Inscriptions of Roman London. (fn. 1)
By R. G. Collingwood.
In proportion to the size of the town, the number of extant or recorded inscriptions belonging to Roman
London is very small. This is due in great part to the paucity of building-stone in the neighbourhood,
which has led to the systematic re-using of every available piece of material. For this reason, of the
inscriptions here described, numbering over a hundred, less than one-third are on stone, and most of
these are inconsiderable fragments. The great majority are on metal or pottery, and serve less to elucidate
the history of London than to indicate the extent to which makers and owners of such objects habitually
marked them with their own names. Makers' stamps on pottery (including lamps) have not been included
among the inscriptions here dealt with.
The inscriptions discussed in this section belong to the Roman city of London and its surrounding
cemeteries. For those discovered at the neighbouring site in Greenwich Park see the separate section on
that site (p. 151).
Fig. 70 (No. 1).
1. Fragment of white marble cornice 15½ in. long by
4½ in. high. (Fig. 70). Matr[ibus . . . .] vicinia de suo res-
[tituit . . . . .]. "To the Mother-Goddesses; the district
restored [this shrine] at its own expense." The shrine
doubtless consisted of a canopy supported on small
columns, beneath which sat the three Mother-Goddesses,
side by side, with baskets of fruit on their laps.
Found in 1855, near Walbrook [Proc. Soc. Antiq., IV,
1856, p. 113], in Budge Row [Gent. Mag., N.S., III, 1857,
69]. Now in the Guildhall Museum [Cat., p. 104; CIL.,
2. Small sandstone slab, 22 in. by 17 in. (Plate 10).
In the centre is a relief of Mithras slaying the bull, with
attendant dadophori and dog, snake, scorpion and probably
crow; round this group run the signs of the zodiac; in the
four corners are the quadriga of the sun (top left), the
chariot of the moon drawn by bulls (top right), and two
Winds below, Eurus or Boreas (left) and Zephyrus or Notus
(right). The material is considered to be of British origin;
the workmanship seems to belong to the middle of the
Ulpius Silvanus emeritus Leg(ionis) ii Aug(ustae)
votum solvit; factus Arausione. "Ulpius Silvanus,
veteran of the Second August Legion, paid his vow; made
at Orange." Factus has been taken to mean "made a
veteran," i.e., discharged; but we should perhaps expect
missus in that sense, and factus may mean rather "initiated"
into some grade of the Mithraic community. That it was
the sculpture which was "made at Orange" is not likely.
Found in 1889, in Walbrook. Formerly in the Ransom
collection, now in the London Museum [Arch., LX, pl. 10;
Cumont, Textes et Monuments, II, p. 389; Ephem. Epigr.,
VII, 816; Journ, Rom. Studies, II, p. 142].
3. Slab 3 ft. long by 2 ft. 4 in. high. Letters 6 in. high,
well cut. Of the letters recorded, the fourth in the first
line was either an O or a C; Roach Smith thought it a C
and was probably right.
Num(ini) C [æsaris] . . . prov[incia] . . . . Brita[nnia] . . .
"To the deity of the Emperor, set up by the province of
Britain . . ." The interpretation is not absolutely certain:
"To the deity of the Emperor and the province of Britain"
has been suggested by a high authority, and the C in line 1
has been taken to stand for Claudius, which is quite
possible but ought not to be assumed as in any way certain.
It does, however, seem possible that the inscription marked
a temple of Emperor-worship erected by the Provincial
Council of Britain; though to take it as proving that the
Provincial Council met in London would be illegitimate.
Found in 1850, in Nicholas Lane, near Cannon Street
[C. R. Smith, Gent. Mag., 1850, p. 114; Coll. Antiq., III,
p. 257; Rom. Lond., p. 29]. Lost from the Guildhall
Museum by 1859. A drawing by Archer is in the British
Museum [Lethaby, Londinium, p. 186]; the Guildhall
has a drawing made at the time of discovery [CIL. VII, 22].
4. Tombstone, 6 ft. 4 in. high by 2 ft. 6 in. broad. (Plate
60 and Fig. 71). A. Alfid(ius) Pomp(tina) Olussa; ex
testamento her(es) pos(uit); annor(um) lxx; na(tus) Atheni(s);
h(ic) s(itus) est. "Aulus Alfidius Olussa, of the Pomptine
tribe; set up by his heir in accordance with his will;
aged 70; born at Athens; he lies here."
