Terra Sigillata Prior to A.D. 60.
By T. Davies Pryce.
The red-glazed pottery, "terra sigillata" or "Samian" ware, which is the characteristic ceramic
product of the earlier centuries of the Roman Imperial period, is abundantly represented in London.
Indeed, no site in Britain has been so productive of this class of ware, whether it be regarded from the
point of view of quality, quantity or variety. All the variations of technique as applied to this fabric are
forthcoming, i.e. moulded, marbled, incised, applied, rouletted and stamped ware. Owing to the conditions
under which excavations have been made in the city, much of this fabric has found its way into the hands
of dealers and private collectors, and a considerable proportion has been scattered throughout the country.
Some of it will also be found in the offices of City Companies, etc. Notwithstanding these leakages, this
ware is well represented in the Guildhall, British and London Museums, and to a lesser extent in the
Bethnal Green, South Kensington and other Museums.
No discussion of the whole of the terra sigillata of London is undertaken in this context, but an endeavour
is made to isolate the earliest examples with a view to determining the date of the initial occupation of the
site. The absence of any direct historical or epigraphical evidence on this point gives a special value to
the ceramic materials, and in particular to this well-known red-glazed ware.
This fabric, as occurring in London, naturally falls into the categories of Italian (chiefly Arretine) and
Provincial (chiefly South Gaulish) ware. Before discussing the evidence under these headings, it is
necessary to point out that in the case of London we are dealing with the results of desultory excavations
which have been the subject, with one or two exceptions, of very imperfect record. Considerable reservation is therefore necessary in their topographical application. Thus, one locality may bulk large as the
result of the accident of excavation or of a fuller and better record, whilst in the absence of these circumstances other areas of perhaps equal importance may remain more or less silent.
The illustrations, here published (Figs. 91–93) have been prepared by Dr. Felix Oswald.
(1) Italian Ware.
This fabric is the prototype of Provincial ware. The flourishing period of the Italian potteries, especially
those of Arretium, can be assigned with some confidence to the last third of the 1st century B.C. and the
first two decades of the 1st century A.D., but the industry continued down into the Nero-Vespasian
period. (fn. 1) During the earlier part of this period—the Augustan age—this ware was extensively exported
into the provinces. At Haltern, which was occupied from 11 B.C. to A.D. 16, this ware alone is represented.
During the latter part of this period, i.e. circa A.D. 40 to 80, this ware, to some extent, supplied the home
market, but even here it was exposed to the competition of an increasing importation from the provincial
potteries of Southern Gaul, and it is highly probable that the exportation of the Italian fabric, as a
contemporary product, through the ordinary channel of commerce had become exceedingly slight by the
accession of Claudius (A.D. 41). (See below, p. 181.)
The following stamps of Italian potters have been
recorded in London:—
(1) AMAR: Cup of Loeschcke type 8 (fn. 2) and Ritterling
type 5 (fn. 3) Fig. 91, A.l. Found in Leadenhall market;
now in the London Museum. The rim and the wallmoulding lack the rouletting which is common to Augustan
examples of this form as found at Haltern; it is therefore
probably later and should be dated to the first half of the
1st century A.D. No exact parallel for this stamp can be
discovered but those of AMA and AMAB occur at Arezzo
and Rome, respectively (CIL. XI, 2, 1; 6700, 25; XV. 2;
4950). (fn. 4)
(2) ATEIVS: ATEI. in planta pedis, Cup, Loeschcke type
12 and Dragendorff (fn. 5) type 24/25, Fig. 91, A.2. Found at
London Bridge Station; now in the Bethnal Green
Museum. One hundred and two stamps of the potter
Ateius and his slaves have been found at Haltern in the
Augustan period (11 B.C. to A.D. 16). The stamp of
ATEI/XANTHI occurs at Mont Beuvray, which was
abandoned circa 5 B.C. He is represented at Xanten and
in the early period at Wiesbaden, both of which sites date
to the reign of Augustus. Twenty-one of his impressions
have been found at Sels (ante A.D. 41). (fn. 6) Rarely, and then
probably as a "survival," this stamp occurs on a site
which was first definitely occupied in the reign of Caligula,
e.g. Grimmlinghausen (A.D. 40). (fn. 7)
In Britain the stamps of ATEIVS and his slaves also
occur ten times at Silchester, once at Pleshey in Essex and
at Foxton in Cambridgeshire. (fn. 8) The London stamp, with
its label in the form of the sole of a foot, dates to the
earlier third of the 1st century A.D. (fn. 9)
(3) CORNELIVS: CORNEL, on a crater, Fig. 91, A3.
