage and that of their heirs.
When these parts are reduced to good order, it is thought that the rest of the Burkes who call themselves Englishmen and the King's kinsmen, will adopt this order, and that soon all the Irish of the land will do so.
Pp. 4. Endd. See fuller abstract in Carew Calendar, No. 113.
10 Feb.
R. O.
395. DEPUTY AND COUNCIL OF IRELAND to CROMWELL.
To the same effect as their letter to the King. Leinster, especially the parts where McMorgho, the Byrnes, and Tooles dwell, between Dublin and Waterford, should be subdued. Send a book of a device for this by lord Butler to be shown to the King and Council. Remind him of their other letters, especially those in June last. Dublin, 10 Feb. Signed by Grey, Trymleteston, Geo. abp. of Dublin, Ossory, Butler, Rawson, Brabason, Aylmer, Lutrell, Fynglas, and Alen.
P. 1. Add.: Lord Privy Seal. Endd.
10 Feb.
R. O. St. P. II. 419.
396. LORD LEONARD GREY to CROMWELL.
As shall appear by the Council's letters and Grey's of the consultation about some notable enterprise for this summer, have devised a book of their opinion, to be sent to the King by lord Butler; who (neither his father nor any other Irishman), had the advice of Grey, the Treasurer, and the Master of the Rolls been followed, should not have been privy to it for a season. It is too much against their interest to please them. Advises Cromwell to speak of the affair to lord Butler as very easy. If the Butlers and the earl of Kildare had jointly agreed to it the thing had been done long ago. The book is not yet engrossed. That Cromwell may have time to devise upon it, sends copy by bearer. Dublin, 10 Feb. Signed.
Add.: Privy Seal. Endd.
10 Feb.
Calig. B. I. 160. B. M. St. P.V. 65.
397. QUEEN MARGARET to HENRY VIII.
Has received his writing and credence with his "secret servant," Ralph Sadlar, and takes great comfort thereby. As to the King her son not asking Henry's counsel about his marriage; her said son at his departure told her he would have Henry's counsel in all that he did, and she is evil content that he has not done so. Where he mentioned her writing to him touching the coming of the Queen, her son's wife, begs his help and counsel and will be ordered by him. Whereas she did lord Meffen the honour to take him as her husband, he has spent her lands and profits upon his own kin, and brought her into debt to the sum of 8,000 mks. Scots, and will give her no account of it; wherefore she desires the lords of her son's Council to make him account to them, as at length she has shown [the bearer,] to whom, as desired, she has spoken very plainly. Trusts the King, her son, will treat her to her and his own honour, but if not she has no refuge but Henry. Begs to know his mind; for now is the time, as the Queen that is coming hither will have help "at" the King her father. Has shown this gentleman his "secret servant" the state she stands in with lord Meffen and the lords of her son's Council. Begs he will not suffer her to be wronged in her rights.
The credence she sent with Richard of Mousgraffe was to pray him (Henry) to bid my lord Secretary to let no Scottish man wit of any matters concerning her. Mr. Adam Otterborn says that my lord Secretary bade him tell her that she should not come into England against the consent of the King, her son. Thinks it strange that any Scots man should know but that she were welcome whenever she desired to come; and begs that hereafter instructions may be sent her by Englishmen. Asks him to command the lord Secretary, who, as all say, is his good servant, to be her good friend. Begs him not to be displeased with Musgrave. Will in future write her credences. Writes presently to the lord Secretary not to be displeased with Musgrave. Credence for bearer. 10 Feb.
Hol. Add. Endd.

Footnotes

1 Sir George Darcy ?
2 George Wolfet. See No. 329.
3 Mary, queen of Hungary.
4 In marg.:—Says he intended to dissuade Bigod from his purpose.
5 Note in the King's own hand: "He is to be sent for that we may know who they were of Beverley that sent him."
6 Note by the King: "Here is to be noted these men's good will, and they also to be sent for to know what two houses (sic) were they that they spake of."
7 Note by the King: "It were meet that these suffered if they already have not."
8 Note by the King: "This is merely false."
9 Note by the King: "This knave is to be taken and, well examined, to suffer."
10 In margin: "Crockey examined hereupon confesseth the same."
11 Mary Basset.
12 The portion in brackets is crossed out.
13 Blank in MS.
14 The words "that at" have been altered to "specially after."
15 Blank in M.S.
16 Should be 10.
17 In the MS. "flee," but evidently a clerical error for "slee."
18 Sic, but probably a clerk's error for "their men," i.e., Holderness men.
19 Marginal note to this in § 2, "Not he. tak, Not Estgate."