Fig. 71 (No. 4).
The fifth line is an addition, but seems practically
contemporary. Its exact meaning is not certain; na(ve)
or na(varchus) followed by a ship's name is possible, but
Mommsen's rendering, as given above, is very probable;
since the reading ATHENI, though disputed, seems clear.
The concluding formula is rare after the end of the 1st
Found in 1852, on Tower Hill, now at the British
Museum [Roach Smith, Rom. London, p. 29, pl. III;
CIL. VII, 29].
Fig. 72 (No 5).
5. Small marble slab, 12 in. by 9 in. (Fig. 72). M.
Aur(elio) Eucarpo fil(io) pientissimo, vixit ann(os) xv
m(enses) vi, Aur(elia) Eucarpia ma(ter) possuit. "To
Marcus Aurelius Eucarpus, my most devoted son; aged 15
years 6 months; set up by his mother, Aurelia Eucarpia."
Found 1911, in Moorgate Street, in the bed of Walbrook
[Ephem. Epigr., IX, 1371, where it is pointed out that
though the material is foreign the workmanship suggests
a provincial work rather than one brought in modern times
from Italy]. [London Museum].
6. Part of a large and handsome altar-shaped tomb
(Plate 54), of which one "bolster" and most of the inscribed panel survive. Dis[M]anibus.....[F]ab(i) Alpini
Classiciani. "In memory of . . . . Fabius Alpinus Classicianus " (or Fabius Alpinus, formerly of the navy).
Four or five letters at most are lost before FAB in line 3;
not enough to permit the deceased a nomen before a tribename Fab(ia). Fabius is therefore his nomen, and Roach
Smith was obviously wrong to think of connecting him with
Julius Classicianus in Tacitus, Ann., XIV, 38. (fn. 2)
Found 1852, in a bastion of the city wall at Tower Hill
[Antiquarian Etching Club, IV, Fig. 47; Arch. Journ.,
1853, p. 4; Journ. Brit. Arch. Assoc, 1853, p. 241;
Smith, Rom. London, p. 28, pl. 3; CIL. VII, 30; British
Museum (Guide to Antiq. of Rom. Brit., p. 16)].
Fig. 73 (No. 7).
7. Small slab, 15 in. by 12 in. (Fig. 73). D(is) M(anibus),
Fl(avius) Agricola, mil(es) leg(ionis) vi vict(ricis), v(ixit)
an(nos) xlii d(ies) x; Albia Faustina coniugi inconparabili f(aciendum) c(uravit). "In memory of Flavius
Agricola, private of the Sixth Victorious Legion, aged 42
years and ten days; erected by Albia Faustina to her
This legion came to Britain about A.D. 122, and this
tombstone is somewhat later than that in date.
Found 1787, in Goodman's Fields [Malcolm, Lond.
Rediv., IV, p. 450; Smith, Coll. Antiq., I, p. 141; Rom.
London, p. 24; CIL. VII, 25]. At Burlington House
(Society of Antiquaries).
8. Tombstone. D(is) M(anibus), Iul(ius) Valens,
mil(es) leg(ionis) xx v(aleriae) v(ictricis), an(norum) xl, h(ic)
s(itus) e(st); c(uram) a(gente) Flavio Attio her(ede). "In
memory of Julius Valens, private in the Twentieth Valerian
Victorious Legion, aged 40; he lies here; set up by his
heir Flavius Attius" . . . . This legion formed a permanent garrison at Chester after about A.D. 50; the stone
probably dates from the late 1st century.
Found 1776, in Church Lane, Whitechapel, towards
Rosemary Lane [Gent. Mag., 1784, pp. 485, 672, Fig. 5].
Lines 2 and 3 are corrected from a MS. at Oxford (cf.
Ephem. Epigr., IX, p. 515), the stone having been lost.
In 1784 it was at the Old Bailey [CIL. VII, 27. Smith,
Coll. Antiq., I, p. 134, pl. 46; Rom. London, p. 23, pl. 2].