Found in London, 1837, probably in Southwark (cf. Brit.
Mus. Cat., L160). The vessel has an everted rim and its
wall is divided into two zones by a rouletted moulding.
On the upper zone are two conjoined dolphins which also
overlap the moulding. Beneath them are the stamp and
a wolf to L. Similar dolphins occur at Arretium (cf.
Oswald and Pryce, op. cit., XXIV, 7). This well-known
potter worked at Arezzo in the Augustan period, and later.
His stamp occurs at Haltern (11 B.C. to A.D. 16). His
usual signature is P. CORNELIVS, but stamps in which
the P. is omitted, as on the London vessel, occur at
Arezzo (CIL. XI, 2, 1; 214, 215, 259). As some of these
are in planta pedis they should be dated to the first third
of the 1st century A.D., to which period the London crater
is probably attributable.
(4) HILARVS: HILAR, form not stated. Found in
London (see Arch., XXVII, 152, and XXIV, 202). This
stamp occurs in the Augustan period at Haltern, where it
is classed amongst the older Arretine fabric. In the
pre-Claudian period at Sels it is found in combination
with the stamp of Ateius, i.e., CN.ATEIVS.HILARUS, ATEI HILARI (CIL. XIII, 3, 1; 49).
The stamp of Hilarus also occurs in combination with
those of M. PERENNIVS (CIL. XV, 2; 5420), C.
MEMMIVS (CIL. XI, 2; 382) and ANNIVS (CIL. XIII,
3, 1; 21), all of whom are well-known Arretine potters.
Perhaps, his latest impression is that of HILAR FECT
(CIL. XIII, 3, 1; 140), in the Rodez Museum. Probably
more than one potter worked under this name.
(5) SECVNDVS: SEC VNDI on the base of a cup or plate.
Found in London (Brit. Mus. Cat., L167), Fig. 91, A.5.
Closely similar stamps occur in the Augustan period at
Haltern SECV NDI, and at Rome SEC VNDI and SECV NDI (CIL. XV,
2; 5560b); also in the early period at Xanten (Bonner
Jahrbüch., 116, 330, cup Loeschcke type 8b). No evidence
of a Claudian provenance is forthcoming.
(6) ZOILVS: ZOII (the Z retrograde) on a cup Loeschcke
type 11, viz., a Dragendorff form 27 with rouletted wall,
Fig. 91, A.6. Found in Lombard Street; now in the Guildhall
Museum. It has a truncated, flat rim, decorated with two
applied dolphins. ZOILVS was a slave of ATEIVS (cf.
CN. ATE ZOII (the Z retrograde) at Sels). The Z is frequently
reversed by this potter, as at Haltern (Loeschcke, No. 114).
The chief points of chronological significance in this list of stamps are that those of Ateius, Cornelius,
Hilarus, Secundus and Zoilus occur in the Augustan period at Haltern, that of Ateius/Xanthus at Mont
Beuvray ante 5 B.C., those of Ateius, Hilarus and Zoilus at Sels in the pre-Claudian period and that of
Ateius/Xanthus at Grimmlinghausen in the period Caligula-Claudius.
