References and list of abbreviations

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English Heritage

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Author

Philip Temple (editor)

Year published

2008

Supporting documents

Pages

457-487

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'References and list of abbreviations ', Survey of London: volume 47: Northern Clerkenwell and Pentonville (2008), pp. 457-487. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=119453 Date accessed: 30 July 2014.


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References

ABBREVIATIONS

AJArchitects' Journal
BThe Builder, from 1966 Building
BALBritish Architectural Library, Royal Institute of British Architects
BLBritish Library
BLPESBritish Library of Political and Economic Science
BNBuilding News
BoucherR. K. Boucher, A Celebration of One Hundred Years of Worship at the Church of Our Most Holy Redeemer with St. Philip, Clerkenwell, 1888–1988, 1988
CERCChurch of England Record Centre
ColvinHoward Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600–1840, 3rd edn, 1995
CromwellThomas Cromwell, History and Description of the Parish of Clerkenwell, 1828
DSRDistrict Surveyors' Returns in London Metropolitan Archives
EHEnglish Heritage
FBCFinsbury Borough Council
GAGloucestershire Archives
GLGuildhall Library, Corporation of London
IBCIslington Borough Council Building Control and Planning Department files
ILHCIslington Local History Centre, Finsbury Library (London Borough of Islington Library and Cultural Services)
ILNIllustrated London News
LCCLondon County Council
LMALondon Metropolitan Archives, Corporation of London
LPLLambeth Palace Library
MBWMetropolitan Board of Works
MDRMiddlesex Deeds Registry in London Metropolitan Archives
NMRNational Monuments Record
ODNBOxford Dictionary of National Biography (this includes earlier volumes of the Dictionary of National Biography)
OSOrdnance Survey maps of London, 1:1056 scale
PERecords relating to the Penton family and estate at Islington Local History Centre
PinksWilliam J. Pinks, The History of Clerkenwell, 2nd edn, 1880
PODPost Office Directories
PPParliamentary Papers
RBRatebooks in Islington Local History Centre
RIBARoyal Institute of British Architects
RORecord Office
SBLSchool Board for London
TNAThe National Archives
VCHVictoria County History
WACCity of Westminster Archives Centre

Introduction pp. 1–21

CHAPTER I (pp. 22–51)

West of Farringdon Road

CHAPTER II (pp. 52–83)

Exmouth Market Area

CHAPTER III (pp.84–108)

Spa Green to Skinner Street

CHAPTER IV (pp. 109–139)

Rosebery Avenue

CHAPTER V (pp. 140–164)

Sadler's Wells

CHAPTER VI (pp. 165–184)

New River Head

CHAPTER VII (pp. 185–191)

New River Estate: Introduction

CHAPTER VIII (pp. 192–216)

Amwell Street and Myddelton Square Area

CHAPTER IX (pp.217–238)

Percy Circus Area

CHAPTER X (pp.239–263)

Wilmington Square Area

CHAPTER XI (pp.264–297)

Lloyd Baker Estate

CHAPTER XII (pp.298–321)

King's Cross Road (East side) and Weston Rise Area

CHAPTER XIII (pp.322–338)

Pentonville: Introduction

CHAPTER XIV (pp. 339–372)

Pentonville Road

CHAPTER XV (pp.373–404)

Penton Street and Chapel Market Area

CHAPTER XVI (pp.405–438)

West of Penton Street

CHAPTER XVII (pp.439–455)

The Angel and Islington High Street

References

1. LMA, Acc/1876/PM/1/14: Charterhouse Muniments, water-supply plan, c. 1624: John Rocque's map of 1746: Pinks, p.283: Chris Ellmers, 'Clerkenwell: a study in urban growth, with special reference to the period 1590–1841', unpublished draft PhD thesis, 1979, pp.37–8
2. Corporation of London RO, Common Council Letter Book QQ, f.66b: V. Smith and P. Kelsey, 'The Lines of Communication: the Civil War Defences of London', in S. Porter (ed.), London and the Civil War, 1996, pp.132–3: R. Ward, London's New River, 2003, pp.99–107
3. William Lithgow, The present Surveigh of London and Englands State, 1643, p. 540
4. The Macaroni and Theatrical Magazine, Jan 1773
5. Pinks, p. 13
6. Ian Nairn, Nairn's London, 1966, p.172
7. B, 19 March 1853, p. 187
8. Wellcome Institute Library, WMS/PP/HO/e/C5, f.31 (John Hodgkin's MS autobiography)
9. Arthur Machen, Things Near and Far, 1923, p. 58
10. Mark Rutherford, The Revolution in Tanner's Lane, 1887
11. B, 2 Jan 1864, p.9
12. Census
13. T. R. Smith and W. H. White, 'Model dwellings for the rich', in British Architect, vol. v, 1876, pp. 156–8
14. J. Maclaren Cobban, A Reverend Gentleman, 1891, p.181
15. PP 1884–5 (4402), XXX. 1,87,819, Royal Commission for inquiring into Housing of the Working Classes, First Report, Mins of Evidence, etc, p. 40
16. Census
17. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B236, p.31
18. Charles Booth, Life & Labour of the People in London, 1st series, Poverty, vol.1, 1902, p.191
19. PE, Penton Family Correspondence Box
20. G. E. Mitton, The Fascination of London: Clerkenwell and St Luke's, 1906, p. 74
21. Arthur Machen, Evening News, 11 July 1914, as reprinted in Christopher Palmer (ed.), The Collected Arthur Machen, 1988, p.345
22. G. L. Morris, 'Clerkenwell in the early nineteenth century', in AJ, 25 Aug 1926, pp.230–2; 1 Sept 1926, pp.260–2; 8 Sept 1926, pp. 292–4
23. Harold P. Clunn, London Marches On, 1947, p. 166
24. A. L. Lloyd, 'Face of the Angel', in Illustrated, 23 June 1951, pp.9,11
25. Memories of Finsbury 1880–1900 by Old Residents, 1955, passim
26. Luke McKernan, 'Diverting Time: London's Cinemas and Their Audiences, 1906–1914', in London Journal, vol.32, no.2, July 2007, pp. 125–44
27. The New Survey of London Life and Labour, vol. vi, Survey of Social Conditions, vol.2, The Western Area, 1934, pp. 381–3: Census: J. H. Forshaw and Patrick Abercrombie, County of London Plan 1943, pp.24–5
28. John Allan, Berthold Lubetkin: Architecture and the tradition of progress, 1992
29. POD: Muriel Lester, Entertaining Gandhi, 1932: Rozina Visram, Asians in Britain: 400 Years of History, 2002, pp. 286–8; ODNB sub Katial
30. BAL Archives, LUB/1/17/1
31. Ibid, LUB/1/17/1,2
32. Ibid, LUB/1/17/3
33. Ibid, LUB/1/18/1; LUB/1/19/8; LUB/1/21
34. Ibid, LUB/1/19/5,6
35. AJ, 5 June 1952, pp.702–9; D. T. Yeomans, 'An Architect/Engineer Collaboration: the Tecton/Arup flats', in Structural Engineer, vol. 67, May 1989, pp. 183–8
36. BAL Archives, LUB/1/19/7
37. Finsbury Citizen, Oct and Nov 1937
38. Islington Gazette, 20 Jan 1948
39. Architectural Review, Jan 1939, pp. 5–6
40. Allan, pp.348–50,370
41. ILHC, FBC Annual Report, 1938–9, p. 12
42. Allan, pp.352–63
43. Catherine Steeves, 'Towards A New Jerusalem: Architecture and Politics in the London Borough of Finsbury 1943–46', unpublished prize essay of the Society of Architectural Historians, c. 1993
44. ILHC, cuttings L3.13; biographical file on Riley
45. Islington Gazette, 20 Jan 1948
46. BAL Archives, LUB/2/1
47. ILHC, FBC Mins, Dec 1939–June 1940
48. FBC Mins, 1943–4: BAL Archives, LUB/2/1; LUB/2/2
49. FBC Mins, Feb—May 1945
50. BAL Archives, LUB/2/4
51. Ibid, LUB/2/5
52. ODNB sub Katial
53. BAL Archives, LUB/25/4
54. Allan, p. 155
55. Official Architect and Planner, Nov 1967, pp. 1623–9
56. James Stevens Curl, 'A London Townscape Examined' and 'Lessons of a Georgian Suburb', in Country Life, 8, 22 April 1971, pp.800–2,969–72
57. Andrews Sherlock and Partners report to Islington Council, 1975, as quoted in Alec Forshaw, 20th Century Buildings in Islington, 2001, p. 55
58. Martin Bull, Banksy Locations & Tours, 2007, pp.82–119
59. J. M. Robinson, Grass Seed in June, 2006, p.104
60. Electoral Registers
1. This chapter is based largely on uncatalogued Baynes— Warner and Jervoise estate papers in LMA, Acc/35/45–6 and Acc/137/47–234
2. Bedfordshire County RO, HY.673
3. LMA, Acc/137/47–66, bundle 1, lease 3 Dec 1692 and declaration of trust 26 March 1694; bargain & sale 25 June 1696
4. Cromwell, pp.318–19
5. LMA, Acc/137/47–66, box 1: J. Burnby, 'John Conyers, London's First Archaeologist', in Transactions of the London & Middlesex Archaeological Society, vol.35, 1984, p. 65
6. LMA, Acc/137: Pinks, p.636: TNA, C11/1512/8
7. LMA, Acc/137/212–34, box 10, abstract of title of the Rev. S. C. Jervoise to part of Coldbath Fields and Gray's Inn Lane estates
8. TNA, C11/1512/8: LMA, Acc/137/113–17, box 5, conveyance of 27 Dec 1736
9. TNA, C11/1624/6
10. TNA, PROB11/745, quire 75; PROB11/1012, quire 404: LMA, Acc/137/212–34, box 10, abstract of title of the Rev. S. C. Jervoise to part of Coldbath Fields and Gray's Inn Lane estates
11. MDR 1789/3/327–8
12. LMA, Acc/137/130–139, box 7
13. TNA, PROB11/1529, quire 26: LMA, C/76/178–80, 460–2,467: Cromwell, pp. 305–6: MDR 1811–16
14. LMA, Acc/137/212–34, box 10, indenture of 11 Jan 1703
15. MDR 1720/6/268
16. TNA, C11/1512/8
17. Ibid
18. LMA, Acc/137/213–34, box 10: Cromwell, p.308: Advertisements in ILHC, cuttings L1.7
19. Cromwell, p.308
20. Bernard Jennings (ed.), A History of Harrogate & Knaresborough, 1970, pp.225–6
21. 'On the Cold Bath at Oldcastle's', 1715 (reproduced in Pinks, p.112)
22. Post Boy, 28 March 1700 (quoted in Pinks, p.112)
23. Sir John Floyer and Dr Edward Baynard, Psykhroloysia: or, the History of Cold Bathing: Both Ancient and Modern, 2nd edn, 1706, pt II, p. 122
24. [Edward Hatton], A New View of London, 1708, vol. ii, p.785: St Bartholomew's Hospital Archives, HA/1/10, Mins of the General Court of Governors, March 1724, June 1727
25. Advertisement of 1873 in ILHC, cuttings L1.7
26. Standard, 21 Nov 1885: Cromwell, pp.307–8
27. Royal Free Hospital Archives Centre, London Fever Hospital Committee Mins, 28 April 1809, 25 Oct 1811: MDR 1814/1/201
28. Royal Free Hospital Archives Centre, London Fever Hospital Committee Mins, 27 Nov 1811, 29 April 1814, 24 June 1814, 29 July 1814
29. Ibid, 18 Feb 1815: All the Year Round, 10 Aug 1861, 'Growth of a Hospital', pp.478–9
30. The Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction, 15 Aug 1840, pp.97–8: MDR 1818/8/574
31. Royal Free Hospital Archives Centre, London Fever Hospital Committee Mins, 28 Aug 1818: MDR 1818/ 8/574
32. MBW Annual Report 1887, pp.19,173: LMA, MBW/1243, p.306; LCC/VA/DD/R120
33. TNA, C11/1512/8
34. Ibid
35. MDR 1725/4/272; 1729/1/172
36. TNA, C11/1152/8: MDR: Robert Morden and Philip Lea, An Actuall Survey of London, Westminster and Southwark, 1700
37. MDR 1724–33: GL, MS 8674/30–3
38. MDR 1728–46
39. The History and Present State of the British Islands, 1743, vol.ii, p. 170
40. MDR 1725/5/404; 1726/2/11–12; 1726/3/399; 1728/3/ 990; 1732/4/734; 1736/5/567; 1790/4/169: RB
41. MDR 1746/1/384: RB
42. MDR 1790/10/360–1: RB
43. GL, MS 8674/32, f.209; 8674/34, f.68: B, 26 Nov 1864, p.864; 30 Sept 1865, p.689
44. W. Harrison, A New and Universal History, Description and Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, 1775, p. 540: MDR: RB
45. RB
46. Ibid: LMA, A/FH/K02/007; A/FH/A03/005/004: Pinks, p.vi
47. William Hone, The Year Book of Daily Recreation and Information, 1832 edn, cols 1163–4: Gentleman's Magazine, May 1737, p.315; Aug 1807, p.781; July 1814, p.42: Pinks, p.113: RB
48. H. B. Wheatley and P. Cunningham, London Past and Present, 1891, vol.1, pp.125,441: Swedenborg Society archive, D/39, D/65: Pinks, pp. 78–81
49. Daily Advertiser, 3 June 1745: General Advertiser, 17 July 1746: W. C. Smith, Handel: A Descriptive Catalogue of the Early Editions, 1970, p.189
50. Daily Courant, 21 April 1728: Daily Advertiser, 28 Aug 1744: Pinks, p.120
51. MDR 1771/6/33
52. Lancet, 9 Sept 1865, pp.296–300
53. Pinks, p. 178n: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 4 May 1721, p.235: 27 Oct 1723, p.255: LMA, Acc/137/113–17, box 5, conveyance from Walter Baynes to Robert Warner, 27 Dec 1736
54. 15 Geo. III, c.xxiii
55. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 30 Nov 1726, ff.17–18; 16 May 1727; railway plans (assorted), plan of workhouse 1861, with route of railway under Coppice Row: Cromwell, pp.256–7, 304n
56. ILHC, railway plans (assorted), plan of workhouse 1861, with route of railway under Coppice Row; cuttings file L5.62: Islington Gazette, 7 Nov 1883, p.3: Pinks, p.630: B, 25 Aug 1883, p.270
57. B, 6 June 1868, p.418
58. B, 25 Sept 1880, p. 398: Islington Gazette, 7 Nov 1883
59. DSR
60. MDR 1789/4/217; 1790/3/195,197,201,213
61. LMA, Acc/137/212–34, box 10, lease & release of 15–16 Nov 1803, T. C. Jervoise to Cocker & Cocker; sale particulars of 1811
62. H. Mayhew, The Great World of London, 1856, p.278: POD
63. Paragraph based on: Lucio Sponza, Italian Immigrants in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Realities and Images, 1988; T. Colpi, The Italian Factor: the Italian Community in Great Britain, 1991; David R. Green, 'Little Italy in Victorian London: Holborn's Italian community', in Camden History Review, no.15, 1988, pp.2–6; R. Palmer, 'The Italians: Patterns of Migration to London', in James L. Watson, Between Two Cultures, 1977, pp.242–56; and Angela Fussell, 'Immigrants into Islington: the Italians', in Illustrated Islington History Journal, no. 19, Winter 1988/9, pp. 4–8
64. Colpi, p. 59
65. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp.237–8: unsourced cutting of April 1894 in ILHC, L1.7
66. Arnold Bennett, Riceyman Steps, 1954 edn, p.62
67. Camden Local Studies & Archive Centre, photographs LP3862–4B: LMA, AR/TP 62
68. DSR
69. Ibid
70. Ibid: POD
71. Ibid
72. POD
73. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/34/002812: IBC
74. DSR: POD
75. GL, MS 8674/22, pp.90–1: RB
76. RB
77. LMA, Acc/137: MDR 1720–1: GL, MS 8674/22–4,34 passim: London Borough of Camden, Planning Department, statutory register
78. MDR 1721/6/112–13
79. MDR 1720/4/335; 1720/6/268; 1736/5/458: TNA, C11/1152/8
80. Philip Norman, London Signs and Inscriptions, 1893, p. 165: C. M. Phillips, 'Ancient Street—Name Indicators. Part III', in Home Counties Magazine, vol. vi, 1904, p.306: B, 27 Aug 1898, p. 185
81. RB: POD: IBC
82. MDR 1733/1/303: GL, MS 8674/33, f.268
83. RB: Pinks, pp.77–8
84. J. T. Smith, Vagabondia (quoted in Pinks, p.141)
85. Pinks, p.141: RB: DSR: MDR 1872/7/72, 1872/10/ 494–6: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/06/055221
86. Islington Gazette, 4 Jan 1985, p.1; 11 Jan 1985, p.2; 26 July 1990, p.22: City Recorder, 26 April 1990: IBC
87. DSR: IBC: POD
88. Information supplied by Eastglen Property Services Ltd
89. MDR 1815/7/257–8
90. Census
91. POD: RB: OS
92. LMA, LCC/VA/DD/R403; GLC/AR/BR/34/002931: OS: POD
93. LMA, MJ/OC/21, pp.8–9: ILHC, cuttings L7.33
94. LMA, Acc/137/113–17, Box 5
95. RB
96. Alison Kelly, Mrs Coade's Stone, 1990, pp.406,414
97. DSR: photos in British Postal Museum & Archive
98. A. Highmore, Pietas Londinensis, 1814, pp.276–7
99. William Woodville, The History of the inoculation of the Small-Pox in Great Britain, 1796, vol. 1, p.232: Highmore, p.278
100. Woodville, pp.232–8: Highmore, pp.273–94: Henry Chamberlain, A New and Compleat History and Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, 1770, p.604: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 1751–2, p.285
101. Highmore, pp.280–2
102. Ibid, pp.283–4: MDR 1761/3/491
103. LMA, Acc/137/97–112
104. Highmore, p.281
105. Quoted in Cromwell, p.302
106. Highmore, p.287
107. Ibid, p.293
108. MDR 1813/9/372: Cromwell, pp.303–4
109. MDR 1824–1828 sub Astle & ors: Endowed Charities (County of London), vol. iii, 1900, p.63: LMA, MA/G/ CBF348
110. 1901 Census
111. Standard, 20 Nov 1885
112. This paragraph is based on: LMA, MJ/OC/11; MA/G/CBF1
113. MA/G/CBF1, passim; MA/G/CBF185; MJ/OC/11, pp.2,84–6, 115–16, 123, 130–1
114. C. Middleton, Plans, Elevations, and Sections of the House of Correction for the County of Middlesex, 1788 (a copy is at LMA, MA/G/CBF30)
115. The World, 13 Aug 1787: A Middlesex Magistrate, The Secrets of the English Bastille Disclosed, 1799, p.8
116. LMA, MA/G/CBF1, April 1788–Oct 1789: Gentleman's Magazine, 1796 (Supplement), p.1065
117. MOLAS report by Tony Thomas, Feb 1994
118. LMA, MA/G/CBF 1, July 1788–Nov 1792
119. Ibid, 9 July 1791
120. Henry Mayhew and John Binny, The Criminal Prisons of London, 1862, p.283
121. LMA, MA/G/CBF 30
122. Ibid; MA/G/CBF1, 27 March 1786; 9 July 1791
123. LMA, MA/G/CBF 30: Sheila Lambert (ed.), House of Commons Sessional Papers of the Eighteenth Century, vol.122, 1975, pp.459–60: B. Lambert, The History and Survey of London And its Environs, 1806, vol. iv, pp.49–50: Cromwell, pp.312–13
124. LMA, MJ/OC/19–20, passim: Mayhew and Binny, pp.282,288,303–4
125. A. Brodie, J. Croom and J. O. Davies, English Prisons, 2002, p.78: B, 16 Feb 1901, p.154
126. LMA, MJ/OC/27, pp.280–90; MJ/OC/29: G. L. Chesterton, Revelations of Prison Life, 1857 edn, pp. 176–7, 196–8
127. LMA, MJ/OC/20, pp.322,408–9
128. LMA, Acc/137/97–112: MDR 1833/4/182; 1828/8/481: William Hone, Table Book, 1827, p.38
129. LMA, MJ/OC/23, pp.143–4, 179–80, 199; MJ/OC/24, pp.274–5,353; MJ/OC/25, pp.224–5
130. LMA, MJ/OC/49–51, 56–59, passim
131. 28 & 29 Vic, c. 126
132. LMA, MA/G/CBF 332; MJ/OC/58–63: Illustrated Times, 24 Aug 1867, pp.113–14: B, 24 Nov 1866, p.874
133. 40 & 41 Vic., c.21: Standard, 20 March 1885, p.3: TNA, HO45/9650/A37852
134. Pall Mall Gazette, 18 June 1889
135. J. J. Sexby, The Municipal Parks, Gardens, and Open Spaces of London; Their History and Associations, 1898, p. 531
136. British Postal Museum & Archive, GPO booklet, Mount Pleasant, n.d. (1930s)
137. The Times, 12 July 1900, p. 11a
138. The Times, 21 Oct 2005, p.60
139. British Postal Museum & Archive, POST 30/530
140. F. E. Baines, Forty Years at the Post Office, 1895, vol. ii, p. 136
141. British Postal Museum & Archive, POST 30/530
142. LMA, LCC/LP/1/36: Baines, p.46: TNA, WORK13/28, 31
143. B, 16 Feb 1901, p.154: TNA, WORK 13/83
144. British Postal Museum & Archive, POST 30/53, plan of Coldbath Fields proposed Central Parcels Office, 7 May 1887
145. LMA, LCC/LP/1/36
146. The Times, 26 Dec 1892, p. 10d
147. Ibid
148. TNA, WORK 13/38,64,65
149. B, 16 June 1900, p.594: City Press, reprinted in The Times, 31 May 1900, p.4c
150. W. Basil Scott, 'Some Historical Notes on the applications of Iron and Steel to Building Construction', in Structural Engineer, Jan 1929, p.99
151. The Times, 12 July 1900, p.11a
152. British Postal Museum & Archive, GPO booklet, Mount Pleasant, n.d. (1930s)
153. LMA, LCC/CL/CD/2/3: British Postal Museum & Archive, 'ARP Arrangements and Incidents at Mount Pleasant During the Second World War: 1939–45' (typescript): D. Luker, Mount Pleasant during the 2nd World War 1939–45, 1991
154. British Postal Museum & Archive, 'From the Rubbish Dump to Prison and Beyond: A brief history of Royal Mail Mount Pleasant' (anon. typescript)
155. British Postal Museum & Archive, POST 30/530; 'A Short History of Royal Mail Mount Pleasant', n.d.
156. TNA, WORK 13/728, 1166,1198,1230,1291: British Postal Museum & Archive, GPO booklet, Mount Pleasant n.d. (1930s); 'From the Rubbish Dump to Prison and Beyond . . .': Architect & Building News, 21 Jan 1927, pp.135–6: The Times, 5 April 1929, p.11c
157. TNA, WORK 13/1291
158. Architect & Building News, 21 Jan 1927, p.135
159. Architect & Building News, 1 April 1938, p.15: The Times, 21 June 1937, p.11b
160. British Postal Museum & Archive, GPO booklet, Mount Pleasant, n.d. (1930s), pp.13–18; 'Mail Rail' leaflet, n.d.
1. Chris Ellmers, 'Clerkenwell: a study in urban growth, with special reference to the period 1590–1841', unpublished draft PhD thesis, 1979, pp.28–30,37: TNA, E164/45: Cromwell, p.256
2. LMA, E/NOR/M/284/1,2: Ellmers, p.53: William Bingham Compton (6th Marquess of Northampton), History of the Comptons of Compton Wynyates, 1930, p.64: Cromwell, pp.273–5: ODNB
3. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/348: Ogilby & Morgan's map, 1676
4. MDR 1761/3/195: RB: Cromwell, pp.255–6: ILHC, cuttings
5. Ellmers, p.30: Ogilby & Morgan's map, 1676: BL, Add MS 17,939B, map of 1720: Cromwell, p.297: Pinks, pp. 89, 143, 168
6. MDR 1727/5/21; 1730/1/2–3; 1741/3/197; 1770/1/252: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/360: RB: Pinks, p.152
7. BL, 778.K.15/7, 'The London-Spaw. Advertisement, August 1685': see also Charles Littleton, 'Elite Science and Popular Pleasures: Robert Boyle, Chemical Analysis and "The Islington Waters"', in Raingard Esser and Thomas Fuchs (eds), Bäden und Kuren in der Aufklärung: Medizinaldiskurs und Freizeitvergnügen, 2003, pp. 161–83
8. François Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693), ed. W. H. Godfrey, 1951, p. 12
9. BL, 778.K.15/7, 'The London-Spaw. Advertisement, August 1685': Add MS 17,939B
10. Poor Robin's Almanack, 1753
11. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/368,674,688: MDR 1735/1/358; 1758/1/530; 1766/6/445; 1766/8/343; 1767/3/487; 1768/4/214: RB: Cromwell, p.254
12. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/370: RB
13. MDR 1735/1/18; 1736/2/72,130–1; 1736/4/352,482; 1736/5/382; 1737/1/89; 1738/5/112; 1739/3/447: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/357: 10 Geo.II, c.28
14. Pinks, p.169: Warwick William Wroth and Arthur Edgar Wroth, The London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century, 1896, pp.33–6: BL, Percival Collection, 107
15. Private archive of Treve Rosoman, Box 5, copy of advertisement cutting, 1744: Cromwell, pp.254–5: Pinks, pp. 169–71
16. MDR 1770/5/270–1
17. London Evening Post and Advertiser, 10 March 1774
18. Sandra Millikin, 'Amusement House to Chapel', in Country Life, 23 Sept 1971, pp.748–9: Pinks, pp.141–8
19. BAL Archives, COC/10/1, Journal of C. R. Cockerell, 6 Dec 1826, p.98
20. Pinks, p. 147
21. LMA, SC/PZ/FI/1/78,89
22. BAL Archives, COC/10/1, loc.cit.
23. Millikin, op.et loc.cit.
24. Dora Wiebenson, 'The Two Domes of the Halle au Blé in Paris', in Art Bulletin, vol.55, 1973, pp.264–6
25. BAL, Drawings Collection, SE9/11; SE9/16; SC114/1,6,7,10; SC115/1,2,12: Colvin: S. O'Connell, London 1753, 2003, pp.226–7: J. Bold et al, Greenwich, An Architectural History of The Royal Hospital for Seamen and the Queen's House, 2000, pp.226–7
26. Town and Country Magazine, April 1770, p. 195
27. A Sunday Ramble (c. 1776), pp.48–50
28. John Noorthouck, A New History of London, 1773, p.752
29. St James's Chronicle, 14–16 May 1772, p.4
30. MDR 1774/7/432–3: ODNB
31. From the opening sermon, as quoted in Pinks, p.144
32. MDR 1780/1/390; 1780/2/388–90; 1787/5/181: E. Welch (ed.), Two Calvinistic Methodist Chapels 1743–1811: The London Tabernacle and Spa Fields Chapel, 1975, pp.vii–xix: Cromwell, pp.294–7: Pinks, p.144: ODNB
33. Pinks, p.148
34. LMA, MBO/35, pp.294–306: BAL, Drawings Collection, PB109/1: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/210: DSR: B, 3 Nov 1855, p. 532: ILHC, cuttings: ODNB
35. BN, 14 Feb 1868, p. 117: B, 20 Nov 1886, p.727
36. MDR 1780/1/390; 1780/2/388–90; 1787/5/181: Cromwell, p.295: Pinks, pp.150–1
37. ODNB
38. The Times, 22 Dec 1843, p.7
39. B, 8 Feb 1845, p.69; 15 Feb 1845, p.82; 22 Feb 1845, p.92; 8 March 1845, pp.110–1; 5 April 1845, p.157; 26 April 1845, p.197; 28 June 1845, p.310; 26 Dec 1845: The Times, 26 Feb 1845, p.8; 5 March 1845, p.7: ILN, 1 March 1845, p. 131; 8 March 1845, p.154; 22 March 1845, p.191: ILHC, cuttings
40. B, 28 Sept 1867, p.716: Isabella Holmes, The London Burial Grounds, 1896, p.274
41. B, 11 March 1876, p.252; 22 July 1876, p.709; 2 Dec 1876, p.1182: BN, 27 April 1877, p.429: DSR: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Annual Reports, 1874–84: H. Saxon Snell, Charitable and Parochial Establishments, 1881, pp.47–8
42. 47 & 48 Vic., c.72
43. GL, COL/LIB/PB04/001 passim; COL/LIB/PB04/003, p.43; COL/LIB/PB04/004, pp.7,25: Holmes, pp.273–8
44. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p. 137
45. WAC, Acc/1934/174, p.327: The Times, 11 Sept 1884, p.8: B, 20 Nov 1886, p. 727: Reginald Brabazon Meath, Public playgrounds for children, 1893: LCC, London Parks and Open Spaces, 1924, p.75: LMA, E/NOR/Y/2, typescript by H. G. T. C., 1929: The story of Finsbury, 1935, p.62
46. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/052955: ILHC, FBC Mins, 16 Oct 1923, pp.240–1: DSR
47. London Borough of Islington, South Area Committee Mins, 27 Sept 2005: Islington Gazette, 9 Feb 2006: site information
48. Rob Humphreys et al, The Rough Guide to London, 2005 edn, p.226
49. MDR 1770/1/252; 1771/6/7: RB
50. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/4; E/NOR/L/3/187–91,213,220: MDR 1787/7/216: RB
51. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1, p. 11; E/NOR/L/2/4; E/NOR/ L/3/224: RB: Thames Water, Abbey Mills, New River Company Plan no.66, 1792
52. Cromwell, p.293: Pinks, pp.582–3: ODNB
53. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/225–6,245
54. LCC Mins
55. LCC Mins: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry, Works Committee Mins; cuttings file L1.7, programme for public opening
56. ILHC, FBC Mins: TNA, BT31/7521/53557
57. FBC Mins
58. B, 22 July 1865, p.530
59. LMA, E/NOR/L/5/1: TNA, IR58/42651/1669–77: LCC Mins, 23 June 1903, p.979
60. B, 5 Aug 1930, p.239: DSR
61. Castle Ashby, Northampton Estate Archives, Box LON 61, File 1361B: AJ, 27 July 1994, pp.17–18
62. MDR 1763/3/444; 1764/3/44,197; 1764/4/106,477; 1764/5/162,255; 1765/1/379; 1765/6/83–4; 1766/1/452: RB: LMA, SC/PZ/FI/2/13
63. DSR: RB
64. MDR 1763/3/693: RB: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/199
65. IBC
66. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/4; E/NOR/L/3/186,198–200; MBO/PLANS/83: RB
67. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/172–3: MDR 1765/6/634; 1768/1/ 488: RB
68. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/182,196: RB: DSR
69. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/013509: LCC Mins
70. LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2, p. 12
71. Drew Whitelegg, 'From Market Stalls to Restaurant Row: the Recent Transformation of Exmouth Market', in London Journal, vol.27, no.2, 2002, pp.84–5
72. DSR
73. B, 5 Dec 1903, p.593: POD
74. ILHC, FBC Building Act applications, vol.4: DSR
75. LMA, Acc/2305/9/53: Census: DSR
76. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/227–36,907
77. DSR
78. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/243–4
79. DSR
80. LMA, E/NOR/L/5/3: DSR
81. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/246: RB
82. Thames Water, Abbey Mills, New River Company Plan no. 58
83. RB
84. DSR: Highbury & Islington Express, 2 March 2001
85. DSR
86. ODNB
87. RB: MDR 1777/1/69: GL, MS 11936/472/938798: ODNB
88. ODNB: EH, Blue Plaques file 647
89. ODNB: The Publishers' Circular and Booksellers' Record, 22 April 1922, p.359: GL, MS 11936/483/966948; 11936/ 497/1008076; 11936/514/1069227; 11936/524/1105083: RB: POD
90. RB: POD: Census: www.oldbaileyonline.org
91. The Times, 5 May 1825, p.4: RB: Census
92. LMA, MBO/PLANS/83: RB: POD: Census
93. B, 3 Nov 1855, p.532: DSR
94. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/182–6,196–209,243: RB: DSR: POD: Census: B, 8 Aug 1868, p.596
95. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 30 Sept 1891: WAC, Acc/1934/174, p.547: ILHC, cuttings; Paving Commissioners Letter Book, 1837–9, p.132
96. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Minutes, 21 July 1892: BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p. 139
97. Isabella Holmes, The London Burial Grounds, 1896, p.274
98. G. E. Mitton, The Fascination of London: Clerkenwell & St Luke's, 1906, p.61
99. W. Pett Ridge, Mrs Galer's Business, 1905
100. Shopping, July 1927: POD: DSR: TNA, IR58/ 42941/2007–8
101. POD: DSR
102. Islington Gazette, 11 Oct 1968, p.1: Guardian, 14 May 1975, p.20: IBC
103. Islington Gazette, 15 Oct 1992, p.3: Drew Whitelegg, 'From Market Stalls to Restaurant Row: the Recent Transformation of Exmouth Market', in London Journal, vol.27, no. 2, 2002, pp. 84–5
104. Highbury & Islington Express, 6 Dec 1996: Evening Standard, 5 Aug 1997: ILHC cuttings: Whitelegg, op.et loc.cit.
105. New York Times, 8 May 2005, at http://travel2. nytimes.com
106. www.exmouth-market.com, accessed 14 Sept 2006
107. J. D. Sedding, 'Modern Ecclesiastical Art', in Transactions of St Paul's Ecclesiological Society, Vol. ii, 1886–90, p.7
108. B, 14 May 1887, p.733: Holy Redeemer, Clerkenwell, Church & Parish Chronicle, Aug 1893, p.2
109. BN, 25 Dec 1891, p.923
110. Boucher, pp. 19–20
111. Church Times, 29 Sept 1882, cited in Boucher, p.64
112. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 50566/1: Boucher, pp. 19–20
113. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 50566/2: LPL, Jackson Papers (uncatalogued), correspondence in Box 21
114. Daily Chronicle, 15 Oct 1888, p.3: LPL, ICBS File No.927, June–July 1887
115. Holy Redeemer Church & Parish Chronicle, Aug 1893, p.5
116. Church Times, 19 Oct 1888, p.902: LPL, Temple Papers, vol.34, pp.317–18, 321–4
117. ILN, 3 Nov 1888: Boucher, p.29
118. Islington Gazette, 17 Oct 1888, p.3
119. Henry Parr Maskell, Hints on Building a Church, 1905, p.134; E. Hermitage Day, Some London Churches, 1911, p. 19
120. B, 7 May 1887, p.670: Colin Amery, Wren's London, 1988, pp 121, 142, 152, 154; Peter Howell and Ian Sutton (eds), The Faber Guide to Victorian Churches, 1989, p.77
121. Architectural Review, Dec 1897—May 1898, p.192
122. B, 21 Nov 1885, pp.716, 722, 723
123. Architect, 8 May 1891, p.284
124. Daily Chronicle, 15 Oct 1888, p.3: Weekly News & Chronicle, 20 Oct 1888, p. 5
125. Nigel Yates, Buildings, Faith and Worship: The Liturgical Arrangement of Anglican Churches 1600–1900, 1991, p.171
126. Holy Redeemer Church & Parish Chronicle, Sept 1906
127. Church Times, 19 Oct 1888, p.902
128. Holy Redeemer Church & Parish Chronicle, Aug 1894, p.2; June 1895, p.2
129. Holy Redeemer Vestry Mins, 14 July 1921: Holy Redeemer Herald, July 1922: IBC
130. Church Times, Oct 1927
131. Holy Redeemer Herald, Feb 1925: IBC
132. This section is largely based on Boucher: Holy Redeemer Church & Parish Chronicle: Holy Redeemer Herald: misc. records and papers kept at Holy Redeemer
133. BN, 25 Dec 1891, pp.898,900
134. Holy Redeemer Church & Parish Chronicle, Oct 1900
135. Ibid, Passiontide 1901
136. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 50566/3
137. Ibid, file 3636
138. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/026514: CERC, Church Commissioners' file 50566/3: Holy Redeemer Herald, March 1914; June 1916: IBC
139. IBC
140. MDR 1766/2/457; 1755/2/392; 1755/3/172: RB
141. POD
142. Pinks, p. 167
143. GL, Ms 24172: Gentleman's Magazine, 18 Feb 1793: ODNB
144. DSR
145. MDR 1788/1/498: Pinks, p.89: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/5, p.46
146. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/6; E/NOR/L/3/692
147. DSR: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/42,247–8, 256, 361–4
148. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp. 133–5
149. ILHC, FBC Mins, 16 Oct 1923, pp.240–1; 22 June 1933, p.187: LMA, E/NOR/E/8/3/1–2; E/NOR/E/10/1–7; E/NOR/E/11/1–5; E/NOR/E/12/1–8
150. LMA Photographs: Castle Ashby, Northampton Estate Archives, Box LON 22, file 1083; Box LON 45, file 1653; BOX 62, file 1339
151. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/40–3: DSR
152. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/39: B, 13 Nov 1852, p.728; 19 March 1887, p.360: DSR
153. ILHC, FBC Building Act applications, vol.4: DSR: IBC: B, 10 May 1929, p.883
154. FBC Mins, 19 Oct 1933, p.421: DSR
155. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/078133; GLC/AR/BR/30/ 78133: Castle Ashby, Northampton Estate Archives, Box LON 46, files 1590, 1651: DSR: IBC: B, 15 April 1938, p.758: A. C. Armstrong, Bouverie Street to Bowling Green Lane: Fifty-five Years of Specialized Publishing, 1946, pp. 198–203: Neil Jackson, F. W. Troup, Architect, 1859–1941, 1985, p.116
156. N. Avery et al, 'London Metropolitan Archives: An Overview for Researchers', in Contemporary British History, Sept 2005, pp.377–95: IBC
157. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/4; E/NOR/L/3/38: WAC, Acc/ 1934/136, pp.193,613: BL, Add MS 17,939b: Cromwell, p.256: Pinks, pp.90,188
158. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/4
159. ODNB
160. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/6: DSR
161. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p.137
162. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/30/78133: Castle Ashby, Northampton Estate Archives, Box LON 62, file 1343
163. City Recorder, 12 Feb 1987: Islington Gazette, 8 Sept 1988, 20 April 1989, 24 May 1990
164. The Times, 23 March 1988
165. IBC
166. ILHC, FBC Mins, Maternity and Child Welfare Committee Mins, 1924–7: ILHC, FBC, Pine Street Maternity and Child Welfare Centre, Opening Ceremony, 4th April 1927: B, 5 Nov 1926, p.758: DSR
167. FBC Mins, 1931–5: LCC Mins 15 May 1934, 13 Feb 1935
168. FBC Mins, 22 Jan 1935
169. Abigail Beach, 'Potential for Participation: Health Centres and the Idea of Citizenship c. 1920–1940', in Christopher Lawrence and Anna-K. Meyer (eds), Regenerating England, 2000, pp. 208–11: Elain Harwood, 'Healthcare and Hospitals', unpublished report, English Heritage, July 2004, pp. 5–6
170. John Allan, Berthold Lubetkin: Architecture and the tradition of progress, 1992, p.331 (account of the Finsbury Health Centre, pp.330–48): AJ, 18 June 1933, pp.114–16
171. Finsbury Citizen, May and Aug 1935
172. FBC Mins, 18 Feb, 5 March 1936
173. Ibid, 16 June 1936
174. Ibid, 5 Jan 1937
175. Ibid, 16 Feb, 23 March 1937
176. Municipal Journal and Public Works Engineer, 14 Oct 1938
177. ILHC, The Opening of Finsbury Health Centre, October 21 1938, sketches in booklet. For initial publication see The Times, 4 Oct 1938; B, 21 Oct 1938, p.770; The Spectator, 28 Oct 1938, pp.708–9; Architect & Building News, 13 Jan 1939, pp.65–73; AR, Jan 1939, pp. 7–22
178. The Times, 4 Oct 1938
179. Architect & Building News, 13 Jan 1939, p.74.
180. Allan, p.337
181. Ibid, p. 341
182. J. M. Richards, An Introduction to Modern Architecture, 1940 edn, pp.115–17.
183. Allan, pp.375,442
184. The Lancet, 16 March 1946, pp.392–3
185. AJ, 23 June 1982, pp.55–69
186. Architectural Review, June 1988, pp.46–50
187. AJ, 16 Feb 1995, pp.22–3
1. Sadler's new Tunbridge Wells near Islington. A full account how they were found out, n.d. (c. 1684): New Tunbridge Wells near Islington. Rules proper to be observed in drinking these waters, 1684: Robert Boyle, 'Short Memoirs for the Natural Experimental History of Mineral Waters' (1685), in Edward B. Davis and Michael Hunter (eds), The Works of Robert Boyle (1999–2000), vol.10
2. TNA, C7/299/2: RB: ILHC, 'Census of Clerkenwell', 1677 (transcript of BL, Sloane MS/3928 by T. VeeversThompson, 1929): London Gazette, 24 Sept 1685: Cromwell, pp.350–9: Pinks, pp.398–406
3. Ned Ward, A Walk to Islington: with a Description of New Tunbridge Wells and Sadler's Musick-House, 1699, p.12: see also Richard Ames, Islington-Wells; or the Threepenny Academy, 1691: François Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693), ed. W. H. Godfrey, 1951, p.6
4. MDR 1726/6/282: RB
5. MDR 1726/6/282: GA, D3549, 38/4/1: RB: Cromwell, p.357
6. LMA, SC/PZ/FI/01/239
7. George Lyttelton, A Satyr on the New Tunbridge Wells, 1733: see also Gentleman's Magazine, May—June 1733, pp.267, 324: Islington: or, the humours of New Tunbridge Wells, 1733: James Drake, The Humours of New Tunbridge Wells at Islington, 1734: Elizabeth McKellar, 'Peripheral Visions: alternative aspects and rural presences in mideighteenth-century London', in Art History, vol.xxii, no.4, Nov 1999, pp.495–513 (esp. pp.500–2)
8. A Sunday Ramble; or Modern Sabbath-Day Journey, n.d. (c. 1776), pp.47–8: MDR 1778/6/167; 1799/1/347: GA, D3549, 38/4/1: Cromwell, pp.355–6: Pinks, p.404
9. MDR 1815/2/437; 1818/5/1: GA, D3549, 38/3/7; 38/6/4,5,8: Pinks, pp.405–6
10. George Daniel, Merrie England in the Olden Time, vol. 1, 1840, p.31: Warwick William Wroth and Arthur Edgar Wroth, The London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century, 1896, pp.15–24
11. GA, D3549, 38/4/1; 38/6/10: Pinks, pp.406–9
12. MDR 1843/8/856–7: ILHC, cuttings
13. MBW Mins, 11 Nov 1859, p.722; 9 March 1860, p. 187: DSR: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/14/29
14. Low-life: Or, One half of the world knows not how the other half live, c. 1750, p.46
15. Pinks, pp.408–9: MDR 1799/1/345,348: RB: LMA, SC/PZ/FI/01/251
16. LMA, SC/PZ/FI/01/256: Cromwell, p.254: Pinks, pp.169, 172: Wroth and Wroth, pp.37–9
17. LMA, Acc/2558/NR13/50/1; Acc/2558/NR13/51/1–4; E/NOR/L/3/689: MDR 1766/2/346; 1766/6/298; 1770/1/253: Jane and Mark Rees, Christopher Gabriel and the Tool Trade in 18th-century London, 1997, pp.43–4
18. R. Ward, London's New River, 2003, pp.49–51, 96: Thames Water, Abbey Mills, 'A Plan and Survey of the New River', 1775, altered 1809, and an untitled New River Company plan dated 14 Jan 1805: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808; James Tyrer's plan of Clerkenwell, 1805: Pinks, p.408
19. GA, D3549, 38/6/5, pt 1: VCH, Middlesex, vol. viii, 1985, pp. 19–20: EH, Historians' file ISL 6
20. MDR 1815/2/437–8
21. GA, D3549, 38/3/2, p.27; 38/6/4,5,7,8: MDR 1812/6/83; 1812/8/212–13; 1812/9/241; 1818/5/2–5; 1821/5/402; 1824/7/715; 1824/8/374; 1825/11/762; 1826/1/690: LMA, Acc/1953/C/895
22. LMA, Acc/1953/C/898: MDR 1821/4/133
23. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 16, 2 April 1840, 8 June 1840; 38/4/14: Census
24. LMA, Acc/1953/C/838,896–8, 936, 938–40: see also John Smallshaw, Henry Rydon and the Highbury New Park Estate, n.d. (c. 1980)
25. Census
26. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/10, p.124
27. LMA, Acc/1953/C/760,875,908–11, 1067; Acc/2558/ NR/1/7–10: MDR 1814/1/802–3; 1817/2/196; 1821/2/181–2; 1822/4/332; 1822/8/184–7; 1882/9/185; 1824/2/436, 801: Thames Water, Abbey Mills, New River Company Plans, nos 41,42, n.d: RB: Census: ILHC, cuttings: IBC
28. LMA, Acc/1953/C/752,873,876,911–12; Acc/2558/NR/ 1/21: MDR 1822/5/517: MBW Mins: DSR: TNA, C107/127: Pinks, pp.172–4
29. LMA, Acc/1953/C/898
30. Cromwell, p.278
31. Thames Water, Abbey Mills, New River Company plans of 1805 and c. 1818 (no.58)
32. Pinks, p.398
33. Cromwell, p.350: J. J. Sexby, The Municipal Parks, Gardens and Open Spaces of London: Their History and Associations, 1898, p.530: LMA, Acc/1953/C/871–7,879,894–5: The Times, 8 April 1841, p.7e: Pinks, pp.397–8
34. LMA, Acc/1953/C/735,937: MDR 1820/8/571; 1821/3/ 550; 1822/2/57
35. LMA, Acc/1953/C/879
36. Calendar of Patent Rolls, Edward VI, vol.V, pp. 197–8
37. J. F. Wadmore, Some account of the Worshipful company of Skinners, 1902, p.220: TNA, PROB11/163/13
38. GL, Ms 30708/10, pp.89,108: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/ 12/43
39. GL, Ms 30708/19, pp.159,175,185,188
40. Ibid, pp.189–90, 293–5, 296–9, 313: LMA, HFCS/P9/8
41. LMA, MJP/L/15–22; Acc/1359: Gentleman's Magazine, Aug 1854, p.202
42. GL, Ms 30708/19, p.376
43. GL, Ms 30708/20, pp.337,347,360–1
44. Ibid, pp.360–72
45. Ibid, p.380
46. Ibid, pp.376–9, 391–2,404
47. GL, Ms 30708/23, p.38: MDR
48. MDR 1825/4/589: G. E. Mitton, The Fascination of London: Clerkenwell & St Luke's, 1906, p.46
49. Lambeth Archives, Artizans', Labourers' & General Dwellings Co. Mins: B, 15 Oct 1898, p.348: IBC
50. GL, MS 30714/2, pp.298,315: DSR
51. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/19/2186
52. GL, MS 30714/7, p.20; Ms 30714/9, p.425: DSR: IBC
53. GL, MS 30714/11, p.130: DSR: IBC
54. Islington Gazette, 31 March 1978: GLC Mins, 14 March 1978, p.84: site information
55. Finsbury Weekly News, 20 Jan 1967
56. The Times, 6 May 1887, p.10f: The Story of the London Boroughs: Finsbury, 4th edn, 1935, p.66
57. GL, MS 30714/1, p.238
58. BN, 17 May 1889, p.684
59. The Times, 11 March 1890, p.3; 11 Oct 1890, p.6: DSR: ILHC, Notes re building costs
60. Roy Hidson, The Birth of a Library Service: Islington 1855–1904 (n.d.): ILHC, V. J. Dawson, 'A History of Finsbury Public Libraries 1887–1969', unpublished thesis, 1969
61. BN, 11 April 1890, p.533; 1 Aug 1890, pp.138–40
62. ILHC, exhibition brochure
63. The Library, vol. ix, 1897, p.320: V. J. Dawson, 'A History of Finsbury Public Libraries 1887–1969', unpublished thesis, 1969: Islington Gazette, 26 Oct 1892
64. ILHC, FBC Mins, 16 July 1936
65. Ibid, 23 Sept 1937
66. Ibid, 29 March, 14 July 1938
67. John Allan, Berthold Lubetkin: Architecture and the tradition of progress, 1992, p.352, fig.8.18; and for Spa Green generally, pp.380,393–405,596
68. FBC Mins, 13 April 1939
69. Ibid, 16 Sept 1943: BAL Archives, LUB/2/1
70. FBC Mins, 15 Nov 1943
71. Ibid
72. Ibid, Feb—Oct 1944: BAL Archives, LUB/1/23, 2/1
73. FBC Mins, 14 Sept, 12 Oct 1944
74. Ibid, 14 Dec 1944: BAL Archives, LUB/2/3: BAL, Photographs Collection, Lubetkin photographs 5059/1,5
75. FBC Mins, March—May 1945: BAL Archives, LUB/2/3
76. BAL Archives, LUB/1/25
77. FBC Mins, Feb—March 1946: BAL Archives, LUB/3/1, 3/4
78. FBC Mins, 11 July 1946, 1 July 1951
79. Ibid, 12 March, 20 May 1946
80. Architect & Building News, 2 Aug 1946, p.69
81. AJ, 1 Aug 1946, p.77: BAL Archives, LUB/3/1/39
82. FBC Mins, 13 March 1947
83. ILHC, Order of Proceedings for the Completion Ceremony of the Spa Green Estate, 29 April 1949
84. For articles on Spa Green see B, 2 Aug 1946, pp.112–15: Architect & Building News, 2 Aug 1946, pp.68–73; 20 May 1949, pp.442–6: AJ, 12 Sept 1946, pp.191–5; 5 May 1949, pp.416–18,422; 26 April 1951, pp.517–22,530: AR, March 1951, pp.138–49: Architectural Design, May 1951, pp. 132–41
85. Architect & Building News, 2 Aug 1946, p.72
86. Allan, pp.398,400
87. Architectural Design, May 1951, p. 140
88. Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England. London except the Cities of London and Westminster, 1952, pp.126–7
89. Islington Gazette, 17 Jan 1980: B, 25 June 1982, pp.32–4
90. AJ, 9 Sept 1987: B, 8 April 1988, p.19; 20 May 1988, p. 57
91. Highbury & Islington Express, 17 July, 31 Dec 1988; Guardian Weekend, 8 Aug 1998, pp.34–5
92. The Guardian, 16 Nov 2005
93. Information from Rachel Godden of Islington Borough Council
94. GL, MS 30708/39, pp.417,433: ILHC, FBC Housing Committee Mins, 8 April 1958, p.10; 7 July 1958, p.122; 21 July 1958, p.162
95. ILHC, FBC Mins, 9 Oct 1961, p.749; 4 Mar 1963, p.516; Housing Committee Mins
96. FBC, Housing Committee Mins, 7 Oct 1963, p.314
97. FBC, Housing Committee Mins, 6 May 1963, p.64: 'The Finsbury Programme', in Official Architect and Planner, Nov 1967, pp.1623–9: Tersons are the Builders, 1965, pp.30–1: ILHC, London Borough of Islington booklet produced for official opening of the estate, 1968
98. Information kindly supplied by Mike Rees, Homes for Islington
99. Judy Hillman, 'Out of London's Switch ... a Taste of Luxury', in Evening Standard, 28 Feb 1967: FBC Mins
100. Elain Harwood, unpublished report for English Heritage, 2006: ILEA Mins: ILHC, cuttings, commemorative booklet, 1971: AJ, 14 July 1971, pp.58–60: Survey of London, vol. xliii, 1994, pp.230–3
101. Finsbury Weekly News, 7 March 1975
102. IBC: Cusdin, Burden & Howitt, Chartered Architects, brochure, n.d. (c. 1984)
103. AJ, 18 May 1994, pp.31–40
104. Ibid
105. IBC
1. Sidney Webb, The Work of the LCC, 1895, p.11
2. T. C. Barker and Michael Robbins, A History of London Transport, vol.2, 1974, p.94
3. DSR
4. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp.123,139,141
5. Guardian, 21 June 2003
6. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 19 April 1861–8 May 1862
7. LMA, Acc/1953/A/77
8. LMA, MBW/2389
9. LMA, MBW/2387; MBW/2451
10. LMA, MBW/2390
11. LMA, MBW 2451; MBW Mins, 20 July 1877, p. 108
12. LMA, MBW/1059
13. MBW Mins, 20 July 1877, p.108: Percy J. Edwards, History of London Street Improvements 1855–1897, 1898, p.181
14. MBW Mins
15. MBW Mins, 23 June 1882, pp.995–7
16. LMA, MBW/1059: WAC, Acc/1934/173
17. MBW Mins: LMA, MBW/1044; MBW/1059
18. LMA, MBW/1044; MBW/1060; MBW/1232; MBW/ 1370; MBW/2454; MBW/2649: Edwards, p.181
19. LMA, MBW/1370; MBW/2454; MBW/2649: MBW Mins
20. LMA, MBW/1370; MBW/1232
21. LMA, MBW/1234; MBW/1377
22. LMA, MBW/1061: WAC, Acc/934/174
23. MBW Annual Reports, 1887, 1888
24. LMA, MBW/1862–3
25. LMA, MBW/2321: MBW Mins; MBW Annual Report, 1888
26. LMA, MBW/1243; MBW Annual Report, 1887
27. LMA, MBW/1243
28. LMA, LCC/MIN/7814: LCC Mins: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins
29. LMA, LCC/MIN/7814; LCC/CE/RB/3/40: LCC Mins
30. LCC Mins
31. Ibid
32. Ibid
33. MBW Mins, 15 March 1889, p.673
34. LMA, LCC/CE/RB/3/40
35. LCC Mins
36. LMA, LCC/MIN/2804: LCC Mins: DSR
37. LMA, LCC/CE/RB/3/40: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry, Works Committee Mins
38. DSR
39. LCC Mins
40. Ibid: LMA, LCC/MIN/2821
41. LCC Mins, 14 March 1893, p.289
42. LCC Mins
43. LMA, LCC/MIN/2821; LCC/MIN/2806
44. LCC Mins
45. Ibid
46. Ibid
47. Ibid: DSR
48. LCC Mins
49. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/010186: LCC Mins
50. BN, 17 Nov 1893, p.647
51. LMA, LCC/MIN/2806: DSR: LCC Mins
52. LMA, LCC/MIN/2815, 7 July 1890
53. Isobel Watson, 'The Buildings of James Hartnoll', in Newsletter of the Camden History Society, No. 58, March 1980: Isobel Watson, 'Five Per Cent Philanthropy: Model Houses for the Working Classes in Victorian Camden', in Camden History Review, no.9, 1981, pp.4–9
54. C. Booth, Life and Labour of the People in London, 1st series: Poverty, vol.3, 1904 edn, pp.24–5
55. LMA, LCC/VA/DD/137/1–8; LCC/VA/DD/135/1
56. DSR
57. LCC Mins
58. Ibid: LMA, LCC/MIN/7815; LCC/MIN/7254, pp. 503–4; LCC/VA/DD/R119,120
59. LMA, LCC/MIN/2804; LCC/MIN/7815; LCC/MIN/ 7814: DSR
60. Information supplied by St Pancras Housing Association
61. LMA, LCC/VA/DD/R119
62. LMA, LCC/AR/WAR/1/3: date-stone on building: information supplied by St Pancras Housing Association
63. Information supplied by St Pancras Housing Association
64. LCC Mins
65. LMA, LCC/MIN/2804; LCC/MIN/7815; LCC/MIN/ 2816
66. LMA, LCC/MIN/2805; LCC/MIN/2816
67. LCC Mins: LMA, LCC/VA/DD/124: DSR
68. BAL, ARIBA Nomination Papers: B, 18 June 1937: Journal of the RIBA, 1937, p.1009
69. LMA, LCC/MIN/2804; LCC/MIN/2805; LCC/MIN/ 2817; LCC/MIN/2821: LCC Mins: DSR: IBC
70. IBC: LMA, LCC/MIN/2805; LCC/MIN/2806
71. LCC Mins
72. Patent No.13143, Provisional Specification 1885; Complete Specification, 1886
73. LMA, LCC/MIN/2806
74. LCC Mins
75. Ibid: LMA, LCC/VA/DD/R123/1; LCC/VA/DD/ R123/2
76. Journal of the RIBA, vol. 35, 1928, p.312
77. Judy Glasman, 'London Synagogues in the late 19th century: design in Context,' in London Journal, vol.8, no.2, 1987–8, pp.143–55
78. TNA, IR58/42940/1996
79. DSR: LCC Mins: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/34/002542; GLC/AR/G/34/1–2; GLC/AR/BR/17/010186: TNA, IR58/42940/1940–1
80. LCC Mins
81. Ibid
82. IBC
83. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/34/002399; GLC/AR/BR/34/ 002645; GLC/AR/BR/17/010186; Acc/1953/C/ 845,847,936: DSR
84. LMA, Acc/1953/C/793,796,1112: DSR
85. LMA, Acc/1953/C/800,806, 1119, 1130, 1132, 1140
86. AJ, 3/10 Jan 1990, p.49: Building Design, 7 Feb 1992, p.5: Architecture Today, May 1992, pp.30–2,38: World Architecture, Feb 1998, pp.64–81
87. This account is based largely on ILHC, St James Clerkenwell, Commissioners' Mins; Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, Works Committee Mins and Letter-books; FBC Mins; 'Some Historical and other Notes Concerning Finsbury Town Hall', n.d. (c. 1930): 'Vestry Hall, Clerkenwell', in BN, 10 July 1857, p.713: Pinks, p.175
88. Pinks, p. 579
89. DSR
90. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 5 Feb 1857
91. DSR: BN, 28 March 1879, p.x
92. A Brief Account of the Clerkenwell Town Hall, n.d. (1895)
93. Ibid: Evening News, 6 Dec 1889: 'Clerkenwell Town Hall', in London, 19 April 1894
94. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 6 Jan 1887
95. LCC Mins, 26 July 1892, pp. 756–7
96. BN, 17 Nov 1897, p.647
97. BAL, FRIBA nomination papers
98. Ibid: B, 27 March 1886, p.471; 17 Dec 1887, p.866; 31 March 1888, pp.230,238
99. B, 12 May 1900, p.473
100. B, 21 April 1893, p.555. This possibility was suggested by James Weeks, of Alan Baxter Associates
101. A Brief Account of the Clerkenwell Town Hall, n.d. (1895), p. 15
102. Ibid
103. ILHC, 'Clerkenwell town hall' booklet, n.d. (1895).
104. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 27 Feb 1896
105. Ibid, 15 Sept, 2 Dec 1897: B, 14 Jan 1899, p. 44 (illus)
106. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/012578
107. ILHC, 'Some Historical and other Notes Concerning Finsbury Town Hall', n.d. (1930), p. 11
108. Text largely based on 'Finsbury Borough Control', 2004, published by Subterranea Britannica research group at www.subbrit.org.uk: Tecton, Planned A.R.P: Based on the Investigation of Structural Protection Against Air Attack in the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury, 1939
109. Islington Gazette, 15 March 1970, p.9
110. Islington Gazette, 26 May 1994
111. Islington Chronicle, 20 March 1981: Guardian, 15 Oct 1987: Islington Building Preservation Trust, summary of a report by Robert Hughes, architect, July 1994
112. ILHC, cuttings L3.131, draft interim report by Boyden South Wood, June 1995
113. AJ, 21 April 2005, p. 46
114. Information from Donna Skelton, Arts Team Architects (Renton Howard Wood Levin), and Urdang Dance Theatre
115. LMA, LCC/VA/DD/R119: MBW Mins: MBW, Annual Reports, 1887, 1888
116. The Artizans' and General Properties Co. Ltd, The Artizans' Centenary, 1867–1967, 1967
117. DSR
118. TNA, ED 21/11596: B, 26 Aug 1876, p. 842; 6 Dec 1884, p. 780: LCC Mins: SBL Mins
119. TNA, ED 161/13320
120. Ofsted Report, 2002
121. R. D. Connor, The Weights and Measures of England, 1987, pp. 334–6
122. LCC Mins
123. LMA, LCC/MIN/2821; LCC/MIN/2806: LCC Mins, 5 April 1898, p. 417: DSR
124. LMA, LCC/MIN/2804; LCC/MIN/2805; MR/P (N/S) 45/4: B, 19 Dec 1891, p. 476; 18 March 1893, p. 219; 27 Aug 1898, pp. 185–6
125. IBC: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/34/003626
126. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/320; E/NOR/E/07/002, p.8: DSR: ILHC, FBC Building Act Applications, vol.4
127. LCC Mins: DSR
128. MDR 1853/12/825; 1854/1854/5/128–30, 997–9: DSR
129. LCC Mins, 25 March 1890, p. 259
130. DSR
131. LCC Mins: DSR: B, 18 July 1891, p. 56: BN, 17 July 1891, p. xiv
132. POD
133. MDR 1732/5/645–7: RB
134. MDR 1814/4/478–9: LMA, MR/PLT 1726–46
135. IBC: POD: information supplied by E. & J. H. Lewis
136. IBC
137. Clerkenwell News, 14 Dec 1866, p.2
138. MBW Mins
139. LMA, MBW/914, p.474: PP 1876 (371), XI. 53, Report ... on Metropolitan Fire Brigade, 20 July 1876, p. 218: Diana Burfield, Edward Cresy 1792–1858, 2003, pp. 181–2
140. LMA, LCC/Misc.P/59/1–9
141. LCC Mins
142. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/021308: B, 28 Jan 1905, pp. 98–9: S. Beattie, A Revolution in London Housing, 1980, pp.10, 12
143. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/021308; LCC/Misc.P/59/1–9
144. LCC Mins: LMA, LCC/MIN/5995
145. LCC Mins: DSR
146. LMA, GLC/AR/PLI/1/18/1–44
147. Journal of the RIBA, vol. 52, no. 2, Dec 1944, p. 58: EH, historians' file ISL 85
148. LMA, GLC/AR/PLI/1/18/1–44
149. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/021308
150. DSR
151. ILHC, FBC Building Act applications, vol.4: DSR
152. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0741: DSR: ILHC, cuttings L4.5: Chris Draper, Islington Cinemas and Film Studios, n.d. (1989), p.40
153. LMA, LCC/VA/DD/R123/4
154. DSR: BN, 24 July 1896, p.136; 4 Dec 1896, p.831: LCC Mins
155. F. W. Hartley, Gas Measurement and Gas Meter Testing, 1882, p.8: T. J. Barnes, A Synopsis of the Statutes Public and Private Affecting Metropolitan Gas Companies, 1900, pp. 42–3
156. LMA, LCC/MIN/2821: Trevor I. Williams, A History of the British Gas Industry, 1981, p. 64
157. Hartley, pp. 34, 48–54
158. LMA, GLAC/AR/BR/34/002131: LCC Mins, 26 March 1929, p.474; 23 April 1929, p.623
159. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/34/002131: AJ, 28 Sept 1983, p.55: B, 1 March 1985, pp. 32–3
160. LMA, LCC/VA/DD/R124/1
161. LCC Mins: BN, 6 April 1894, p.488; 15 March 1895, p. 371 & illus.: TNA, IR58/42938/1766–7
162. DSR: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/34/003241
163. IBC
164. Journal of the RIBA, May 1998, interiors supplement, pp. 26–9
165. MDR 1846/5/755–6; 1849/3/427–8; 1850/5/633–4: DSR
166. J. J. Sexby, The Municipal Parks, Gardens and Open Spaces of London: Their History and Associations, 1898, p. 530: Cromwell, p. 350
167. ILHC, cuttings L1.7: LMA, MBW/1234: LCC Mins
168. LCC Mins: B, 17 Aug 1895, p. 114: Sexby, pp. 531–2
169. LCC Mins, 15 June 1920, p.149
1. Financial Times, 23 March 1996
2. TNA C7/299/2
3. TNA, E179/143/370, rot.51d
4. Quoted in Robert Ward, London's New River, 2003, p. 205: LMA, Acc/2558/NR13/7, folder 3, f.181a
5. RB: 'Four Shillings In The Pound Aid 1693–1694: Middlesex, St James Clerkenwell, Islington', in Centre for Metropolitan History, 1992, see www.british-history.ac.uk: ILHC, 'Census of Clerkenwell', 1677 (transcript of BL, Sloane MS/3928 by T. Veevers-Thompson, 1929)
6. British Museum, Hind 77 II/II
7. BL, Crach.1. Tab.4.b.4, Percival Collection of Cuttings Relating to Sadler's Wells (14 vols), vol.1
8. Robert Boyle, 'Short Memoirs for the Natural Experimental History of Mineral Waters' (1685), in Edward B. Davis and Michael Hunter (eds), The Works of Robert Boyle (1999–2000), vol. 10, p. 236: Charles Littleton, 'Elite Science and Popular Pleasures: Robert Boyle, Chemical Analysis and "The Islington Waters"', in Raingard Esser and Thomas Fuchs (eds), Bäder und Kuren in der Aufklärung: Medizinaldiskurs und Freizeitvergnügen, 2003, pp. 161–83
9. BL, Percival Collection, vol.1, p.217
10. Joseph Strutt, The Sports and Pastimes of the People of England. A new edition much enlarged and corrected by J. Charles Cox, 1903, p.230: Gentleman's Magazine, Dec 1813, pp. 553–5
11. Trans. from François Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693), ed. W. H. Godfrey, 1951, pp.6, 19
12. Michael Tilmouth, 'Some early London concerts and music clubs, 1670–1720', in Journal of the Royal Musical Association, no.84, 1957, pp. 13–26
13. Colsoni, p. 19
14. Richard Ames, Islington Wells; or the Threepenny Academy, 1691
15. Ned Ward, A Walk to Islington with a Description of New Tunbridge Wells and Sadler's Music-house, 1699, pp.12–15
16. BL, Percival Collection, vol 1 passim
17. Mary Cosh, A History of Islington, 2005, p.64, n.16
18. Ned Ward, Weekly Comedy, 24 May 1699, in BL, Percival Collection, vol. 1, p.85: Gentleman's Magazine, Dec 1813, p.558
19. The Inquisitor, June 1711: God's Judgment Against Murderers; or an account of a cruel and barbarous Murther, committed on Thursday night the 14th of August at Sadler's Musick-house, near Islington, 1712: Old Bailey Proceedings T17120910–28
20. BL, Harley MS 5931, advertisement
21. Gentleman's Magazine, Dec 1813, pp.553–8
22. TNA, C/7/299/2
23. GA, D3549, 38/4/1, p.2
24. Ibid: TNA, PROB11/597
25. John Hawkins, History of Music, 1796, vol.4, p.390
26. GL, MS 8674 passim
27. Gentleman's Magazine, Dec 1813, p.560
28. GL, MS 8674/44, p. 233 (policy no. 59754)
29. GL, MS 8674/57, p.67
30. John Noorthouck, A New History of London, 1773, p. 350: David Thomas (ed.), Theatre in Europe: A Documentary History. Restoration and Georgian England, 1660–1788, 1989, p.225
31. GA, D3549, 38/4/1; 38/4/3: Dennis Arundell, The Story of Sadler's Wells, 1683–1977, 1978, p.14
32. GL, MS 8674/57, p.67
33. Martin Holmes, 'The Two Stages at Sadler's Wells', in Theatre Notebook, vol.8, no.3, April—June 1954, pp.62–3
34. Warwick William Wroth and Arthur Edgar Wroth, The London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century, 1896, pp.200,202,302
35. Ibid
36. BL, Percival Collection, vol. 1 passim
37. Gentleman's Magazine, Dec 1813, p.561
38. BL, Percival Collection, vol.1 passim
39. GL, MS 8674/101, p.312
40. GA, D3549, 38/4/1
41. GL, MS 8674/101, p.312 (policy no.83175)
42. The Nic Nac or Literary Cabinet, 12 June 1824, p.218
43. GL, MS 8674/128, p.24; MS 8674/134, p.58; MS 8674/138, p.233; MS 8675/1, p.26
44. Theatre Museum Archive, Sadler's Wells buildings file no. 1, cutting of March 1844
45. BL, Percival Collection, vol.1, p.157, cutting
46. Ibid
47. Arundell, p.27: MDR 1771/5/541: BL, Percival Collection, vol.1 pp. 175–6
48. Arundell, p.27: MDR 1771/5/541
49. BL, Percival Collection, vol. 1, p.175, cutting dated 18 Sept 1771
50. BL, Percival Collection, vol. 1, p. 181
51. GA, D3549, 38/4/3 pt 1, letter of 4 Aug 1775
52. GL, MS 8674/113; MS 8674/128 (policy nos 88127, 83175): BL, Percival Collection, vol.1, p.181, cutting of 13 April 1772
53. BL, Percival Collection, vol. 1, p.192, cutting, n.d. (c. 1775)
54. GA, D3549, 38/4/3 pt, 1, letter from Thomas King, 18 March 1776
55. BL, Percival Collection, vol.1, pp.76–83: NMR, MaysonBeeton Collection, 65B SAD 1840 (sic) S, 'Notes and Queries of Old England: The Dibdins' House, Sadler's Wells'
56. Arundell, p.33
57. Gentleman's Magazine, Dec 1813, p. 562
58. BL, Percival Collection, vol.2, cutting of 21 April 1787
59. Arundell, p.48
60. George Speaight (ed.), Professional and Literary Memoirs of Charles Dibdin the Younger, 1956, pp.17–33, 47
61. GA, D3549, 38/6/4
62. Speaight, p.47
63. ODNB
64. GA, D3549, 38/6/4
65. Survey of London, vol.xxxv, 1970, p. 50
66. Richard Leacroft, The Development of the English Playhouse, 1984
67. Arundell, pp.80–1
68. Speaight, p.48
69. BL, Harley MS 5931, collection of theatrical ephemera: ODNB
70. Speaight, p. 59
71. Ibid
72. Speaight, pp.60–3: Allan S. Jackson and John Morrow, 'Aqua Scenes at Sadler's Wells Theatre 1804–1824, in Ohio State University Theatre Collection Bulletin, no.9, 1962, pp.22–38: Ward, p.206
73. Speaight, p.60, n.2
74. Jackson and Morrow, op.et loc.cit.
75. Speaight, p.60, n.1: Jackson and Morrow, p.36
76. Jackson and Morrow, op.cit.
77. Ibid, pp.28–34
78. ODNB
79. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 1
80. Arundell, pp.101, 105
81. GA, D3549, 38/4/6; 38/6/10: Cromwell, p. 379: British Stage, vol.5, no.55, July 1821, p.215
82. BL, Percival Collection, vol. 1, ff. 76–82
83. Ibid
84. Ibid
85. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 5: LMA, Acc/1953/C/771: Speaight, p. 104
86. GA, D3549, 38/6/10: Arundell, p.102
87. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 4
88. Ibid, 38/6/9
89. Ibid, 38/6/10; 38/3/2
90. Arundell, p. 114: GA, D3549, 38/6/3, pt 11
91. BL, Th.Cts. 49, newspaper cutting of 24 April 1832: Arundell, p.118
92. Arundell, p. 139
93. ODNB
94. ILN, 25 July 1846, p.53: Times, 29 July 1846, p.5f
95. Arundell, p. 144
96. DSR: B, 20 May 1848, p.251
97. DSR
98. MDR 1854/4/455
99. London Journal, 22 Nov 1879, p.328
100. ILHC, sale particulars (also reprinted in Pinks, pp. 435–6)
101. ILHC, cuttings
102. Theatre Museum Archive, Sadlers Wells buildings Box, newspaper cutting dated 1875: B, 17 April 1875, p.358
103. BN, 4 Feb 1876, p.133
104. TNA, BT 31/2205/10369: LMA, MR/L/MD/139/01
105. LMA, MR/L/MD/139/01
106. B, 3 March 1877, p.216: DSR
107. TNA, BT 31 series passim
108. 'Sadler's Wells', in Penny Illustrated Newspaper, 20 Jan 1877, p.7: B, 3 March 1877, p.216
109. ODNB: B, 28 Sept 1878, p.216: TNA, J 46/701
110. David Owen, The Government of Victorian London 1855–1889, 1982, pp. 117–19: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/ 07/0293
111. Hugh Maguire, 'C. J. Phipps (1835–97) and nineteenth century theatre architecture (1863–97)', PhD thesis, University of London, 1990: ODNB
112. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293, report of 27 June 1883
113. BN, 17 Oct 1879, p.476; 24 Oct 1879, p.509: The Times, 10 Oct 1879, p.4
114. London Journal, 22 Nov 1878, pp.327–8
115. Penny Illustrated Newspaper, 11 Oct 1879, p.2: The Era, 10 Oct 1879: Kate Newman, Dictionary of Ulster Biography, 1993: www.ulsterbiography.co.uk
116. Quoted in Edwin Fagg, Old 'Sadler's Wells', 1935, pp.14–15
117. GA, D4084/Box72/8
118. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
119. Ibid, report of Crewe & Sprague, architects: Penny Illustrated Newspaper, 10 Nov 1887, p.3
120. The Echo, 11 Sept 1891
121. William Morris Gallery, Walthamstow, A141, A150, A150b–d
122. ODNB: Gillian Darley, Octavia Hill, 1990
123. Arundell, pp.172–80
124. ILHC, postcard of 1910
125. LMA GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
126. GA, D4084/Box72/8: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
127. G. J. Mellor, The Northern Music Hall, 1970: Arundell, pp. 180–1
128. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
129. Arundell, pp. 175–6
130. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
131. Arundell, p.183
132. Daily Chronicle, 6 Feb 1914
133. Arundell, p. 182
134. Ibid, p.183
135. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
136. Arundell, pp. 182–3
137. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293: National Library of Australia, Canberra, Tait family papers, MS 309: Paul Bentley, 'J. C. Williamson Ltd', Research paper No. 5, Jan 2005, The Wolkanski Foundation: www.twf.org.au
138. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
139. DSR
140. Arundell, p.183
141. R. P. P. Rowe, 'A Twelfth Night Jubilee', in Daily Telegraph, 6 Jan 1931
142. R. P. P. Rowe, 'The Old Vic and Sadler's Wells', in Music and Letters, April 1932, pp. 141–6
143. ODNB: Arundell, p.185: Music and Letters, April 1932, pp.141–6
144. Music and Letters, April 1932, pp. 141–6
145. B, 12 Feb 1926, p.292: LCC Mins: Music and Letters, April 1932, pp.141–6
146. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
147. Ibid
148. B, 9 Jan 1931, p. 120
149. Architect & Building News, 9 Jan 1931, p.57
150. Ibid, pp.55–60: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
151. Architect & Building News, 9 Jan 1931, pp. 55–60
152. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
153. Ibid
154. Architect & Building News, 9 Jan 1931, pp.55–60
155. Theatre Museum, cutting in Sadler's Wells Building Box: The Sadler's Wells Book, 1931, p. 44
156. Arundell, p. 189
157. Architect & Building News, 9 Jan 1931, pp.55–60: B, 9 Jan 1931, p.120
158. LMA, Acc/1953/C/825; Raymond Mander and Joe Mitchenson Theatre Collection, Sadler's Wells file, cutting, 'The new Sadler's Wells extension', 1 July 1938
159. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293: Theatre Museum Archive, Sadler's Wells Buildings Box 1: fundraising flyer, n.d. (1937)
160. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
161. Arundell, p. 214
162. ILHC, cuttings
163. Theatre Museum Archive, Sadler's Wells Buildings Box 2, newspaper cutting: Guardian, 1 April 1963
164. ILHC, cuttings; FBC Mins, 7 Sept 1964
165. Mander and Mitchenson collection, 'Sadler's Wells', unidentified report, c.1970
166. Theatre Museum Archive, Sadler's Wells Buildings Box 2, newspaper cutting: Daily Telegraph, 18 Nov 1971
167. BIOS Reporter, vol.27, no.2, April 2004, pp.5–12
168. Mander and Mitchenson collection, cutting, 16 Oct 1959: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
169. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0293
170. Theatre Museum Archive, Sadler's Wells Buildings Box 2: Guardian, 18 May 1966
171. Theatre Museum Archive, Sadler's Wells Buildings Box 2: Daily Telegraph, 23 April 1977
172. Quoted by David Benedict in 'Bringing the house down', Independent, 21 June 1996
173. Theatre Museum Archive, Sadler's Wells Buildings Box 2
174. Independent, 21 June 1996
175. Theatre Museum Archive, Sadler's Wells Buildings Box 1, undated appeal brochure (c. 1983)
176. Information kindly supplied by Stephen Remington: The Stage, 7 Feb 1983
177. AJ, 26 Oct 1988, p.10
178. AJ, 25 July 1990, p.14: Evening Standard, 10 May 1990: The Times, 11 June 1990: The Observer, 24 June 1990
179. The Times, 18 July 1991
180. Theatre Museum Archive, Sadler's Wells Buildings Box 1, publicity materials, c. 1994
181. Sadler's Wells: A Celebration, 1683–1998, 1998, p.19
182. EH, London Region file 3070/II (Sadler's Wells)
183. Building Design, 25 Sept 1998, p.2
184. Information kindly supplied by Roger Spence: Building Services Journal, Feb 1999, pp. 39–41: AJ, 19 Nov 1998, pp. 39–44: Sadler's Wells: A Celebration, 1683–1998, 1998, p.23
185. Building Design, 8 March 1996, p.5
186. AJ, 19 Nov 1998, p.21
187. Guardian, 12 Oct 1998, p.10
1. Metropolitan Water Board, The Water Supply of London, 1961, pp.1–7: Bernard Rudden, The New River: A Legal History, 1985, pp.7–8: Robert Ward, London's New River, 2003, pp.16–18
2. Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, 1603–10, 93, letter of 18 April 1604: Ward, pp.19–21, 45–6
3. 3 Jac 1, c.18; 4 Jac I, c.12: Ward, pp.21–4, 45–6: G. C. Berry, 'Sir Hugh Myddelton and the New River', in Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion, 1957, pp.17–46: ODNB: A. W. Skempton et al (eds), A Biographical Dictionary of Civil Engineers in Great Britain and Ireland, I: 1500–1830, 2002
4. Pat. Roll. 10 Jac I, pt 10, n.19: TNA, LR 2/34/1
5. Mark S. R. Jenner, 'From conduit community to commercial network? Water in London, 1500–1725' in Paul Griffiths and Mark S. R. Jenner (eds), Londinopolis: Essays in the cultural and social history of early modern London, 2000, p.265
6. ODNB
7. Anthony Munday, John Stow's A Survay of London, 1618, p. 20
8. TNA, LR 2/27/1–2; LR 2/28/1–2; LR 2/34/7: Ward, pp.24–53, 68–71: Rudden, pp.14–22
9. ILN, 22 Nov 1856, pp.521–3
10. LMA, Acc/2558/NR13/7: Rudden, pp.27–31, 37–8: Ward, pp. 61–7
11. LMA, Acc/2558/NR13/1/1–4: Ward, pp.72, 79–80, 86–7, 90–3
12. Asok Kumar Mukhopadhyay, 'The Politics of London Water', in London Journal, vol.1, no.2, 1975, pp. 207–24
13. Rudden, pp. 181–90
14. Ward, pp.209–12: The Times, 18 Oct 2006, p.52
15. Berry, p.34: Ward, pp.29,38,42: TNA, LR 2/28/1, account for 1 May 1613: Chris Ellmers, 'Clerkenwell: a study in urban growth, with special reference to the period 1590–1841', unpublished draft PhD thesis, 1979, pp.11–12
16. LMA, Acc/2558/MW/C/15/32: TNA, LR 2/27/1–2; LR 2/28/1–2: Ward, p.42
17. LMA, Acc/2558/MW/C/17/17; Acc/1558/NR13/44/ 14: Ward, pp.49–51
18. Science Museum Library, Berry Collection: ILN, 22 Nov 1856, p. 521
19. The Gentleman Angler, 1736, p.115
20. LMA, Acc/2558/NR13/314/6: BL, Add MS 70,341: Ward, pp. 55–7
21. Ward, pp.187, 207: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/1
22. Ward, pp.49–51, 96: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/2; Acc/ 2558/NR/13/50/1; Acc/2558/NR/51/1–4: Thames Water, Abbey Mills, 'A Plan and Survey of the New River', 1775, altered 1809, and an untitled New River Company plan dated 14 Jan 1805: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808; James Tyrer's plan of Clerkenwell, 1805
23. Ward, pp.81,142–52: ODNB: Skempton et al, pp.466–71: Robert Ward, The Man Who Buried Nelson: the surprising life of Robert Mylne, 2007
24. Skempton et al, pp.467–8: BAL Archives, Myfam/14/3: Ward 2003, pp.81, 159–60
25. See for example Brunswick Wharf, Blackwall, in Survey of London, vol.xliv, pp.593–5: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/14, pp. 522,537
26. Rudden, pp.131–180: Ward 2003, pp.171–84: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/19, pp.459,494; Acc/2558/NR/1/20, p.308
27. ILN, 22 Nov 1856, pp.521–3
28. Mary Cosh, An Historical Walk Through Clerkenwell, 1987 edn, p.33: EH, London Region file 820/NRH ND
29. POD: LMA, Acc/2558/MW/C/14/195: IBC
30. Metropolitan Water Board Mins, 3 Nov 1922: ILHC, cuttings: EH, London Region file 820/NRH PT3, HB, ND
31. LMA, Acc/2558/MW/C/15/32; Acc/2558/MW/C/ 289/2; Acc/2558/MW/C/17/17; Acc/2558/NR13/44/ 13: TNA, LR 2/28/2: Berry, pp.32, 39: National Portrait Gallery, portrait of Sir John Backhouse, 1637
32. As quoted in Ward 2003, p.87, from a typed transcription of c. 1951 from a 'charred fragment' at LMA, Acc/2558/NR13/7
33. LMA, Acc/2558/NR13/7, folder 3, f.181a: RB: ILHC, 'Census of Clerkenwell', 1677 (transcript of BL, Sloane MS/3928 by T. Veevers-Thompson, 1929): TNA, E179/ 143/370, rot.51d
34. Pinks, pp.398,456–7: Rudden, pp.68–70
35. François Colsoni, Le Guide de Londres (1693), ed. Walter H. Godfrey, 1951
36. LMA, New River Company Mins
37. LMA, Acc/2558/MW/C/15/364: Ward 2003, p.93
38. DSR: David Braithwaite, Building in the Blood: The Story of Dove Brothers of Islington 1781–1981, 1981, p.125: BAL Archives, DB/3/9/1: Architectural Association Sketch Book, 3rd series, vol.ii
39. BL, Add MS 70341: Gentleman's Magazine, March 1753, pp. 114–16: Science Museum Library, Berry Collection, 2/8: Ward 2003, pp.108–28, 235–6: ODNB: Skempton et al, pp. 641–4
40. LMA, Acc/2558/MW/C/15/199,238: Daniel Defoe, A Tour thro' the whole Island of Great Britain, 1725, vol.ii, p.150: Ward 2003, pp. 129–41, 151–2
41. Cromwell, p.348: Pinks, engravings facing p.432 and on p.458: Ward 2003, p.155
42. The Water Supply of London, pp. 12–15,27
43. LMA, Acc/2558/MW/C/15/1–9,41; Acc/2558/NR13/ 5/2: Science Museum Library, Berry Collection, 2–5: E. Kilburn Scott, 'Smeaton's Engine of 1767 at New River Head, London', in Transactions of the Newcomen Society, vol.xix, 1938/9, pp.119–26: Ward 2003, pp.151–4: ODNB: Skempton et al, p.623: J. S. Allen, 'Steam Engines', in A. W. Skempton (ed.), John Smeaton, FRS, 1981, pp. 179–94
44. Cromwell, p.350
45. The Royal Society Library, John Smeaton, 'Engineering Drawings', vol.iii, ff.10v–20
46. LMA, AR/BR/06/007463: Ward 2003, pp.154–7
47. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/2, pp.26,232,235,270; Acc/2558/ NR/1/3, pp.6,20,29; Acc/2558/MW/C/15/038; Acc/ 2558/MW/C/238/01: Birmingham City Archives, Boulton & Watt Drawings Portfolio (hereafter BCA, B&W) 1090
48. LMA, Acc/2558/MW/C/15/68
49. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/4, pp.47,72; Acc/2558/MW/ C/15/68: BCA, B&W 1082 and Boxes 3/6/94–5, 4/11/62–3 and 22/2: Ward 2003, p.158
50. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/7, p.118; Acc/2558/NR/1/8, p.197: BCA, B&W 1089a, b
51. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/16, pp.32,108; Acc/2558/NR/ 1/17, pp.205–10,491; Acc/2558/NR13/189: BCA, B&W 1089a, b: DSR: H. W. Dickinson, The Cornish Engine: a chapter in the history of steam power, 1951, pp.24–7: R. J. Law, The Steam Engine: A brief history of the reciprocating engine, 1965, pp.20–3: maker's plate on staircase: obituary of Grissell in Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1882–3, vol.lxxiii, no.3, pp.376–8: D. A. Gasparini and Caterina Provost, 'Early nineteenth century developments in truss design in Britain, France and the United States', in Construction History, vol.v, 1989, pp.257–69
52. Ward 2003, pp.210–11: Science Museum Library, Berry Collection, 4/7/1: Thames Water drawings
53. Metropolitan Water Board Mins, 7 Feb, 25 July 1913, pp. 102–4, 411–14: unless otherwise indicated this section is based on Metropolitan Water Board Mins and General Purposes Committee reports; see LMA, Acc/2558/ MW/1: Braithwaite, pp.14–15,32,114–15: Architect & Building News, 24 June 1932, pp.413–14
54. B, 16 Jan 1914, p.69: BN, 5 June 1914, pp. 768–71
55. Metropolitan Water Board Mins, 29 May 1914
56. B, 13 Feb 1914, p.224
57. B, 16 March 1934, p.453: Architecture Illustrated, April 1935, pp.107–8: Morning Post, 9 Dec 1935, p.20: LMA, AR/BR06/007463; NMR, Matthew T. Shaw photograph
58. Independent on Sunday, 15 Sept 1996, pp.66–8: Interiors, Jan 2000, pp.94–101: Marcus Binney with David Dorrell, 'Pleasure Domus', in World of Interiors, Jan 2000, pp.92–101: EH, London Region files 820/NRH PT3, PC1–4, HB
59. B, 9 April 1904, p.390
60. B, 4 June 1920, p.659: Architectural Review, Oct 1920, pp.86–9: Metropolitan Water Board Mins, 28 April 1941: The Water Supply of London, p.38: LMA, Acc/2558/MW/C/8/23: Ward 2003, p.90
61. Geoffrey Beard, The Work of Grinling Gibbons, 1989, p.211: David Esterly, Grinling Gibbons and the Art of Carving, 1998, pp.96–7: Architectural Review, Aug 1911, pp.105–6
62. BL, Add MS 23,071 (George Vertue's notebooks): Walpole Society, vol.iv, 1916, p.65: Ellis Waterhouse, Dictionary of 16th and 17th century British painters, 1988, pp.56–7: Metropolitan Water Board Mins, 25 March 1863, 26 Oct 1865, 20 Feb 1868
63. Amos 4:7
64. NMR, RCHM investigator's record card, A. W. Clapham, 4 Oct 1912: Ward 2003, pp.88–90
65. Ward 2003, p.90
66. EH, Historians' file ISL 25: Acc/2558/MW/C/8/27(3): Architect & Building News, supplement, 28 Oct 1938, pp. 62–6: IBC: Ward 2003, p.94
67. EH, London Region file 820/NRH LB
68. Philip Norman, 'On an ancient conduit-head in Queen Square, Bloomsbury', in Archaeologia, vol.lvi, no.2, 1899, pp.251–66: Philip Norman and Ernest Mann, 'On the White Conduit, Chapel Street, Bloomsbury, and its connexion with the Grey Friar's water system', in Archaeologia, vol.lxi, no.2, 1909, pp.347–56: Philip Norman, 'Demolition of conduit-head, Queen Square', in Archaeologia, vol.lxvii, 1915–16, pp.18–26: George McHardy, unpublished notes on the Imperial Hotel, Russell Square, for the Victorian Society, 1966: C. J. Bond, 'Water Management in the Urban Monastery', in Roberta Gilchrist and Harold Mytum (eds), Advances in Monastic Archaeology (BAR British Series 227, 1993), p.61
69. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/6, p. 106
70. DSR
1. G. E. Mitton, The Fascination of London: Clerkenwell and St Luke's, 1906, p.81
2. Madeline House and Graham Storey (eds), The Letters of Charles Dickens Volume One 1820–1839, Oxford, 1965, p.99
3. Country Life, 28 Jan 1939, p.90
4. ILHC, cuttings: Islington Gazette, 13 May, 13 Aug 1976: Bernard Rudden, The New River: a legal history, 1985, pp. 188–90: Robert Ward, London's New River, 2003, p.199
5. GA, D3549, 38/1/12: MDR 1744/3/544–5; 1799/1/ 345–6,370: LMA, Acc/2558/NR12/44
6. LMA, Acc/2558/NR13/42/1–6,287–8: VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, p.71: Ward, pp. 161–70, 190–1
7. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/7: Ward, pp.81,159–61
8. GA, D3549, 38/6/8
9. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 25 June 1811: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/7, 9: TNA, B3/2262: Thames Water, Abbey Mills, New River Company Plan no.58, c.1818
10. VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, pp.25,68
11. Ibid, pp.22–3,147
12. LMA, Acc/1953/C/866/4
13. B, 7 April 1855, p.165: Samuel Lewis, The History and Topography of the Parish of St Mary Islington, 1842, p.362: Register of Apprentices of the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers, 1931, p.50: Gentleman's Magazine, vol.xxxii (n.s.), 1849, p.558: J. P. Elliott, 'The architectural works of Richard Cromwell Carpenter (1812–55), William Slater (1819–72) and Richard Herbert Carpenter (1841–93)', PhD thesis, University of London, 1995, and personal communication: LMA, HFCS 6, 7
14. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/10, pp.275,279; Acc/2558/NR/ 1/11, p.337
15. Weekly Dispatch, 27 April 1834, p.1
16. Ward, pp.197–8: TNA, C/107/127; J90/628
17. G. L. Morris, 'Clerkenwell in the early nineteenth century', in AJ, 25 Aug 1926, pp.230–2; 1 Sept 1926, pp.260–2; 8 Sept 1926, pp.292–4: Christopher Hussey, 'Georgian London: the lesser known squares', in Country Life, 28 Jan 1939, pp.90–4: James Stevens Curl, 'The Challenge of Clerkenwell — II: lessons of a Georgian suburb', in Country Life, 22 April 1971, pp.969–72
18. Numerous fanlights on the New River estate are illustrated in A. S. Gray, J. Sambrook, T. Birks-Hay, Fanlights, 1990
1. GA, D3549, 38/1/12: LMA, Acc/2558/NR13/285; Acc/2558/NR13/314/6: Pinks, pp.396–7: Robert Ward, London's New River, 2003, pp. 130–2,207
2. Thomas Carlyle, Reminiscences, 1881, vol.i, p.212: Mary Cosh, The squares of Islington Part I: Finsbury and Clerkenwell, 1990, pp.21–3
3. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/10, p.341: Cromwell, p.331: Pinks, p.397: Ward, pp.193–4
4. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/19, pp.205,494,555; Acc/2558/ NR/1/20, pp. 163,196–7,286; LMA, Acc/2558/NR14/56; ILN, 22 Nov 1856, p. 522
5. ILHC, cuttings, letter of 27 May 1885, John Cross to Lord Brabazon
6. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/23/1, pp.227, 326: BN, 8 Aug 1862, p.106
7. Ward, p.212
8. Thomas Carlyle, Reminiscences, 1881, vol.i, p.212
9. LMA, Acc/1953/C/866: MDR
10. TNA, B3/2262: Colvin
11. LMA, Acc/1953/C/866–9,915: MDR: DSR
12. LMA, Acc/1953/C/867–9; Acc/2558/NR/1/8–11: MDR: RB
13. LMA, Acc/1953; Acc/2558: MDR: RB
14. LMA, Acc/1953/C/870,913–18; Acc/2558/NR/1/7–10: MDR: RB
15. LMA, Acc/1953; Acc/2558: MDR: RB
16. Cromwell, p.331
17. E. A. Willats, Streets with a Story: The Book of Islington, 1988 edn: ODNB
18. ODNB
19. Matthew Sturgis, Walter Sickert: A Life, 2005, p.82
20. Census: ODNB
21. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B236, p.83; B353, p.119: information kindly supplied by Robert Ward
22. LMA, Acc/1953/C/1002: LMA photographs: DSR: private archive of Mary Cosh: ILHC, Islington Housing Committee (New River Estate) Joint Sub-Committee Mins: electoral registers: Harley Sherlock, An Architect in Islington, 2006, pp.86–90
23. Horwood's map: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808
24. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9,10: RB
25. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 5
26. Ibid, 38/6/2
27. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 6: MDR 1822/4/695; 1823/2/645
28. RB: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9: MDR 1822/10/685
29. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 5
30. Ibid, 38/4/13; 38/6/2, pt 6; 38/6/9: The Times, 29 Sept 1826, p.20
31. RB
32. MDR 1835/8/297–8: GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 4
33. MDR: LMA, Acc/1953/C/849,915: DSR
34. POD
35. LMA, Acc/1953/C/849–52,905: MDR: TNA, B3/1734
36. ODNB
37. Pinks, pp.575–6: POD
38. LMA, Acc/1953/C/852: MBW Mins, 24 Nov 1865: DSR: POD: EH, Historians' file ISL 142
39. Daily Telegraph, 22 Nov 1972: joke retailed by Robert Ward
40. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B82, p.62: DSR: POD
41. POD: 1841 Census
42. GA, D3549, 38/4/5
43. LMA, Acc/1953/C/1132,1134: DSR: POD
44. LMA, Acc/1953/C/997,1293; Acc/2558/NR/1/10–11: Pinks, pp.576–8: TNA, ED 21/11414, 34649: BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B236, p.245: www.oftsed.gov.uk/ reports/100/100436.pdf, Ofsted report, 2000
45. LMA, Acc/1953/C/858,899–907,934; Acc/2558/NR/1/ 9–15: RB
46. LMA, Acc/1953; Acc/2558: MDR: RB
47. DSR: LMA, AR/BR/22/34912
48. LMA, Acc 1953/C/1105,1162: DSR: BAL Archives, LUB 2/7, 30 March 1946: ILHC, FBC Mins, 11 June 1946: POD
49. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/10, p.229; Acc/2558/NR/1/12, p.277
50. LMA, Acc/1953/C/901: Census
51. RB: Census: POD: ODNB: Pinks, pp.436–7
52. ODNB: POD
53. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p.119
54. Ibid, B236, pp. 114,241: Census
55. Fenner Brockway, Towards Tomorrow, 1977, pp.23–5
56. DSR
57. B, 31 March 1944, pp.252–4
58. LMA, Acc/1953/C/979,1007–8,1102–4,1131,1174: private archive of Mary Cosh: ILHC, electoral registers
59. Islington Gazette, 7 Feb 1975: ILHC, Islington Housing Cttee (New River Estate) Joint Sub-Committee Mins: electoral registers
60. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9, p.397
61. Quoted in Basil Clarke, Parish Churches of London, 1966, p. 57
62. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 18196
63. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9–10: CERC, Church Commissioners' file 18196: GL, Ms 19,224/393: Gentleman's Magazine, vol.xcix, no.1, 1829, p.581
64. J. Mordaunt Crook, 'Sir Robert Smirke: A Pioneer of Concrete Construction', in Transactions of the Newcomen Society, vol.38, 1965–6, pp.5–20: H. M. Colvin (ed.), The History of the King's Works, 1782–1851, vol.vi, 1973, pp.422–30: M. H. Port, Six Hundred New Churches: The Church Building Commission 1818–1856, 2006
65. T. Francis Bumpus, London Churches, Ancient & Modern, Second Series, Classical & Modern, 1907, p. 124
66. Colvin: information kindly supplied by Jon Cannon
67. B, 7 April 1855, p.165
68. Gentleman's Magazine, Jan—June 1829, p.579
69. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 18196
70. ODNB
71. Gentleman's Magazine, Jan—June 1829, pp.580–1: H. L. L. Denny, A History of St Mark's Myddelton Square, E. C., 1921: Pinks, p. 395
72. GL, MS 18,319/3,14,84: B, 1 Feb 1873, p.83: Denny: DSR: BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B236, p.116: J. P. Elliott, 'The architectural works of Richard Cromwell Carpenter (1812–55), William Slater (1819–72) and Richard Herbert Carpenter (1841–93)', PhD thesis, University of London, 1995
73. V&A, AAD 1/20–1977, p.86: information kindly supplied by Dr Michael Kerney
74. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 18196: GL, MS 19,224/393: DSR: IBC
75. IBC: BAL, Drawings Collection, plan by H. Norman Haines: David Braithwaite, Building in the Blood: The Story of Dove Brothers of Islington 1781–1981, 1981, p.144: Islington Gazette, 5 May 1961; 13 April 1962
76. ILHC, cuttings
77. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9–13: MDR: RB: LMA, Acc/1953/C/787,853,859,862–3,946
78. LMA, Acc/1953; Acc/2558: MDR: RB
79. DSR: ILHC, cuttings: Alec Forshaw, 20th Century Buildings in Islington, 2001, p.60
80. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9–10: P. Temple, Islington Chapels, 1992, pp.26–7
81. LMA, Acc/1953/C/859
82. DSR: NMR, Buildings Index File 77314
83. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9–13; Acc/1953/C/867,914: DSR
84. LMA, Acc/1953/C/864,868,903–5,913–6,918,933
85. LMA, Acc/1953/C/834,1137: DSR: BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p. 119: Ward, p. 199
86. Ann Saunders (ed.), The London County Council Bomb Damage Maps 1939–1945 (LTS Publication No.164), 2005, map 50
87. Thames Water, Abbey Mills, New River Company Plan no.58, c. 1818
88. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9–14; Acc/1953/C/859–61: RB: Census: DSR
89. IBC
90. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9–14; Acc/1953/C/899–900, 933–5: RB
91. DSR
92. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9–10; Acc/1953/C/839,853,856; HFCS/108/469; MR/B/C/1824/19: MDR: Thames Water, Abbey Mills, New River Co. Plan no.58, c. 1818: RB: Elliott, loc.cit.
93. LMA, Acc/1953/C/771,825,1157: DSR: POD: Census: BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p.117
94. LMA, Acc/1953/C/839,853,1157: DSR
95. LMA, Acc/1953/C/839,1170–2: Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury Official Guide, 1963, p.56: Brian Finnimore, Houses From the Factory: System Building and the Welfare State, 1942–1974, 1989, p.185: information supplied by Elain Harwood
96. LMA, Acc/1953/C/787: DSR
97. LMA, Acc/1953/C/831,837,1101–2,1106,1110,1146–8; LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/11, pp.419–20: DSR: ILHC, FBC Mins
98. Metropolitan Police Archives, G Division Registers, and information kindly supplied by Maggie Bird, Metropolitan Police Archivist, and Guy Smith: http://www. lightage.demon.co.uk/POL_RaRob.pdf, viewed April 2005
1. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/7–9: Cromwell, p.325
2. Carl Voelker, Professor Voelker's Gymnasium, 1825: William Hone, The Every-Day Book, vol.i, 1826, pp.658–62; vol.ii, 1827, pp.327–9: Cromwell, pp.325–7: Pinks, p.572: John Goulston, 'The London Gymnastic Institute', in Sports History, vol. vi, 1985, pp. 11–16: W. H. G. Armytage, 'John Borthwick Gilchrist: a pioneer of gymnastics', in British Medical Journal, 8 Aug 1959, pp. 150–1: Mary Cosh, The squares of Islington Part I: Finsbury and Clerkenwell, 1990, pp. 71–2
3. This account is based largely on LMA, Acc/2558/ NR/1/9–19; HFCS/115,116: RB
4. Architect & Building News, 5 May 1933, supplement
5. POD: OS
6. LMA, Acc/1953/C/849: MDR
7. Contract Journal, 27 Oct 1948
8. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 2: LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9, p. 129
9. RB
10. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 5; 38/6/9
11. MDR 1830/4/475; 1830/6/595; 1831/1/344; 1835/2/ 560: GA, D3549, 38/4/7
12. MDR 1830/6/595: RB
13. MDR 1829/5/268; 1828/9/102; 1828/10/699; 1829/7/ 23,177,452,710; 1831/4/116: LMA, MDR/MB/4921: GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pts 5, 6
14. GA, D3549, 38/6/9
15. RB
16. LMA, HFCS/99/13
17. John Weale, Studies and Examples of the Modern School of English Architecture, The Travellers' Club House, by Charles Barry, architect, 1839
18. Draper's Company Archives, Lonsdale Square, lease of 12 April 1839 and misc. correspondence
19. John Weale, Examples for Builders, Carpenters and Joiners, etc, 1857, plate xxxv
20. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p.181
21. DSR: information kindly supplied by David John
22. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/14, p.454
23. LMA, Acc/1953/C/869,902,925–30
24. LMA, Acc/1953/C/925–6
25. DSR: ILHC, cuttings
26. LMA, Acc/1953/C/744,892,927–9
27. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p.179
28. Census: DSR: POD
29. Country Life, 28 Jan 1939, p.93
30. Thames Water, Abbey Mills, New River Company Plans, unnumbered, 14 Jan 1805 and no.58, c. 1818
31. Survey of London, vol.xxvi, 1956, pp.170–1
32. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/14, pp.411, 422, 440, 446; HFCS/99/36: Draper's Company Archives, Lonsdale Square correspondence
33. This account of development is based largely on LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/14–21: RB
34. LMA, Acc/1953/C/919–22: DSR
35. LMA, Acc/1953; Acc/2558: MDR: DSR: RB
36. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/15, p.218
37. DSR: Census: Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Great Exhibition, 1851, p.842
38. DSR: Census
39. J. Maclaren Cobban, A Reverend Gentleman, 1891
40. ILHC, cuttings: EH, Blue Plaques file 690
41. Information supplied by Try Homes Ltd: The Times, 3 May 2000, p.26: Property People, 30 June 2005, p.6
42. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/9,13–16; Acc/1953/C/858; HFCS/115/38,207: DSR
43. TNA, ED 21/11431: LMA, LCC Education Committee Mins, 20 March 1907, p.786
44. DSR
45. LMA, Acc/1953/C/751,805,881,994,1107,1109,1120–1, 1127,1150: DSR: POD: IBC
46. ODNB
47. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/14–21; Acc/1953/C/883: B, 20 July 1844, p.366: Colvin, p.465: POD: DSR
48. Country Life, 28 Jan 1939, p.93
49. David Braithwaite, Building in the Blood: The Story of Dove Brothers of Islington 1781–1981, 1981, p.117
50. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/ES/110/597
51. Report of the Royal Commission on London Squares, 1928, p.69: Cosh, p.52
52. POD: Census: ODNB
53. Cosh, p.52: Herbert Spencer, An Autobiography, vol.1, p.320: Census: Frederick Boase, Modern English Biography, 1965 edn
54. ODNB
55. L. Muravyova and I. Sivolap-Kaftanova, Lenin in London, 1983, pp.20–39,147–66: Nikolai Alexandrovich Alexeyev, Museum of the Revolution of the USSR, Third Symposium, Moscow, All-Union Society of Political Convicts and Deported Exiles, 1932, p.61
56. EH, Blue Plaques file 690, Ivan Maisky to Charles Ammon (LCC), 25 Feb 1942
57. John Allan, Berthold Lubetkin: Architecture and the tradition of progress, 1992, pp.415–18: ILHC, cuttings
58. EH, Blue Plaques file 690: Daily Telegraph, 17 May 1961: Islington Gazette, 1 Sept 1972: ILHC, cuttings
59. IBC
60. BAL Archives, LUB/2/7; ILHC, FBC Mins, 9 April 1946
61. FBC Mins, 11 June 1946
62. Ibid, July 1946—May 1947
63. Ibid, 13 Nov 1947
64. Architectural Review, June 1952, pp.403–5
65. FBC Mins, 9 Jan 1950
66. Architectural Review, June 1952, p.404
67. FBC Mins, 9 Jan 1950
68. Ibid, 9 March, 6 July, 6 Dec 1948
69. Ibid, 9 Jan 1950
70. Ibid
71. Ibid, 12 Sept 1949
72. Ibid, 9 Jan 1950
73. Ibid
74. Architectural Review, June 1952, p.406
75. FBC Mins, 23 Nov 1950, 10 April 1951
76. Ibid, 23 Nov 1950
77. Ibid, 13 May 1952
78. Allan, p.418
79. ILHC, cuttings L3.151, Order of Proceedings, opening of Bevin Court
80. For assessments of Bevin Court, see Architectural Review, June 1952, pp.403–6; Feb 1955, pp. 88–93: Allan, pp.415–27,596
81. FBC Mins, Feb 1956—May 1958
1. BL, Add.MS 17,939B: RB: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/462–4: MDR 1735/4/187: Warwick Wroth and Arthur Edgar Wroth, The London Pleasure Gardens of the Eighteenth Century, 1896, pp.54–5: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/museumstudies/websites03/clerkenwell/home.html, accessed Nov 2006
2. Pinks, p.580: Judith Colton, 'Merlin's Cave and Queen Caroline: Garden Art as Political Propaganda', in Eighteenth-Century Studies, vol.x, 1976, pp. 1–20
3. RB: Horwood's map: LMA, SC/PZ/FI/01/266: ILHC, L4.12 watercolours: GL Print Room, watercolour of Old Merlin's Cave by F. N. Shepherd (p5442375)
4. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/705
5. William Hone, The Meeting in Spa Fields, Hone's Authentic, and Correct Account, at Length, of all the Proceedings on Monday Dec. 2; with the Resolutions and Petition of Nov. 15, 1816, and The Riots in London. Hone's full and authentic account, containing abundant and most accurate Particulars of the Events in the Metropolis on Monday 2 Dec. 1816: The Times, 16 Nov 1816, p.2: John Belchem, 'Orator' Hunt: Henry Hunt and English Working-Class Radicalism, 1985, pp.56–77: ODNB: Jerry White, London in the Nineteenth Century, 2007, pp.351–4
6. The Observer, 4 May 1817
7. ILHC, press cutting of 4 May 1818 in grangerised copy of Thomas Cromwell's Walks Through Islington, vol.1, 1835, facing p.43
8. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/3, p.165; Acc/2558/NR/1/4, pp.6,138; O/139/1: Thames Water, Abbey Mills Archive, New River Company Plan, 14 Jan 1805
9. WAC, Acc/1934/138, pp.13,183,520–1
10. Ibid, Acc/1934/142, p.282
11. Donald Olsen, Town Planning in London, 1982 edn, p.79
12. Survey of London, vol.xxiv, 1952, p.50; vol.xxxii, 1963, p.408: POD
13. WAC, Acc/2934/142, pp.463,502,542: The Observer, 4 May 1817: LMA, MJ/OC/19, pp.153–5; HFCS/P9/10; HFCS 21, p.145; HFCS 30, pp.32,77,208; HFCS 96, ff.17,19: GA, D 3549, 38/6/2, pt 1
14. Thames Water, Abbey Mills Archive, New River Company Plan, 14 Jan 1805, with later pencil annotation
15. WAC, Acc/1934/143, pp.583, 616; Acc/1934/144, p. 259; Acc/1934/145, p.7: LMA, MJ/OC/18, p.95; MJ/OC/19, pp.153–5, 214, 274–5; MJ/OC/20, pp.144, 160–1; MJ/OC/21, p.33; MA/G/GEN539, 543, 545, 550, 554; HFCS/P9/20: GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 2: Cromwell, p.317
16. Horwood's map, 1819 edn
17. Greenwood's map, 1824: Cruchley's New Plan of London, 1829
18. Burke's Peerage: E. A. Willats, Streets with a Story: The Book of Islington, 1988 edn, p.149
19. WAC, Acc/1934/145, p.7
20. Ibid, p.44
21. BAL Archives, COC/10/1, p.98;/2, p.62
22. TNA, J90/528: WAC, Acc/1934/145, p.118
23. TNA, J90/528: WAC, Acc/1934/144, p.428
24. Survey of London, vol.xxxiii, 1966, p.276: www.oldbaileyonline.org
25. LMA, HFCS 108, ff. 170–294; E/NOR/L/3/386–91,768: GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 1
26. TNA, J90/528
27. Cromwell, p.24
28. The Times, 15 Jan 1884, p.10
29. Willats, op.cit.
30. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/06/007463; E/NOR/E/8/11
31. ILHC, FBC Mins, 1928–9, p.556
32. Castle Ashby, Northampton Estate Archives, Box LON63, file 1086
33. LMA, E/NOR/L/03/813: WAC, Acc/1934/143, pp.7,324
34. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/814: RB: WAC, Acc/1934/144, p.81
35. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/800–1
36. WAC, Acc/1934/145, pp.118,529: GL, Ms 11936/522 (no. 1090654)
37. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/321: RB: Census
38. Cromwell, p.316
39. Thames Water, Abbey Mills, New River Company Plan no.58, c. 1818: Horwood's map, 1819 edn: Greenwood's map, 1824–6: Cruchley's New Plan of London, 1829: LMA, HFCS 110, f. 210
40. The Times, 10 Aug 1819, p.4; 1 July 1823, p.4
41. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/800: POD
42. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/909
43. Census: POD: DSR: ILHC, cuttings
44. DSR: LMA, E/NOR/L/2/20; GLC/AR/BR/17/ 076783; GLC/AR/BR/22/TP/002658
45. ILHC, cuttings
46. ILHC, FBC Mins
47. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/906: IBC: The Times, 13 March 1971, p.12
48. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/3; E/NOR/L/3/320–1,400,703, 800–7, 810–14, 906, 909: RB: DSR
49. ODNB
50. POD: RB: Census: ODNB: GL, MS 11936/518 (no. 1099724): Pinks, p. 579
51. Mary Cosh, A History of Islington, 2005, p. 156
52. Bill Manley, Islington Entertained, 1990, p. 113: ODNB: private archive of Mary Cosh
53. POD: Census: ODNB: E. L. Blanchard, The Life and Reminiscences of E. L. Blanchard, 1891, p. 189: Matthew Sturgis, Aubrey Beardsley: A Biography, 1998, pp.54–6
54. GL, MS 11936/541 (no. 1178393): POD: RB: Census: DSR
55. Census: POD: DSR
56. POD: Census: Pinks, pp.579–80
57. Star, 20 Jan 1888: POD: Census
58. POD: Census: TNA, IR58/42938/1786,1790–1
59. LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2, pp.5–9: POD
60. ILHC, cuttings; electoral roll: Highbury and Islington Express, 15 Jan 1999
61. J. & H. S. Storer's map of Clerkenwell, 1827, reproduced in Cromwell
62. WAC, Acc/1934/173, p.529: GL, MPGA Cuttings, COL/LIB/PB04/002–4: LMA, E/NOR/L/3/799: ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins
63. AJ, 25 Aug 1926, p.232
64. LMA, E/NOR/E/7/2
65. DSR: POD
66. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/3; E/NOR/L/3/703: RB: DSR: POD
67. P. Temple, Islington Chapels, 1992, pp.24–5: Pinks, pp.578–9: A. Rottman, London Catholic Churches: a Historical & Artistic Record, 1926, pp.155–8: Denis Evinson, Catholic Churches of London, 1997, pp.133–4: information kindly supplied by R. O'Donnell
68. Bernard W. Kelly, Historical Notes on English Catholic Missions, 1907, p.135
69. Evinson, loc.cit.: Boucher, pp.237–9: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/34/003241: IBC: information kindly supplied by B. D. Ormsby
70. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/703: TNA, ED 21/11417; ED 1/34651: DSR: IBC
71. TNA, MEPO 9/213: MEPO 2/2359,2579: B, 2 March 1928, pp.387, 399
72. Architect & Building News, 24 Aug 1928, p.252
73. ILHC, cuttings: Castle Ashby, Northampton Estate Archives, uncatalogued box LON 62, file 1326: www.ucl.ac.uk/museumstudies/websites03/clerkenwell/ home.html
74. B, 9 Oct 1852, p.648; 5 Aug 1854, p.418; 18 Oct 1873, p.829; 14 Nov 1874, pp.953–4
75. ILHC, FBC Mins: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/3396: DSR
76. B, 28 April 1933, pp.684–96
77. ILHC, cuttings: IBC
78. Alec Forshaw, 20th Century Buildings in Islington, 2001, p. 57: ILHC, cuttings: IBC
79. LMA, E/NOR/L/3/170
80. DSR: POD: IBC
81. Ibid
82. DSR: IBC
83. DSR: ILHC, FBC Building Act applications, vol.4: IBC: J. B. M. Coates, Coates Brothers: A history 1877–1977, 1977, p.48
84. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/078146: DSR: IBC: Coates, op.et loc.cit.
85. IBC
86. Ibid
87. FBC Mins: IBC
88. DSR: POD: IBC
89. B, 2 Jan 1864, p.9: Census
90. PP 1884–5 (4402), XXX.1,87,819, Royal Commission for inquiring into Housing of the Working Classes, First Report, Mins of Evidence, etc: The Times, 12 Jan 1884, p.11
91. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp.125,138: Census
92. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/3: ILHC, undated cutting of 'Wilmington Square Schools of Design': The Times, 10 Jan 1862, p.3a: M. H. Spielmann and G. S. Layard, Kate Greenaway, 1905, pp.41–2: Rodney Engen, Kate Greenaway, A Biography, 1977, pp.35–6: ODNB: POD
93. LMA, E/NOR/L/2/3: TNA, ED 3/5, 1871: POD
94. Harold P. Clunn, London Marches On, 1947, p. 165
95. A. E. Thomas, Report by the Medical Officer of Health on Housing Conditions in Finsbury, 1929, pp.60–1: ILHC, FBC Opening Pamphlet, Margaret Street Estate, 1931; FBC Mins, 17 Jan 1929, p.391; 16 May 1929, p. 97; 31 Oct 1929, p. 374: LMA, AR/BR/19/3298
96. FBC Mins, 19 Dec 1929, p.503: London County Council, Housing, 1928, pp.47–61: London County Council, Housing 1928–30, 1931, pp.36–7: Tanis F. M. Hinchcliffe, 'The Housing Market in Islington Between the Wars', PhD thesis, University of London, 1991
97. FBC Mins, 21 Aug 1930, p.280; 20 Nov 1930, p.510; 30 March 1931, p. 805
98. F. H. Webb, councillor, letter to Islington Gazette, 21 Feb 1930
99. ILHC, FBC Opening Pamphlet, Margaret Street Estate, 1931: Architect & Building News, 25 Sept 1931, pp.356–7
100. Islington Gazette, 8 Sept 1931
101. ILHC, FBC Opening Pamphlet, Margaret Street Estate, 1931
102. FBC Mins, 8 Oct 1931, pp.398–9; 15–26 April 1932, p. 52; 21 July 1932, pp.241–2; 13 Oct 1932, pp.400–1
103. ILHC, FBC Housing Committee Mins, 19 Oct 1933, p.421: B, 12 Jan 1934, pp.80–1
104. FBC Mins: Islington Borough Council Mins
105. SBL Mins, 2 Feb 1874, p.174; 5 July 1877, p.904; 12 Dec 1877, p. 39: TNA, ED21/11412; ED 3/5
106. TNA, ED3/5; ED5/58: SBL Mins, 19 July 1883, p.438; 2 Aug 1883, p.515; 22 Jan 1885, p.892
107. LMA, London Insurance Committee, souvenir booklet, P 36.63
108. TNA, ED21/11412: POD: Forshaw, p.57
109. Willats, op.cit.
110. Thomas Burke, The English Inn, 1934, p.152
111. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/19/3298: DSR: Architect & Building News, 7 Nov 1930, p.639: www.wcml. org.uk/people/em/music.htm, accessed Feb 2007
112. IBC
113. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/06/007463: DSR: POD
114. IBC: www.phpgroup.co.uk, accessed Nov 2006: information kindly supplied by Thornsett Group plc
1. Ian Nairn, Nairn's London, 1966, p. 172
2. Hugh Casson, Hugh Casson's London, 1983, p. 30
3. Chris Ellmers, 'Clerkenwell: a study in urban growth, with special reference to the period 1590–1841', unpublished draft PhD thesis, 1979, p.32
4. GA, D3549, 38/1/12
5. Ibid
6. Ibid: MDR 1799/1/345–6
7. MDR 1819/6/163
8. ODNB
9. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 23: MDR 1844/8/493; 1854/4/455; 1854/5/128–30,997–9
10. Information kindly supplied by Henry Lloyd-Baker
11. Burke's Landed Gentry, 1952 edn
12. The Times, 11 June 1975, p.17e
13. Information kindly supplied by Henry Lloyd-Baker
14. GA, D3549, 38/1/11: MDR 1799/1/347–8
15. J. P. Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, vol.iii, 1803, p.237
16. GA, D3549, 38/6/4
17. Cromwell, p.321
18. GA, D3549, 38/4/5: Pinks, p. 571: POD
19. Pinks, p.570: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: GA, D3549, 38/8/2, plan of 1807: Survey of London, vol.xxiv, 1952, p.60
20. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 2, 11 Aug 1818; 38/8/2, plan of 1807
21. Ibid, 38/6/4; 38/6/5, pt 1
22. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 1, 29 April 1817
23. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 1, 22 April 1817; 38/6/9
24. Colvin, pp.39,144
25. Drapers' Company Archives, transcripts of membership records
26. LMA, HFCS 6–8
27. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 1, Aug 1817
28. RIBA Proceedings 1872–3, p.9
29. James Stevens Curl, Moneymore and Draperstown, 1979, pp.38–60, 66–8: James Stevens Curl, The Londonderry Plantation 1609–1914, 1986, pp.196–223
30. RIBA Proceedings 1872–3, p.9
31. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 3, 12 April 1821
32. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 4, 16 Jan 1822
33. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 1, 30 Oct 1817
34. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 2, 2 Feb, 14 July 1818
35. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 2, 11 Aug, 12 Sept 1818
36. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 2, 28 Sept 1818
37. Thames Water, Abbey Mills Archive, New River Company volume, plan no. 58
38. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 2, 30 Sept 1818
39. Ibid, 38/4/14
40. Ibid
41. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 2, 16 Sept 1819
42. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 2, 20 Nov 1819
43. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 3, 25 Sept 1821
44. Country Life, 28 Jan 1939, p.90
45. James Stevens Curl, Moneymore and Draperstown, 1979, p. 66
46. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 6, 21 July 1826
47. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 7, 7 Dec 1829
48. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 10
49. T. F. Bumpus, London Churches Ancient and Modern, 1883 edn, p.208
50. MDR 1862/16/113: LMA, LMA/UP/537
51. B, 12 July 1873, p.551
52. GA, D3549, 38/7/7
53. ILHC, FBC Housing Committee Mins, 13 Oct 1932, pp.400–1
54. GA, D3549, 38/7/10
55. Ibid, 38/6/6
56. Ibid, 38/7/10
57. Ibid
58. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 2, 30 Sept 1818
59. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 2, Sept 1818
60. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 3, 25 Aug 1820
61. Ibid, 38/6/9, 4 June 1821
62. Census
63. MDR passim: GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 6: RB
64. MDR 1827/7/177
65. MDR 1824/1/483; 1832/7/475; 1833/4/134; 1835/6/10: RB
66. Mary Cosh, The squares of Islington Part I: Finsbury and Clerkenwell, 1990, p.51
67. MDR 1825/8/359: GA, D3549, 38/9/286: RB
68. MDR 1874/28/115–117: GA, D3549, 38/7/2
69. IBC
70. GA, D3549, 38/4/11: MDR 1833/1/419; 1832/2/19; 1832/4/728: RB
71. MDR 1833/3/309: RB
72. MDR 1840/9/838: RB
73. GA, D3549, 38/6/12
74. Ibid, 38/6/2, pts 3 & 4
75. Ibid, 38/6/9
76. Ibid, 38/6/8: MDR 1840/5/355–6: RB
77. Ibid, 38/6/9, 29 Jan 1829
78. MDR 1831/1/620: GA, D3549, 38/6/9, 4 March 1830
79. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 5
80. Ibid, 38/6/9, 29 Nov 1829
81. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 7, 4 Dec 1829
82. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 7, 24 Oct 1829
83. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 7, 10 Dec 1829
84. Ibid, 38/6/9, 21 Jan 1830
85. Ibid, 38/6/9, 4 March, 8 Aug 1830
86. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 10, 13 July 1829; 38/4/12: MDR 1831/2/101; 1831/7/672: RB
87. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 10, 13 July 1830
88. www.oldbaileyonline.org: Australian Dictionary of Biography, sub James Blackburn
89. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 10, 1 Jan 1831
90. MDR 1832/2/377; 1833/1/420
91. RB
92. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pts 15, 16; 38/4/11: 1841 Census
93. MDR 1831/2/695–6; 1831/4/785; 1831/5/749; 1834/6/ 748: RB: GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 10
94. Census
95. Daily Telegraph, 30 Sept 1995, p. 17
96. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 12
97. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 5; 38/6/2, pt 7
98. RB
99. Ibid: 1841 Census
100. ODNB: Census
101. GA, D3549, 38/6/9; 38/6/2, pts 7,10,24
102. Ibid, 38/4/10; 38/6/2, pt 13; 38/6/9, 24 Oct 1832; 38/6/10, 18 June 1833
103. The Society of the Sisters of Bethany 1866–1966, 1966, pp.2–5: Boucher, pp.243–5
104. Information from Mr Paul Joyce: BAL, Drawings Collection, PA664/4
105. Andrew Saint, Richard Norman Shaw, 1976, pp.165–7, 189,273,323,412,454
106. BAL, Drawings Collection, PB457/2/1, 463/10: DSR: B, 8 Nov 1884, p.639: BN, 5 Jan 1883, p.10; 11 May 1883, p.654
107. BN, 5 Jan 1883, p. 10: B, 8 Nov 1884, p.639: BAL, Drawings Collection, PB463/4/2
108. GA, D3549, 38/4/5
109. BAL, Drawings Collection, PB457/2/2–7
110. DSR
111. Information from Fr Anthony Symondson, SJ
112. BN, 18 Sep 1896, pp.413ff: The Work of Ernest Newton RA, 1924, pp.22–7
113. DSR
114. The Society of the Sisters of Bethany 1866–1966, 1966, pp. 20–1
115. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/093756
116. www.users.globalnet.co.uk/pencot.history.htm
117. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 5, 6 Aug 1824
118. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 5
119. Ibid, 38/6/9
120. MDR 1829/9/141; 1830/3/506; 1831/1/345; 1835/2/ 559; 1846/6/67–8: RB
121. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 6, 26 Feb 1827
122. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 10
123. RB
124. Census
125. MDR 1832/2/3: RB
126. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pts 4,6: MDR 1827/1/547
127. RB: 1851 Census
128. RB: 1841 Census
129. Herbert Spencer, An Autobiography, 1904, vol.1, pp.302,312
130. GA, D3549, 38/4/14; 38/7/2
131. Ibid, 36/7/9; 38/6/6
132. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 7
133. The Times, 31 March 1840, p.8d
134. MDR 1835/3/341; 1839/9/437,455; 1845/1/598,696; 1845/2/366: RB
135. MDR 1834/5/559; 1845/1/360: RB
136. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 13
137. RB
138. MDR: RB
139. MDR 1840/1/551: RB
140. MDR 1840/1/551: GA, D3549, 38/4/12; 38/4/15
141. MDR 1874/13/45–7; 1874/16/476; 1874/19/768–9
142. POD
143. The Times, 26 Sept 1835 p.1c
144. Laura Hain Friswell, James Hain Friswell, A Memoir, 1898, pp.16–18,65,74
145. Leonée Ormond, George Du Maurier, 1969, pp.24–32
146. MDR 1839/6/748; 1841/7/801: EH, Historians' file ISL 139: GA, D3549, 38/7/2: 1861 Census
147. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/076679: DSR
148. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/26/1
149. GA, D3549, 38/4/14: F. W. Willcocks, Spa Fields Chapel and its Associations, 1886, pp.83–5
150. GA, D3549, 38/4/14: Endowed Charities (County of London), vol.iii, 1900, pp.65–6: B, 15 Aug 1885, p.243
151. Willcocks, pp.83–5,108
152. Ibid, pp.89,94–5,104: B, 20 Nov 1886, p.727
153. Willcocks, pp.95,108,111: Boucher, pp.241–2
154. GA, D3549, 38/7/7
155. Ibid
156. Ibid
157. Recorded on the back of a photo of Ashwell's design, now in possession of Jane Wainwright, by the late Clive Wainwright who had the story from the Gloucester Archivist, Irving Gray
158. Country Life, 28 Jan 1939, p.94
159. GA, D3549, 38/7/7
160. MDR 1829/5/268; 1834/6/77: GA, D3549, 38/4/9: RB
161. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 7
162. MDR 1831/7/64–5: RB
163. GA, D3549, 38/6/10, 26 Sept 1832: MDR 1840/1/184
164. RB: 1841 Census
165. GA, D3549, 38/4/9
166. Ibid, 38/6/12, pt 16
167. Census
168. LMA, Acc/1953/c/1100, 1102,1135: DSR
169. LMA, Acc/1953/c/1158
170. Pinks, p. 571
171. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 7, Nov 1827—Jan 1828
172. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 7, 20 March, 15 May, 31 July, 24 Oct 1829
173. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 12, 18 June 1835
174. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 10, plan of 13 July 1830
175. Ibid, 38/6/2, pt 16, 17 Sept 1840; pt 17, Nov—Dec 1840
176. Ibid, 38/4/5
177. MDR 1842/8/385
178. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 16
179. RB
180. MDR
181. Ibid
182. GA, D3549, 38/6/8
183. MDR 1842/8/385
184. The Times, 6 Sept 1844, p.3
185. MDR 1873/25/968–972; 1874/5/132–40
186. DSR
187. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B236, p.31
188. G. E. Mitton, The Fascination of London: Clerkenwell and St Luke's, 1906, p.74: GA, D3549, 38/7/3, pt 2
189. CERC, Church Commissioners' files 18196,18196A
190. Arnold Bennett, Riceyman Steps, 1923, Chapter 10
191. Census
192. Pinks, p.vii
193. ODNB
194. L. Muravyova and I. Sivolap-Kaftanova, Lenin in London, 1981, p.48
195. Mary Cosh, The squares of Islington Part I: Finsbury and Clerkenwell, 1990, p. 50
196. GA, D3549, 38/7/3, pt 1
197. Ibid, 38/6/9, 23 April 1828
198. Pinks, p.705
199. GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 7, 30 March 1829
200. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 18196
201. Ibid
202. Sir John Soane's Museum, correspondence, I.L.3.1–2
203. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 18196
204. Pinks, p. 573
205. Ecclesiologist, vol.xviii, 1860, p.262
206. Church Times, 29 Sept 1882
207. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 18196
208. ILHC, unsourced press cutting, 1 Jan 1834
209. Boucher, pp.56–64
210. LMA, P76/PHI/24/1
211. Ecclesiologist, vol.xviii, 1860, p.262: Guardian 1 Feb 1860: B, 21 Jan 1860, p.48; 4 Feb 1860, p.99
212. BN, 20 Jan 1860, p.44
213. LPL, ICBS file 07076: LMA, P76/PHI/24/1: CERC, Church Commissioners' file 18319/89: B, 5 Aug 1871, p.612; 2 Dec 1871, p.949
214. B, 10 Nov 1894: POD
215. BAL Archives, Comper MSS, CoJ/85/7
216. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 101268; Boucher, pp.65–74
217. Arnold Bennett, Riceyman Steps, 1923, Chapter 10
1. GL, MS 14420
2. Survey of London, vol.xxiv, 1952, pp.102,104 and passim
3. Survey of London, vol.xxiv, 1952
4. Cromwell, p.35, Pinks, p.557
5. Survey of London, vol.xxiv, 1952, pp.66–8: Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert (eds), The London Encyclopaedia, 1983 edn, p.32
6. GA, D3549, 38/1/11: LMA, MR/B/C/1807/032
7. Pinks, p.523
8. TNA, IR58/42934/1319
9. PE, Ledger 1764; Leases 1776–9: MDR 1779/5/416; 1783/4/121; 1784/4/199–201; 1785/1/439; 1785/3/ 167–8; 1785/5/267; 1786/3/504: RB
10. Mary Cosh, 'Clockmaker Extraordinary: The Career of Alexander Cumming', in Country Life, 12 June 1969, pp.1528–35: ODNB: RB: MDR 1790/8/470–1: OS of 1871–4
11. MDR 1784/4/201: RB: Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England. London except the Cities of London and Westminster, 1952, p.126
12. MDR 1787/7/240
13. MDR 1788/1/494; 1788/2/504; 1788/4/456; 1788/5/ 117–118,194; 1788/7/207–8,445; 1789/1/256; 1790/1/ 248; 1790/2/157–8
14. TNA, IR58/42933/1293–1300; IR58/42934/1300–26: Pevsner, op.et loc.cit.
15. Camden Local Studies & Archive Centre, cutting in Heal Collection
16. RB: MDR 1790/7/257; 1791/9/366
17. RB
18. GL, MS 14420/37, 14420/39, 14420/42: LMA, Acc/ 1953/C/679
19. GL, MS 14420/43: LMA, Acc/1953/C/679
20. ILHC, Trustees of the Highgate & Hampstead Roads Mins
21. MDR: LMA, MJ/SP/1790/04/036,037: Linda Clarke, Building Capitalism, 1992, p. 132
22. GL, MS 14420/43: MDR 1791/3/34; 1791/6/422; 1791/9/281: LMA, Acc/1953/C/0679
23. LMA, Acc/1953/C/0679
24. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 5 July 1791
25. Camden Local Studies & Archive Centre, St Pancras Vestry Mins, 20 Feb 1800; 16 July 1802
26. GL, MS 14420 (Cantlows Court Book 1822–33)
27. Camden Local Studies & Archives Centre, undated cutting: Walter Thornbury, Old and New London, vol.ii, 1897, p.423
28. www.oldbaileyonline.org
29. LMA, Acc/1953/C/0893.
30. GA, D3549, 38/6/2
31. RB: MDR 1829/2/203
32. GA, D3549, 38/6/2
33. Ibid, 38/4/5
34. B, 13 Dec 1862, p.891: LMA, Acc/3263/002
35. B, 13 Dec 1862, p.891, MBW Mins, 29 May 1863, p.49; 13 Nov 1863, p. 1022
36. B, 20 May 1865, p.361: LMA, Acc/3263/002
37. IBC
38. ODNB
39. PE, Cash Book 1832–5, memo by William Vokes; loose note in Rental Book 1805
40. DSR: Goad insurance plans: Letterhead in PE, Estate Office Correspondence, 1910
41. LMA, MBW/BA/36868
42. TNA, IR58/42933/1293: OS of 1894–6
43. Goad insurance plans: TNA, IR58/42933/1293
44. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, pp.182–3
45. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/028175
46. MBW Mins, 13 Feb 1885, pp.272–3
47. T. C. Barker and Michael Robbins, A History of London Transport, vol.2, 1974, pp.100–1
48. ILHC, cuttings L1.7
49. IBC
50. Ibid
51. Ibid
52. Ibid
53. Cromwell, p.320: Pinks, p.574
54. GA, D3549, 38/3/2, p.27
55. Ibid, pt 3
56. MDR 1838/9/285–6: RB
57. Handbill in possession of the Survey of London
58. LMA, A/CSC/809
59. LMA, MBW/BA/24075
60. DSR
61. Ibid: TNA, IR58/42935/1428–9
62. IBC
63. RB: MDR 1838/9/286: IBC
64. DSR: LCC Mins, 11 Feb 1913, p.288
65. IBC
66. Ibid
67. LMA, Acc/3263/002
68. Pinks, p. 559
69. TNA, IR58/42934/1392–1400; IR58/42935/1401–2
70. DSR: IBC
71. MDR 1834/5/612; 1845/1/695: GA, D3549, 38/6/2, pt 2: RB
72. MDR 1874/8/1008; 1874/10/163–5: DSR: TNA, IR58/ 42934/1387–91: IBC
73. Information from the Metropolitan Police
74. The Job, 4 Sept 1983: London Topographical Society Newsletter, no. 35, Nov 1992, pp.3–6: Pinks, p.579
75. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/14
76. The Job, 2 Oct 1987: Pinks, p.572
77. GLAAS Quarterly Review, Aug—Oct 2005, pp.6–7
78. ILN, 22 May 1847: GLAAS Quarterly Review, Aug—Oct 2005, pp.6–7
79. TNA, MEPO 5/516; MEPO 14/35: B, 30 April 1870, p.354
80. TNA, MEPO 5/516; MEPO 14/35: GLAAS Quarterly Review, Aug—Oct 2005, pp.6–7
81. LMA, Acc/1953/C/0744,0929
82. A. Stuart Gray, Edwardian Architecture, 1985, p.132
83. Highbury & Islington Express, 31 Dec 1998
84. TNA, MEPO 5/516
85. Ibid: LMA Acc/1953/C/0744
86. Islington Gazette, 6 March 1987, 5 March 1992: Metropolitan Police Directorate of Information
87. TNA, MEPO 5/516: The Job, 9 Dec 1988: IBC
88. Highbury & Islington Express, 31 Dec 1998
89. Information supplied by Drivers Jonas: IBC
90. IBC
91. LMA, Acc/2558/NR/1/15; Acc/1953/C/892
92. IBC
93. Ibid
94. PE, Leases, 1885
95. DSR
96. Ibid
97. IBC
98. LMA/4013/01/01: B, 26 March 1864, p.232; 22 July 1865, p. 530
99. J. N. Tarn, 'The Improved Industrial Dwellings Company', in Transactions of the London & Middlesex Archaeological Society, vol.22, 1968–70, pp.43–59: J. N. Tarn, Five per Cent Philanthropy, 1973, pp.50–6
100. Camden Local Studies & Archive Centre, cutting in Heal Collection
101. Ibid: LMA 4013/01/01
102. TNA, IR58/42933/1239: LMA, MBW/BA/37566
103. IBC
104. PE, Leases 1885: DSR: LMA, MBW/BA/37566; MBW/BA/38584
105. TNA, IR58/42933/1260
106. Goad insurance plans: POD: TNA, IR58/42933/1259: DSR: IBC
107. ILHC, cuttings L1.7
108. PE, Leases 1890–1: DSR
109. TNA, IR58/42933/1213–22: DSR
110. ILHC, cuttings
111. IBC: DSR
112. IBC: BAL, Biog. File
113. IBC: POD
114. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, plan
115. Herbert Frey, Royal Guide to London Charities, 1917, cited in www.victorianlondon.org: VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, p. 123
116. IBC
117. Ibid
118. Ibid
119. TNA, IR58/42932/1210
120. IBC
121. TNA, IR58/42933/1206–1209: IBC
122. IBC: DSR: British Journal of Nursing, 14 Feb 1914, p.143
123. IBC: DSR: The Architect, 5 Dec 1913, p.533
124. British Journal of Nursing, 29 Nov 1913, p.455
125. Ibid: The Graphic, 29 Nov 1913, pp.1008–9
126. British Journal of Nursing, 29 Nov 1913, p.455; 14 Feb 1914, p.143
127. Warwick University Modern Records Centre, YWCA Archive, Mss 243/88/4
128. IBC
129. LCC Mins, 22 Oct 1946, p.579
130. LCC Mins, 29 April 1947, p.258; 13 May 1947, p.293
131. LCC Mins, 14–15 May 1957, p.279
132. Information from Elisabetta Versari, Susan Lawrence Reception Centre
133. DSR: TNA, IR58/42932/1200–1
134. DSR
135. IBC
136. DSR
137. IBC: AJ, 17 May 2001, p.24: Blueprint, Sept 2002, pp. 36–99
138. GA, D3549, 38/6/2
139. Ibid, 38/6/8: MDR 1842/8/385
140. DSR: information from Mr Neil Burton
141. POD
142. MDR 1873/25/968–972; 1874/5/132–40
143. B, 31 July 1875, p.698: Hanslip Fletcher, Changing London: A Book of Sketches, London, 1924: Boucher
144. DSR: POD: Census: TNA, IR58/42935/1409–11
145. OS: POD: Census: TNA, IR58/42935/1413
146. Hanslip Fletcher, op. cit.: TNA, IR58/42935/1412
147. POD: DSR
148. The Times, 22 March 1924, p.98
149. DSR
150. ODNB
151. LMA, Acc 2558/NR/1/16; Acc/1953/C/773,923, 925–6,949: DSR: Mary Cosh, The squares of Islington Part I: Finsbury and Clerkenwell, 1990, pp.73–4
152. LMA, Acc 2558/NR/1/15–16; Acc 1953/C/955
153. P. Temple, Islington Chapels, 1992, pp. 44–5: NMR, Buildings Index file 77326
154. Ibid: DSR
155. Ibid
156. LCC Mins, 26–27 July 1910, pp.346–7; 24 Oct 1911, pp.816–17; 21 Nov 1911, p.662: LMA, LCC Education Committee Mins, 25 June 1913, pp.1190–4; Acc/1953/ C/773–4: TNA, ED21/11431: DSR
157. TNA, ED21/11431,34664
158. LMA, LCC Education Committee Mins, 28 May 1952, p.445: ILEA Education Committee Mins, 17 July 1979, pp.94–5: ILEA Mins, 1 Nov 1983, p.128
159. LCC Mins, 20 Oct 1959, pp.665–6
160. B, 19 June 1964, p.1276
161. LCC Mins, 2 June 1964, p.610: GLC Mins, 22 Feb 1966, pp.127–8: Architectural Review, Jan 1965, p.41; Dec 1969, pp.460–2: AJ, 1 Oct 1969, pp.804–6
162. Information kindly supplied by John Partridge
163. Howell Killick Partridge & Amis: Architecture, 1981, p.13
164. Islington Gazette, 31 July 1987; 14 Dec 1989; 6 Sept 1990
165. Islington Gazette, 27 Jan 1994: IBC: information kindly supplied by John Partridge
166. RB
167. PE, Estate Office Correspondence, 1916–18: TNA, IR58/42933/1223
168. TNA, IR58/42933/1224–7
169. TNA, IR58/42933/1238: MBW Mins, 23 Oct 1888, p.512; 30 Oct 1888, p.595
170. LMA, GLC/DG/AE/ROL/45/038
171. DSR
172. IBC
1. MDR: PE, leases; 'Islington Estate' Account Book 1774–91
2. Pinks, p.13
3. J. Maclaren Cobban, A Reverend Gentleman, 1891, p.212
4. PE, Reports by George Baxter in Leases 1896,1898
5. T. C. Barker and Michael Robbins, A History of London Transport, vol.1, 1963, p.263; vol.2, 1974, pp.100–1
6. PE, Ledger 1764, p. 133
7. Cromwell, pp.390–2
8. Samuel Lewis, junior, The History and Topography of the Parish of Saint Mary, Islington, 1842, p. 542
9. PE, 'Wood 1695–1711', mortgages of 26 June 1695, 4 Nov 1698; assignments of 4 Nov 1698, 1 July 1700, 19 June 1704
10. PE, Penton, 'Wood 1695–1711,' contract for sale to Henry Penton, 25 March 1710 and Lease & Release, 28 March 1710
11. VCH, Middlesex, vol. viii, 1985, pp.60–1
12. PE, 'Wood 1695–1711', transcript of manorial roll, 27 Nov 1711
13. Biographical information mainly from Elizabeth Wood and Graham Penton, 'The Pentons of Winchester', in Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society Section Newsletter, Spring 1991: PE: National Register of Archives 36252
14. PE, Wills, will of Henry Penton, 31 Aug 1713: Survey of London, vol.xxv, 1955, p.82
15. MDR 1785/1/427; 1787/2/97–8,488
16. ILHC, cuttings L3.02
17. PE, Penton Family Documents, 1890–99
18. PE, Account Book 1774–91
19. PE, Account Book 1814–34; Estate Office Correspondence: B, 23 April 1881, p.521; 17 Jan 1913, p.98
20. PE, Penton Family Correspondence
21. EH, NMR, Jackson Stops Collection SA230, auction particulars: The Times, 2 May 1951, p.3d: LMA, AC/72/013 (uncatalogued)
22. VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, p.73
23. PE, Islington Ledger 1783
24. Pinks, p.533
25. Ibid, pp.491–2
26. This account is based on RB: TNA, E179/143/370, r.52: PE, 'Wood 1695–1711': ILHC, 'Census of Clerkenwell', 1677 (transcript of BL, Sloane MS/3928 by T. Veevers— Thompson, 1929); sketch plan of New Road, c. 1760: Cromwell, pp.414–16: Pinks, pp.516–18,530–3: Mary Cosh, A History of Islington, 2005, pp.63,87–8
27. Cromwell, p.415
28. Ibid
29. PE, Leases 1744–75: MDR 1763/4/96–98; 1769/2/293
30. PE, Islington Ledger 1783, p.35
31. PE, Ledger 1764, pp.1–3,16
32. PE, Account Book, 1774–91
33. The Times, 27 Aug 1790, p.4d.
34. A. Faulkner, The Regent's Canal: London's Hidden Waterway, 2005, pp.28,56–7,155–6
35. TNA, C111/76; C13/3065/77; MFC 1/138: VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, pp.25–6
36. The Times, 1 May 1891, p. 1a; 3 March 1892, p. 1a
37. G. A. Sala, Twice Around the Clock, 1859, p.286
38. ILHC, Box of Vestry Correspondence, 1870s
39. B, 12 June 1858, p.416; 12 Nov 1859, p.176
40. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B236, pp. 173–9; B353, pp. 183,185: Jerry White, London in the Nineteenth Century, 2007, p.301
41. Fenner Brockway, Towards Tomorrow, 1977, p.23
42. PE, Estate Office Correspondence 1908–10
43. Ibid, 1907–8
44. Ibid, 1912–13
45. Ibid, 1912–13
46. Ibid, 1914–15
47. Ibid, 1911
48. Ibid, 1914–15
49. Ibid, 1912–13; Busaco Street papers in Box 98
1. For general accounts of the New Road see F. H. W. Sheppard, London Government in St. Marylebone 1688–1835, 1958, pp.94–101: Catherine Durant, 'London's First Northern By—Pass', in Camden History Review, vol.15, 1988, pp.15–19
2. MBW Mins, 8 May 1857, p.362
3. Journals of the House of Commons, vol.27, p.473
4. Supplement to the Gentleman's Magazine, 1755, p.577
5. Journals of the House of Commons, vol.27, p.344: Supplement to the Gentleman's Magazine, 1755, p.577
6. ILHC, Trustees of Islington Turnpike General Mins, 13 Aug 1755, 14 Jan 1756
7. Journals of the House of Commons, vol.27, p.344: VCH, Middlesex, vol.ix, 1989, pp.226–33: TNA, PROB11/917
8. ILHC, Trustees of Islington Turnpike General Mins, 28 May 1756
9. Gentleman's Magazine, 13 Nov 1769, p.559
10. ODNB: John H. Appleby, 'Charles Dingley, Projector, and his Limehouse Sawmill', in London Topographical Record, vol.xxvii, 1995, pp.179–93
11. Journals of the House of Commons, vol.27, p.475
12. Sheppard, p.97: Appleby, pp.179–80
13. London Topographical Record, vol.xvii, 1936, p.68
14. Supplement to the Gentleman's Magazine, 1755, pp.577–8
15. 29 Geo. III c.88, local
16. ILHC, Trustees of Islington Turnpike General Mins, 13 Aug 1755
17. Ibid, 9 June, 14 July, 11 Aug 1756: Sheppard, p.98
18. ILHC, Trustees of Islington Turnpike General Mins, March 1758
19. Journal of the London Society, no.341, Jan 1958, p.12: B, 8 Aug 1857, p.453
20. ILHC, Trustees of Islington Turnpike General Mins, 11 Aug 1756—March 1758 passim: B, 8 Aug 1857, p.453; 10 Jan 1874, p.21
21. Journals of the House of Commons, vol.27, p.476: Sheppard, p.212: Pinks, p.493
22. ILHC, Trustees of Islington Turnpike General Mins, 11 Aug 1756, March 1757, June 1757, 14 Sept 1757: Journals of the House of Commons, vol.27, p.531
23. VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, p.73: PE: MDR 1763/4/ 96–8; 1769/2/293
24. London Journal, vol. 5, no.2, 1979, pp.181–93
25. MDR 1764/1/498
26. PE Ledger: MDR 1768/3/45–6
27. MDR 1783, 1784
28. MDR 1790
29. 7 Geo. IV, c.cxlii, para CXL
30. POD
31. Ibid
32. MBW Mins, 14 March 1856, p.70; 23 May 1856, p.206; 26 Sept 1856, p.482; 18 Nov 1856, p.622; 9 Oct 1857, p.720
33. B, 18 Oct 1856, pp.565,574; 14 Dec 1861, p.866
34. 7 Geo. IV, c.cxlii, para cxl
35. MBW Mins, 31 July 1863, p.769; 22 Sept 1865, p.1038; 14 Oct 1887, p.552: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/035964
36. POD
37. TNA, IR58/42872/1028: ILHC, photograph of 1963
38. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/013811: ILHC, photograph of 1962: IBC: TNA, IR58/4296/585
39. TNA, IR58/42872; IR58/43048
40. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/032284
41. POD
42. IBC
43. Ibid: ILHC, cuttings L1.7
44. MDR 1818/4/126
45. e.g. MDR 1819/4/616; 1819/6/61; 1820/4/327; 1822/3/ 49–50; 1823/9/629
46. TNA, J90/1647: RB: MDR
47. POD
48. MDR 1818/4/126: VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, p. 26
49. LMA, HFCA/P9/21; HFCS/96; HFCS/108, ff.234–5, 244–51
50. RB: LMA, MR/PLT/1757–1814: GL, MS 11936 passim
51. The Times, 26 Nov 1821, p.3a; 23 Aug 1824, p.2a
52. The Times, 25 Oct 1819, p.1a; 25 Dec 1819, p.1a
53. POD: ILHC, cuttings L1.7
54. POD: RB: TNA, IR58/42871/990–3: ILHC, FBC Building Act applications, vol.4
55. Bevis Hillier, Young Betjeman, 1988, p.6: IBC
56. IBC: PE, Box 98, 'Bundles Various Dates': B, 3 Nov 1933, p.715
57. IBC
58. Ibid: ILHC, cuttings L1.7
59. IBC: Islington Gazette, 22 Nov 1990, p. 19
60. IBC
61. MDR 1818/8/96: The Times, 26 Oct 1835, p.4b: TNA, PROB11/1864
62. POD
63. Ibid
64. IBC: plaque on building
65. MDR 1787/5/27: PE, Deeds of the Penton Arms 1862–91: B, 23 Aug 1862, p.612; 1 Nov 1890, p. 353
66. ODNB
67. MDR 1818/8/96: ILHC, Claremont Chapel Minute Book 1822–48: Colvin, p.1019
68. ILHC, Claremont Chapel Minute Book 1822–48; cuttings L2.622: Cromwell, p.420
69. Boucher, p.229: ILHC, cuttings L2.622
70. ILHC, Claremont Chapel Minute Book 1838–48
71. Ibid, 1851–7
72. Boucher, p.230: Pinks, pp.547–8: ILHC, cuttings L2.622
73. Pinks, p.547
74. B, 9 June 1860, p.370; 8 Jan 1876, p.30
75. LMA, N/C/5/1: B, 11 Oct 1902, p.328: DSR
76. Catholic Herald, 20 Sept 1991, p.8: ILHC, cuttings L1.7: Journal of the RIBA, Nov 1991, pp. 52–4
77. Information kindly provided by the Crafts Council
78. MBW Mins, 14 Oct 1887, p.552
79. RB
80. POD: ILHC, photographs
81. ILHC, cuttings L4.12: Colvin, p. 522
82. MDR 1788/2/2,5,7,332: RB
83. MDR 1790/3/387: RB
84. MDR 1790/2/125; 1790/3/384–5
85. MDR 1788/1/432; 1788/2/331
86. RB: Pinks, pp.518–22
87. RB: POD: MDR 1790/2/125; 1790/9/319
88. POD
89. Ibid: ODNB
90. POD
91. IBC
92. Ibid
93. Ibid: POD: Goad insurance plans
94. IBC
95. Ibid: DSR: POD
96. B, 2 Sept 1938, p.445: DSR
97. RB
98. Cromwell, p.414: RB: MDR 1795/4/597
99. RB
100. Ibid: PE, Ledger 1764: MDR 1788/2/344
101. DSR: MBW Mins, 29 Oct 1875, p.443: ILHC, cuttings L4.6
102. MDR 1768/3/45–6: RB
103. Cromwell, p.415
104. ILHC, Deeds of the Belvidere Tavern 1784–1925
105. ILHC, handbill of c. 1769 (reprinted in H. A. Rogers, Views of ... pleasure gardens of London, 1896)
106. Islington Council leaflet, The Angel Trail, 1988
107. See Mark Girouard, Victorian Pubs, 1984, p.47: G.A. Sala, Twice Round the Clock, 1859, p.287: The Welcome Guest, 1858, p.328
108. Illustrated News of the World, 22 May 1858: Clerkenwell News, 19 April 1856, advert; 5 Dec 1858, advert
109. PE, papers in 'Leases Jan—April 1880'
110. POD
111. Ibid: RB
112. RB
113. DSR
114. MDR 1869/20/143: MBW Mins, 6 Aug 1869, p.971: TNA, IR58/42872/1026–31
115. MDR 1788/2/344; 1795/4/597: PE, Rent Roll
116. DSR
117. POD
118. PE, Deeds of the Welsh Bull, 1866–1911: DSR: RB: POD
119. DSR
120. TNA, IR58/42872/140–3: PE, Estate Office Correspondence, 1907–8
121. POD
122. IBC
123. Ibid
124. RB: MDR 1788/3/77; 1790/3/449; 1790/8/300–7: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: The Times, 27 July 1797, p.4a; 4 April 1820, p.4d: GL, Ms 11936 passim
125. IBC
126. Ian Nairn, Nairn's London, 1982 edn, p. 152
127. 17 Geo. III c.63: Cromwell, p.401
128. MDR 1788/3/77
129. Cromwell, p.405
130. J. P. Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, vol.iii, 1803, p.242
131. MDR 1789/3/410: Pinks, pp.512–13
132. Cromwell, pp.402–3
133. ILHC, St James's Clerkenwell Trustees' Mins, 1790: 30 Geo. III c. 69
134. Cromwell, p.405
135. Westminster Gazette, 13 Aug 1920
136. Cromwell, pp.405–7: Edward Walford, Old and New London, vol.ii, 1897, p.286: Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England. London Except the Cities of London and Westminster, 1952, p.227
137. Daily Mirror, 12 Jan 1959
138. ILHC, St James's Clerkenwell Trustees' Mins
139. B, 10 Jan 1874, p.22
140. B, 23 May 1874, p.444; 20 June 1874, p.533
141. GL, MS 21,544/285: B, 27 June 1896, p.566: ILHC, cuttings L2.523
142. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 45038/1
143. Ibid
144. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 45038/3
145. Architect & Building News, 27 Jan 1933, p.125
146. St James's Clerkenwell Vestry, letter from London Diocesan Fund to Mr Gribble (Islington Borough Group Planning Officer), 16 Feb 1977
147. ILHC, cuttings L2.523
148. Private Eye, 11 Feb 1983, p.7
149. AJ, 6 June 1990
150. ILHC, cuttings L5.5; PE, Land Tax assessments in 'Leases 1800–1809': Cromwell, p.411
151. Evangelical Magazine, June 1808, p.271
152. Ibid, June 1811, p.232; July 1823, p.291
153. Ibid, Dec 1804, p. 547
154. Ibid, Feb 1807, p.91; Nov 1807, p.531
155. Ibid, Aug 1807, p.381; Nov 1808, p.490
156. Ibid, June 1814, p.237; June 1815, pp.246–7
157. Ibid, Nov 1808, p.490
158. Cromwell, p.412
159. Evangelical Magazine, Nov 1808, p.490; June 1810, p.250
160. Ibid, June 1820, p.250
161. Cromwell, p.412
162. Evangelical Magazine, Jan 1812, p.35
163. PE, correspondence in 'Leases January—April 1880': Hackney Gazette, 28 Jan 1977, letter from Stoke Newington District Reference Librarian
164. B, 28 Feb 1885, p.325: RB
165. RB: B, 3 Nov 1888, p.329
166. B, 28 Feb 1885, p.325: MBW Mins, 7 Nov 1884, p.640; 14 Nov 1884, p.674: POD
167. MDR 1783/2/308; 1784/3/449–51,476,479; 1785/1/290; 1785/5/269; 1787/3/134,139; 1787/5/307; 1787/7/ 144,237,259; 1788/1/336
168. Ibid
169. ODNB
170. POD
171. Ibid: Margaret E. Bryant, The London experience of secondary education, 1986, p.157
172. PE, estate map, 1907
173. POD
174. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/028175: Illustrated London Progress & Commerce, 1893, pp.240–1
175. POD: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/047761
176. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0693; GLC/AR/BR/17/035964: Chris Draper, Islington Cinemas & Film Studios, 1989, p.37
177. LCC bomb damage maps: OS, 1950s, 1960s edns: Goad insurance plans: POD
178. ILHC, cuttings L1.7: GL, ephemera, BI/PEN, T.1968
179. IBC: ILHC, cuttings L1.7
180. IBC
181. Footwear Organizer, May 1926
182. LMA, GLC/AR/BA/17/028175
183. Ibid, Thomas Lilley to W. E. Riley, 1 April 1910
184. LMA, GLC/AR/BA/17/028175: DSR: Academy Architecture, 1912 (ref. 1) , p. 114: Footwear Organizer, May 1926: Survey of London, vol.xlii, 1986, p.91
185. LMA, GLC/AR/BA/17/028175
186. Footwear Organizer, May 1926
187. LMA, GLC/AR/BA/17/028175: AJ, 20 Aug 1936, pp.234–7: Architect & Building News, 7 Aug 1936, pp.161–4: David Cottam, Sir Owen Williams, 1890–1969, 1986, pp.108–9: David Yeomans and David Cottam, The Engineer's Contribution to Contemporary Architecture: Sir Owen Williams, 2001, pp.128–9
188. Architect & Building News, 7 Aug 1936, p.163
189. AJ, 14 Jan 1937, p.101
190. LCC Mins, 25 July 1939, pp.160–1: LMA, GLC/AR/ BA/17/028175
191. Information from Northampton Museum
192. The Times, 10 April 1972, p.9c: ILHC, cuttings L1.7: IBC: Alec Forshaw, 20th Century Buildings in Islington, 2001, p. 69
193. ILHC, cuttings L1.7: Forshaw, op.et loc.cit.
194. IBC
195. Ibid
196. Information from Nido Student Living
197. MDR 1787/5/309; 1787/7/239,241; 1808/3/348–9
198. B, 12 April 1884, p.508: TNA, IR58/43023/220
199. David Braithwaite, Building in the Blood: The Story of Dove Brothers of Islington 1781–1981, 1981, p. 136
200. DSR: IBC: TNA, IR58/43058/3756–7
201. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/0687
202. Chris Draper, Islington Cinemas & Film Studios, 1989, p.38
203. IBC
204. Ibid: POD: www.terrynorm.ic24.net
205. POD: Goad insurance plans
206. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/032284: POD
207. POD: IBC: ILHC, cuttings
208. IBC
209. MDR 1818/4/126; 1819/4/616; 1819/6/61; 1820/4/327
210. TNA, IR58/42877/1557: MDR 1819/6/61
211. POD: TNA, IR58/42877/151–61
212. IBC
213. Ibid
214. Ibid
215. RB: MDR 1764/1/498; 1772/2/101; 1789/8/392: PE, Leases 1744–75
216. RB
217. PE, Ledger 1764; leases 1776–9: MDR 1779/5/416; 1783/4/121; 1784/4/199–201; 1785/1/439; 1785/3/ 167–8; 1785/5/267; 1786/3/504
218. POD
219. ILHC, cuttings
220. MDR 1817/5/531–2: POD: ILHC, PE, Ledger 1764, p.122; Rent Roll 1865–71, f.3; Estate Office Correspondence 1907–8: MBW Mins, 20 Nov 1863, pp.1057–8: TNA, IR58/42928/743
221. The Times, 27 June 1797, p.4a; 15 Jan 1824, p.4c: GL, MS 11936/479: POD
222. TNA, IR58/42928/719–41: POD
223. TNA, IR58/42928/719–20
224. B, 21 Nov 1924, p.832: LMA, Acc/1953/C/786,866,1012, 1161: ILHC, FBC Building Act applications, vol.4
225. DSR: IBC
226. IBC
227. POD: IBC: Goad insurance plans: B, 14 Dec 1934, p.1044
228. IBC: POD
229. IBC: ILHC, cuttings L1.7
230. IBC
231. Ibid
232. B, 7 June 1935, p.1080: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/076894: IBC: ILHC, cuttings L1.7
233. IBC
234. Information provided by T. P. Bennett Architects, SOAS and UCL
235. IBC
236. ODNB
237. e.g. MDR 1787/7/240; 1789/6/486: PE, Ledger 1764
238. RB: POD
239. POD
240. Ibid
241. TNA, IR58/42927/666–672: MDR 1887/6/863; 1887/ 30/14–15: B, 3 Nov 1888, p.329
242. PE, leases 1885, 1889; ILHC, cuttings L1.7: DSR
243. B, 5 Jan 1889, p.20: DSR
244. Censuses of 1891, 1901
245. BLPES, Booth survey notebooks, B353, p. 183
246. TNA, IR58/42927/656–99: PE, Estate Office Correspondence 1911
247. TNA, IR58/42927/634–5
248. POD
249. IBC
250. Ibid: ILHC, cuttings L1.7
251. Ibid
252. Ibid: promotional brochure
253. Congregational Year Book, 1856, p.271
254. Pinks, p.571: W. T. Owen (ed.), Capel Elfed, 1989, p.144
255. B, 26 Aug 1848, p.418: DSR
256. LMA, MBO/517
257. Pinks, p.571
258. Owen, p.144
259. ODNB
260. Congregational Year Book, 1904, p.148
261. Ibid, 1856, p.271
262. LMA, MBO/517: POD
263. DSR
1. RB
2. Cromwell, p.421
3. John Hodgkin, MS Autobiography, Wellcome Institute Library, WMS/PP/HO/e/C5, f.32
4. Pinks, p.533
5. MDR 1784/4/568–76: RB
6. MDR 1768/4/529–30; 1769/2/508–11: RB
7. POD
8. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 11615: ILHC, cuttings L2.523
9. POD: GL, MS 19224/635: BAL, Drawings Collection, PB1415/3/70–7
10. BAL, Drawings Collection, PB1415/3/1–69
11. DSR
12. B, 9 March 1872, p. 195: POD
13. B, 10 Sept 1887, p.381: POD
14. ODNB: RB: EH, blue plaque file 647
15. MDR 1784/4/570,571
16. ILHC, FBC Mins, 11 Oct 1932, p.398; 22 Nov 1932, p.485
17. Highbury & Islington Express, 31 March 2000, p.7
18. IBC: Islington Gazette, 22 July 1977: Building Design, 20 Jan 1978, p.13
19. IBC
20. PE, Estate Office Correspondence, May 1936
21. IBC
22. The Times, 15 Nov 1934, p.16d
23. IBC
24. Architect & Building News, 7 June 1967, p.983: www. londontransport.co.uk
25. Pinks, p.71
26. Clerkenwell Church Extension Trust papers, 1853–8
27. Pinks, pp. 515–16
28. Clerkenwell Church Extension Trust papers, letter from Courtenay, 13 July 1858
29. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 13193
30. Ibid, file 11615
31. ILHC, cuttings L2.523
32. MBW Mins, 9 Dec 1859, pp.778–9,847: BN, 6 April 1860, p.274
33. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 13193
34. Ecclesiologist, vol.xviii, 1860, p.257
35. Pinks, p.516
36. MBW Mins, 10 Aug 1860, p.585
37. Ibid, 25 Jan 1861, p.72
38. Proceedings in Chancery, Ecclesiastical Commissioners v. Vestry and Parish of St James and St John Clerkenwell, 1861
39. Pinks, p.516
40. The Times, 4 June 1861, p.4a
41. GL, MS 19224/635
42. B, 23 Aug 1862, p.612
43. ILHC, cuttings L2.523
44. GL, MS 19224/635
45. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 11615
46. Ibid: B, 27 July 1867, p.555
47. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 11615: The Times, 9 Oct 1869
48. GL, MS 19224/635: MBW Mins, 29 Sept 1882, p.418
49. CERC, Church Commissioners' file 11615: Frank Burden, Parish Church of St. Silas with All Saints and St. James Penton Street, Islington N1: A Brief Survey of the Past 118 Years, 1985
50. ILHC, cuttings L2.523
51. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/ES/115580: Burden, op.cit.: Michael Farrer, 'St Silas, Pentonville: A History' (unpublished typescript in church archives, 2005), pp.22–3
52. IBC
53. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/044048: Islington Gazette, 22 July 1927
54. IBC
55. PE, Leases, 1778 and 1783; Rent Roll, 1856–71: RB
56. PE, Leases, 1783; Rent Roll, 1856–71
57. MDR 1775/6/12
58. MDR 1781/4/298,299; 1785/1/289
59. MDR 1784/3/421
60. MDR 1775/4/340; 1780/4/341–4
61. PE, Salmon & Compasses deeds, 1856–1928: MBW Mins, 7 Aug 1874, p.254: IBC
62. MDR 1780/4/341: IBC
63. RB: TNA, E179/143/370, r.52: Supplement to the Gentleman's Magazine, 1755, p.577: MDR 1788/6/224: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808; Horwood's map: Pinks, pp.517–18
64. RB: PE, Leases: MDR 1779/1/283–4; 1779/5/417–9; 1780/3/69,70,160–1,508; 1782/4/499
65. RB: MDR, 1787/3/131; 1788/1/430: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808; Horwood's map
66. LMA, photographs
67. RB: MDR 1788/4/349; 1788/7/260–1; 1789/3/215–16; 1789/8/452: DSR
68. IBC
69. GL, MS 11936/459/867803; MS 11936/463/88196, 893858,901894; Ms 11936/475/927703,940727,944535: VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, p. 108: ODNB: C. Harris, Islington, 1974, p.82
70. POD: ODNB: Census: ILHC, Box of Vestry Correspondence, 1870s: PE, Estate Office Correspondence
71. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/014417
72. RB: MDR 1787/7/242
73. The Times, 17 Jan 1815, p.1; 26 Sept 1818, p.1: POD
74. POD: Pinks, p. 547
75. PE, Leases and other deeds: DSR
76. POD: ILHC, cuttings
77. ILHC, cuttings: Baumeister, Nov 1975, pp.975–8
78. IBC
79. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/014417
80. B, 7 April 1906, p.383: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/3334: P. Temple, Islington Chapels, 1992, pp.74–5
81. SBL Mins, 6 Oct 1872, p.650; 8 Oct 1873, p.997; 11 Feb 1874, p.275: TNA, ED21/11426: B, 11 Oct 1873, p.813: LMA, SBL/CON/R
82. TNA, ED21/11426
83. SBL Mins, 20 Feb 1896, p.1765: TNA, ED21/11426: DSR: LMA, SBL/CON/R
84. B, 17 Nov 1900, p.456: DSR: LMA, SBL/CON/R
85. ILEA Education Committee Mins, 14 Feb 1973, p.49
86. P. Temple, Islington Chapels, 1992, p.75
87. DSR
88. Ibid
89. Boucher, p.111
90. Boucher, pp.111–12: Michael Farrer, 'St Silas, Pentonville: A History' (unpublished typescript in church archives, 2005), pp.6–8
91. www.chrishobbs.com/tivertonpreedy.htm
92. Boucher, pp.111–12: Farrer, pp.9–12
93. PE, Box of bundles, 1902–8
94. The Times, 20 May 1901, p.9e; 3 Dec 1901, p.4f
95. Builders' Journal and Architectural Record, 14 May 1902, p.195: BN, 6 Dec 1901, p.762: B, 7 Dec 1901, p.515
96. Information from Sir Christopher White: J. Richard Judson, Corpus Rubenianum Ludwig Burchard, Part VI, 2000, pp.205–7
97. DSR
98. Ibid
99. Boucher, p. 112
100. Ibid, pp.113–14
101. ILHC, cuttings: IBC
102. POD: DSR: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/014417: IBC
103. DSR: POD: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/014417
104. POD: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/17/014417: PE, Estate Office Correspondence: IBC
105. IBC
106. POD: OS: DSR
107. Islington Gazette, 4 April 1985: www.brooklynmuseum.org
108. IBC
109. Ibid
110. TNA, IR58/42866/468: ILHC, Deeds: POD
111. IBC: www.aitchgroup.co.uk
112. DSR: Goad insurance plans
113. IBC
114. RB: MDR 1787/7/234,236: POD
115. MDR 1781/2/351; 1781/4/161: ILHC, Deeds: RB: POD: DSR
116. DSR: POD
117. POD: IBC
118. IBC
119. Ibid
120. DSR: Goad insurance plans: IBC
121. RB: MDR 1787/4/153–4
122. Pinks, pp.686–7
123. MDR 1787/8/290; 1788/1/431–2; 1788/6/223: RB: DSR
124. IBC
125. Ibid
126. DSR
127. IBC: www.nc-architects.com
128. IBC
129. Clerkenwell Press, 14 Nov 1885: PE, Estate Office Correspondence and deeds
130. MDR 1787/5/308
131. MDR 1775/4/340
132. MDR: PE, Deeds and Rental Ledgers
133. MDR 1790/3/390
134. RB: IBC
135. RB: DSR: PE: ODNB
136. Times, 4 Nov 1818, p.4b: RB: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: PE, estate map, 1840/1: IBC
137. MDR 1787/3/137
138. RB: IBC
139. Edwin J. Marrs jr, The Letters of Charles and Mary Anne Lamb, vol.1, 1796–1801, 1975, pp.xxxix—xl, 117, 169n: Pinks, p.546: C. Harris, Islington, 1974, pp.70–4: RB: ODNB
140. MDR 1789/1/452–3
141. RB
142. PE, Bundle of papers with Leases, Jan—Oct 1883: Cromwell, pp.284–7,421: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808
143. RB: IBC
144. OS of 1894–6: DSR
145. DSR: PE, Leases 1885, 1892: IBC
146. B, 14 Nov 1885, p.705
147. DSR: date—stone
148. PE, Estate Office Correspondence, 1907–8
149. PE: DSR: OS of 1871–4
150. DSR
151. Ibid: PE, Estate Office Correspondence: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/25/007767
152. DSR: PE, Estate Office Correspondence: IBC
153. MBW Mins: PE, Estate Office Correspondence; deeds: DSR: POD
154. POD
155. Finsbury Official Guide, 1954
156. ODNB
157. Bridget Williams, The Best Butter in the World: A History of Sainsbury's, 1994, p.20: Mary Cosh, A History of Islington, 2005, p.224
158. Williams, pp.22,31: POD
159. IBC: Williams, p. 150
160. J. Sainsbury plc, press release 25 Nov 1985
161. Marks & Spencer archives: IBC
162. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/06/080303: IBC: Maurice Corina, Pile It High, Sell It Cheap—The Authorised Biography Of Sir John Cohen, Founder Of Tesco, 1971
163. RB: DSR
164. PE: EH, Historians' file ISL 148
165. PE, Estate Office Correspondence: DSR
166. Williams, p.22
167. ILN, 28 Dec 1844, p.411
168. ILHC, history of market compiled by librarian at Starcross School, 1973, in cuttings L6.23
169. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Correspondence
170. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 3 July 1873
171. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins
172. Clerkenwell Press, 8 June 1881
173. ILHC, Clerkenwell Vestry Mins, 25 Nov 1890, p.269
174. London Markets. Special report of the Public Control Committee relative to Existing Markets and Market Rights in or near the Administrative County of London, 1893, as noted in private archive of Mary Cosh
175. A. L. Lloyd, 'Face of the Angel', in Illustrated, 23 June 1951, pp.9–13,35
176. Geoffrey Fletcher, 'The Hidden Treasures of London's Markets', in Daily Telegraph, 30 Dec 1965
177. ILHC, cuttings L1.7, Report of Borough Cleansing and transport officer, 14 May 1984: Islington Gazette, 24 May 1985
178. IBC
179. Ibid
180. www.edgleydesign.co.uk/development/chapel-market, accessed May 2007
181. LCC Mins, 25 April 1893, p.436
182. RB: DSR: IBC
183. RB: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: J. & H. S. Storer's map of Clerkenwell, 1827, reproduced in Cromwell: PE, estate map, 1840/1
184. DSR: PE, Estate Office Correspondence: IBC
185. MDR 1829/1/473–4: RB: Pinks, p.547: DSR
186. B, 15 Feb 1879, p.190: PE, Leases 1879: MBW Mins, 4 March 1887, p.392; 11 March 1887, p.421: RB: DSR
187. PE, Estate Office Correspondence 1912–13: DSR: ILHC, cuttings L1.7
188. ILHC, cuttings: E. A. Willats, Streets with a Story: The Book of Islington, 1988 edn, pp.60,238
189. A. Faulkner, The Regent's Canal: London's hidden waterway, 2005, pp.19–21,32–3: RB: www.canalmuseum.org.uk
190. RB: MDR 1794/4/136: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808
191. LMA, Acc/2877: PE, Estate Office Correspondence: DSR: POD
192. ILHC, FBC Mins, March—June 1924: PE, Estate Office Correspondence: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/041759
193. FBC Mins, 10 Dec 1924
194. FBC Mins, 8 Feb 1926
195. Tanis F. M. Hinchcliffe, 'The Housing Market in Islington Between the Wars', University of London PhD thesis, 1991
196. ILHC, FBC opening booklet for Mandeville Houses, 1928
197. FBC Mins, 19 Oct 1933; Opening booklet for Mandeville Street Extension, 1934
198. Islington Gazette, 13 June 1980
199. Islington Gazette, 6 March 1987, 5 Feb 1992: ILHC, cuttings: information from Mark Watts of the Metropolitan Police
1. C. R. Sanders (ed.), The Collected Letters of Thomas and Jane Welsh Carlyle, Volume 3 1824–1825, 1970, p.195
2. James Peller Malcolm, Londinium Redivivum, vol.iii, 1803, p.245
3. PE, Box re Penton Family 1707 to 1829; Account Book 1795–1806
4. PE, Leases, 12 Sept 1772
5. Pinks, p.525
6. Cromwell, p.422: Pinks, p.525
7. Cromwell, p.434
8. ILHC, Sale Particulars of Hermes Hill estate, 1805
9. Cromwell, pp.434–5
10. Ibid, p.439: Pinks, p.525: ILHC, Sale Particulars of the Hermes Hill estate, 1805
11. ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: PE, Lease, 1 June 1776: ILHC, Sale Particulars of the Hermes Hill estate, 1805
12. Pinks, pp.525–30
13. ODNB
14. RB
15. OS: POD
16. RB: MDR 1787/1/169
17. MDR 1780/2/384; 1780/4/15–16; 1782/1/460–2; 1783/2/309; 1784/2/381; 1786/4/135–6; 1788/1/335, 1788/3/88; 1788/3/397–8
18. Malcolm, pp.244–5: TNA, ED3/5
19. PE, Rent Roll, 1865–71, f.4
20. ILHC, cuttings L1.7
21. RB
22. PE, Ledger 1764
23. MDR 1790/3/112; 1792/7/429
24. RB
25. MDR 1779/5/420
26. MDR 1788/1/338; 1789/2/328; 1789/6/105–6; 1790/5/29–31; 1790/5/240–1; 1790/5/506; 1790/6/384; 1790/6/456; 1790/8/233
27. RB: CERC, Church Commissioners' file 18196
28. ODNB: Mary Cosh, 'Clockmaker Extraordinary: The Career of Alexander Cumming', in Country Life, 12 June 1969, pp.1528–35
29. MDR 1788/3/77
30. MDR 1788/7/14; 1788/8/150–2; 1789/3/409–10; 1789/3/442; 1789/3/468–9; 1789/4/431: PE, leases, 29 Feb 1798
31. MDR 1792/2/597–600; 1792/3/600–2; 1792/7/428; 1793/3/41–3; 1793/7/698
32. MDR 1803/6/722; 1812/7/417: PE, leases, 19 Aug 1803, 22 March 1809, 12 Nov 1809
33. RB
34. MDR 1784/4/201: 1788/4/162–3
35. National Pipe Organ Register, Dictionary of British Organ Builders, at http://npor.emma.cam.ac.uk
36. ODNB: Pinks, p.514
37. MDR 1789/3/409
38. ILHC, cuttings L1.7: POD
39. ODNB: Alexander Bain, James Mill, 1882, pp.59–61,72: EH, Blue Plaques file AR/HB/SG/BP90
40. ODNB
41. Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England. London Except the Cities of London and Westminster, 1952, p.233
42. William Godwin, Memoirs of the Author of A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1798, pp. 150–1: Claire Tomalin, The Life and Death of Mary Wollstonecraft, 1992 edn, pp.243–4,258
43. ODNB
44. MDR 1792/2/597
45. Sanders, pp.194–5
46. Pinks, p.507
47. EH, Blue Plaques file LD/SG/BP647
48. MDR 1787/7/258; 1788/4/347
49. LMA, A/PCS/1, pp.5,100: ILHC, cuttings
50. RB
51. MDR 1787/3/130; 1787/3/141; 1787/7/145; 1787/7/ 258; 1788/4/347–9; 1788/8/370–1
52. MDR 1784/3/453
53. RB
54. LMA, MA/S/250,251
55. MDR 1803/1/180; 1808/3/348–9; 1821/6/369–70
56. The Times, 31 March 1825, p.3f: VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, p.6
57. Horwood's map, 1813 edn
58. MDR 1843/6/414
59. British Library Map Library, Crace XV/44
60. TNA, PROB11/1973
61. The Times, 19 July 1843, p.8b; 1 Aug 1843, p.12e; 9 Jan 1844, p.8e
62. 1851 Census
63. PE, Rent Book 1824–8
64. OS of 1894–6
65. PE, Correspondence in Leases Jan—April 1880
66. 56 Vic. c.lxvi
67. MBW Mins, 27 Jan 1871, p. 167: PE, Leases, 20 Aug 1878; 16 April 1879; 6 May 1879
68. B, 15 Feb 1879, p.190
69. MBW Mins, 4 July 1884, p.41: B, 11 July 1885, p.77: DSR: PE, Leases, reports of 14 July and 9 Nov 1898
70. J. A. Yelling, Slums and Slum Clearance in Victorian London, 1986, p.97
71. PE, Leases, 26 Dec 1868: MBW Mins, 22 Jan 1869, p.101
72. Banister Fletcher, Model Homes for the Industrial Classes, 1871, pp. 8,49
73. PE, Leases, 20 June 1870: OS of 1894–6: DSR
74. TNA, IR58/42870/887–904; IR58/42871/905–911,929– 964
75. PE, lease, 1 Feb 1878: B, 26 Oct 1878, p.1132: DSR
76. RB: PE, Estate Office Correspondence, 1908–10
77. LMA, GLC/AR/BA/17/035964: DSR
78. TNA, ED3/5: B, 29 July 1871, p.593
79. ILHC, cuttings L1.7, L2.523: Islington & Holloway Press, 20 Aug 1938
80. The Times, 18 Dec 1890, p.7e
81. ILHC, cuttings L2.9: POD
82. B, 11 July 1885, p.77: DSR
83. POD
84. MBW Mins, 21 Nov 1862, p.882: OS of 1871–4
85. OS of 1894–6 and 1938
86. DSR: POD
87. AJ, 14 May 1975, pp. 1016–7
88. TNA, ED21/11425
89. SBL Mins, 8 Nov 1883, p.926; 22 Jan 1885, p.295; LMA, SBL/CON/R—Risinghill Street
90. SBL Mins, 20 Oct 1898, p.1081; 8 Feb 1900, p.613
91. TNA, ED21/34657–8
92. LCC Mins, 8 Nov 1949, p. 662
93. LCC Mins, 1 Feb 1955, p. 10
94. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/13/115288: LCC Mins, 21 Feb 1956, p.63
95. Elain Harwood, in conversation with Michael Grice of the Architects' Co-Partnership, 2002
96. Architect & Building News, 11 April 1962, pp.527–30
97. LMA, LCC Education Committee Mins, 6 April 1960, p.388
98. ILHC, St Silas Parish Newspaper, May 1960
99. Cited in W. A. S. Stewart, Progressives and Radicals in English Education 1750–1970, 1972, p.480
100. New Society, 13 June 1968, pp.868–70
101. Stewart, pp.480–2: Sonia Roberts, The Story of Islington, 1975, pp.220–2
102. New Society, 13 June 1968, p.868
103. Stewart, p.480
104. ILHC, cuttings L542
105. Journal of the RIBA, Feb 2004, pp.31–4
106. The Guardian, Education Section, 19 Sept 2006, p.3
107. FBC Mins, Feb 1956—Jan 1961: IBC
108. Ibid, 4 Jan 1960, pp.728–9
109. Ibid, Jan 1960 to July 1961
110. Islington Gazette, 29 Jan 1965
111. FBC Mins, 9 March 1964, p.764; 7 Dec 1964, p.509
112. IBC
113. PE, Estate Office Correspondence, 1914–15: IBC
114. IBC
115. Ibid
116. FBC Mins, 7 Oct 1924; 19 Jan 1926; 8 Feb 1926
117. ILHC, Opening booklet, Mandeville Houses, 1928
118. Islington Council Mins, 24 & 28 June 1976: Islington Gazette, 10 Jan 1986
119. FBC Mins, 1930–1
120. Ibid, 1935–6
121. BAL Archives, LUB/1/17/3
122. FBC Mins, 6 April 1937
123. AJ, 21 March 1935, pp.437–46: John Allan, Berthold Lubetkin: Architecture and the tradition of progress, 1992, pp.281–5 (account of Busaco Street/Priory Green, pp.349–51, 405–14, 595–6)
124. BAL Archives, LUB/1/18/1; LUB/1/19/8,19; LUB/ 1/21
125. Ibid, LUB/1/19/5,7: Finsbury Citizen, Nov 1937
126. BAL Archives, LUB/1/19/6: ILHC, cuttings L3.151, PRI, 'Busaco Street Housing Scheme for the Finsbury Borough Council', Tecton Architects, 30 April 1938
127. Architect & Building News, 21 Oct 1938, p.58
128. BAL, Photographs Collection, Lubetkin photographs 5058: Allan, p.351
129. ILHC, FBC Mins, 16 May 1940
130. Ibid, 1943–4
131. Ann Saunders (ed.), The London County Council Bomb Damage Maps 1939–1945 (LTS Publication No. 164), 2005, Map 50
132. BAL Archives, LUB/1/26: FBC Mins, 11 May 1944
133. FBC Mins, May—July 1945
134. Ibid, 7 July 1947
135. BAL Archives, LUB/2/5/62
136. Allan, pp.442–3
137. BAL Archives, LUB/3/2/15,22
138. Architectural Design, Dec 1951, p.356. For other articles on Priory Green see AJ, 9 Oct 1952, pp.433–41: Architectural Review, Oct 1952, pp.241–53
139. Information from John Allan: cf. e.g. AJ, 9 Oct 1952, p.437
140. Paul Damaz, Art in European Architecture, 1956, p.181
141. Architectural Review, Oct 1952, pp.250–3
142. FBC Mins, 1952–7
143. BAL, Photographs Collection, Lubetkin photographs 5058/86
144. FBC Mins, 2 April, 9 Sept 1952
145. Ibid, 1 Nov 1954
146. Ibid, 10 Oct 1955
147. Islington Gazette, 2 Aug 1980
148. ILHC, Islington Borough Council, Housing Cttee Mins, 23 Nov 1982
149. AJ, 19 Oct 1988, pp.77–8
150. AJ, 1/8 Aug 1996, p.13; 3 Sept 1998, p.32; 20 April 2000, pp.6–7: Building Design, 17 Nov 2000, pp.16–19
151. Building Design, 17 Nov 2000, p.6: Highbury & Islington Express, 29 June 2001, p. 10
152. Information from John Allan
153. www.jcmt.co.uk
154. B, 12 April 1974, pp.64–9
155. IBC
156. Ibid: information from the Model Railway Club
157. ILHC, London Borough of Islington, Council Mins
158. IBC
159. Ibid
160. Ibid: www.smartnewhomes.com (Dec 2006)
161. E. A. Willats, Streets with a Story: The Book of Islington, 1988 edn, p. 132
162. Alec Forshaw, 20th Century Buildings in Islington, 2001, p.69: IBC
163. SBL Mins
164. B, 22 June 1872, p.484; 10 Aug 1872, p.624; 30 Nov 1872, p.944: SBL Mins, 6 Nov 1872; 30 July 1873
165. B, 21 Dec 1872, pp. 1006–7,1009
166. TNA, ED21/11427: SBL Mins, 26 June 1884
167. SBL Mins, 28 March 1895
168. LCC Mins, 17 Feb 1915, 2 March 1915: TNA, ED21/11427
169. TNA, ED21/34660
170. Evening Standard, 24 Sep 1997
171. www.islingtonschools.net: press release from Cartwright Pickard Architects
172. LCC Mins, 9 April 1935, p.519
173. Ibid, 28 July 1936, pp. 193–4; 2 Nov 1937, pp.252–3; 3 May 1938, pp.252–3
174. Evening News, 8 May 1950: FBC Mins, 13 Jan 1947, p.532; 16 Feb 1947, p.602
175. FBC Mins, 5 July 1948, p.205; 13 Sep 1948, pp.270–1
176. FBC Mins, 4 July 1949, p.113
177. AJ, 5 April 1951, pp.430–2: Architect & Building News, 6 April 1951, pp.393–6
178. DSR: POD
179. POD
180. IBC
181. Dan Cruickshank and Peter Wyld, London: The Art of Georgian Building, 1975, p.148
182. MDR 1840/7/234–5; 1841/2/395; 1842/1/537; 1842/4/ 898–9
183. Pinks, p.513: MDR 1808/3/348–9
184. MDR
185. IBC
186. DSR
187. LMA, GLC/AR/BA/17/035964: DSR
188. IBC
189. RB
190. DSR
191. POD: IBC
192. IBC
193. Ibid
194. Ibid
1. Robert Morden and Philip Lea, An Actuall Survey of London, Westminster and Southwark, 1700
2. T. E. Tomlins, A Perambulation of Islington, London, 1858, p. 192
3. A. L. Lloyd, 'Face of the Angel', in Illustrated, 23 June 1951, p.10
4. Ibid
5. The Times, 11 Nov 1970: AJ, 20 May 1970, p.1238
6. AJ, 16 Aug 1972, p.354: The Times, 17 Jan 1973, p.16: Islington Gazette, 27 April 1973: Highbury and Islington Express, 15 Nov 1996: ILHC, cuttings
7. TNA, SC6/Hen VIII/2402, m.4
8. TNA, C142/343/136: Pinks, p.550
9. Calendar of State Papers, Domestic Series, Charles 1, 1637–8, p.49; Ibid, 1638–9, p.262: TNA, C9/3/122: ILHC, 'Census of Clerkenwell', 1677 (transcript of BL, Sloane MS/3928 by T. Veevers- Thompson, 1929)
10. RB: ILHC, 'Census of Clerkenwell', 1677: TNA, C111/76; PROB11/434; E179/143/370
11. Cromwell, pp.31–2,388–9: Pinks, pp.548–51
12. RB: TNA, C111/76: LMA, MR/PLT/1636,1654
13. PE, sketch plan of New Road, c. 1760: Robert Ward, London's New River, 2002, p.190
14. Thomas C. Rickman, The Life of Thomas Paine, 1819, p.84
15. RB: TNA, C111/76; C13/3065/77; J90/1646; MFC/1/ 138
16. The Times, 23 Jan 1819, p.4
17. TNA, J90/1646–7: MDR 1818/4/126; 1822/3/50: VCH, Middlesex, vol.viii, 1985, p.26
18. LMA, MR/PLT/1811: ILHC, cuttings: POD: Census
19. B, 1 Aug 1857, p.442; 21 Aug 1869, p.676: BN, 22 Oct 1869, p.303: DSR: MBW Mins, 11 June 1869, p.717: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/020005: Mary Cosh, 'A Jaundiced View of Islington', in Islington Archaeological and Historical Society Newsletter, Nov 1996, p.2
20. LMA, SC/PZ/FI/01/286: BN, 28 Nov 1878, p.606: DSR: ILHC, cuttings: Mark Girouard, Victorian Pubs, 1975, p.82
21. DSR: BN, 27 June 1890, p.930: OS of 1894–6: Girouard, p.82
22. BN, 19 Dec 1902, p.865
23. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/22/020005: LCC Mins, 17 Dec 1901, p.1747; 21 Jan 1902, p.34; 15 July 1902, p.1087: BN, 19 Dec 1902, p.865: G. A. T. Middleton, Modern Buildings. Their Planning, Construction and Equipment, vol.vi, 1907, pp.18–19: Girouard, p.114
24. Newman Flower (ed.), The Journals of Arnold Bennett, 1921–1928, 1933, p.24
25. Daily Gazette, 8 June 1921, p.2d: Daily Mail, 5 Oct 1921: LMA, Acc/3527/461: ILHC, cuttings: information supplied by J. Lyons & Co: The Times, 1 Dec 1994, p.1
26. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/34/005000/130: Islington Gazette, 29 Oct 1976; 22 June 1979; 15 Feb 1980: Building Design, 9 June 1978, p.6, 4 Dec 1981, pp.20–3: ILHC, cuttings
27. RB: TNA, E179/143/370, r.52: ILHC, 'Census of Clerkenwell', 1677
28. TNA, IR58/42862/7
29. RB: GL, MS 11936/469/911324; MS 11936/520/ 1090982: MDR 1787/3/140: LMA, MR/PLT/ 1636,1654,1811: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808: B, 13 Dec 1884, p.812
30. www.oldbaileyonline.org
31. T. E. Tomlins, A Perambulation of Islington, London, 1858, p. 193
32. The Times, 13 Feb 1857, p.12: B, 10 Nov 1888, p.349: Pinks, p.552
33. ILHC, cuttings and card index
34. DSR
35. RB: TNA, E179/143/370; C8/349/161: ILHC, 'Census of Clerkenwell', 1677: PE, Deeds: Pinks, pp.552–3
36. Cromwell, p.390: Pinks, pp.552–3
37. PE, Ledger 1783
38. RB: PE: MDR 1787/3/140; 1789/4/432; 1791/6/172; 1805/7/127: LMA, MR/PLT/1636,1654,1811: POD: DSR: B, 23 Nov 1878, p.1238; 31 May 1879, p.614
39. ILHC, deeds: The Licensing World & Licensed Trade Review, 10 Dec 1898, p.422: TNA, IR58/42862/12
40. ILHC, cuttings
41. PE: LMA, MDR 1761/4/386; 1773/2/121–2
42. Pinks, p.554: Mary Cosh, A History of Islington, 2005, pp.86–8
43. LMA, SC/PZ/FI/01/282,284,309,321; SC/PZ/FI/02/ 040
44. DSR: POD: Pinks, pp.553–5
45. LMA, SC/PZ/FI/01/321
46. DSR: LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/1914: LCC Mins: The Brick Builder, Dec 1933, pp.23–6
47. ILHC, cuttings
48. MBW Mins, 1 Aug 1862, p.616: PE, Leases 1861: POD
49. TNA, J90/1646–7: LMA, MDR 1820/6/454
50. TNA, IR58/42862/2–3: DSR: IBC
51. DSR: POD
52. BL, Add MS 31323 MM and YY: ILHC, photographs: IBC
53. POD: IBC
54. TNA, E179/143/370: Cromwell, pp.390–2
55. LMA, MDR 1795/2/761: RB: LMA, MR/PLT/1811
56. DSR: ILHC, cuttings
57. EH, Historians' file ISL 133
58. LMA, MDR 1733/4/330; 1761/4/386; 1795/2/761: Cromwell, pp.392–3
59. DSR: B, 8 April 1882, p.440: POD: TNA, IR58/42862/ 15–30
60. IBC
61. LMA, SC/PZ/FI/01/284,309: POD
62. DSR
63. Ibid: Cosh, p.224: IBC
64. PE, Estate plan, 1840–1
65. TNA, BT31/20443/119978, as quoted by Isobel Watson, in 'Rebuilding London: Abraham Davis and his Brothers, 1881–1924', in London Journal, vol.xxix, no.1, 2004, p.71
66. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/1982: IBC: POD
67. Islington Daily Gazette, 19 March 1913, p.4
68. Ibid
69. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/1982
70. Islington Daily Gazette, 19 March 1913, p.4
71. Chris Draper, Islington's Cinemas and Film Studios, 1989, p.55
72. LMA, GLC/AR/BR/07/1982: DSR
73. PE: MDR 1785/3/356,374; 1785/5/268; 1790/3/386; 1792/8/854; 1793/1/302; 1797/2/486: RB: ILHC, Thomas Hornor's ms map of Clerkenwell, 1808
74. PE, Deeds: DSR: POD: Goad insurance plans: Marks & Spencer archives
75. PE, Estate Office Correspondence 1913–14; Deeds
76. IBC
77. DSR
78. IBC
79. Alec Forshaw, 20th Century buildings in Islington, 2001, p.83: ILHC, cuttings
80. IBC