9. Base for statue, 2 ft. 8 in. by 2 ft. 4 in. Dis Manib(us).
T. Licini Ascani; v(ivus) s(ibi) f(ecit). "In memory of
Titus Licinius Ascanius; he made this for himself in his
Found 1777, on Tower Hill, in the foundations of the
Ordnance office [Arch., 1779, p. 304; Gent. Mag., 1785,
p. 332, Fig. 2; Smith, Coll. Antiq., I, 140; Rom. London,
p. 25; CIL. VII, 32; there described as lost; in Ephem.
Epigr., IX, p. 515, it is said to have been rediscovered, but
we cannot ascertain its whereabouts].
Fig. 74 (No. 10).
10. Fragment (Purbeck marble) 7 in. by 6 in. of a
tombstone (Fig. 74); [Dis] Ma[nibus] Prim . . . . vix
[it annos . . . .]) "In memory of Prim . . . . ., aged . . . . .
years." From Cloak Lane [CIL. VII, 34a; Smith, Coll.
Antiq., I, 139, pl. 48a].
11. Fragment of tombstone, 14 in. by 12 in. (Plate 61).
[Sat]urni[no, mil(iti)] leg(ionis) xx [y(aleriae) v(ictricis)] C.
Aci[lius] M . . . "[In memory of] . . . . Saturninus,
private in the Twentieth Valerian Victorious Legion, [set
up by] Gaius Acilius M . . . . [his heir ?]."
Fig. 75 (No. 12).
Found in 1842, on the eastern side of Maiden Lane,
Battle Bridge [Gent. Mag., 1842, p. 144; Smith, Coll.
Antiq., i, p. 139, pl. 48; Rom. London, p. 29; Archer,
Vestiges of Rom. London, No. 1; CIL, VII, 26. British
Museum (Guide to Ant. of Rom. Brit., p. 17)].
Fig. 76 (No. 15).
12. Slab, broken, 13½ in. by 10½ in. (Fig. 75). [D(is)]
M(anibus) [Semprd]nio Sempro[niano cen]turioni leg(ionis)
. . . . [vi]xit annos It, [et fratrib]us Semproniis . . . . et
Secundo; [liber]ti eius [patronis bene me]ren[tibus pos]u[e]runt. "In memory of Sempronius Sempronianus,
centurion in the -th Legion, aged 51, and his brothers
Sempronius . . . . and Sempronius Secundus; erected by
his freedmen to their deserving patrons."
Found in Bishopsgate, 1922; in the London Museum
[Journ. Rom. Studies, XII, p. 279, with supplements by
Professor J. G. C. Anderson].
13. Sarcophagus 6 ft. 10 in. by 1 ft. 6 in. (Plate 57).
Memoriae Valeri Amandini, Valeri Superventor et
Marcellus patri fecer(unt). "In memory of Valerius
Amandinus, made by Valerius Superventor and Valerius
Marcellus for their father."
Found 1869, in the churchyard of Westminster Abbey;
now in the vestibule of the chapter-house of the Abbey.
It appears to have been re-used for a post-Roman burial
[Arch. Journ., 1870, p. 103; Brit. Arch. Assoc. Journ.,
1870, p. 76; CIL. VII, 33].
14. Fragment of tombstone, 22 in. by 13 in. (Plate 61).
[Dis Mani]bus . . . . er. L(ucii) f(ilius) G[al(eria)] Celsu[s],
spec(ulator) leg(ionis) [ii A]ug(ustae); An[to]n(ius) Dardanus,
cu[r(ator)], Rubrius Pudens . . . . Probis, spec(ulator)
leg. . . . "In memory of . . . . Valerius ? Celsus, of
the Galerian tribe, son of Lucius, speculator in the Second
Augustan Legion; [set up by] Antonius Dardanus,
curator, Rubrius Pudens, and . . . . Probus, speculator in
the same legion, [his heirs]. . . ." This was the legion in
garrison at Caerleon-on-Usk.
Found 1843, in Playhouse Yard, Blackfriars, near
Apothecaries' Hall [Smith, Coll. Antiq., I, p. 125; Arch.
Journ., 1846, p. 115; Rom. London, p. 26; CIL. VII,
24; British Museum (Guide to Ant. of Rom. Brit., p. 17)].
Fig. 77 (No. 16).
The nomen of the second heir has hitherto been read
Valerius, but (in spite of the painted letters visible in
Plate 61) Rubrius is probably right; the V is clear and
there are traces of the R and B.