In addition to the foregoing stamps the following pieces of Italian ware are recorded as having been
found in London:—
(7) Crater: Fig. 91, A.7; see also Brit. Mus. Cat.,
L159. Found in London (C. R. Smith, Journ. Brit. Arch.
Assoc, IV, 16). The slightly everted rim is rouletted
(cf. Oswald and Pryce, op. cit., II, 1,2, 4; XXVI, 1, 2),
and the wall is divided into two zones by a rouletted
moulding (cf. Oswald and Pryce, op. cit., II, 1, 2, 4).
Beneath the moulding is an ovolo, surmounted by a row
of large beads. Then follow the figure of a nude man with
club in 1. hand and an indeterminate ornament. The
same figure occurs on a fragment of Italic ware, from
Arezzo, now in the Ashmolean Museum. Rouletting of
the rim and the wall-moulding is characteristic of the
decoration of many craters of the Augustan period.
(8) Crater: Brit. Mus. Cat., L161, Fig. 35. Found in
London. The fluted and everted rim is defined below by
a raised moulding. On the rim, Eros asleep. Decoration
similarly situated is not infrequent in Arretine ware
(G. H. Chase, Cat. of Arretine Pottery in the Fine Arts
Museum, Boston, Figs. 140–142).
(9) Crater: Oswald and Pryce, type C (XXVI, 2),
Fig. 91, A.9; Brit. Mus. Cat., L162. Found in London
1837, probably in Southwark. The rouletted moulding is
succeeded by a bead-row, beneath which are depicted an
eagle to r. and a floral and fruit ornament. Although
indistinct, it is evident that this ornament is of a similar
class to those used by CORNELIVS and PANTAGATVS
(cf. Oswald and Pryce, op. cit., XXIV, 1, 2).
(10) Crater: Fig. 91, A.10. Found in London (Brit.
Mus. Cat., M. 2363). Glaze, pitted externally, smooth
internally; poor workmanship. The upper border of the
design is composed of a series of concentric circles with
two intervening beads. Closely similar upper borders are
seen on two vessels by CORNELIVS (Brit. Mus. Cat.,
L55, 56). Then follows a double line, composed of repeated
cuneiform leaves (rod-chain) and a row of beads. From
this line depend festoons of the same type. On the wall
are depicted a draped woman to front and a winged figure
to r., both interrupting the middle of a festoon (cf. Chase,
op. cit., Figs. 1, 69, M. PERENNIVS and TIGRANVS
for similar interruptions of "rod-chain" festoons by
figure-subjects). The design is closed by a "rod-chain"
and a bead-row. Notwithstanding its poor workmanship
the vessel is probably Italic. On the other hand it may,
possibly, be a Belgic imitation of decorated Arretine,
examples of which have been found in the Augustan
pottery at Xanten (Bonner Jahrb., 122, PI. LIV, 3;
J. Hagen, Einzelfunde von Vetera, 1910–12, PI. LIV,
1, 2, 3; LV, 3).
(11) Crater: Fig. 91, A.11. Found in London (Brit. Mus.
Cat., L163). Winged figure to r. The internal groove
determines the form.
(12) Crater: Brit. Mus. Cat., L166, Fig. 36. Found in
New Street, E.C. The raised moulding around the
circumference of the bowl is a frequent feature of Italic
craters. Above the moulding is seen a crater, closely
similar in form to those on Arretine fragments in the
British Museum (L98) and the Boston Collection (Chase,
op. cit., Fig. 15). Probably Italic.
(13) and (14) Two plates with flat bases (Brit. Mus. Cat.
L164–5), Figs. 92, A.13, 14, restored after Dragendorff's form
22. On the wall of one is a dog, on that of the other a dolphin.
Similar figures in applied relief are not uncommon on
Italic "plain" forms. An alternative restoration is that
of a Tiberian plate with footstand, as at Aislingen (Oswald
and Pryce, op. cit., XLII, 9).
(15) