(B) Structures Within the Walls.
In the following inventory, which is based upon that in the Victoria County
History (1909), checked, amplified and added to from subsequent information, only
those remains are included which represent Roman structures found in situ.
References to non-structural finds are only mentioned in this section when they
have a direct bearing upon the date or character of the site. The reference numbers
to Plan A show, where possible, the position of each item on the large plan at the
end of the volume.
Abchurch Lane. A note on a City Sewers
Plan of 1855 (III, 69) records the discovery of
36 ft. length of wall (Plan A 92) of rag-stone, chalk
and flints, in the S. part of the lane N. of King
William Street. The sewer was cut through the
Bank of England. A pavement (Plate 47),
now in the British Museum, was found in 1805
"under the S.W. (should read N.W.) angle of the
building, 20 ft. W. of the W. gate of the Bank
(Plan A 69) opening into Lothbury, and the same
distance S. of the carriageway, and 11 or 12 ft.
below the street." It measured, in all, 11 ft.
square, the central portion being 4 ft. square, and
having a pattern of four acanthus leaves in a circle
in red, black and grey, on a white field. The edges
of the pavement were said to have shown traces
of fire [Arch., XXXIX, 491 ff.; Gent. Mag., 1807,
I, 415; Soc. Antiq. MS. Min. XXXI, 63; a
coloured drawing of this pavement is preserved in
Bod. Lib. Gough MSS., Map 19, 11]. Other
pavements are recorded by Kelsey, covering the
area between Princes Street, Lothbury, and
Bartholomew Lane [Kelsey, Descr. of Sewers, 258].
A supposed Roman bust was found in digging
foundations of the Bank (1733) [Soc. Antiq. MS.
Min. II, 14].
In 1926, a well (Plan A 71) lined with barrelstaves was found, immediately under the doorway
from the old Rotunda to the Shutting. One
stave (Plate 38) bore a stamped inscription
(Inscriptions, No. 52). The associated pottery
indicated a date of c. 100 [Antiq. Journ., VI. 186].
In July, 1927, a Roman concrete floor, (Plan A
70), about 3 in. thick with a pounded tile surface
and of indeterminate extent, was cut through;
it was about 12½ ft. below the pavement-level of
Lothbury, and lay below the courtyard a little W.
of the old main entrance from that street. A
portion of another floor at a slightly lower level
was found a few feet to the S.E. Some 10 ft.
farther E. a second pavement of concrete (Fig. 29),
4 in. thick, was found resting almost immediately
on the undisturbed clay and about 8 ft. below the
first pavement. It was bounded on the N. by a
double timber-framed structure (? wall or conduit)
consisting of two framings 2½ ft. apart, and composed of 6-in. by 4-in. sills with boarding applied
on each side, though only the boarding in the
inner side remained in each case; the space
between the boarding was packed with clay.
The interval between the two framings was filled
with building rubbish, broken bricks, tiles, wall-plaster, etc., lying on black earth. Lying on the
original floor in a layer of clay 8 in. thick were the
fallen timbers perhaps of a roof. Above this level
there were traces of two subsequent habitationlevels. The ground to the N. of the timber
structure was evidently outside the building.
Between the levels of the upper and lower pavements
were found numerous fragments of leather and
1st-century pottery, including graphite-coated ware,
Samian with the stamps MOM, JVCUND, OF
VITA. ., MEMORIS M, etc., and little or nothing
of later date [R.E.M.W. and A.C.].
Bartholomew Lane. A portion of a tessellated
pavement in Bartholomew Lane (Plan A 72) was
found in 1841 (probably when the church of St.
Bartholomew was being destroyed), of which "a
large piece was preserved by the city authorities,
but it is not known where" [Arch., XXIX, 155].
Another account says: "A piece of tessellated
pavement, consisting of a scroll of ivy-leaves in
black upon a white ground, was found in a deserted
cellar in Bartholomew Lane, but evidently not in
situ" [Tite, Cat. Antiq. Roy. Exch., XXXI].
Billingsgate (Plan A 21). Quantities of piling
were discovered about 1843, and taken by Price as
evidence of a bridge at this point (towards Botolph
Wharf), E. of the present London Bridge, where
also, he thought, was the harbour or landing-place,
as the existence of a gate implies [see J. E. Price,
Rom. Antiq. Nat. Safe Deposit Co.'s Premises, 18].
Birchin Lane (Plan A 86). In 1786, an
anonymous letter to Mr. Gough mentions the
discovery of walls, etc., in digging for a sewer
(Fig. 46). Opposite the houses Nos. 15 and 13,
on the E. side of the sewer and near No. 12 on
the W. side, and at the N. end of the lane on the
W. side of the sewer, were walls of the same
materials as that near the Post Office in Lombard
Street (i.e. of rubble with brick bonding-courses).
Opposite No. 14 was a pavement of coarse tesserae
about 5 ft. long, sloping northwards. Opposite
No. 11 were large fragments of figured tessellated
pavement of various colours. Opposite No. 2 at
a depth of 14 ft. was a pavement of chalk stones.
Opposite No. 1 a wall crossed the sewer, and near
the W. corner of the lane was a wall on the W. side
of the sewer. At the N.W. corner of the lane was
seen a corner of a pavement with a border of black,
white, red and green tesserae [Arch., VIII, 119, with
plan; Soc. Antiq. MS. Min., 72, 79, 92]. Fragments
of wall-decoration in painted stucco were also
recorded. E. B. Price says: "It is probable that
some analogous fragments found in this locality
within the last few years are portions of the same
floor. They comprise portions of borderings with
fanciful and complex patterns, and are in the
Guildhall Museum." In 1857, part of another
pavement representing a sea-horse was uncovered;
this is probably the panel now in the Guildhall
Museum [Arch. Rev., I, 274; Lond. and Midd.
Arch. Soc. Proc. E.M., 1861, 33], and in 1846, walls
running across Birchin Lane and Finch Lane (Plan
A 84) and into Cornhill and Lombard Street, with
tessellated pavements and remains, and a head
sculptured in freestone were brought to light [Journ.
Brit. Arch. Assoc., II, 205].
Bishopsgate Street Within. In Bishopsgate
Street, a short time before 1833, a gravel roadway
was found at a depth of 20 ft., from which were
thrown up fragments of amphorae, etc. [Gent.
Mag. (1833), II, 423].
A tessellated pavement (Fig. 30) was discovered
in October, 1839, beneath the cellar of No. 101
(Plan A 54); it lay 53 ft. from the street and 15 ft.
from Excise Yard, and was 13 ft. deep from streetlevel. In the same cellar, "a few years since,"
stood an arch contiguous to the street, formed
of square flat tiles. The pavement was covered
over with bricks to preserve it; the portion uncovered was of black and white tesserae in squares
and diamonds. It probably formed part of the
same building as that found on the site of the Excise Office (see Broad Street) [Arch., XXIX, 155,
pl. 17, figs. 1, 2; Illus. Rom. Lond., pl. 8, fig. 1,
p. 55; Morgan, Rom. Brit. Mosaic Pavements. 182].
In 1873, a pavement was discovered at a
depth of 7 ft. on the same side of the street; it
had guilloche and trefoil patterns in red, white and
black. Part only was exposed (and subsequently
covered in); it must have extended beneath the
roadway [Illus. Lond. News, 19th July, 2nd
August, 1873]. In 1875 another similar pavement
was found, on the W. side of the street, opposite
Crosby Hall, (Plan A 55) under a building for
Gordon and Co. The pavement was 4 yards square,
15 ft. below the pavement, and about 50 ft. W. of
the street [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXXIII,
106]. In 1895, red mosaic pavement was found at
Anthony Gibbs' counting-house at No. 15, Bishopsgate Street (Plan A 58). The part seen was about
6 ft. long by 2 ft. wide, extending northwards under
the wall of the house. The depth was 16 to 17 ft.
below the yard [Proc. Soc. Antiq., XVI, 36]. In
the Guildhall is a pavement [Cat. 7], probably one
of the above.
Fig. 30. Mosaic pavement under 101 Bishopsgate Street. From Archæologia, XXIX.
In 1908, a pavement of plain red tesserae was found
on the site of the public house, immediately at the
back of Nos. 31 and 33 Bishopsgate Street and in
Gresham House Court (Plan A 56). This pavement
must have closely adjoined that found in 1839 under
No. 101 (now No. 35) [Arch., LXIII, 319].
Bread St. Hill. At the lower end of Bread St.
Hill, near Thames Street (Plan A 164), two walls,
crossing the street, are indicated on a City Sewers
Plan of 1845 [I, 139]. The same plan shows a mass
of masonry (Plan A 162) at the junction with
Knightrider Street (now under Queen Victoria
Street). An engraving showing a Roman wall,
apparently running parallel to the sewer, was
published in the Illustrated London News, July
Broad Street (Old). Previous to 1805 were
found "foundations and remains of pavements . . .
within these few years, behind the old Navy Pay
Office in Broad Street." They are said to have
been about 7 ft. deep [Gent. Mag. (1807), I, 415–7].
The principal find near Broad Street has been the
tessellated pavement (Plan A 57) unearthed in
February, 1854, under the vaults of the S.E. part of
the old Excise Office, on the E. side of the street.
On approaching Bishopsgate Street, arched vaults
with flat arches beneath were found 12 or 13 ft.
below the street level, and under them a bed of
coarse concrete, beneath which the first Roman
remains appeared (fragments of pottery, glass,
mortar, concrete, wall-plaster and coins), and
finally the pavement. It was laid on a bed of hard
cement with coarse concrete below resting on the
natural soil, and formed the floor of a room 28 ft.
square; it had been unsuccessfully mended in parts.
"Northwards of this pavement we have found the
floor of a room paved with dark red tesserae. The
pavement was about 12 ft. square and the tesserae
17 in. square" (sic). It was noted that the site
was lower than the Roman level in Bishopsgate
Street. The design of the first pavement (Plates
39 and 48) has a central panel with a Bacchante on
a panther; the other compartments are formed
by stars of intersecting guilloches, inclosing various
devices, and divided by lozenge patterns; there is
an outer border of lotus flowers. The pavement was
removed to the Crystal Palace [Arch., XXXVI,
203 ff., pls. 18, 19; Illus. Rom. Lond., pl. 7, p. 54].
Another pavement was found in 1792, when making
a sewer from St. Peter-le-Poer to Threadneedle
Street (sic) (Plan A59) behind the old Navy Pay
Office (Winchester House); it was circular in
form, and a quantity of burnt corn and charcoal,
with pottery and plated coins, lay upon it [Arch.,
XXXIX, 493; Coll. Antiq., III, 257]. A mosaic
with a female head of life size, of glass and coloured
stones is also reported [Illus. Rom. Lond., 56].
Fig. 31. Drain near Bucklersbury. From Roman Tessellated Pavement in Bucklersbury, J. E. Price.
Bucklersbury. A fine pavement was found in
the line of the present Queen Victoria Street (Plan
A 125) in May, 1869, and is now in the Guildhall.
It was 19 ft. below street-level, parallel with the
stream and a very short distance from Walbrook,
and forms a parallelogram, 13 ft. by 12½ ft., with a
semi-circular addition 7¼ ft. long at the N. end; the
foundations of the inclosing walls (Plate 41) were
of tile with blocks of chalk and rag-stone, on a chalk
foundation, laid on square piles, 3 to 4 ft. long.
There were indications of herring-bone brickwork,
and a neatly turned plaster moulding running round
the building. In the walls at three places were
vertical flues. Fragments of stucco, painted red
and blue, were also found, and round the semi-circular part were vertical flues; below was a
hypocaust with rows of flanged tiles supporting the
concrete. At the N.E. corner was a drain formed
of semi-circular roof-tiles 7 in. across. This pavement (Plate 42), considered to be the most
perfect, and by some the finest, found in London,
has a border of guilloche inclosing interlacing
squares, one in colours, the other in white and
black, with floral ornaments in the centre. Above
is a floral scroll, and round the semicircle a guilloche
inclosing a scale-pattern formed in parti-coloured
rays. Round the whole are plain borders of red,
white, and yellow tesserae. It is probably of fairly
early date, about the time of Hadrian. At the
S.E. end was a small portico 5 ft.5½ in. by 4 ft.
evidently a doorway, paved with red tesserae and
surrounded by a timber frame, to the right of
which ran a passage floored with concrete parallel
with the floor; part of a wooden paling adjoining
seems to suggest a veranda facing the Walbrook.
At a distance of 90 ft. from the pavement in a
westerly direction, at a depth of 17½ ft. from the
surface of Bucklersbury, two Roman walls (Fig. 31)
were cut through, nearly in a line with Bucklersbury,
towards Walbrook. The foundation was of wooden
piles driven into the clay, and on these rest blocks
of chalk. On this again were two well-built walls
of brick 2¾ ft. thick and 2¼ ft. apart; in this space
surrounded with chalk blocks was a drain of
ordinary flue-tiles, laid to fall towards the brook.
Over this was a tiled pavement with a small fillet
or skirting of mortar against the walls. Over this
were later walls, probably mediæval. J. E. Price
also mentioned a well or cesspool, 16 ft. S.W.
from the pavement, about 4 ft. in diameter; it was
not cleared to the bottom. It was formed of hewn
blocks of chalk, the upper part probably later, and
was thought to be a Roman latrine [J. E. Price,
Descr. of Rom. Tessel. Pavement in Bucklersbury,
1870 (illustrated); Guildhall Mus. Cat., p. 72,
Budge Row (Plan A 123). Mr. Gunston stated
that in January, 1853, he descended into an
excavation made for a new sewer, and at a depth of
15 ft. distinctly traced the remains of a Roman wall
constructed of rubble, layers of tile, and concrete
[Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc, IX, 84; see under
Bush Lane. After the Great Fire some labourers,
digging foundations of houses in Scots Yard, found
at 20 ft. deep, "a Tessellated Pavement, with the
Remains of a large Building or Hall," supposed at
the time to indicate respectively the Roman
governor's palace and the Basilica. Four holes full
of charred wood were supposed to have been for
piles, and as the substructure of the pavement was
composed of artificial earth containing bricks and
broken glass, it was thought that the building was
destroyed by Boudicca [Wren, Parentalia, 265;
Stow, Survey (ed. Strype), II, App. V, 23; Morgan,
Rom. Brit. Mosaic Pavements, 176; Maitland,
Hist, of Lond., I, 17; Soc. Antiq. MS. Min. VIII,
25a]. Bagford, writing in 1714, said that part of the
pavement ("of Cæsar's tent") was in the museum
of the Royal Society [Leland, Coll. (ed. Hearne), I,
60]. In 1840–1, at the lower end of the lane (Plan
A 109), was found a wall of rag-stone and tiles,
running 50 ft. northwards until met by a similar
transverse wall. Fragments of pottery and frescoes,
tiles and bricks, were found. Advancing up the
lane, walls of considerable thickness crossed (only
one of these shown on sewer-plan and figured 10 ft.
thick), much fresco, pieces of tessellated pavement,
tiles, but "opposite Scots Yard (Plan A 110) a
formidable wall of extraordinary thickness, was
found to cross the street diagonally; it measured in
width 20 ft. (figured 22 ft. on sewer-plan); it was
built of flints and rag with occasional masses of tiles.
On the N. side, however, there was such a preponderance of flints, and on the S. such a marked
excess of rag-stone," as to indicate two dates; it
was very hard and had to be drilled; the depth of
excavation was 15 ft. and top of wall 6 ft. below
pavement-level; adjoining the N. side of the wall,
"and running absolutely upon it was a pavement
of white tesserae, together with a flooring of lime
and pounded tiles, supporting the tiles of a
hypocaust in rows of about one dozen 2 ft. apart";
with these were several flue tiles adapted as pillars.
The remaining portion of Bush Lane was intersected by the walls of houses as far as Cannon St.,
the last met with, running under the pavement of
that street. These five walls are figured on the
sewer-plan (Fig. 32) as (from S. to N.) 10 ft. 7 in.,
3 ft., 3 ft., 3½ ft. and 4 ft. thick respectively. In
Scot's Yard opposite the great wall (Plan A 111), at
depth of 8 ft. was another wall 8 ft thick (figured
6 ft. thick on sewer-plan) of "oblong tiles" and
mortar. It descended to a depth of 13 ft., where
alongside were pavements of lime and gravel. One
of the tiles found, a hollow cube in form, is now in
the British Museum [Arch., XXIX, 156, 402; Soc.
Antiq. MS. Min. XXXVIII, 152; City Sewers Plan,
Guildhall, I, 116]. Roach Smith thought that these
massive. substructures indicated a south-eastern
boundary wall with a flanking tower. Another wall,
about 200 ft. in length, 10 ft. high and 12 ft. thick,
was discovered in the excavations for Cannon
Street Railway Station; this inclosed foundations
supporting smaller walls, 3 ft. wide, composed
principally of tiles, connected by similar cross
walls [Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., III, 213;
see also Cannon Street Station and Thames
Street, Upper]. The evidence here, as in most
cases, is very vague, but that there must have been
an extensive building or series of buildings in this
locality seems clear.