15. Large tombstone; 83½ in. by 31½ in.; (Plate 60 and
Fig. 76), inscription above; below, full-length figure (much
defaced) of a soldier in tunica and paenula, girt with a
cingulus and holding a staff in the right hand and a roll (?)
in the left. D(is) M(anibus) Vivio Marciano leg(ionis) ii.
Aug(ustae), lanuaria Martina coniunx pientissima posuit
memoriam. "In memory of Vivius Marcianus, of the
Second Augustan Legion: Januaria Martina, his most
devoted wife, set up this monument."
Found 1669, when Wren re-built St. Martin's Church,
Ludgate Hill. Now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford
[Chandler, Marm. Oxon., III, pl. 2, 10; Horsley, Brit.
Rom., p. 330, Middlesex, No. 1; Gough's Camden, II,
p. 92; Smith, Coll. Antiq., I, p. 127; Rom. London,
p. 22; CIL. VII, 23].
All previous publications of this stone have mistaken
a leaf-stop (? blundered centurial mark) between the words
Marciano and leg. for some abbreviation of militi.
16. Hexagonal column, 3 ft. 11 in. high. (Plate 62 and
Fig. 77). On one face, 2 ft. 7 in. by 1 ft. 1 in., is the inscription D(is) M(anibus) Cl(audiae) Martinae, an(norum)
xix; Anencletus provinc(ialis) coniugi pientissimae; h(ic)
s(ita) e(st). "In memory of Claudia Martina, aged 19;
set up by Anencletus, slave of the province, to his most
devoted wife; she lies here."
A dowel-hole in the top probably held a tenon which
kept a statue of the deceased in place on the stone; a
head, perhaps of this statue, was found with it.
The concluding formula and the character of the lettering
suggest a late 1st or early 2nd-century date.
Found in 1806, near the London Coffee House, Ludgate
Hill [Gent. Mag., 1806, II, p. 792; Roach Smith, Coll.
Antiq., I, p. 130, pi. 45; Rom. London, p. 23; CIL,
VII, 28; Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 105].
17. Small slab, 12½ in. by 11½ in. (Plate 61). D(is)
M(anibus), Grata Dagobiti fil(ia), an(norum) xl; Solinus
coniugi kar(issimae) (aciendum) c(uravit). "In memory of
Grata, daughter of Dagobitus, aged 40; erected by
Solinus to his dearest wife."
A 2nd-century monument. Found 1837, in London
Wall, near Fins bury Circus [Gent. Mag., 1837, p. 361;
Arch. Journ., 1846, p. 115; Smith, Coll. Antiq., I,
p. 134, pi. 46; Rom. London, p. 26, pl. 2; CIL. VII, 31;
Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 105].
18. Sarcophagus, 6 ft. 9 in. by 21 in. (Plate 57). On the
front is a bust in relief, in the style of the late empire, within
a medallion; beneath the medallion is a small inscribed
panel; on either side are flutings. The inscription is very
much weathered, and, as is often the case with these late
inscriptions, was never well cut. The first line contains a
name which cannot be read with certainty; the rest
reads carissima[e] sua[e] meritis eius, "to his dearest . . . .
for her deserts." The first line probably contained a
man's name and the word fil(iae) daughter.
Found 1867, at Clapton [Trans. Lond. and Midd.
Arch. Soc, III, 196; Arch. Journ., 1874, 352; Ephem.
Epigr., III, 53; Journ. Rom. St., XII, p. 280. Guildhall
Museum Cat., p. 106, pl. LVI].
Internally the sarcophagus measures 6 ft. long by
16 in. wide by 17 in. deep.
Fig. 78 (No. 19).
19. Fragment, 32 in. by 14 in. of a tombstone (Fig. 78):
[Dis Manibus] et memoriae [T]ulliae Numidi[ae . . . .
pie]ntissimae femin[ae] . . . . is reliqua cau .... "In
memory of Tullia Numidia . . . . a most devoted
woman. . . ."
Found in Castle Street, and placed in the Guildhall
museum; now lost. The sketch here reproduced is a
rough pencil note made by Haverfield in 1889–90 [Arch.
Journ., vol. 42, p. 156; Ephem. Epigr., VII, 819, noting
the late date of the work].
20. Small slab, 13 in. by 8 in., of limestone: Dis
Manib(us). "In memory of the departed." Found
in London Wall [Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 106]. From
its appearance, it has been brought from abroad in modern
times; but the collection which included it was formed, so
far as is known, exclusively of objects genuinely found
21. Fragment, 12 in. by 8 in., of tombstone (Plate 62) of
Flavius ? . . . . from Antioch? aged 70 or more. From
the Castle Street Bastion; in the Guildhall Museum [Arch.
Journ., vol. 42, p. 156; Ephem. Epigr., VII, 818].
Fig. 79 (No. 22).
22. Fragment (marble), 5 in. by 5 in., (Fig. 79) containing a proper name such as Hellenicus. Found in the
Thames [British Museum]. [CIL. VII, 34d].
23. Fragment, 14 in. by 9 in., of a tombstone. Found
M in Houndsditch; placed in the Guildhall
LIV Museum and now lost [Arch. Journ., Vol.38,
TVS p. 289; Ephem. Epigr., VII, 822, where the
VI-ANL reading of the Arch. Journ., is corrected].
. . . NNAC
Fig. 80 (No. 24).
24. Fragment (oolite), 7 in. by 6 in., of a tombstone
(Fig. 80); in line 2 the phrase [b]ene m[erenti] in line 3
fi[lius] or fi[lia], and in line 4 the age xvi, are visible. From
London Wall [CIL. VII, 346]. [British Museum].
Fig. 81 (No. 25).
25. Fragment (marble), 4 in. by 4 in. (Fig. 81). From
London Wall [CIL. VII, 34c]. [British Museum].
26. Fragment, 13 in. by 8 in., from the Camomile
Street bastion; later in Guildhall Museum; now lost.
Found 1876 [Price, Excavations in Camomile St.
I.V (1880), p. 31; Arch. Journ., (1877), p. 131]. A
F.V tracing, dated Oct. 30, 1876, is in W. T. Watkin's
M box at the Cheetham Library, Manchester [Ephem.
Epigr., VII, 823].
27. Fragment from Castle Street, 18 in. by 18 in., at
IVL the Guildhall Museum [Arch. Journ., Vol. 42, p. 156;
S Ephem. Epigr., VII, 821].
Fig. 82 (No. 28).
28. Fragment, 4 in. by 4 in. (Fig. 82), of Purbeck marble,
from the tombstone of someone whose name began
CAV . . . . Found somewhere in London [Ephem.
Epigr., VII, 824; Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 104].
29. Marble tombstone, 24 in. by 14 in. (Plate 13). Above
is a group of a mourning woman, seated, in front of whom
stands a boy, nude, representing the deceased. Below is
a panel 9½ in. by 1½ in., with the inscription in two lines:
Δέξιε Διοτίμου χρηστὲ χαίρε. "Good Dexios, son of
Found in Drury Lane. Now in the London Museum.
Doubt may be felt whether it is a genuinely British object;
but it hardly resembles the works of art brought to England
by 18th-century collectors, and it may be a real relic of the
30. Marble tombstone, 22 in. by 15 in. (Plate 13), with
relief of gladiator standing, holding a trident in his right
hand and a dagger in his left; on his left shoulder is a shield.
Above is the inscription ... ωνία Μαρτιάλ(ε)ι τῲ ἄνδρι.
"[? Ant]onia to Martialis her husband."
Found at Islington; now in the Guildhall Museum
(Cat., p. 105; CIL. VII, p. 21) [Arch., Vol. LXVIII].
31. Tombstone of Purbeck marble, 23 in. by 11 in.
(Plate 12). Above is a relief of a standing half-draped male
figure, leaning on a staff; below are three lines of text, of
which onlv the ends are now visible: . . οσ . . . τιου [χρρηστ]ὲ χαριε "So-and-so, son of . . . . tios; good
Described as found in Lamb's Conduit Street; but
Archer made a drawing of it in 1850, now in the British
Museum, on which he describes it as found at Islington.
It was probably lost again and rediscovered in Lamb's
Conduit Street. Now in the British Museum.
Fig. 83 (No. 32).
32. Rough stone slab (building stone) bearing on one
edge, 23 in. by 5 in., the name CANDIDI. (Fig. 83). From
Houndsditch. At Guildhall Museum [Ephem. Epigr., VII,
33. Gold ring, inscribed with the owner's initials, Q.D.D.
(Quintus Domitius Dexter, or the like). Goldsmith's Hall
[Haverfield, R. Brit, in 1914, No. 12]. Found at the
General Post Office.