In Little Bush Lane (Plan A 112) to the S. a wall
of tile and rag was found in 1846, extending across
the street, also the base of a column [Journ. Brit.
Arch. Assoc., II, 341]; and in Chequers Court on
the W. (now covered by Cannon Street Station) two
fragments of tiles were discovered in 1841, one inscribed P.BR.BII, the other BR. [Arch., XXIX,
157; Illus. Rom. Lond., 114; Corp. Inscr. Latin,
VII, 1255; both tiles now in British Museum].
In 1910, a wall of rubble, about 9 ft. thick and
8 ft. high was found at No. 10 Bush Lane (Plan
A 113), "filling the N.W. corner of the site, which
it crossed diagonally, continuing under the roadway
in one direction, and passing under the adjoining
buildings in the other" [Arch., LXIII, 319]. This
wall closely adjoined the southernmost wall shown
on the sewers plan of 1840.
Camomile Street. In April, 1707, "upon the
pulling down some old houses adjoining to Bishops
Gate in Camomile St. (Plan A 51) in order to
the building there anew and digging to make
cellars about 4 ft. under ground, was discovered a
pavement consisting of diced bricks. . . . The
extent of the pavement in length was uncertain,
it running from Bishops Gate for 60 ft. quite under
the foundations of some houses not yet pulled down.
Its breadth was about 10 ft. terminating on that
side at the distance of three foot and a half from the
city-wall." The colours of the tesserae were red,
black and yellow. Under the pavement were
2 ft. of rubbish and then a stratum of clay in which,
at a depth of 2 ft. more, were several urns of various
sizes and containing bones; with them were found
various objects and a coin of Antoninus Pius
[Woodward's Letter to Wren, 12–14; hence Gent.
Mag. (1807), I, 415].
Cannon Street (including the former Distaff
Lane, Little Friday Street, Basing Lane and
Little St. Thomas Apostle). Set in a stone case
in the front S. wall of St. Swithin's Church is the
large rounded block of stone known as London
Stone. It stood formerly on the S. side of the street
(Plan A 114) "near to the channel," says Stow,
pitched upright, fixed in the ground very deep and
fastened with bars of iron. In building operations,
after the Great Fire, it was found to have a large
foundation, and "in the adjoining ground on the S.
side (upon digging for cellars . . .) were discovered
some tessellated pavements, and other extensive
remains of Roman workmanship and buildings."
In 1742, the stone was moved to the N. side of the
street, and re-set close to the wall near the S.W.
door of St. Swithin's church. It was again moved
in 1798. Its original position is recorded on
Strype's plan of Walbrook Ward. The block
is now quite formless, and there is no evidence of
its original use. Camden considered it to have
been a Roman milestone, but as Stow says: "the
cause why this stone was set there, the time when,
or other memory hereof is none" [Stow, Survey
(ed. Kingsford) I, 224; Ibid. (ed. Strype), II, 119;
Wren, Parentalia, 265–6].
Strype says: "In Canning Street nigh Bush
Lane (Plan 115) was found pretty deep in the
Earth, a large pavement of Roman mosaic work."
Dr. Hook gave a piece of it to the Repository in
Gresham College [Stow, Survey (ed. Strype), II,
App. V, 23].
During drainage work in 1845, along the line of
this thoroughfare, in the western part, formerly
known as Basing Lane (Plan A 153), "portions of
immense walls with occasional layers of bondtiles and in some cases (as at Great Trinity Lane)
exhibiting the remains of fresco paintings, afforded
frequent evidence of the massive and important
character of the edifices which anciently occupied
this site" [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., I, 254]. A
City Sewers Plan [I, 139] of this period marks the
position of walls (Fig. 43) found in Little Friday
Street (Plan A 155). In the eastern part, at the
crossing of Queen Street (Plan A 157), fragments
of a tessellated pavement in black and white, were
found in 1850 [Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. I), II, 93].
In 1852, a portion of a pavement (Plan A 156)
composed of red tesserae, without any pattern, was
found in Cannon Street a little E. of Basing Lane
[Arch. Journ., IX. 297].
In the Spring of 1852, in New Cannon Street, on
the removal of houses just demolished, on the S.
side of Watling Street near Walbrook, (Plan A 122),
fragments of the Tower Royal were found and
below them, at a depth of 12 ft., Roman walls,
3 ft. thick, built of rag, chalk and tiles, on a foundation of wooden piles; a little to the W. was 20 ft.
of plain tessellated pavement (in red tesserae).
At 60 ft. due N. from the frontage, stood three
piers, 6 ft. apart formed of the ordinary tiles,
14½ in. by 11 in. [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc, X,
190 ff.; Illus. Lond. News, 1852, I, 308]. In
1854, in New Cannon Street, 20 ft. from the
frontage, a thick Roman wall of rubble and layers
of red and yellow tiles were found at what is now
the crossing of Queen Victoria Street, near which
was a concrete floor of lime, sand, and broken tiles
[Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., X, 111. Section of
earlier excavations given in Jewitt's Reliquary
1st S., IV, 49].
In 1877 another pavement was found on the N.
side of Cannon Street, two or three doors W. of
the junction with Bow Lane (Plan A 153), in digging
for new buildings. It was of white and black
tesserae with a border of red and was 12 ft. below
the street-level. A few walls of chalk were also
encountered [Journ Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXXVIII,
A small Roman bath (Plan A 154) was discovered
in 1906 (Fig. 33) on the site of the Fire Brigade
station [Arch., LX, 214 (Plan)].
In March, 1926, the base-stone (Plate 20) of a
gable was found at a depth of 15 ft. under the N.
side of the roadway a few feet to the W. of Bread
Fig. 33. Bath in Cannon Street. From Archæologia, LX.
Cannon Street Station. A note on a City
Sewers Plan of June, 1850 [II, 123], reads:—
"While excavating for sewer in Turnwheel Lane
(Plan A 116) we met with an old wall, running
across the lane as shown on (accompanying) plan,
with Kentish rag and chalk, 6 ft. from the surface
to the top of the wall and 5 ft. thick. At 11 ft.
from the surface and close against the face of the
wall lay a piece of oak timber in a horizontal
position, 14 in. by 12 in., quite black but sound."
The site is now covered by Cannon Street Station.
During the excavations for Cannon Street Railway
Station (Plan A 117) in 1868 were brought to light
remains of buildings which are described as
follows:—"The numerous piles and transverse
beams which extended across Thames Street were
traced to a considerable distance along the river
bank, and in an upward direction towards Cannon
Street. So complete a network of timber did they
form, and so massive and durable were the means
employed for holding the entire fabric together, that
it is evident it was intended to resist a heavy strain
or pressure. The Walbrook here flowed into the
Thames, and the drainage of the old city being on a
different scale to what it now is, it is probable that
the soil of the locality would be damp and yielding,
and that some protection for the foundations of the
buildings reared along the water line would be
necessary against the inroads of the river. Above
this embankment buildings of great magnitude
must have existed, if we may judge from the
strength and solidity of these foundations. Running
nearly in a line with Bush Lane was an immense
external wall, some 200 ft. long, 10 ft. high, and
12 ft. in thickness, formed of rag-stone, chalk, and
a variety of materials bound together with mortar
in the ordinary Roman fashion. At an angle were
foundations 8 ft. wide of flint and rubble supporting
smaller walls, some 3 ft. wide, composed principally
of bonding tiles 18 in. by 12 in. These were
connected by a series of cross walls 2 ft. 6 in. thick,
and built of flat tiles 14 in. by 11 in., also set on
rubble footings 4 ft. in width. Still nearer Cannon
Street were the remains of an apartment 50 ft.
by 40 ft., floored with a coarse red concrete; this
was connected with a second, which had access to a
third but smaller room. A long series of smaller
apartments were satisfactorily traced, with floors
of coarse tesserae of red and yellow brick in cubes
about an inch square. Some little distance in front
of the centre apartment in this series was a square
piece of paving comprised of oblong bricks on edge,
known as 'herring-bone pavement.' Adjoining a
thick rubble wall was a large portion of a mosaic
pavement, comprised of half-inch cubes of black,
white, red and grey tesserae, worked into a simple
pattern and surrounded by a double border of black
and grey stones of a compact nature and from
4 to 6 in. square, but varying in thickness. In close
proximity to this human remains were found. There
were evidences of strong timber drains, or waterways, one 5 ft. beneath the foundations of the
building, and having a steep incline to the river.
This measured 4 ft. across, and was 18 in. deep, the
boards forming the sides being 4 in., and those at
the bottom 6 in. in thickness. The other channels
were of smaller dimensions. Within several of the
rooms wall paintings remained, the designs in
various colours: some divided by lines and bands
into panels, others ornamented by a trellis-pattern,
or powdering of fancy-coloured spots; besides a
quantity of roofing, hypocaust, and building tiles,
fragments of pottery, glass and articles of personal
and domestic use. On many of the tiles were the
letters PP. BR. LON" [Lond. and Midi. Arch.
Soc., III, 212].
Carter Lane. A few years before 1909, during
the rebuilding of No. 56 Carter Lane (Plan A 172)
a wall was found, 8 ft. thick and of rag-stone with
layers of tiles running diagonally across the site
from N.W. to S.E. [V.C.H. London, I, 1909, 69].
Cheapside. Bagford, writing in 1714–15, mentions a pavement found at a depth of 15 ft., about
a hundred years previously [Leland, Coll. (2nd ed.
Hearne), I, 74]. At the entrance to Bread Street
(Plan A 147), 12 ft. from the surface, a chalk wall
crossed Cheapside diagonally towards Wood Street
and apparently entered that street [Arch., XXVII,
150 (1838)]. In 1861, part of a pavement was
found, at a depth of 14 ft., opposite Bow Church,
with a border of red and white tesserae [Journ. Brit.
Arch. Assoc., XVII, 328]. In the Guildhall Museum
is part of a pavement [Cat., p. 72, No. 3], perhaps
the one found in 1861.
Clement's Lane (Plan A 99). In digging for
sewers in 1841, walls were found crossing the street
at 12 ft. to 15 ft. depth, 3 ft. in thickness, and composed of flints, rubble, and tiles, also fragments of
pavements [Arch., XXIX, 272]. "In 1878, a
collection of Roman glass from this site was exhibited to the Archæological Association including a
mass of green and white glass-slag weighing nearly
½ cwt., also two small masses of blue glass, each
retaining part of the pot in which they were
inserted, a rim of an urn of olive glass, a portion of a
basin with filigree lines of white, a handle of a small
cantharus, a portion of imitative chalcedony, two
'mixers,' one having within a white line and cut
without in Roman facets and what appears intended
as a lachrymatory, also a bowl of iron from the blue
Roman earth, for pressing and moulding the ornamental portions of glass vessels presenting a pattern
very similar to those from Cyprus." These
discoveries naturally suggest that glass was manufactured on the spot [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XXXIV, 254]. A complete amphora, now in the
Guildhall, was found with five or six others standing
in a row, about 1876; others were found in 1865
[Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., III, 100].
In 1878, fragments of a tessellated pavement were
found close to St. Clement's Church [Journ. Brit.
Arch. Assoc., XXXIV, 134].
Cloak Lane (Plan A 120). Wooden piles
similar to those found in Princes Street are said to
have been found here, also two spear-heads and
some concrete pavement [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
II, 341]. In 1846, an inscription was found (see
p. 172). In excavating for the District Railway in
1888, and under the site of St. John the Baptist,
Walbrook (Plan A 121), "part of the floor of a
Roman villa" was found [Antiq., XVII, 175]; the
pavement, now in the Guildhall Museum [Cat.,
p. 72, No. 20], is of the herring-bone type. It was
found at a depth of 21 ft., and near it was "a large
quantity of stout oak piling and the sill of a bridge
which crossed the brook from E. to W." In 1905,
remains of piles were found in the bed of the
Walbrook, with Roman pottery [Arch., LX, 230].
Fig. 34. Stream depression, Coleman Street. From Archæologia, LXIII.
Coleman Street. J. E. Price mentions a brick
floor, in Coleman Street Buildings (Plan A 135),
apparently vitrified by heat; it was found in 1843
at a depth of 20 ft. [Bucklersbury Pavement, 54].
In 1907, the depression (Fig. 34) formed by a
western arm of the Walbrook was found on the W.
side of a site (Plan A 134) bounded by Coleman
Street, Moorgate Street and Lothbury. The
depression was bounded for a short distance on
both sides by chalk walls; between them the
filling was black mud and rushes and contained a
Samian pot, with the stamp PRITMA. At the S.
end of the depression was a wooden enclosure 3 ft.
square, perhaps to protect a spring or for drawing
water [Arch., LXIII, 312, with plan].
College Street, Dowgate Hill. In excavating for the rebuilding of Dyers' Hall (Plan A 119), in
1839, remains of a pavement were found at 13 ft.
8 in. (Illus. Rom. London says 15 to 16 ft.) below
the surface; also pottery and coins. The lower
part of the ground in which the above were found,
for 4½ ft. in thickness, appeared to be the sediment
from water, probably the ancient Walbrook, and in
it, scattered over the surface, was a large quantity
(20 cwt.) of animal bones [Gent. Mag. (1839), II,
636; Rom. Brit. Rem. I, 206; Illus. Rom. Lond., 59].
Copthall Avenue (formerly Little Bell
Alley). A note on a City Sewers Plan of 1851–2
(III, 1) records that, in Little Bell Alley (Plan A 62),
between London Wall and New Court, vertical oak
piles were met with, and horizontal planking which
seemed to have formed the embankment of the
Walbrook. On the removal (December, 1906) of
the houses Nos. 10 and 12, on the E. side of the
avenue, many piles were found on all parts of the
site. The undisturbed surface shelved towards
the E., where the loam gave place to streamdeposit of washed gravel and sand; the whole was
covered with 5 or 6 ft. of black mud [Arch., LX, 232,
An excavation at the N. end of Copthall Avenue
in 1923 revealed numerous piles in the 12 ft. of
"mud, peat and slurry" lying above the London
Clay [Information from City Corporation].
Corbet Court, Gracechurch Street. A wall
here is mentioned by Kelsey [Descr. of Sewers, 100].
In 1872, remains of massive walls, about 9 ft.
thick, of chalk, rubble and mortar, with a few tiles,
came to light beneath the Norman crypt (Plan
A 35), S. of Corbet Court; fragments of pottery,
found therewith, seem to support the view that they
were Roman [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXVIII,
179, with plan]. See also under Gracechurch
Street and Leadenhall Market.
Cornhill. In the British Museum is a vase,
from Roach Smith's collection, with figures in
appliqué; it was found, together with remains of
a wall, between Bank Buildings and the Royal
Exchange (Plan A 74) in 1841; a shaft only was
sunk, but the wall appeared to run in the direction
of the Bank; thickness 7 ft., height 14 ft., depth
20 ft. from the bottom to the street-level. [Illus.
Rom. Lond., 97; Cat. Lond. Antiq., pl. 6;
Déchelette, II, 187; Arch., XXIX. 273].
In 1891 a series of substantial walls (Fig. 35) was
found under No. 50 Cornhill (Plan A 81). They
were of rubble with fragments of Roman brick, and
extended down to some 21½ ft. below the pavement-level. The walls were standing 9 ft. high and were
thought by Mr Grover to have been foundations
formed in trenches; he states that one piece of
the superstructure (Plate 43) survived "under
the (St. Michael's) church at the S.W. corner. It
is a large block of carefully worked ashlar sandstone, laid on the top of the rubble wall, the only
accessible stone of a course on which a good Roman
brick wall is built." Three wells were found, two
of which are said to have been Roman, some
tessellated pavement, etc. A fragment of the N.
face of the southern wall is still exposed in the
basement of the modern building. Some doubt
has been expressed as to whether the southern
group of these walls was of Roman date. The
original plan in the Soc. Antiq. Library [Brown
Portfolio] shows that the walls were parallel and
alligned with those of the Basilica (Fig. 3). The
plan reproduced in Arch. LX is thus incorrect
[Antiq., XXIV, 212; cf. Pall Mall Gazette, 20th
August, 1891; fuller details in Proc. Soc. Antiq.
(Ser. 2), XIV, 6; see also Arch., LX, 223, plan].
In 1897 a Roman wall was found in the foundations of the new building (Plan A 79) on the N. side
of Cornhill for the Union Bank of Australia [Midd.
and Herts. Notes and Queries, 1897].
In 1922, on the demolition of Nos, 56 and 57
Cornhill, (Plan A 80), on the N. side of St. Peter's
Church, 6 or 7 ft. of Roman walling was uncovered
running at a slight angle under the wall of the
church. The wall had a double course of bondingtiles and would appear to be in a line with the
transverse wall found in 1921–2 near the top of
Gracechurch Street [Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc.
Trans., N.S. V, 49]. The wall is described by Dr.
P. Norman as follows:—"The top of it, as far as
it remained, was about 9 ft. 6 in. below the pavement. The builders' excavations only went a
little lower; a special hole was therefore dug in
order to find a short stretch of the northern face
of the wall down to its foundations which were
met at a depth of 17 ft. Its thickness could not be
ascertained, as the southern face is under St. Peter's.
In construction—four or five courses of squared
rag-stone alternating with two to five courses of
tiles—and in direction this wall corresponds closely
with those found under Leadenhall Market in
1880–1, and with the wall found in Gracechurch
Street in November, 1921. The Cornhill wall,
indeed, appears to be a western continuation of that
already described. It has been remarked that the
southern face of this was plastered; on the Cornhill
wall a tiny piece of plaster was left, showing traces
of red paint" [Antiq. Journ.. II, 260; Journ.
Rom. Studies, XI, 219].
About the same time on the demolition of No. 36
at the E. angle of Birchin Lane (Plan A 83), a wall
was found 4½ ft. back from the frontage and passing
under Ball Court; the top was about 9 ft. below the
pavement, but there was some doubt as to its
Roman date. It was stated at the time that a
second wall had been found running diagonally
across the extreme N.W. angle of the site [Land,
and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., N.S., V, 49].
In 1923–4, on the demolition of the houses
between St. Michael's church and the road (Plan A
82), considerable fragments of Roman walling
(Fig. 36) were found, the largest of which was
apparently part of a thick wall (about 5 ft.) running
diagonally across the site in a north-easterly
direction, and apparently continuing towards the
porch of the church. In the E. half of the site
were found portions of three walls forming three
sides of a rectangular apartment. The northern
wall was composed of four courses of brick with
four or five courses of rag-stone below; the
southern wall was of similar construction; the
brick courses in the eastern wall were not at the
same level as those in the northern wall; above
the bricks in the eastern wall was a course of ashlar.
A shallow sinking near the middle of the site passed
through the base of a wall perhaps of earlier date.
A brick stamped P.P.BR.LON was found loose in
the excavations [Lond, and Midd. Arch. Soc.
Trans., N.S., V, 189, with plan, and A.C.].
In 1926, on clearing the site of No. 15 Cornhill
(Plan A 87), a wall was found running N. by W.
under Cornhill. The wall was about 4 ft. thick,
and stood on gravel 14 ft. below the street-level;
it was of rag-stone with some tiles and a double
bonding-course of tiles; the wall remained standing
to a height of 3 or 4 ft. [R.E.M.W.].
Crosby Square, Bishopsgate. Part of a
tessellated pavement (Plan A 49) was found in
March, 1836, about 13 ft. below the surface, under
a house (No. 3 Crosby Square) at the S.W. angle of
the Square, with guilloche-pattern of red, white
and grey tesserae (another account says scrolls in
red, yellow, white and black). From the style of
workmanship it appeared to be of early date
(Antonine period ?). Below it was a layer of coarse
mortar, on a bed of hard ground 2 ft. thick. The
site is said to be intersected by ancient foundations
12 ft. or 14 ft. down, running N. and S. [ Gent. Mag.,
1836, I, 369; Rom. Brit. Rem., I, 193; Arch.,
XXVII, 397; Morgan, Rom. Brit. Mosaic Pavements, 182; Soc. Antiq. MS. Min. XXXVII, 67].
Crutched Friars. A pavement, now at the
Society of Antiquaries, was discovered in Northumberland Alley (Plan A 4), at a depth of 12 ft.,
in July, 1787 [Soc. Antiq. MS. Min. XXII, 281;
Morgan, Rom. Brit. Mosaic Pavements, 179; Allen,
Hist, of Lond., I, 29; Arch., XXXIX, 491;
Way's Cat., 1847, 12].
Previous to 1805 a pavement was found in digging foundations for the East India Co's. warehouses, Northumberland Alley (Plan A 4); it is
said to have been at a depth of about 7 ft. [Gent.
Mag., 1807, I, 415–7].
Dowgate Hill (Plan A 118). Remains of a
large edifice and pavement were discovered after
the Great Fire [Archer, Vestiges of Old London, II;
Allen, Hist. Lond., III, 508; Wren, Parentalia,
Eastcheap. A road (Fig. 37) was uncovered in
1831 in making a sewer across Great Eastcheap to
Gracechurch Street (Plan A 27) 3 ft. below the
present pavement; it was 16 ft. wide and 7½ ft.
thick, of gravel-concrete on a bed of loam, with
supporting walls of rag-stone and tiles. In
direction it "apparently tended from Cannon
Street in the direction of Little Eastcheap,"
but another authority says it tended N.E. of this
line [Arch., XXV, 602; Gent. Mag., 1833, II, 421;
Herbert, Hist, of St. Michael, Crooked Lane, 20].
On the other side of Gracechurch Street at the top
of Crooked Lane, in excavating for the sewer under
the N. approach to New London Bridge, a raised
bank of gravel 6 ft. deep and 18 ft. wide and 5 ft.
below the modern pavement was also noted, and
at the N.E. corner of this street was found a wall,
a little in advance of the line of modern houses,
of rag-stone 2 ft. thick, with a double course of
white-clay tiles, in which were a flue-tile with four
apertures and two coins of Claudius. Mr. Kempe
also saw in 1831 a massive architectural fragment,
which he took to be the architrave of some building,
and a floor of coarse tesserae, just under St. Michael's
church, about 14 ft. square. A little to the N. were
two wells. Piers and an arch of chalk and a floor
of coarse tesserae were found in clearing for new
buildings at the N.E. corner of Eastcheap [Arch.,
XXIV, 191; Gent. Mag., 1836, I, 135; Rom.
Brit. Rem., I, 191].
Fig. 37. From Gentleman's Magazine, 1836.
In 1833 a report speaks of discoveries at the
S.E. corner of Great Eastcheap; these included
the lower part of Roman walls of flint, much
Gaulish pottery and coarser ware, coins of Claudius,
and a well, steined with squared chalk, the top
10 ft. below street-level [Gent. Mag., 1833, I, 69;
II, 421, ff.]. Another wall is mentioned in 1834,
about 4 ft. N. of the N. wall of the Roman road
(Plan A 27); it was of the usual type, 3 ft. thick,
receding upwards, as if supporting some structure.
Coins of Vespasian were found here, also one of
Julia Augusta [Ibid., 1834, I, 93, drawing; see
also Soc. Antiq. MS. Min. XXXVI. 337, 401].
In Little Eastcheap in 1836 traces of Roman
work were noted in the foundations of the church
(Plan A 26) of St. Andrew Hubbard (destroyed in
the Fire); and fragments of pottery were found
[Gent. Mag., 1836, I, 135]. Roach Smith says
foundations of houses were found at every step all
along the street at 12 to 20 ft., and mentions a
head of a Bacchante in green glass found there
[Arch., XXIX, 153–4].
Fenchurch Street. Walls were found in
digging a sewer in 1833 near the end of Mincing
Lane, and near the bottom of Cullum Street (Plan
A 8), at a depth of 12 ft., also two pavements, one
with geometrical patterns of red, grey, and white
tesserae, the other of red tesserae only, but large
and perfect, under the footpath opposite the entrance
of the house No. 36; also fragments of plaster,
painted bright vermillion. Between Mincing Lane
and Billiter Street, 16 ft. deep, were found
"abundance of tiles, mortar and fresco, with
pottery, a terra-cotta female head and mill-stone."
At the entrance of Lime Street from Fenchurch
Street the ground was thickly intersected with
walls as far as Cullum Street and heaps of frescopainting were found [Gent. Mag., 1834, I, 156;
Arch., XXIX, 153; Jonrn. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XXIII, 205]. In the same year were found, on the
site of St. Gabriel's Church (Plan A 32), part of a
hand in bronze (Plate 3) of large dimensions
[Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXIV, 75, with plate].
A note on a City Sewers Plan of 1853–4 (III, 66),
records the discovery of a stone wall, running
diagonally across the street, between London
Street and Billiter Street (Plan A 6).
Another pavement was uncovered in 1857, in
digging foundations of a house (No. 37) opposite
Cullum Street (Plan A 9) at a depth of 11½ ft.,
measuring 2 ft 4 in. by 2 ft. 6 in., with a richly
coloured design (Plate 40) on a white ground,
representing a peacock and vase within a guilloche
and plain border [Illus. Rom. Lond., 58 (fig.); Proc.
Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 2), XVII, 322; Roach Smith,
Retrospections, II, 200; Morgan, Rom. Brit.
Mosaic Pavements, 191]; this is now in the British
Rubble walls and a rough flooring of red tile
were revealed in 1911 in trenches cut at the back
of No. 80a (Plan A 5). Evidently other foundations exist on this site, but they have not been
explored [Arch., LXIII, 320].
In November, 1921, in making a tunnel for
telephone wires, a wall was discovered running
approximately E. and W. towards the N. side of
the street, some 60 ft. to the E. of Gracechurch
Street (Plan A 30). The S. face of the wall had
been destroyed by a previous excavation for a
sewer, but three courses of flint surmounted by
three courses of bricks were observed [Lond. and
Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., N.S., IV, 333].
In November and December, 1923, the remains
of an important building (Fig. 38) were uncovered
under Nos. 46 and 47 (Plan A 7) on the S. side of
Fenchurch Street, between that thoroughfare and
the N. Side of the Clothworkers' Hall. The complete plan could not be recovered as the whole area
was not excavated, but remains were found of
several apartments. The main structure rested in
the natural gravel and consisted of a chamber about
40 ft. by 25 ft. internally, running nearly N. and S.,
and divided by a cross-wall into two equal rooms.
The outer walls were entirely of brick, 2 ft. thick and
four courses to the foot. The whole was paved with
tiles about 9 in. square, and appeared (though
there was no trace of pilae) to have been originally
a hypocaust, for the floor-level was 4 ft. lower
than the original surface, and the outer face of the
containing walls, against undisturbed gravel and
brick-earth, was not faced. Later, sleeper-walls of
rag-stone and bonding-tiles about 4 ft. 6 in. high,
18 in. thick and 18 in. apart had been built across
the chamber. The intervals had been filled with
rubble, and a cement floor, supporting a double
layer of bonding tiles, had been laid over all. In
the cross-wall was the respond and part of the
springing of a low arch under the floor. There
were indications of adjoining rooms, N. under the
street and S. under Clothworkers' Hall, but on the
E. the site had not been built on, the ground being
undisturbed ballast [Journ. of Rom. Studies, XII,
257, and A.C.].
Fig. 39. Arch in Old Fish Street Hill. From Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., I.
In 1927, excavations on the site of Nos. 15–17
Fenchurch Street (Plan A 31) revealed traces of
three habitation-levels, near the middle of the site.
No structural remains were found [R.E.M.W. and
Finch Lane. Part of a tessellated pavement
was found in 1844–5 between this lane and the
Royal Exchange (Plan A 85), representing a female
head, in red, white, black and green tesserae.
Fragments of other pavements and indications of
buildings were also noted [Journ. Brit. Arch.
Assoc., I, 64]. In 1847 the walls of houses were
noticed running across Finch Lane and Birchin
Lane and into Cornhill and Lombard Street, together with remains of tessellated pavement. On
the right of Finch Lane going S., about midway
(Plan A 84), at a depth of 13 ft., traces of a very
extensive tessellated pavement were found; the
only portion preserved was a double guilloche in
black, red, yellow and white, enclosing a square
[Ibid., II, 205]. See also Birchin Lane.
Fish Street Hill (Old). In December, 1845,
during excavations made for a sewer in Old Fish
Street Hill, near the entrance into Thames Street
(Plan A 170), walls were found at a depth of 16 ft.;
one wall, 3 to 4 ft. thick, ran parallel to the street
towards Thames Street, and another crossed it at
right angles. In the latter was an arch (Fig. 39)
3 ft. wide and 3½ ft. high. The walls were built
on large hewn stones laid on wooden piles. By
the side of the wall which ran parallel to the sewer,
about 16 ft. from the arch, were several tiers of
tiles each 2 ft. by 1½ ft. placed upon massive hewn
stones, one being 4 ft. 5 in. long [Journ. Brit. Arch.
Assoc., I, 45, with illustration]. The position of
one wall, crossing the street, is indicated on a City
Sewers Plan [I, 139].
Friday Street. A large piece of coarse tessellated pavement was found in 1844, 16 ft. to 18 ft.
below street-level, also some "Roman wells or
cesspools," on the site of the old Saracen's Head
Inn (Plan A 150) adjoining St. Matthew's Church on
the S. side [Lond. and Midd, Arch. Soc. Trans., III,
339]. When the church of St. Matthew was pulled
down in 1886, part of the same or another pavement
was discovered "in a very dislocated condition,
sloping from N. to S."; it lay at a depth of about
14 ft. below the present street-level; the fragment
was about 3 ft. square and lay at about 13 ft. from
the E. wall of the church and at a similar distance
from the S. wall. It was composed of rough red tile
tesserae. A portion of this pavement, "re-arranged
for preservation" in 1888, is preserved on the N.
side of the church of St. Vedast, Foster Lane.
According to the accompanying inscription, it was
found about 18 ft. below the ground-level. [Journ.
Brit. Arch. Assoc., XLII, 435; Reliq., N.S., I,
Fig. 40. Wall between Friday Street and Knightrider Street. From Archæologia, LX.
A wall (Fig. 40) crossing this street and Knightrider Street (Plan A 165) diagonally was found in
1906. It was 4 ft. thick and 9 ft. high. It had
been built between boarding with upright posts
4 ft. apart on the inner or wall-side of the boarding.
The matrices of these posts and the imprint of the
boarding remained on both sides of the wall. The
foundation rested on the ballast at a depth of 21 ft.
below the street-level. A continuation of this wall
was found, at an earlier date in constructing a
sewer in Friday Street [Proc. Soc. Antiq., XXI,
229; Arch., LX, 219 (Plan); cf. Arch., XL, 49].
Goldsmiths' Hall, Foster Lane (Plan A 148).
For the altar found on this site, see p. 43 and Plate
12. One writer speaks of "strongly cemented
masses of stonework" on the site where this altar
was found, more like natural rock than masonry,
and so hard that it had to be blasted with gunpowder. The altar is preserved in the Goldsmiths'
Hall [Gent. Mag., 1831, I, 390, 452; Hartridge,
Coll. Newsp. Cuttings, Old Lond., I, 21; Arch.,
XXIV, 350 (Fig.); Coll. Antiq., I, 134, pl. 45;
Illus. Rom. Lond., pl. 2, fig. 4, p. 48; Archer,
Vestiges of Old London, pl. 9; Soc. Antiq. MS. Min.
XXXVI, 128; and for the supposed inscription,
Corp. Inscr. Latin. VII, 21].
Gracechurch Street. In 1834, massive and
substantial masonry was found at the N. end of the
street, from Corbet's Court to the end, and in the
angle of Lombard Street (near Half Moon Court)
were coffins with human remains, probably
mediæval [Kelsey, Descr. of Sewers, 100]. Opposite
St. Benet's Place (Plan A 28), in digging foundations
of two houses, pavements of houses were found
(evidently on the W. side of Gracechurch Street) in
1841 [Arch., XXIX, 154]. In the sewer excavations, at the N. and S. walls of St. Benet Gracechurch (Plan A 29), walls 4 ft. thick and 22 ft.
from the surface, continuing down to the depth
of the sewer, were found running under Gracechurch Street. To the N. of Lombard Street,
excavations passed under a burial-ground filled
with interments, and beside other remains of
buildings, walls of 6, 7 and 11 ft. in breadth,
extending E. and W., were found at and near Half
Moon Passage (now the central avenue of Leadenhall Market: these were evidently the continuations
of the walls of the great building (Plan A 37) found
when the Market was reconstructed, see LeadenHall Market) [Cat. Antiq. Roy. Exch., p. XII].
In 1866–8 finds were made in Spread Eagle Yard
(Plan A 39) of a pavement of considerable extent,
and the left hand (Plate 2) of a bronze statue
[Guildhall Mus., Cat., p. 70, No. 21; Journ. Brit.
Arch. Assoc., XXIV, 76; Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser.
2), X, 93]. In 1906 a wall of tiles was brought to
light at the corner of Leadenhall Avenue [Arch.,
In 1908, in sinking an artesian well at No. 85,
on the E. side of Gracechurch Street (Plan A 40),
a Roman wall 3½ ft. thick was found, 21 ft. from
the surface and standing 5 ft. high; at the top was
a triple bonding-course of tiles. The wall ran
parallel to the street [Arch., LXIII, 320].
In September, 1912, the buildings on the W. side
of the street, between Corbet Court and Bell Yard
(Plan A 34) were demolished. In the northern part
of the site was found a Roman wall, 4½ ft. thick and
with the base 27 ft. below the surface; it was built
of rag-stone bonded at 3 ft. intervals with double
layers of tiles. The wall ran from S. to N. then
turned at right angles and passed under the street.
On the S. side of Bell Yard (Plan A 33) was another
Roman wall, 2 ft. thick and with the base 16½ ft. below the surface. The base was of rag-stone with two
courses of tiles at the top. Below the wall was a
mass of flint and mortar more than 4 ft. thick
[Arch., LXIII, 320, with plan]. See also Corbet
In January, 1922, "the excavations for telephone
wires having been continued along Gracechurch
Street, two Roman walls were found in the roadway,
E. of St. Peter's Church, Cornhill (Plan A 41), and
opposite its northern portion. The more important
one ran E. and W. It was 4 ft. 6 in. or more in
thickness, and the base was not reached (by probing)
at a depth of 16 ft. At a depth of 10 to 11 ft. below
street-level were five rows of tiles between courses
of squared rag-stone, and some feet higher up were
two rows. The upper part of the S. side of this wall
was plastered and painted. The plaster was badly
damaged, but it seems to have had by way of
decoration square or oblong panels in black outline
on a yellow ground with touches of red. The other
wall stood at right angles. It was clearly later, for
the plaster on that first described continued behind
the junction. It was 2 ft. 9 in. thick, and built
entirely of rag-stone except for a double lacingcourse of tiles about 12 ft. 6 in. down. At this level
on its W. side were traces of a white cement floor
several inches thick. The footings of this wall did
not seem to go deeper than 14 ft. 6 in. Both sides
had been plastered and painted, but only the W.
side could be examined. This was decorated like
the S. side of the first wall, but only the lower
part of the panels could be seen. The ground-level
on the W. side of the second wall had been raised
later to a height of 4 ft. above the original floor,
and a rough brick tessellated pavement laid. As
regards dating it is clear that there are three periods;
(1) the first wall, which is not very early, (2) the
second wall, and (3) the tessellated pavement "
[Antiq. Journ., 1922, II, 140; Journ. of Rom.
Studies, XI, 218; Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc.
Trans., N.S., IV, 339]
Gresham Street (formerly Maiden Lane, Lad
Lane and Cateaton Street). In excavations for
the sewer in Gresham Street (Plan A 141) in 1843 a
red brick pavement was found near the W. end of
Lad Lane; a little W. of this near Wood Street was
a herring-bone pavement (bricks 4 in. by 2 in. by
1 in.), and another on the W. side of Wood Street,
with a border of white and grey tesserae; this pavement extends beneath St. Michael's church. In
October, 1844, white tesserae were observed at the
corner of Maiden Lane and Wood Street. The pavement found on the N. side of St. Michael's Church,
was now traced on the other side of the church. The
relative position of these pavements is recorded on
two plans (Fig. 41) by Roach Smith in the Guildhall
Library [Add. Prints, p. 61]. The plans do not
entirely agree with the description quoted above. A
portion of one of these pavements is preserved at the
Society of Antiquaries [Gent. Mag., 1843, I, 22,
190; II, 81; Rom. Brit. Rem., I, 197 ff.; cf. II,
556; Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 1), II, 184]. Another
pavement was recorded in 1848 [Proc. Soc. Antiq.
(Ser. 1), II, 126].
In 1908 several Roman rubbish-pits were found
on a site at the E. corner of Gresham Street and
Aldermanbury (Plan A 140). They extended to a
depth of 19 ft., and contained a few fragments of
pottery and many oyster-shells [Arch., LXIII, 314].
Mr. F. Lambert, writing in 1923, records that at
the N.E. corner of Wood Street and Gresham
Street (Plan A 142) the lowest courses of a brick
wall were found, under the present building line
and running almost N.W. and S.E. Adjoining
it, and within the site, were the remains of a
pavement of bonding-tiles, of the usual size and
type, which must have been the floor of a shallow
cellar or a hypocaust, for it lay 4 ft. below the
surface of the brick-earth which formed the Roman
surface [Journ. Rom. Studies, XII, 257].
Grocers' Hall, Prince's Street (Plan A 131).
A pavement of concrete with coating of thin red
earth was found, at a depth of 17 ft. 6 in., in 1834
[Kelsey, Descr. of Sewers, 112].
Guildhall. In excavating for the Sewers'
Office, at the back of the Guildhall (Plan A 138), in
1861, a pavement of grey slate and white marble
was found (Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XVII, 325].
Honey Lane. In 1861, on the site of Honey
Lane Market (Plan A 144) in front of the City of
London School and facing Bow church, in making
trenches for new walls at a depth of 17 ft., the
workmen came upon a tessellated pavement which
appeared to run parallel to the road. The portion
uncovered was 6 to 7 ft. long and 4 ft. wide, and was
formed of red and yellow tesserae. Some 30 ft. N.
of this pavement were remains of a thick wall,
apparently Roman. Fragments of wall-paintings
were also found [Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc.
Trans., II (Proceedings at Meetings), 68. See also
Arch. Rev., I, 278].
Fig. 42. Ditch between Jewry Street and City Wall. From Archæologia, LX.
Huggin Lane, Thames Street. Between
Queen Victoria Street and Thames Street (Plan A
163) two walls are indicated, crossing the lane, on
a City Sewers Plan of 1845 [I, 139].
Huggin Lane, Wood Street (Plan A 143).
Fragments of pavement were found in 1851, of grey
and white tesserae [Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 1), II,
184]. See also Gresham Street.
Jewry Street. In 1905, on clearing the site of
Nos. 18–20 Jewry Street and No. 1 Crutched Friars
(Plan A 3), a ditch (Fig. 42) was found, cut in the
ballast. It was about 8 ft. wide, 6 ft. deep and
filled with dark earth. Its line was not parallel to
the town-wall, but converged towards the N.
[Arch., LX. 193].
King Edward Street (formerly Butcher Hall
Lane). Immediately in front of the tavern at
the N. end of Butcher Hall Lane (Plan A 182),
12 to 14 ft. deep, a portion of a wall was found,
mainly of chalk, crossing the lane, and apparently
about 5 ft. thick [Gent. Mag., 1843, I, 21; II, 81,
416; Rom. Brit. Rem., 197].
King's Arms Yard Moorgate Street. E. B.
Price records the discovery in 1843, at the
corner of King's Arms Yard (Plan A 137) on the E.
side of Moorgate Street, of part of a tessellated
pavement of red, white and grey tesserae [Gent.
Mag., 1843, I, 520].
King Street. In 1926–7, in re-building Nos. 7
and 8 King Street, Cheapside (Plan A 145), remains
of early Roman occupation were discovered. The
excavation revealed seven or eight occupationlevels between 14 and 18 ft. below the surface and
containing pottery, none of which appeared to be
later than the reign of Trajan. There was evidence
of two fires one over the lowest occupation-level,
and one over the fourth level. On the original
gravel surface were fragments of pre-Flavian
Samian including one stamped MVRRANVS,
coarse pottery and the stumps of bushes [G. Home
in Morning Post, Jan. 27th, 1927, and Discovery
VIII, 35]. On the S. side of the site was evidence
of a small natural water-channel, running,
apparently, N.N.W. and E.S.E.
King William Street. Roach Smith adduces
"numerous evidences of Roman habitation on
either side of this street: (a) walls of rough unhewn
pieces of chalk, often mixed with flints and
cemented by firm mortar, ran under or partially
intersected the street, which seems to have been
closely occupied with dwelling-houses; (b) wells of
chalk filled with earth mixed with tiles, pottery,
bones, were often opened; (c) quantities of fragments of earthen vessels and Samian pottery were
found; (d) adjoining St. Clement's Church, 12 ft.
beneath present level, was a tessellated pavement
composed of pieces of red brick. . . . (e) near
the same church many vessels of brown and black
earth, small earthen lamps, much Samian ware,
rings of base metal, and coins . . . . chiefly
Claudius, Vespasian, Domitian, with base denarii
of Severus, Caracalla, Alexander Severus, and
Julia Mammaea." Towards the Bank the Roman
level was much deeper, and numerous wooden
piles were observed, also walls intersecting the
street; "many dwelling-houses on its line, but no
trace of a high road" [Arch., XXVII, 140; cf.
Gent. Mag., 1835, I, 82]. Between London Bridge
and Arthur Street was found a bed of oyster-shells,
7 ft. thick, and Stow supposes this to be the site of
the "Oyster Gate" [Kelsey, Descr. of Sewers, 95;
Herbert, Hist, of St. Michael, Crooked Lane, 14].
In May, 1914, excavations took place on the site
of Nos. 3–6 King William Street between Sherborne Lane and Abchurch Lane (Plan A 97). No
Roman buildings were found on the site but a series
of rubbish-pits were disclosed, the largest extending
under Sherborne Lane, and containing at the
bottom objects which seemed to belong to the third
quarter of the 1st century [Arch., LXVI, 264–5,
with plan of site]. Other sites on both sides of the
street produced evidence of an extensive fire in this
portion of the town early in the Roman occupation,
indications of which had already been observed on
the site of Nos. 3–6. On the site of Nos. 61–66
(excavated in 1920) at the angle of the street (Plan
A 98), N. of William IV's statue three Roman walls
were found running N. and S. The two eastern
were of squared rag-stone with one double bondingcourse of brick, remaining; between these walls at
the base was a cambered layer of chalky mortar,
6 in. thick, and along the eastern side were traces of
tiles laid as though to form a drain. The space
above the cambered layer was filled with pebbles
and fragments of tile packed tightly with the layer
stones at the bottom, in red earth; the whole was
capped by a horizontal white flooring at the level of
the top of the bonding-courses; this flooring was
9¾ ft. below the pavement-level. The third wall,
further to the W. was, at its southern end, built
entirely of rag-stone and under the pavement its
base rose as though to admit a broad arch. N. of
this stretch, after a gap of some feet, was a 20ft.
length of wall of an entirely different type. It was
rather more than 3 ft. thick with four courses of
squared rag-stone between each double bondingcourse of bricks. It apparently extended completely across the site [Arch., LXXI, 60].
In October, 1924, in making a sewer from the
N. part of Nicholas Lane at a depth of 19 ft. chalk
foundations were met with in King William Street
(Plan A 94). The foundations were exposed to a
depth of 6 ft. but neither the top nor the bottom
was reached; they appeared to belong to a wall
running at right angles to King William Street
Knightrider Street. For the wall found near
the top of St. Peter's Hill, see under St. Peter's
Hill. For the wall found in 1906 at the corner of
Friday Street, see under Friday Street.
Fig. 44. Sewer in Little Knightrider Street.
From Journ. B.A.A., I.
In August, 1844, an arch (Fig. 44) was found on
the S. side of the excavation for a sewer, in front of
No. 15, Little Knightrider Street (Plan A 167),
resembling closely that in Old Fish Street Hill. It
was of horseshoe form, of tiles 12 in long, in a wall of
Kentish rag, and was filled in with earth [Journ.
Brit. Arch. Assoc., I, 253, sketch of arch].
Lambeth Hill. The position of a wall (Plan
A 166), found in this street is indicated on a City
Sewers Plan of 1845 [I, 139].
Fig. 45. Remains under East India House.
From Archæologia, XXXIX, by permission.
Laurence Pountney Lane. In 1846, in making
a sewer, walls built of tegulae sesquipedales (18 in.
by 12 in.) were discovered. A large space was
covered by a pavement of coarse red tesserae.
From the churchyard (Plan A 107) to Cannon Street
the ground at short intervals bore the remains, at
unequal depths, of dwelling-houses and of walls of
greater thickness, one opposite the churchyard,
formed of rag-stone and flints with tiles in masses
and layers was discovered 3 ft. from surface and
descended to 10 ft. Opposite the houses numbered
26 and 3 were bases of two columns, at a depth of
8 ft. and of a diameter of 15 in. and 19 in., embedded
in a thick layer of débris of buildings. At the
entrance to Church Passage at a depth of 3 ft. was a
wall 4½ ft. thick and bonded with tiles. Opposite
No. 27 at a depth of 3 to 4 ft. were remains of
common red tessellated pavement. Nearer to
Cannon Street mill-stones formed part of a wall;
they were of a kind of hard lava from the neighbourhood of Andernach [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
II, 340, 345].
Leadenhall Market. A general consideration
of the architectural features of the building (the
Basilica) found on this and adjoining sites has
already been given together with illustrations
(Figs. 3 to 7) on p. 35 of the Introduction.
The foundations on the site of Leadenhall
Market (Plan A 37), planned and drawn by
H. Hodge in 1881, appear to indicate a building
over 400 ft. in length with a width of about 40 ft.
and an apse at the E. end. To the S. of the apse are
rectangular compartments of indeterminate extent,
and on the N. side of the main S. wall is a smaller
apse which may have been a foundation-arch only.
The foundations obviously represent the work of at
least two periods, distinguished from each other
by the more liberal use of brick, with comparatively
thin mortar-joints, in the one case and by a larger
admixture of stone and by wider joints in the other.
The general plan bears a strong superficial resemblance to that of a basilica. The main S. wall,
again partly uncovered in 1906 [Arch., LX, 225],
appears to be double, representing the work of two
periods; the N. half may have been a sleeper-wall
carrying an arcade and the S. half may represent
a later enclosing wall. The fragment still visible
(in the cellar of a shop at the N. angle of the Central
Avenue and Gracechurch Street) consists of a
rectangular mass of concrete, 6 in. thick, carrying
a course of ashlar 6 ft. broad and visible to a length
of. 10 ft.; on this is a brick wall, 2½ ft. high and
5 ft. broad, ending on the E. in a square jamb,
which may have been rebated to the extent of
about 1½ ft. at the N.E. angle. The pavements of
this building are described by Loftus Brock as
follows:—"A Roman pavement of ordinary brick
tesserae has been found over a large part of the
surface and covered with the ashes of some great
fire. Above this is concrete of a second floor,
while below the remains of walls 5 ft. thick have
been found" [Builder, 1881, I, 110; Plans by
H. Hodge in Guildhall Library, Add. Prints, p. 96,
and Arch., LXVI, 225, with plan and drawings].
For other walls connected with this building, see
Gracechurch Street and for a fuller discussion
of the architectural features of the building see p. 35.
Fragments of fresco-paintings (now in British
Museum) with foliage in green on a red ground were
also found [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXXVII,
84, 90; Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 2) VII, 524]. In
April, 1888, "a beautiful specimen of a Roman
floor " was reported [Antiq., XVII, 175]; this is
probably the one now in the Guildhall [Cat., p. 72,
In 1883–4, on the clearing of the site between St.
Peter's Alley and Corbet Court (Plan A 36) on the
W. side of Gracechurch Street, the continuation of
the main wall of the supposed Basilica was traced
for about 90 ft. W. of the roadway; another small
apse was found, presumably also a foundation-arch,
and about 33 ft. to the S. another wall was found not
quite parallel to the first, but extending completely
across the site. For the cross-walls, etc., found
at the same time, see plan p. 40, Plate 5 [Plan by
H. Hodge in Guildhall Library, Add. Prints, p. 27].
In November, 1924, in sinking a shaft in the
floor of the basement of shop No. 7 (Plan A 38) on
the N. side of the Central Avenue, Roman concrete
was cut through for a depth of 11½ ft. The basement is 15 ft. 4 in. below the ground-floor level. This
masonry equates with the second cross-wall W. of
the apse shown in Mr. Hodge's plan, taken when the
Market was built [Q.W.].
Leadenhall Street. The chief discovery in
this street has been the pavement (now in the
British Museum), found in December, 1803, in
searching for a sewer, below the carriage-way
pavement opposite the easternmost columns of the
portico of East India House (Plan A 42), at a depth
of 9½ ft. It formed the floor of a room more than
20 ft. square, the central square, which is now all
that remains, measuring 11 ft. The design (Plate
49) consists of a figure of Bacchus riding on a
tiger, with thyrsos and drinking-cup, within a
triple border; in the angles are drinking-cups and
plants; the whole was surrounded by a plain red
border 5 ft. wide. Under one corner was found part
of an urn containing a jaw bone, and on the opposite
side of the street were foundations of tile and
Kentish rag-stone [T. Fisher, Gent. Mag. 1804, I,
83; 1807, I, 415; Arch., XXXIX, 493; Kelsey,
Descr. of Sewers, 53; Soc. Ant. MS. Min. XXX,
181; Hughson, Hist, of Lond., I, 34; Morgan,
Rom. Brit. Mosaic Pavements, 179].
A red tessellated pavement was noticed in 1846,
on the site of the premises then built for the
Peninsular Steam Navigation Company (Plan A 48)
on the site of the old King's Arms Tavern. It was
said to extend over a large portion of the area [Arch.,
LXIII, 321; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., II, 340].
This site was apparently on the N. side of the
street between St. Mary Axe and Shaft Alley.
In 1863 the India House was pulled down and
many discoveries (Fig. 45) were made. Below the
portico (Plan A 43) a room was found paved with
red tesserae, with walls of Kentish rubble and chalk
bonded with tiles, plastered and coloured in fresco.
This was thought to be a small room adjoining
the larger one in which was the pavement of 1803;
but it is stated to be at a much greater depth
(19 ft. 6 in.), and must, therefore, be of earlier
date. At the depth of the other pavement (9 ft.
6 in.), but to the N. under the street, another
mosaic pavement was found in 1864, and is now
in the British Museum, to which, with other
antiquities from the site, it was presented by
Sir W. Tite in that year [Arch., XXXIX, pl. 21,
p. 500; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XIX, 63;
Arch. Journ., XX, 177; Morgan, Rom. Brit.
Mosaic Pavements, 192, 193; Illus. Lond. News,
March 12th, 1864, 267].
Two portions of pavements are reported in 1882
from the site of Rochester Buildings (Plan A 44),
opposite that of the India House, and possibly
belonging to the same building, at 11 ft. below
street-level [Arch. Journ., XL, 107]. A plan
showing the approximate position of the pavements (Plan A 47) found in the street, opposite
East India House, is preserved in the Guildhall
Two portions of pavement, one of herring-bone
type to the W., and one of tesserae to the E., were
found on the site between Whittington Avenue and
East India House (Plan A 46) at some uncertain
date [Plan in Guildhall Library, Add. Prints, p. 96].
In December, 1924, a small excavation in the
basement of No. 77 (Plan A 53) exposed a wall of
concrete, apparently Roman. The portion visible
was 16 to 18 ft. below the street-level, and ran in a
direction parallel to Mitre Street [Q.W.].
In 1925, in excavating the site of Lloyds, in the
W. angle of Leadenhall Street and Lime Street
(Plan A 45), Roman foundations and the lower
courses of partition-walls were found [D. Buxton in
Times, Aug. 24th, 1925]. These walls were on the
W. side of the site; a Roman tiled floor was also
A writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1825
(II, 633), states that on the Roman level "a Roman
road was discovered." Roach Smith speaks of this
street as "abounding in the debris of buildings "
[Arch., XXIX, 153].
Lombard Street. In 1785 considerable remains
of a pavement of coarse red tesserae came to light
at a depth of 10 to 15 ft., bedded in coarse mortar;
the site was at the W. end of the street, nearly
opposite St. Mary Woolnoth church. In laying the
sewer in 1785, a series of remains of buildings (Fig.
46) were discovered between the W. end of the
street and Birchin Lane (q.v.). Starting from the
W. end the remains (Plan A 88) in the sewer-trench
were as follows:—Between Nos. 82 and 85, at a
depth of 9 ft., a pavement of rough stones and 3 ft.
lower another pavement of "small irregular bricks,"
red, black and white and mostly 2 in. by 1½ in.;
the pavement was about 20 ft. from E. to W.
Farther E. was a wall about 10 ft. high and 18 ft.
long and in it two flues, one semi-circular and one
rectangular; the top of this wall was 10 ft. from
the surface. Between the houses 72 and 82 were
large fragments of tessellated and other pavements,
with channelled tiles and coloured stucco. Near
the post-office, on the N. side of the sewer, at a
depth of 14 ft. was a Roman wall, with 2 ft. of
"rough work" at the top and then regular layers
of flat bricks at smaller intervals. Near this wall
but not more than 9 ft. below the surface, was a
pavement of flat tiles. Opposite the house No. 64,
on the S. side of the sewer, at a depth of 20 ft. was
"a piece of solid arch work composed of stones of
irregular form." Walls of the same material as
that opposite the post-office were found on the S.
side of the sewer nearly opposite the end of Birchin
Lane, and on the N. side, near the houses Nos.
59, 57 and 55. Opposite the houses numbered
55 and 58 two walls composed of the same materials
crossed the sewer; they were about 2½ ft. thick
[Arch., VIII, 117, with sketch-plan; Gent. Mag.,
1785, II, 845; 1807, I, 415; Allen, Hist, of London,
I, 26]. The lower pavement at the W. end of the
street was again uncovered in 1840 [Price, Nat.
Safe Dept., 25].
Fig. 46. Remains found in Lombard Street, 1785.
From Arch., VIII.
In 1839 a tessellated pavement was observed at
a depth of 8 ft. running under the present street,
Roman remains extending beneath it [Illus. Rom.
Lond., 59]. In 1868 a pavement 17 or 18ft. below
the street-level was found on the site of No. 25
Lombard Street (Plan A 90), above which were
dupondii "of the Fabia Gens" (sic), Nero, and
Antoninus Pius (the latter dating A.D. 144, with
figure of Britannia) [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XXIV, 178, 294]. In 1873, various Roman walls
of rag-stone and tile were traced in Plough Court,
on the premises of Allen, Hanbury and Co. [Price,
Rom. Antiq. Nat. Safe Dept, 26].
In the autumn of 1925, on a site at the N. angle
of Lombard Street and Gracechurch Street (Plan
A 91) was found, about 13 ft. below the modern
ground-level, a series of walls (Plate 43 and Fig.
47) running at a slight angle with the N. frontage of
Lombard Street. The building uncovered consisted
of a corridor or gallery with a wall, apparently solid,
on the S. side and a series of rectangular brick piers
on the N. side, the distance between the two lines
being about 8¼ ft. and the piers being about 16 ft.
from centre to centre. One pier had a short length
of broken wall adjoining it about the middle of the
N. face; a further piece of wall running approximately N. and S. was found a short distance to the
N. and under Gracechurch Street; this wall had
been plastered and painted. Two complete piers
and part of a third were found; they were entirely
of brick set in red mortar and stood on rubble
foundations. The southern wall was of rubble
alternating with courses of brick on the N. face and
was set in yellow mortar. There were slight traces
of a mortar bed, probably for a pavement, in the
area of the corridor and a few inches above the
level of the footings of the piers. There is some
doubt if the solid wall and the series of piers were
parallel or not, but it seems evident that they
co-existed and the divergence was in any case not
great [Lond, and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., N.S., V,
317, plan]. What was perhaps a continuation of
this solid wall was encountered in 1921 in the
middle of Gracechurch Street; it was 4½ ft. thick
[Ibid, N.S., IV, 332]. N. of the wall were a series
of what were probably floor-levels.
London Bridge Approach. In making sewers
in 1831 under the line of approach to new London
Bridge the "transverse section commenced of the
eminence which rises from Thames Street towards
the heart of the city.'' The excavation was as deep
as low-water mark, 50 ft. below the present surface
of the rest of the hill. "In the course of the above
operation, and of preparing for the construction of
the northern land arches of the new bridge, three
distinct lines of embankment were discovered
. . . . one of the lines of embankment, lying 20 ft.
under the S. abutment of the Thames Street land
arch of the new bridge (Plan A 101), was of a
peculiarly massive character being formed of the
trunks of oak trees and roughly squared with the
axe, and in all probability the work of the Romans."
On the hill, about 100 yards N. of this work, the
following discoveries were made: ". . . . When the
labourers had penetrated through a factitious
accumulation of soil to the depth of about 17 ft. they
came to a stratum of argillaceous nature earth about
2½ ft. in depth, in which numerous marks of Roman
occupation began to make their appearance;
sinking 20 ft. still deeper, thro' a stratum of fine
red gravel, they came to the bed of clay in which
are found the fossil remains. . . . The first discovery of Roman remains which I personally
witnessed, was on 21st April last, when the
excavation had arrived at the wall with the lancet
windows, the S. boundary of St. Michael's churchyard. The singularly formed urn [Pl. XLIV, 8—
indented urn, no base, bad fig.] was then taken out
of the stratum of native loam and two coins of
Vespasian, one of which is in tolerable preservation.
As the labourers proceeded with their task they
found the native gravel bed and its superstrata
intersected by numerous holes and square pits,
probably ancient cesspools or cisterns; in these as
in surrounding soil, were many Roman potsherds"
(figs.). "As the excavations drew near the line of
the street of Eastcheap, the fragments of . . . .
Samian, became plentiful" (mortaria, jugs, amphoræ, etc.); "and party walls, composed of
rag-stone, of buildings which had evidently aligned
with the present street, were discovered; these
walls were covered with wood ashes, and about
them were found many portions of green molten
glass and of the red Samian wares discoloured by
fire." A "piece of plain red tessellated pavement,
about 14 ft. square, laid open just under church
(Plan A 100) in Crooked Lane." In the old wall
with the lancet windows were "some massive
fragments of Roman architecture, being of a sort of
sandstone, the surface of which had been painted
. . . . a bright red" [A. J. Kempe in Arch., XXIV,
190–96, see also Gent. Mag., 1831, 1, 387; 1832, II,
516; and Herbert, Hist, of St. Michael, Crooked
Lane]. A fuller description of the "embankments" is given by William Knight; he states that
the ancient embankment of the Thames was of
Kentish rag and Purbeck stone, similar to the piers
of Old London Bridge, and backed by chalk and
"madrepore." Within this embankment, for
nearly 100 ft., were several small jetties forming
docks and quays. "Proceeding northwards the
ground was found to be a mass of marsh from the
river's edge about 300 ft. onwards. . . . It
shelved up towards Thames Street and was excavated from 10 to 12 ft. deep at that part," for the
S. abutment of the arch over Thames Street;
"here the first timber embankment (Plan A 101)
was discovered . . . . about 10 ft. below the
surface of the ground. It was traced to a depth
of more than 20 ft. and was formed of large solid
trees of oak and chesnut, about 2 ft. square, roughly
hewn, having strong timber waleings spiked to the
piles. . . . The second embankment (Plan A 102)
was discovered about 60 ft. beyond the N. side of
the Thames (presumably should read Thames
Street), towards the site of Crooked Lane and was of
a completely different character from the one just
described. It was composed of elm piles, from 8 to
10 ft. long, closely driven together and being farther
inshore than the former, and of a totally different
description must have been constructed at some
other period" [Arch., XXV, 601].
London Wall. In 1866 a large area (Plan A 61)
was excavated, under the observation of Gen.
Pitt-Rivers, in which great quantities of bones of
animals were found in a layer of peat about 10 to
13 ft. below the surface, including remains of Bos
longifrons, red deer, wild boars, and wild goats.
A number of roughly-cut piles (Fig. 48) with
decayed tops were also found in the peat, some in
rows, others in groups, bound together by planks,
one of which had nails in it. Here were found tiles
(one with P.PR.BR), much Gaulish pottery,
Upchurch ware, bronze pins, styli, iron knives,
leather shoes and sandals, and coins of Vespasian,
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius. The
explanation of these discoveries involves some
difficulties, but it has been supposed that they
represent pile-dwellings [Times, Oct. 20th, 1866;
Anthrop. Rev., V (1867), p. LXXI, ff., with plan and
sections; Arch. Journ., XXIV, 61; Munro, LakeDwellings of Europe, 494].
In 1880 a supposed Roman road was unearthed
at the top of Throgmorton Avenue (Plan A 60),
crossing it diagonally (presumably inside the Wall),
together with various remains: a bronze statuette,
an unknown implement, fragments of various sorts
of pottery, glass, sandals, keys, nails, spindlewhorls, bones of animals, and shells [Arch. Journ.,
Lothbury. About 1834, remains of a tessellated
pavement were found opposite Founders' Court
(Plan A 67), at a depth of about 11 ft., also various
iron tools; and at a lower level a leather sandal,
black and red pottery, coins of Domitian and
Antoninus Pius, and wooden piles as in Prince's
Street. Kelsey states that about 90 ft. of the sewer
in Lothbury "was tunnelled between the walls of a
very ancient passage, the floor of which was paved
with coarse red tesserae the whole lying on [the]
layer of bog-earth . . . . Masses of piling,
with the wall-planking still on the face next to the
channel, were cut through, and at the S.E. angle of
Grocers' Hall (where the manhole now is) a bed of
very hard concrete pavement, covered with a thin
coat of red earth, was found at a depth of 17ft 6 in."
[Arch., XXVII, 147; Morgan, Rom, Brit. Mosaic
Pavements, 181; Kelsey, Descr. of Sewers, 112].
Freshfield (Proc. Soc. Antiq., XVI, 36) states that
a Roman pavement was found under Lothbury
opposite the church (Plan A 66) at a depth of about
16 to 17 ft. In 1843, at the S.W. corner of Tokenhouse Yard (Plan A 65), and at a depth of from
12 to 18 ft., were found curiously-fluted piles, with
fragments of Gaulish pottery including CACAS.M.,
coins of Vespasian and Nero, etc. [Gent. Mag., 1843,
II, 532; Rom. Brit. Rem., I, 203].
Remains (Fig. 49) of a Roman building were
discovered in March, 1927, during excavations for
the extention of Messrs. Brown, Shipley and Co.'s
premises in Founders' Court, Lothbury (Plan A 68).
The remains consisted of part of a tessellated pavement discovered at a depth of 19 ft. 8 in. beneath
the arched entrance to the main premises at the N.
end of Founders' Court. The fragment inspected
consisted of a border 3½ ft. wide, incomplete, at both
ends of a pit 6½ ft. long and made of red tesserae,
each about 1 in. square. At the S.E. corner of the
pit was visible a fragment of the margin of a mosaic
pattern of black or dark tesserae, each about ½ in.
square. Close inside the western margin of the pit
the red border came to a well-defined end indicating
the former presence of a wall here running approximately from N. to S., but inclined slightly
more towards the N.E. than the main lines of the
modern structure. The width of the wall could not
be ascertained. Immediately adjoining this piece
of pavement on the E. side another fragment had
been found and destroyed earlier in the month.
It certainly belonged to the same floor. When
pulled up by the workmen the fragment first
described was found to consist of about an inch of
fine pink cement in which the tesserae were set
above 2 in. or more of rough gravel concrete, all
The area (about 20 sq. ft.), which had been
effectively sealed by this pavement, was then
excavated under supervision. It was found to
consist of nearly 3½ ft. of alluvial deposit containing
much Roman rubbish in the shape of burnt and
broken animal bones (including a horn of Bos
longifrons), oyster shells and about 25 pieces of
pottery of 1st and early 2nd-century date. Most of
the pottery was certainly of the 1st century
(Samian forms, 18, 15/17, early 27 and either 29 or
transitional 37; and plain pottery with graphitecoated surface. A few fragments were of the period
Trajan-Hadrian, namely, form 46, 37 with tripod
ornament; and a black mortarium of late 1st or
early 2nd-century type). None of the pottery is
likely to have been later than c. A.D. 125, and it
was sufficiently abundant to suggest that the pavement was built not later than the first half of the
2nd century—probably before, rather than during,
the Antonine period.
Fig. 48. Pile-structures S. of London Wall. From Anthrop. Rev., V.
Towards the W. the ground dipped from the
direction of the pavement towards what had
apparently been the bed of a feeder of the Walbrook. The black alluvium here went down to an
even greater depth and produced pottery also
mostly of lst-century date. A few feet to the
S.W. of the site of the building another pit revealed
remains of a pile-structure within an area about
40 ft. by 10 ft. The stumps of upwards of a dozen
piles were found apparently in position in this area,
but their position was unfortunately not recorded.
They stood in the black alluvium which goes down
to a depth of about 22 ft. below the present streetlevel, and is here in some cases about 6 ft. thick.
On the W. side of the site a certain amount of rubble
(chalk and flint) foundation was found standing on
the black sludge, it included the rough base of a
wall about 4¼ ft. thick, running approximately N.
and S. and having a pink cement pavement on
either side 13½ ft. below the modern pavement-level and a further pink pavement capping the
wall 7 in. higher up. There were probable indications of the pilae of a hypocaust on the W. side of
this wall, which appeared to turn W. about the
middle of the site. A double row of piles continued
the line of this return wall, towards the E.
[R.E.M.W. and A.C.].
Love Lane, Wood Street (Plan A 139). In
excavations at Messrs. Brown, Davis and Co.,
near the City Press, the discovery of a well was
reported in 1881, "probably of Roman origin,"
but there is nothing to show that it is not mediæval
[Antiq., III, 184].
Ludgate Square (formerly Holiday Yard,
Creed Lane). Bagford, writing in 1714–15, says:
"Such another [Roman Aqueduct] was found after
the fire by Mr. Span an ancient Citizen in Holyday
Yard, Creed Lane (Plan A 173), in digging the
foundations for a new Building, and this was
carried round a Bath that was built in a round
Forme with Nitches at an equal Distance for Seats"
[Leland, Coll. (ed. Hearne), I, LXVI; see also
Stow, Survey (ed. Strype), II, App. V, 24].
Maiden Lane (Garlick Hill). On a City
Sewers Plan [II, 58] dated March, 1848, is a note
of the discovery of a Roman pavement, with a
plan of the position (Plan A 160), but no further
Mansion House. (Plan A 128). Objects have
been found, from time to time, including a mosaic
pavement, in 1870, now in the Guildhall.
In 1917 a wall of rubble was exposed in a cellar
below the Mansion House. It was rendered in
cement on the W. side and had, on the same side,
a projecting shelf with a sloping top of tiles. The
base of the wall was 17 ft. below the surface and
apparently rested on piles [S. Perks, Hist. of the
Mansion House, 3; pl. 1 and plan 1].
Mark Lane (Plan A 14). A letter of Mr.
Bagford (1715) states that in Mark Lane, 40 years
since, a brick was found 28 ft. below the pavement;
it was the key-brick of an arch and had a relief on
the front said to represent Samson setting fire to
the foxes' tails. Near the same place were dug up
many quarters of wheat burnt very black [Leland,
Coll. (ed. Hearne) (1774) I, LXXI].
A Roman pavement (Plan A 15) was found in
1871, "at the back of the archway adjoining the
premises situated at No. 27 Mark Lane." It was of
common red tesserae, about 12 ft. square and 8 ft.
below ground level and was left in situ. Another
account says it was 7 ft. below the surface and
measured 11 ft. by 6 ft. [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XXVII, 514; Illus. Lond. News, May 13th, 1871,
Miles Lane. About 1920–21, excavations on
the site of Nos. 2–4 on the E. side of Miles Lane
(Plan A 103), revealed considerable remains of
Roman constructions (Fig. 50). On the northern
part of the site was the southern end of a rectangular
building 31 ft. wide and with external walls 3¼ ft.
thick, entirely faced with brick work, but patched
in places with rag-stone; the foundation was
composed of 2 ft. of flints above 2 ft. of chalk.
Within the building was a longitudinal wall
enclosing a brick drain with a corbelled covering.
The southern part of the site had considerable
remains of an extensive timber-construction, in
the nature of a wharf. The main line of this
construction extended E. and W. some 23 ft. to
the S. of the brick building just described, and
consisted of solid balks of timber laid one upon
the other, the lowest being 27 in. by 24 in. and the
others about 21 in. by 16 in. This main timber
wall had a series of similar timber walls at right
angles both to the N. and S., those to the N. being
probably spaced fairly regularly, some 7 to 9 ft.
apart; the timbers of these subsidiary walls were
of smaller scantling than those of the main line on
to which they were jointed. To the S. of the main
line two groups of piling, some camp sheathing
and what may have been a shoot were discovered.
Traces of timber construction at the S. end of the
brick building seemed to indicate that constructions
of similar nature had been destroyed when the building was erected. The bulk of the datable pottery
found within the main line of timbering, was of
potters working before A.D. 100, and so far as
could be observed later pottery extending to the
middle of the 2nd century was found to the S. of the
main line [Arch., LXXI, 62–72].
In 1926, the corresponding site on the W. side
of Miles Lane (Plan A 104), between that street and
Arthur Street, was excavated. All over the site
were found remains of timber constructions, one
line of which was nearly continuous with the main
line on the E. side of Miles Lane. The construction
on this site, however, was of less heavy character
and no general scheme could be made out. Traces
were found, however, of a further line of timberwalling some 23 ft. in advance and to the S. of the
main line [Q.W., R.E.M.W. and A.C.].
Mincing Lane. In 1824, in making a sewer, the
remains of a hypocaust were met with, opposite the
gateway (Plan A 10) into the Clothworkers' Hall,
at a depth of 18 ft. The arrangement of the flues is
described as being very perfectly preserved; in one
of them a vase full of charcoal was found [Kelsey,
Descr. of Sewers, 83].
Part of a stone mortar and the base and capital
of a column were found on W. side of the lane
(Plan A 11) in 1850, between two floors 2 ft. apart;
the upper, 12 ft. below the surface, was a tessellated
pavement, the lower was composed of gravel, lime,
and pounded tiles [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
VI. 442, pl. 35, VII, 87].
Excavations for Capel's premises in Dunster
Court (Plan A 12) in 1856 yielded, at a depth of 12
to 25 ft., chalk, rag-stone, and brick earth in four
layers, supposed to belong to dwellings formed with
"cob" walls, and with these, human bones and
fragments of pottery; below, at a depth of about
20 ft., was a well and leading to it a curved pathway
paved with pieces of tile or tesserae set in lime. In
the well, were potsherds, probably mediæval [Arch.
Journ., XIII, 274].
In 1891, during the rebuilding of the Commercial
Sale Rooms (Plan A 13), a square "pot-hole" of
Roman (?) date was discovered, constructed in
regular layers of chalk about 7 ft. deep, in area 4 by
7 ft. It contained a green jug, a wooden bowl, a
dog's skull, and eggs of a duck and a hen, both
perfect. The "green jug" seems to be open to
doubt [Daily Graphic, 21 October, 21 November,
1891, hence Antiq., XXV, 21].
In June, 1927, a section of a Roman wall was
discovered under the pavement on the W. side of
Mincing Lane about 41 ft. S.E. of the junction
with Fenchurch Street (Plan A 10). The wall was
2 ft. thick and ran approximately N. and S.; the
foundation was of rag-stone and chalk and the wall
had apparently a double bonding-course of bricks,
16½ ft. below the street-level. The wall probably
belonged to the building with a hypocaust,
discovered in 1824 [R.E.M.W. and A.C.].
Monument. In 1833, the following discoveries
were made in sinking a cesspool to the S. of the
Monument, "and at the back of some newly
erected fruit warehouses in Pudding Lane (Plan
A 24). The depth of the cesspool about 22 ft. from
the surface of the pavement at that part of the hill.
After removing the old walls, most of which were
evidently the original foundations of the buildings
prior to the Great Fire, was found an encrustation
which was spread over the surface of the ground,
and consisted of stone and brick broken very fine
and mixed with lime; it was about 9 in. deep and
excessively hard. This was clearly an artificial
footing on which the walls had been erected;
beneath was a loose mixed ground; below this was
discovered the remains of an aqueduct running
towards the river Thames southward, and communicating with a bath or tank northward. The
sides of the aqueduct were composed chiefly of
yellow Roman tiles (some were red); they measured
16 to 17 in. in length by 11½ in. in width and were
2 in. thick; the bottom consisted of similar tiles
turned up a little on each side, measuring in the
clear 12 in. by 18 in. in length. The S. wall of
the tank was built with similar tiles, was coated
inside with plaster and lined with small pieces of
stone ½ in. square, cemented together similar to
tessellated work. . . . There was also a transverse watercourse on the E. side of the aqueduct,
consisting of semi-circular tiles 17 in. long and 4 in.
in the clear diameter, placed one on the other,
forming a complete barrel. The joints between the
tiles of the tank and aqueduct were an inch in
thickness." "The sides and bottom of the cistern
were tessellated with small cubes of alabaster or
marble" [Gent. Mag., 1834, I, 95].
Monument Street. In 1887, between Pudding
Lane and Botolph Lane, about 150 ft. E. of the
Monument (Plan A 25), in the course of demolitions
for the new street from Fish Street Hill to Billingsgate Market, at a depth of 12 ft., a portion of an
inscribed pavement was found. "The pavement
was laid upon a bed of concrete 12 in. thick. . . .
The plain surface was of ½-in. tesserae, and the letters
of smaller black tesserae." The pavement measured
4 ft. by 2 ft. 6 in.; it broke in pieces when found
and is now lost. A drawing by H. Hodge is
preserved in the Library of the Soc. of Antiquaries
[Brown portfolio] and is reproduced, Fig. 88, p. 176.
[Academy, Aug. 13th, 1887, p. 109, Sept. 3rd,
p. 155; Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 2), XII, 128;
Arch. Journ., XLV, 184; Ephem. Epigr., VII, 276,
No. 817; for the inscription, see p. 176].
Moorgate Street. About 1835–36, near the
Swan's Nest Public House in Great Swan Alley
(Plan A 136) on the Coleman Street side of the
excavation presumably that for the new Moorgate
Street) a pit was discovered; it was 2¾ to 3 ft.
square, boarded on each side with planks placed
upright but discontinued towards the bottom,
where the pit became circular; it contained "a
store of earthen vessels." They seem to have been
closely packed in a horizontal position, and their
capacity varied from a quart to two gallons, some
larger but in fragments; some were of dark clay,
with borders of reticulated patterns. With them
was a small bowl of red ware, with leaf decoration
in slip on the rim (form 35, Dragendorff), a small
brass coin of Allectus, one iron hook, and a bucket
handle, figured in Illus. Rom. Lond., 142 [Arch.,
XXVII, 148; Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans.,
III, 506; Soc. Antiq. MS. Min. XXXVII, 57].
See also King's Arms Yard.
Nicholas Lane (Plan A 93). A "sepulchral
urn" of dark-coloured clay, containing burnt clay
and animal matter (?) was found in 1847 about 16 ft.
below the surface "in the immediate vicinity of a
dwelling-house decidedly Roman, in the walls of
which, at regular intervals, appeared openings, containing decayed wood, probably of joists, doorposts, etc." The urn "contained portions of
charcoal and small pieces of iron and lead, besides
portions of unburned bones of some smaller
animal" [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., II, 341;
Coll. Antiq., I, 146, pl. 49].
In 1850, an inscription (see p. 170) was found at
the depth of between 11 and 12 ft. (Plan A 96). A
note on a City Sewers Plan (II, 119, with sketch of
inscription) of July, 1850, reads: "When excavating for a sewer in Nicholas Lane we met with
an old wall, 30 ft. from the line of frontage in
Cannon Street, the quoin-end of which stood in
Nicholas Lane, about 7 ft. thick, 9 ft. from the
surface to the top of the wall, built of Kentish rag,
chalk and flints. The foundation-stone of this wall,
under the quoin-end, was 3 ft. long by 2½ ft. wide
and 12 in. thick. . . . the lettered face of the
stone lay flat upon the earth" [Illus. Rom. Lond.
p. 29, No. 11; Coll. Antiq., III, 257; Roach
Smith, Retrospections II, 198].
About 1920, in repairs to a sewer in the S. part
of Nicholas Lane (Plan A 95), a pavement of coarse
red tesserae was cut through; below it was the
burnt layer which extends over much of this part
of the city [Arch., LXXI, 58].
Pancras Lane (Plan A127). Bones, burnt wood,
and small pieces of pavement were found in making
some cellars in 1794 [Gent. Mag., 1795, II, 986;
Allen, Hist. of Lond., I, 29].
Paternoster Row (Plan A 176). About 1834–6
a shaft was sunk, opposite Paternoster Row, to a
depth of 18 ft., until "operations were checked by
a stone wall of intense hardness running towards
the centre of St. Paul's." Finds included coins of
Vespasian and Domitian, a Gaulish dish with stamp
OF. MODESTI (in British Museum) and iron tools.
In the wall were cemented two large sea-shells
[Arch., XXVII, 150]. In 1839–41, at a depth of
12 ft., a pavement was found extending for 40 ft.,
with birds and beasts in compartments within a
border of guilloche and rosettes; this was subsequently destroyed. With it were found amphoræ,
glass vessels, and bone hairpins, and at a somewhat
greater depth a skeleton in a framework of tiles
as at Bow Lane [Ibid., XXIX, 155; Roach Smith,
Illustrations, 57–58]. In 1843 in erecting the
Religious Tract Society's premises, at the corner
of Canon Row (Plan A 177), "a small portion of a
tessellated pavement consisting of the small white
and grey tesserae was found at the N.E. corner and
apparently extended beneath the road," with
pottery including the stamp ADVOCISI and coins
(Claudius, Faustina, Commodus) [Gent. Mag.,
1843, II, 81; Rom. Brit. Rem., I, 200].
A piece of red tessellated pavement has been
re-set in front of No. 27, Ivy Lane.
Paternoster Square (formerly NewgateMarket. In rebuilding the premises of Messrs.
Kegan, Paul, Trench and Co. at the (W.) corner of
Paternoster Square and Rose Street (Plan A 179),
in 1883, in excavating for the foundations of party
walls in the Paternoster Square frontage "a
quantity of Roman pavement was discovered at a
depth of 17 ft. below the ground line" [Builder,
1883, II, 226].
At the N.W. corner (Plan A 178) were found in
1884, at a depth of 16 ft., part of a plain pavement
and various forms of tiles, including flue tiles and
hypocaust pillars; some of the flat tiles were
scored with patterns [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XL. 123, 210].
An excavation in May, 1925, on the site of Nos.
26 and 27 (Plan A 180) exposed, in the western
portion, a Roman rubbish pit, apparently dating
from the end of the 1st century [Q.W.].
Poultry. On the site of the Union Bank in St.
Mildred's Court (Plan A 129), in 1867, part of a
pavement was found 18 ft. below the surface. "It
comprised a square enclosing a circle; the central
ornament was a vase . . . . around the vase there
appeared portions of a tree with foliage, also an
object resembling an archway, with embattled
figures and other objects . . . .; around the whole
were two simple bands of black tesserae separating
the circle from an elaborate scroll with foliage and
flowers . . . . at each corner a rose or other flower,
with eight petals; from the centre of each flower
there springs in opposite directions two branches
which unite with a leaf possibly a lotus . . . . the
entire design is bordered by the guilloche in seven
intertwining bands of black, red, brown and white
tesserae." The pavement was laid on concrete with
a hypocaust. Morgan, [Rom. Brit. Mosaic Pavements, 193; Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans.,
III, 217; Price, Bucklersbury Pavement].
A fragment of another pavement with the figure
of a monster is preserved at the London Museum.
It is stated to have been found in Poultry, but
there seems little or no doubt that it is modern
In August, 1925, in clearing a site on the W.
side of Chapel Court, Poultry (Plan A 130), remains
of an extensive series of pile-structures (Fig. 51)
were uncovered. The majority of the piles on the
southern part of the site were not sufficiently
regular in position to give any indication of their
purpose, but farther N. was a series of groups
which appeared to represent long rectangular
structures enclosed with boarding or sheathing.
The northern line of these structures was about
52 ft. back from the frontage line in Poultry,
and the three of which remains survived were
regularly spaced at about 12 ft. from centre to
centre. It was obvious from the deep deposit of
black mud that the site had been formerly occupied
by the bed of a stream; the piles were roughly
squared, pointed at the ends and were driven into
the blue clay below the mud deposit. The regular
spacing of the structures would seem to imply
something in the nature of a bridge, leaving space
for the passage of water between the piers. In the
black mud were found some pieces of Samian,
including one with the stamp MAIOR. I, part of a
wooden bowl, fragments of leather, etc. [A.C.].
Prince's Street (Plan A 132). Wooden piles
found in this street appear to belong to the ancient
embankment of the Walbrook [Arch., XXVII, 143;
Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., VIII, 57].
Pudding Lane (Plan A 23). A wall of tiles and
rag-stone and a hypocaust (Plate 44) were
partially exposed in 1836–41. "In the middle
of Pudding Lane, running to the bottom, and, as
the workmen told me, even across Thames Street,
is a strong wall, formed of layers of red and yellow
tiles, and rag-stones, which appear to have appertained to a building of considerable extent. The
hypocaust belonging thereto was partly laid open as
shown with the adjoining wall in the engraving"
(PI. XVIII, shows a wall 2 ft. 8 in. thick and about
8 ft. from it 10 pillars in two rows parallel to it—
of brick) [Arch., XXIX, 154 pl. 18].
Queen Street (Plan A 158). In excavations for
a sewer in Queen Street in July, 1842, at a short
distance from Watling Street, a fine piece of Roman
wall running directly across the street, was exposed
to view . . . built of flat red tiles, embedded in
solid and compact mortar. Several others lower
down the street were also discovered." Near this
wall was found a fine bronze figure of an archer, now
in the British Museum [Arch., XXX, 543, pl. 22;
Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXIV, 75; Illus. Rom.
Lond., pl. 20, p. 71; Fairholt, Miscell. Graphica, pl.
8]. E. B. Price records that: "In June and July
last (1843), a new sewer was carried through Queen
Street between Thames Street and Watling Street.
Of the remains of the Roman period which came
under my own observation I may briefly enumerate
the following. There were numerous fragments
of fresco painting, chiefly red and yellow but
remarkably brilliant, some portion in blue or bright
slate colour, a fragment of the latter exhibiting the
lower part of the human figure. Cinerary urns of a
very rude style of art; in one of them the remains
of human bones adhered so firmly as to have the
appearance of being part and parcel of the vessel.
. . . . Among the remains, when forcibly separated
from the vessel, was easily recognized a portion of
the nasal bone. There were five other jars. Of the
contents of the other four, when first found by the
workmen, I have no means of judging—there was
nothing remaining but mud and fragments of
charcoal. A portion of a tessellated pavement,
composed of small tesserae, white, red and slatecoloured, and which evidently formed part of a
pavement of some elegance, belonging, in all
probability, to an edifice of importance, judging
from the remains of an immense wall with its layer
of bond-tiles (15½ in. by 10¼ in. by 1½ in.)." Much
pottery, etc., and a few coins, including a second
brass of Nero, were also found [Gent. Mag., 1843,
I, 21; Rom. Brit. Rem., I, 196]. Roach Smith in
1841 records the finding of a pavement of red
tesserae opposite Well Court, 14 ft. square, at a
depth of 13 ft., and two gold armlets [Illus. Rom.
Lord., 127]; he mentions that several walls cut
right across the street [Arch., XXIX, 155; Proc.
Soc. Antiq., II, 93].
Queen Victoria Street. Numerous discoveries
were made in 1872–73, during the construction of
this street, the most noteworthy being those on the
premises of the National Safe Deposit Company,
No. 1 at the angle of Walbrook (Plan A 126). Mr.
Price states that finds of pottery and coins were
made at a depth of 32 ft., 2 ft. beneath an oaken
frame-work 3 ft. square, above which was much
wooden piling. He also mentions a perfect globular
amphora (see his pl. 4), 5 ft. to the S.W. In a trench
"parallel to Charlotte Row there appeared, at a
depth of about 25 ft. from the surface level, a timber
flooring supported by huge oak timbers, 12 in. by
12 in. square and running parallel with the stream
[the Walbrook]. This was at the S. corner and may
have indicated a stage or landing-place at this
portion of the line. Adjoining this were evidences
of a macadamized roadway which extended in a
line with Bucklersbury until it reached the apparent
course of the brook. Upon the opposite side
similar indications appeared and the remains
possibly indicate a roadway which here crossed the
stream. . . . In the trench parallel with Bucklersbury a seam of ballast was discovered at a depth
of 35 ft. In this were quantities of wooden piles,
many of which had been driven into the clay prior
to the silting up around them of this sand and
shingle. The greatest depth from which these
piles were drawn was upwards of 40 ft. from the
street-level. Near to the spot marked F upon the
plan (Fig. 52) the greatest number of the antiquities
were seen. Here appeared fragments of bricks, tiles,
and other indications of buildings, associated with
a vast number of coins, pottery, and personal
objects both of iron and bronze. All bore indications
of fire: portions of metal and glass were collected
which by extreme heat had been fused and melted
into misshapen forms. At this spot there was also
discovered a large quantity of wheat. This, though
retaining the form of the grain, was blackened,
and much of it completely carbonized by fire. In
the trench A to B was observed a portion of a
coarse description of flooring composed of broken
tiles made up by Roman concrete; from its
situation it apparently belonged to the buildings
connected with the tessellated pavement discovered
some three years ago" [J. E. Price, Nat. Safe
Dep., p. 53]. See also Bread Street Hill,
Bucklersbury, Trinity Lane and Watling
Fig. 52. From Rom. Antiq. Nat. Safe Dep. Premises,
J. E. Price.
Fig. 53. Remains under Royal Exchange. From Cat. Antiq. Royal Exchange, Tite.
Royal Exchange (Plan A 73). Excavation on the
site in 1841 is described by Roach Smith [Arch.,
XXIX, 267 ff.] as follows:—"On advancing to the
centre of the area [of the site of the Royal Exchange]
a more prominent feature was exhibited. Here the
foundations of buildings were laid open in wellconstructed walls, running in a diagonal direction
from N.E. to [S.W.]. At about 30 ft. farther W.,
with other remains (Fig. 53) of foundations, was
discovered a mass of masonry composed of tiles and
mortar. Two sides of this fragment, when first
found, still retained the paintings in fresco, with
which they had been ornamented; they were laid
on a thick coat of stucco . . . . the ground of a pale
pink colour, bordered by an egg-and-tongue pattern,
surmounted by an elegant scroll . . . . Beneath
this masonry was a layer of gravel, 2 ft. thick
(19 ft. from the street-level) . . . . this layer of
gravel, being taken away, the subsoil to the extent
of 40 ft. by 50 ft. and to the depth of 19 ft. was
found to be wholely foreign to the locality. It was
composed almost entirely of animal and vegetable
matter, apparently thrown in as refuse, from
adjacent shops and houses. In one part of the pit
were loads of oyster-shells, in another dross from the
smith's forge, bones of cows, sheep and goats, matted
together with ordure and interspersed with abundance of broken pottery, pieces of leather, portions
of sandals, fragments of glass, lamps, instruments
of iron, fibulæ, a strygil, coins and other objects.
. . . . The coins discovered in this pit . . . . are
chiefly of the second brass of Vespasian and
Domitian, to the amount of nearly 12, with only a
solitary instance of a later date in a plated denarius
of Severus; these coins must necessarily have been
deposited previously to the pit having been covered
in for building on." Two of the knives found in this
pit bore respectively the names OLONDVS.F. and
P.BAS . . . . ILIF, with the small figure of a man in
the middle of the name [see Roach Smith, Illus. of
Rom. Lond., p. 140, pl. 37, corrected from Tite
and for inscriptions see p. 175]. Tite adds the
following items of information:—(1) the eastern
portion of the site first excavated, supplied "very
few relics of any considerable antiquity" whereas
the middle and west yielded them in great quantity;
(2) with regard to the coins found in the Roman
rubbish-pit, he states that "those of Vespasian and
Domitian are the most numerous, especially the
latter; but though there are specimens of the
coins of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius
and Marcus Aurelius and also of the two Empresses
Faustina, there do not occur any pieces of the
emperors of the 3rd century, excepting one of the
third brass of Septimius Severus, which has been
plated. There does not appear to be any reason
for doubting that this coin was really found in the
gravel-pit, from 20 to 30 ft. in depth, as the original
title states, with three other pieces of Vespasian and
Domitian, and if this be regarded as the latest coin
enclosed there, that receptacle was, of course,
covered over before A.D. 235. There is, however, a
small coin of Gratianus capable of being positively
assigned to A.D. 374, which was recovered after being
taken away, and consequently bearing a more
particular title—which probably more accurately
indicates the time when the gravel-pit was closed
up and built over" [Arch., XXIX, 267 ff.;
XXXIX, 497; Illus. Rom. Lord., 12; Roach
Smith, Retrospections, I, 129; Journ. Brit. Arch.
Assoc., VII, 82; Archæologist, I, 200; Tite, Cat.
Antiq. Roy. Exch., 1848 p. xliii,; Soc. Antiq.
MS. Min. XXXVIII, 189, 195]. In the space
(Plan A 74) in front of the Exchange, where Bank
Buildings formerly stood, a Roman wall was found
running in the direction of the Bank; near this
was unearthed the fine vase now in the British
Museum (see under Cornhill).
St. Dunstan's Hill (Plan A 18). "Urns,"
probably not cinerary, were found in 1824 under a
pavement [Knight, Lond. (ed. Walford), I. 159].
In making a sewer (previous to 1840) some Roman
pavement was cut through near to Cross Lane
[Kelsey, Descr. of Sewers, 80; Herbert, Hist, of St.
Michael, Crooked Lane, 19; said to be now in the
Guildhall]. Part of a wall, on the premises of
Messrs. Ruck, wine-merchants, was reported in
1863, of chalk and Kentish rag, 3½ ft. thick and
20 ft. below street-level [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XIX, 63]. In the same year was found a well "of
uncertain date," with chalk lining and fragments of
pottery, wall-plaster, and flue-tiles. To the N.E.,
under the old wall of the churchyard, was found a
"a mass of concrete and a cavity, which seemed to
have been moulded upon a wooden coffin, and
contained some human remains . . . . the concrete
was of great hardness and contained portions of
pounded brick; some roofing tiles, similar in shape
to the ordinary Italian tiles, were laid in a slightly
arched form over the grave" [Ibid., XX, 297,
pl. 19]. This structure may well have been a
Saxon burial as it closely resembles the tombs of
the early archbishops found at St. Augustine's,
St. Helens, Little (now St. Helen's Place).
In 1733, "was discover'd by some workmen a
Roman pavement (Plan A 50), which by the
inscription had been laid about 1700 years. The
Work was Mosaick, and the Tiles not above an
Inch square. Several human Bones of large size
being found also, it seems to have been a burying
Place of note" [Gent. Mag., 1733, 436]. The bones
may well have been mediæval. This pavement is
said to have had an inscription [Arch. Journ.,
XXXIII, 269], but it was never copied.
St. Martin le Grand (Plan A 149). The
site was cleared in 1818 for the New Post Office, but
the structural remains then found do not appear to
have been of Roman date. A Roman tile inscribed
P.P.BRI. LON was found here about 1845 [Arch.
Journ., III, 69; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XIV,
337]. When the site was again cleared in 1913
traces of a Roman house were observed in the S.E.
corner of the site; they consisted of "broken
bricks, roofing-tiles, about 500 small pieces of
painted plaster and a number of large pieces of claydaub, burnt hard by the conflagration which had
destroyed the building." The house had apparently
been built largely of wattle and daub. Near the
site of this house the ground was covered with pits,
which had possibly been dug for clay. They were
filled with Roman rubbish, including coins from
Claudius onwards. It was observed that the pits,
as indicated by their contents, were generally earlier
at the southern end of the site than at the northern
end. A well and traces of a footpath were also
found in this area [Arch., LXVI, 246].
St. Mary Axe. Tessellated pavement was found
in 1849, while digging for sewers at the corner of
Bevis Marks (Plan A 52) near the Blue Pig; since
destroyed [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc, V, 90]. A
wall of rag-stone, bonded with tiles, was found in
1909 in the middle of the road, at the junction of
St. Mary Axe with Camomile Street and Bevis
Marks (Plan A 52). It ran parallel with and 40 ft.
from the city-wall [Arch., LXIII, 321].
St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheapside (Plan A 146).
"The parochial church of St. Mary le Bow in Cheapside, requir'd to be re-built after the Great Fire:—
Upon opening the Ground, a Foundation was
discern'd firm enough for the new intended Fabrick,
which (on further Inspection, after digging down
sufficiently and removing what Earth or Rubbish
lay in the Way) appear'd to be the Walls, with the
Windows also, and the Pavement of a Temple, or
Church, of Roman Workmanship, intirely bury'd
under the Level of the present Street. . . . he sunk
about 18 Feet deep through made-ground, and then
imagin'd he was come to the natural Soil and hard
Gravel, but upon full examination, it appear'd
to be a Roman Causeway of rough Stone, close and
well rammed, with Roman Brick and Rubbish at
the Bottom, for a Foundation, and all firmly
cemented. This Causeway was four feet thick.
. . . . He then concluded to lay the Foundation
of the Tower upon the very Roman Causeway, as
most proper to bear what he had design'd, a
weighty and lofty structure" [Wren, Parentalia,
265]. The architectural remains, referred to, are no
doubt those of the Norman crypt of the church.
In 1915, excavations made in the crypt of Bow
Church brought to light remains of two lines of
planking and piles, about 4 ft. apart and below the
Norman work. They were considered to imply the
near neighbourhood of a small subsidiary stream
perhaps running parallel to the Walbrook [Journ.
Brit. Arch. Assoc., N.S., XXI, 281].
St. Mary Woolnoth (Plan A 89). "Anno 1716,
in digging Foundations of a new Church, to be
erected where the Church of St. Mary Woolnoth in
Lombard Street stood, at the Depth of about 15
Foot, and so lower to 22 Foot were found Roman
vessels, both for sacred and Domestic Uses, of all
Sorts, and in great Abundance, but all broken.
And with all were taken up Tusks and Bones of
Boars and Goats. As also many Meddals, and
Pieces of Metals, some tesselated Works, a Piece of
an Aqueduct, and at the very Bottom a Well filled
up with Mire and Dirt" [Stow, Survey (ed. Strype),
II, App. V. 24; Allen, Hist, of Lond., I, 25;
Hughson, Hist, of Lond., I, 34; cf. Brayley,
Beauties of England and Wales, X, pt. 1, 91].
St. Olave, Old Jewry (Plan A 133). Mr. F. W.
Reader states that in 1888 a Roman pavement was
found on this site at a depth of 16 ft., composed of
red tesserae, and measuring 20 ft. by 3 ft. There
was also a wall running parallel with the present line
of frontage, 12 ft. below the surface, 12 ft. high and
3 ft. thick, but the foundations were not reached.
Much of the soil was black mud, and contained
Roman pottery and other relics [V. C. H. London,
Fig. 54. From V.C.H. London, I.
St. Paul's Churchyard. The most noteworthy
discovery here was that of the Roman pottery kilns,
found when digging foundations at the N.W. corner
of the cathedral (Plan A 174) in 1672, described in a
MS. of John Conyers (Brit. Mus. Sloane MSS. 958,
fol. 105). The depth is stated to have been 26 ft.;
there were four kilns (Fig. 54) of the usual domical
form, which are described as "made in the sandy
loam, in the fashion of a cross foundation, of which
only the one sketched was left standing. It was 5
ft. from top to bottom and of the same width, and
had no other matter for its form and building but
the outward loam, naturally crusted hardish by the
heat burning the loam red, like brick; the floor in
the middle supported by, and cut out of, loam, and
helped with old-fashioned Roman tyles' shards,
but very few, and such as I have seen used for
repositories for urns, in the fashion of and like
ovens. The kiln was full of the coarser sort of
pots, so that few were saved whole, viz., lamps,
bottles, urns and dishes." Drawings of some
of these were given, and one jar at least, of a dark
grey ware, appears to be of lst-century date [Illus.
Rom. Lond., 79; Coll. Antiq., VI, 185; Walters,
Ancient Pottery, II, 444; Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 2),
XVI, 42; XXVI, 225; Stow Survey (ed. Strype),
II, App. I, 23]. Strype gives the additional
statement, which, if trustworthy, is not without
significance, that " likewise thereabouts were
found several moulds of Earth, some exhibiting
Figures of Men, of Lions, of Leaves of Trees, and
other Things. These were used to make Impressions of those things upon the Vessels." He
also states that on the S. side of the church were
found "several scalps of Oxen, and a large quantity
of Boars' Tusks, with divers earthen Vessels,
especially Paterae of different Shapes." Camden
refers to a similar discovery of ox-scalps or oxheads in the reign of Edward I, and refers them
to the Taurobolia celebrated in honour of Diana.
He states that the precincts are called in the church
records Camera Dianae, and it has always been a
tradition that the site of St. Paul's represents that
of a temple to that deity [Gough, Camden, II, 81;
see also Malcolm, Lond. Rediv., III, 509; Milman,
St. Paul's, 1 ff.; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
XXVIII, 143, 237]. Malcolm, quoting from a
MS. dissertation of Dr. Woodward, relates the
discovery, to the S.W. of the cathedral, of a bronze
statuette of Diana, 2½ in. high, in the habit of a
huntress, with elaborately-plaited hair, and carrying a quiver [see also Allen, Hist, of Lond., I, 22].
Wren's account of the finds described by Strype is
as follows:—"The Surveyor gave but little Credit
to the common Story, that a Temple had been here
to Diana . . . . meeting with no such Indications
in all his Searches; but that the North-side of this
Ground had been very anciently a great Buryingplace was manifest, for upon the digging the
Foundations of the present Fabrick of St. Paul's,
he found under the Graves of the latter Ages.
[Saxon, British, and Roman]. In the same row
(with the British) and deeper were Roman Urns
intermixed. This was eighteen feet deep or more,
and belonged to the Colony when Romans and
Britains lived and died together. The most
remarkable Roman Urns, Lamps, Lachrymatories,
and Fragments of Sacrificing-vessels, etc., were
found deep in the ground, towards the north-east
corner of St. Paul's Church, near Cheapside; these
were generally well wrought and embossed with
various Figures and Devices, of the colour of the
modern red Portugal ware some brighter like Coral,
and of a Hardness equal to Chinaware, and as well
glaz'd. Among divers Pieces which happened to
have been preserved are a Fragment of a Vessel,
in Shape of a Bason, whereon Charon is represented
with his Oar in his Hand receiving a naked Ghost;
a Patera Sacrificalis with an Inscription PATER.
CLO, a remarkable small Urn of a fine hard Earth
and leaden Colour, containing about half a Pint;
many pieces of Urns with the names of the Potters
embossed on the Bottoms, such as, for instance,
ALBVCI, M. VICTORINVS, PATER, F. MOSSI.
M, OF NIGRI, AGMAPILII.M, etc., a sepulchral
earthen Lamp .... supposed Christian; and two
lachrymatories of glass" [Parentalia, 265 ff.].
At the N.E. corner of the churchyard (Plan A 175)
in 1841, a "domestic building" of some size was
"intersected by the channel cut for a sewer." At a
depth of 18 ft. was a hypocaust with pillars of tiles,
supporting a tessellated pavement (since destroyed)
on a substratum of mortar. The pavement has a
variegated pattern of rosettes on a white ground.
Coins of Constans, Constantius, Magnentius,
Decentius, and Valens, were also found "beneath
the ruins" [Arch., XXIX, 272; Archæologist, I,
220; Morgan, Rom. Brit. Mosaic Pavements, 185].
Another account states that the excavation
"began at the N.E. corner of St. Paul's Churchyard
(in front of the Cathedral Coffee House), and
extended as far as Cannon Alley. ... At the
commencement was found, at a depth of 19 or
20 ft., a pavement consisting of about fifty tiles,
varying from 7 to 8 in. square, and four or five
large ones, 23 in. square, about 3 in. thick. . . .
A curious old sword was also discovered, about
3 ft. long (at what depth I have not been able to
ascertain). It had evidently suffered from the
action of an intense fire .... upon rubbing a
portion of the blade near the hilt characters
appeared. The only portions legible were, on one
side IC, on the other SC." Other finds included
a dagger, numerous fragments of Samian pottery,
with the stamps REGALIS and BATERA, and
copper coins of "Carausius, Constantius, Claudius,
Nerva, Magnentius, Faustina, Domitian, Antoninus." Several fragments of mosaic pavement
were also dug up, and vast quantities of human
bones [E. B. Price, in Gent. Mag., 1841, II, 263;
Rom. Brit. Rem., I, 216].
St. Peter's Hill, Upper Thames Street. In
June, 1863, workmen excavating for drainage
turned up portions of Roman brick and concrete
and found a wall (Plan A 168) "3 ft. 8 in. thick at
the base, being rubble to the height of 3 ft. from the
footing, which stood in the gravel and sand of the
old bed of the Thames. Then followed Roman
bricks, in courses, to the further height of 3 ft. 10in.;
then rubble again to the height of 2 ft. 2 in.,
diminishing in thickness from 3 ft. 6 in. to 2 ft. 9 in.
at the top, which lay 5 ft. 10 in. below the surface
of the ground, almost at the upper extremity of
St. Peter's Hill. The wall, however, did not he
in a direction parallel to Knightrider Street, which
bends somewhat northward at that place. Careful
measurements were therefore taken, both across
the 'hill' and northward, at both ends of the line
of wall, to the front of the houses on the N. side of
Knightrider Street, so that its direction might be
traced eastward or westward, to any other point
where it might afterwards be traced. A few days
afterwards .... a further portion was discovered
on the northern side of the way in Great Knightrider
Street, exactly in the direction indicted by the
former measurements. . . . From this spot we
found the wall tend to the exact line of the front
wall of the parish church a little to the eastward"
[Arch., XL, 48]. The position of these walls (Plan
A 168) and of another at the bottom of St Peter's
Hill (Plan A 169), is indicted on a City Sewers
Plan of 1845 [I, 139], but the alignment of the two
walls above described is not apparent from the
plan. See also Lambeth Hill, Upper Thames
St. Thomas Apostle. A pavement was seen by
Roach Smith, in 1846, 7 ft. below street-level, a
few yards from Queen Street (Plan A 159); it had
a pattern in red, white, yellow, and black tesserae,
and probably formed the border of a large pavement;
it was subsequently destroyed [Journ. Brit. Arch.
Assoc., II, 350].
Towards the close of 1848 in Little St. Thomas
Apostle (Plan A 156), in sewer digging, the remains
of massive walls of chalk, stone and flat bricks,
stucco with red and green frescoes, drain tiles and
tegulae .... broken flue pipes, hand-mill, Samian,
etc., oysters, and animals' horns were found. At
depth of 16 ft. was a considerable quantity of
charred wood and ashes [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc.,
Seething Lane. Tessellated pavements were
recorded in 1839–41, near St. Olave's Church (Plan
A 16) and throughout the street, and lying on one
of these was found the lower part of a sculpture
(Plate 6) of the mother-goddesses [Arch., XXIX,
Sermon Lane. On a City Sewers Plan of October,
1844 [I, 5], is plotted a wall encountered in excavating a sewer (Plan A 171). No particulars are
given but the wall was parallel to the road and
extended about 70 ft. apparently turning under
the houses on the E. side at either end of the wall.
The sewer was at a depth of 14 ft.
Sise Lane, Budge Row. In cutting Queen
Victoria Street E. from Sise Lane (Plan A 124) and
14 ft. from the surface a portion of Roman flooring
of plain red tesserae was found, fragmentary but in
situ; adjoining it were remains of a wall, in the
debris of which were many potsherds and painted
stucco; the pavement had been destroyed by
later wooden piling [Price, Bucklersbury Pavement,
Suffolk Lane. In 1848, "Mr. C. Roach Smith
reported the discovery of very extensive Roman
remains in Suffolk Lane, city, opposite Merchant
Taylors school (Plan A 108) .... and exhibited a
coloured drawing .... of a very beautiful piece of
mural painting found there, representing a winged
youthful head. . . . The excavations which brought
these and many other Roman remains to light were
for a sewer. . . . It could also be ascertained
that the excavators cut through the foundations
and debris of a Roman dwelling house of the better
class. . . . The pigments used in the composition
of the paintings were chiefly vermilion, yellow
ochre, colcothar, terra vert, and lime for white"
[Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., IV, 338; Proc. Soc.
Antiq. (Ser. 1), II, 19]. Part of a pavement from
this site was exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries
in 1855 [Proc. (Ser. 1), III, 194]. At or near the
S.E. angle of Suffolk Lane in 1863 was found a
wall (Plan A. W 46) regarded as part of the RiverWall of the Roman town as described by Roach
Smith and Tite [Arch., XL, 48].
Thames Street, Lower. In excavating for the
new Coal Exchange (Plan A 19) in January, 1848,
and later in 1859, the foundations of a Roman
building (Fig. 55) were found at a depth of 12 ft.
and a small portion of them is still visible in the
basement of the Coal Exchange. The visible
remains consist of a small chamber, 10¾ ft. wide
with an apse at the W. end. It was heated by a
pillared hypocaust (Plate 45), the pillars being
built of bricks 8 in. square to a height of 2 ft.;
the two uppermost bricks are somewhat larger,
and carry flanged roofing tiles which support the
cement floor. At the E. end of the compartment is
the lower part of a brick recess, apparently a seat,
the back wall of which was probably carried up as a
partition-wall but was not bonded into the S. wall
of the room. Opposite the back of the seat the S.
wall is squared off to form the jamb of a doorway.
The walls are entirely of bricks with the average
dimensions of 18 in. by 12 in. by 1¼ to 1½ in. The
mortar is white, and the mortar-joints average
1¼ to 1½ in. in thickness. Plans made when adjacent
foundations were open show that a doorway
immediately N. of the seat opened into a western,
slightly longer chamber with an eastern apse and
hypocaust, and N., S. and E. of these apsidal
compartments were rectangular rooms of uncertain
extent. W. of them was a drain or gutter composed
of hollowed logs, several of which are now preserved
in the Coal Exchange. When the foundations were
laid bare, fragments of a stone cornice, a columncapital, window glass and coins of Nero, Antoninus
Pius and Marcus Aurelius were found [Journ. Brit.
Arch. Assoc., IV, 38 ff., with plan and illustrations,
75; XXIX, 77; see also Proc. Soc. Antiq. (Ser. 1),
I, 236, 240; Arch. Journ., V, 25 ff.; Morgan,
Rom.-Brit. Mosaic Pavements, 186; Gent. Mag.
1848, I, 293; Rom.-Brit. Rem., I, 217; Journ.
Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXIV, 295, with plate;
Builder, 1859, 389, with sketches].
In making a sewer in 1834, nearly the whole line
was found to be full of oak and chestnut piles but
much closer and larger at the end of Botolph's
Wharf gateway and warehouse (Plan A 21) than
in other places; and westward, at the foot of
Fish Street Hill (Plan A 22), were remains of
substantial masonry (at the point where old London
Bridge abutted) [Kelsey, Descr. of Sewers, 90].
Some years previously, in Thames Street (whether
Upper or Lower is not stated), an ancient culvert,
2 ft. 6 in. wide by 2 ft. high, was found 18 ft.
below the surface, formed of oak planks; many
bone pins or bodkins were also found [Ibid., 71].
David Laing mentions timber embankments discovered at the Custom House (Plan A 20) in 1813
"at the several distances of 53, 86 and 103 ft.
within the range of the existing wharf. At the
same time about 50 ft. from the campshot or outer
edge of the wharf-wall, a wall was discovered,
erected E. and W., built with chalk-rubble and
faced with Purbeck stone, which was considered to
be either some part of the ancient defence of the
city or some outwork of the Tower extending westwards. There was not, however, a trace of any
important structure met with throughout the whole
of the enormous area then laid open; but between
the embankments were found the remains of
buildings intermixed with pits and layers of rushes
in different stages of decomposition " [D. Laing,
Description of the New Custom House, 1818, 5–6;
Cat. Antiq. Roy. Exch., XXIII; cf. Herbert, Hist.
of St. Michael, Crooked Lane, 14].
For the portion of town-wall found in 1911 under
No. 125, see p. 93.
Thames Street, Upper. The labourers employed in making sewers in the early part of the
last century affirmed the existence of "an ancient
paved causeway," 20 ft. below the present level
[Gent. Mag., 1832, II, 10]. Roman remains have
been reported in the neighbourhood of Queenhithe,
including fragments of pavements, tiles and other
evidences of buildings opposite Vintners' Hall
(Plan A. W42) [Lond. and Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans.,
III, 409]. J. T. Smith records the discovery of
part of the town-wall opposite Vintners' Hall
[Streets of London, 380, see p. 93. For Roach
Smith's discoveries of the town-wall in this street,
see p. 93].
In 1927 a tunnel for electric-power cables was
driven along the N. side of the street from Cannon
Street station to Arthur Street. Opposite the block
of buildings between Bush Lane and Little Bush
Lane (Plan A. W45) a foundation of chalk blocks
was encountered; an indeterminate edge on the S.
side seemed to trend more N. of E. than the line of
the trench. This foundation may represent either
the foundation of the river-wall or the débris
fallen outwards. Material of a somewhat similar
nature was found in a shaft S. of the W. frontage
of Arthur Street, which again may represent fallen
material; this latter deposit did not extend any
farther E. in the tunnel which turned up the E.
side of Arthur Street nor was any trace of walling
or other construction encountered in passing up
Arthur Street, though the southern part of this
tunnel was driven through the river mud at the
Roman level. On either side the foot of Suffolk
Lane (Plan A 106) two heavy composite balks of
timber were cut through; they were 20 ft. apart
and between 15 and 20 ft. below the pavement-level. One of the timbers employed was 26 in. by
at least 24 in. and the construction was said to
slope towards the river. The suggestion that they
formed slips appears to be negatived by the fact
that they were not at the same level. About
18 ft. farther E. a flint wall was encountered
crossing the trench; it was set in white mortar and
2½ ft. thick. Some 17 ft. E. of this wall another
timber construction was encountered, of lighter
type than the first and consisting of timbers running
both across the trench and longitudinally. Projecting into the trench at this point was the drum of a
stone column 2 ft. in diameter and roughly fashioned.
Another timber was cut through (Plan A 105)
about 34 ft. W. of the W. corner of Arthur Street
[R.E.M.W. and A.C.].
Threadneedle Street. In 1841, traces of a
coarse red tessellated pavement were found under
the ruins of the French Protestant Church (Plan
A 76), opposite Finch Lane; the position was
immediately opposite and proximate to the entrance
to the church from the street and on either side but
not in the same line were coarse red pavements
running under the street, at a depth of 12 ft.;
it measured 6 ft. by 5 ft., being the pavement
(Plate 50) of a passage (6 ft. wide) and had
patterns of squares and lozenges in white and
black, filled with rosettes, "labyrinths," and other
devices. "The stratum of pavement, noticed to
the extent of 7 or 8 ft. on the left on entering the
ruins, had evidently been considerably disturbed
.... the regular portion with its substructure
remaining, was about 2 ft. higher than the
variegated part which again was not on the same
level with a piece composed of 1 in. square tesserae
lying about 4 ft. on the right." Another pavement
(Plate 50) was unearthed about 6½ ft. to the N.
of the first pavement; it is a square design with
an extreme dimension of about 13½ ft., but the
outer border may well have been much deeper than
allowed for in this dimension; it was in variegated
tesserae, with a rosette in the centre. The two
pavements are now in the British Museum.
"Vestiges of other floorings and of passages were
noticed but the walls had entirely disappeared.
from the remains of wall-paintings the rooms had
been decorated in a superior style: the ground of
some of the paintings was red bordered with green,
blue, black and yellow; other fragments were
painted with flowers and foliage in red, yellow,
white and green upon a black ground." A
considerable quantity of charcoal and some
charred barley found on the pavements indicated that the building had been destroyed by fire
[Arch., XXIX, 400; Soc. Antiq. MS. Min.
XXXVIII, 149; Illus. Rom. Lond., 55, pls. 9, 10;
Morgan, Rom. Brit. Mosaic Pavements, 183, 184].
A third pavement was found in 1844 "in Threadneedle Street not far distant from Merchant
Taylors' Hall at a depth of about 12 ft. from the
surface" [Morgan, loc. cit.]. A lead pipe found
near by was supposed to have been connected
with the baths of this house or villa [Lond. and
Midd. Arch. Soc. Trans., II, 2].
Fig. 56. Bath under No. 62 Threadneedle Street. From Archæologia, LX.
A note on a City Sewers Plan (II, 98), dated
December, 1849, says: "while excavating for a
branch in Threadneedle Street we met with an old
Roman wall built with Kentish rag and chalk and
standing in front of Crown Court (Plan A 78),
about 10 ft. from the surface to the top of the wall
and 12 ft. thick, running in a parallel line with
In 1895, excavations were made at No. 62 (Sun
Fire Office) on the N. side of the street (Plan A 75).
At 27 ft. was a shallow bath (5 ft. 3 in. by 5 ft. 3 in.
by 2 ft.), reached by two semi-circular steps
(Plate 46 and Fig. 56); it was formed of rough
stone mixed with broken tiles, and had a floor
of opus signinum. The walls were plastered,
and the whole rested on a substructure of concrete
[Arch. Journ., LII, 198; Arch., LX, 218].
A floor (Fig. 57) of opus signinum on a foundation
of rough pieces of rag-stone and white mortar was
found in 1910 between the street and the N. side of
Merchant Taylors' Hall (Plan A 77), just inside the
parish of St. Martin Outwich. A small Roman
drain of stone ran underneath the floor [Arch.,
LXIII, 323, with plan].
Throgmorton Street. At the corner of Bartholomew Lane near the Ancient Mart (Plan A 64),
the gravel was reached at about 12 ft. below the
surface in 1856; "in Throgmorton Street several
discoveries were made; a deep ditch crossed the
N.E. angle, in which remains of cask-hoops had
become petrified; the springs through the. gravel
of the site were generally strong and had been made
available by means of oaken wells, like large casks
without top or bottom." A Roman well was also
found, formed of squared chalk, containing charred
wood 3 ft. thick [Arch. Journ., XIII, 274].
Tokenhouse Yard (Plan A 63). General PittRivers (then Col. Lane-Fox) in 1867 reported the
finding of piles connected by "camp-sheathing"
(? part of the embankment of the Walbrook)
[Anthrop. Rev. V (1867), LXXVI]. He does not
say whether there is any evidence of these being
Roman. In 1889, the bed of the Walbrook was
reached hereabouts at a depth of 20 ft., and a few
coins of the early Empire and pieces of pottery were
found [Arch. Rev., IV, 292].
The Tower. Near the Cold Harbour Tower
(Plan A 1), on the S.W. of the White Tower, Roman
remains, including masonry, tiles, and part of a
hypocaust flue, were found in 1899 [Journ. Brit.
Arch. Assoc. (N.S.), V, 351; VI, 26 ff].
Fig. 57. Remains near Merchant Taylors' Hall.
From Arch., LXIII.
Tower Hill. In 1882, a length of 73 ft. of the
town-wall was removed in making the Inner Circle
Railway (Plan A 2) and foundations of buildings
and a red tessellated pavement on a bed of concrete
with a substructure of oak piling were unearthed
[Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., XXXVIII, 447; Arch.
Rev., I, 355].
Trinity Lane, Queen Victoria Street (Plan A
161). During the making of a sewer "portions of
immense walls with occasional layers of bond-tiles"
were met with, and some exhibited remains of
fresco-painting [Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc., I,
254]. The position of these walls is indicated on a
City Sewers Plan of 1845 [I, 139]. The site is now
covered by Queen Victoria Street.
Warwick Square. Roman remains were found
in 1881 on premises of Messrs. Tylor (Plan A 181)
at a depth of about 19 ft.; the plan of the site
indicates several pieces of a wall, a well, a brick
pavement, and the spots where lead coffins, a tiled
grave, leaden jars, and urns were found [Arch.,
XLVIII, 221 ff., with plates 10–12; and Journ.
Brit. Arch. Assoc, XXXVII, 88. The coffins and
other finds have been deposited in the British
Museum by Messrs. Tylor].
Water Lane (Lower Thames Street). A
small shaft sunk in the lower part of the road (Plan
A 17) in May, 1927, cut through a rag-stone wall
set in light brown mortar, running N. and S. and
perhaps turning W. at the lower end. The top of
the wall was 3½ ft. below the road surface; the
age of the wall is uncertain but is probably
Roman [R.E.M.W. and A.C.].
Watling Street (Plan A 151). About 1833,
in making a sewer, a roadway was found at a depth
of 20 ft., with a substratum of chalk and a pavement of flint [Gent. Mag., 1833, II, 422].
In making Queen Victoria Street in 1869, a hard
road or causeway was found in crossing Watling
Street (Plan A. 152) and nearly in a line with that
street, 10¼ ft. from the surface. It was of rough
stones and gravel, cambered on the surface, and in
the upper part were found quantities of broken
Roman pottery [Price, Descr. Rom. Tess. Pavement
in Bucklersbury, 77].
Wood Street (Plan A 141). Pavements of
tesserae found in 1843 and 1848, see under Gresham