Fig. 84 (No. 34).
34. Silver ingot, 4 in. long, 2¾ in. broad at ends, 1¾ in.
in middle; 3/8 in. thick; weight 1 lb. troy. (Fig. 84). In
the middle is a stamp EX OFFE HONORINI "from the
workshop of Honorinus." The sixth letter is hard to
read; it has been read E, I and L; if L, it makes ex of(ficina)
Fl(avi) Honorini, and many have preferred this reading;
Haverfield, however, seems right in reading E.
Found 1777, at the Tower, with coins of Arcadius and
Honorius. [Arch., V (1779), pi. 29; CIL. VII, 1196;
Ephem. Epigr., IX, p. 640; Num. Chron., 1915, pp.
508–510; B.M. Guide Antiq. Rom. Brit., p. 72.] At the
Fig. 85. 2/3. (No. 35.)
35. Ingots of pewter (Fig. 85) with the following stamps
upon them: (a) SYAGRI (the R retrograde); (b) a chi-rho
monogram round which SPES IN DEO is arranged in a
circle; (c) SYAGRIVS in two lines, the G and R retrograde; (d) a chi-rho monogram with α and ω on either
side. Eight of these ingots have been found in the Thames
near Battersea Bridge; two are at York, the rest at the
British Museum. Six have the stamps (a) and (b), two have
(c) and (d).
[CIL. VII, 1221; Ephem. Epigr., IX, 1263; B.M.
Guide Antiq. Rom. Brit., p. 32.]
36. Patera (bronze) with stamp T RVF C on handle
37. Handle of a bronze patera, with stamp SANGVS
FE [Guildhall Museum, Cat., p. 110, No. 92].
38. Bell (bronze) with inscription MARTINVS. [CIL.
VII, 1295. Liverpool Museum].
39. Bronze scales, the arms inscribed with numerals
from 10 to 4, the rest broken off:—
X IIIIV IIV IV V IIII
[Roach Smith, Rom. London, p. 144; CIL. VII, 1282].
Fig. 86. 2/3. (No. 40.)
40. Bronze prow of a ship in minature (Fig. 86): Ammilla Aug. felix, inscribed (retrograde) in niello, commemorates a ship called Ammilla (Greek ἅμιλλα a contest) of
the imperial fleet, and some victory won by her [Proc. Soc.
Antiq., XVI, 306; Ephem. Epigr., IX, 1319. Found
c. 1850]. [British Museum].
41. Bronze Seal, said to be in the Guildhall Museum;
S E C V N not seen by us [Ephem. Epigr., VII,
D I N I 1177b].
42. Iron stamp for impressing letters in relief (Guildhall
Museum). M P B R. [Ephem. Epigr., VII, 1177c;
Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 54, No. 114 (iron)].
43. Iron knife, 5 in. long, stamped BASOILI, the S
retrograde, and a figure of a man in the centre [London
44. Iron knife, 4 in. long, to which a wooden handle has
been attached by a tang. Stamped P.BASO ILIF
(P(ublius) Basili(us) f(ecit)); in the circle is a man.
[CIL. VII, 1298b]. [British Museum].
45. Iron knife, 6 in. long, resembling a scalpel; at the
end is a ring for the finger. Stamped O L O N D V S . F.
[CIL. VII, 1298a]. [British Museum].
46. Iron centre-bit, 5½ in. long, stamped T I T V L I +
47. Another bit, 7 in. long, in the same museum, has a
badly-impressed stamp which may contain the letters
. . . INI ... or possibly . . . RAI . . . retrograde.
48. Iron chisel, 7 in. long, stamped A P R I L I S F.
[Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 53, No. 72; CIL. VII, 1163].
49. Iron ring, from Lothbury, inscribed V I T A V O L O
[London and Midd. Arch. Soc, III, Ephem. Epigr., IV,
716; Arch. Journ., 1875, p. 68].
50. Leaden seal, found 1902 near Walbrook, inscribed
L.V. [Arch. Journ., LX, 198; Ephem. Epigr., IX, 1298].
51. Tessera in red clay, inscribed FVI Found at Finsbury, 1874 [Ephem. Epigr., IV, 705h; Brit. Arch. Assoc.
Journ., XXXII, 67].
52. Barrel-staves, stamped T.C. P A C A T I. (a)
Found 1914 on the site of the old General Post Office
[Arch., LXVI, 246] now in the Guildhall Museum, (b)
Found 1926 in a well beneath the Bank of England (Plate
38), which had been steyned with barrel-staves [Antiq.
Journ., VI, 186; Journ. Rom. Stud., XV, p. 250]. Bank
(c) Another stamp on the same object as (a) reads C S
or C B [Haverfield, Rom. Brit, in 1914, No. 11b].
53. Leather sole, in the British Museum (reported so by
S E.G. F Hübner in CIL. VII, 1238; not seen by
S E.G. F ourselves).
54. Leather sole, in the British Museum [CIL. VII,
C C A p. 238].
55–57. Tile stamps:—
55. London has yielded a large number of tile-stamps
containing references to some official or body whose title
is abbreviated as P. PR. BR or the like. This title is
explained by Mommsen as referring to the Publicani of the
Province of Britain; it is often followed by L O N, for
Londinium. But it is very difficult to get any warrant
for the contraction p(ublicani), and one would not expect
to find them in such a context; and on the other hand a
reference to procuratores is ruled out by the harshness
of the abbreviation p(rocuratores). Mr. G. H. Stevenson
suggests p(ortitores), the officers of the portoria, and to the
present writer this seems the best suggestion. The
following variants are well attested or have been seen by
ourselves; fragmentary forms are ignored.
a. P. PR.BR
e. P. BRI. LON
f. P. PR. LON
g. PR. B. LON
h. PR. BR. LON
k. P. BRI.SAN
(? SAN in error for LON).
56. Fragment of tile, stamped with a legend in at least
three lines: the remaining letters are [?r]OMVLI . . . .
[?p]OMP[ei ?] . . . TCR . . . . [London Museum].
57. Tile stamped Px Tx [Roach Smith, Illus. Rom.
Lond., p. 114].
Fig. 87 (No. 58).
58. Tile with graffito (Plate 63 and Fig. 87), done with
a stick when the clay was wet. From Warwick Lane,
Newgate Street [Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 72; Ephem,
Epigr., VII, 1141]. "Austalis (i.e., Augustalis) has been
AVSTALIS going off by himself every day for these
DIBVS XIII 13 days." The Latin is unclassical, but
VAGATVRSIB the sense is clear; a workman is calling
COTIDIM attention of the continual absence of a
The numeral is not easy to read; it has been read VIII,
but XIII is probably right.
59. Wall-plaster, "dark brown or rather reddish"
S V P letters on white [Roach Smith, Illus. Rom.
Lond., p. 28; CIL. VII, 35].
Fig. 88 (No. 60).
60. Pavement (Fig. 88), found 1887 between Pudding
Lane and Botolph Lane, and destroyed. The inscription,
as recorded, contains obvious references to the name
Egnatius and "the laying of a tesselated paveWUNANI ment." [pav]im[e]nt(um) tessel(atum)
NIIISTGNA+VS strat(um). [Proc. Soc. Antiq., XII,
IMNTESSELSTRAT 1888, p. 128; Arch. Journ., XLV,
SEMDSTD P. 184].
61. Oculist's inscription on the bottom of a Samian
vessel. (Plate 63), L. Iul. Senis crocod. ad aspr. "Lucius
Julius Senis's ointment for roughness (of the eyes)."
Stamps bearing such inscriptions were used to impress a
maker's name and description on cakes of ointment for the
eyes. Here a Samian vessel has been stamped [Smith, Cat.
Lond. Antiq., No. 208, p. 47; CIL. VII, 1314]. [British
62. Fragment 4 in. by 4½ in. of a shale tablet (Plate 63)
with an ornamental border and an inscription lightly
scratched. At the top is PA . . . . or the like, the A
uncertain; below, and at right angles to this, is [L]ENTVL
MANV, and in another line what seems to be XI NONI
[Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 114].
63–100. Graffiti on Samian ware:—
The following list is very far from complete; it includes
only those graffiti, published in reliable sources or personally
known to ourselves, which contain more than one or two
63. AIIL (Aelius) (London Museum).
64. L. AE. FESTI (Guildhall).
65. ALIIXANDIIR (Guildhall).
66. ANI RECINI (Guildhall).
67. ATTVI [CIL. 1338, 2].
68. AVDAX [CIL. 1338, 3].
69. Q BIIRA (Guildhall).
70. COR F [CIL. 1336, 899a].
71. FELICVLA [CIL. 1338, 8].
72. FIILIX (London Museum).
73. FL(A)VIO [CIL. 1338, 32].
74. T FLAVI MATVNI (London Museum).
75. GER [CIL. 1338, 9].
76. GLYCERA [CIL. 1338, 33].
77. IN AT (London Museum).
78. IVLIVS [CIL. 1336, 1188 c.].
79. IVL SI. . . . (Guildhall).
80. LVCANI (Guildhall).
81. LVCI (St. Ethelburga's, Bishopsgate).
82. MANIAN (London Museum).
83. MOMVVL [CIL. 1338, 16].
84. MVM (Guildhall).
ANIS [CIL. 1338, 18].
86. OPTATVS (Guildhall).
87. PAVLLVS [CIL. 1338, 20].
88. PIITRON [CIL. 1338, 21].
89. M PUT OPTA (Guildhall).
90. PRIMA SA [CIL. 1336, 184].
91. RIISTITVTA [CIL. 1336, 1276].
92. SIIVII (London Museum).
93. TITVLLV [CIL. 1336, 853].
94. TVLLI (London Museum).
95. VAR (Guildhall).
IVAIA [CIL. 1338, 29].
97. VIIS [CIL. 1336, 1044a].
98. VIA (London Museum).
99. VIARIR [CIL. 1338, 28].
100. VITI [CIL. 1336, 368b].
101–104. Graffiti on coarse pottery
Here again, a very small number is given; all specimens
devoid of particular interest being omitted.
Fig. 89 (No. 101).
101. V[A]PRILIIS (i.e. V kal. apriles) a date (Fig. 89),
scratched on an amphora in the British Museum (Guide to
Antiq. Rom. Brit., fig. 19).
102. M VIIS VINI (7½ measures of wine) [Ephem.
Epigr., IX, 1350].
103. SALVE [CIL. VII, 1335, 6].
Fig. 90 (No. 104).
104. LONDINI (i.e. London, at the Temple of Isis)
AD FANVM ISIDIS on a flagon (Plate 53 and Fig. 90)
found at Southwark, now in the London Museum [Journ.
Rom. Stud., XII].
105–110. Spurious Inscriptions
Under this heading a few objects are mentioned which
have been wrongly taken for examples of Romano-British
inscriptions and published as such. They are included
here merely to warn readers against them.
105. Altar found at Goldsmith's Hall (Plate 12), and now
preserved there. On the front is a good relief of Diana;
on the back Archer thought he saw traces of an inscription,
but this was certainly an error; the altar has never been
inscribed [Archer, Vestiges of Old London; Smith, Coll.
Antiq., I, p. 130, pl. 45; CIL. VII, 21].
106. Small marble slab, 17 in. by 19 in. said to have
been found in Basing Lane in 1852.
ONESIMO VIX AN XIII
DOMITIVS ELAINVS PATER
FILIO B M
There is no record of
its discovery, and in character and workmanship it is exactly like the many small
inscriptions brought from abroad in modern times and
wholly unlike any British work. It probably comes from
Rome [Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 105, No. 3].
In Brit. Arch. Assoc. Journ., Vol. IX, p. 91, it figures
in a list of antiquities said to come from excavations in
Basing Lane, but consisting mostly of evidently imported
objects; in the same vol., p. 199, it is stated to have been
offered for sale in London some years before the date of
its alleged discovery.
107. Marble slab lying in the grass outside St. Margaret's
Church, Westminster, with the letters TII. They have
been described as Roman letters, but they are certainly
108. Tile, found 1876 in Cannon Street, D N VOC.
At British Museum. A.S. 33 (1876) 356 [Ephem. Epigr.,
IV, 698; VII, 1189a].
109. Tile stamped VNDINIC [Brit. Arch. Assoc.
Journ., XXV, 391; Guildhall Museum Cat., p. 73,
110. Piece of leather stamped S P Q R [V.C.H.
London, I, 121. Ephem. Epigr., IX, 1369].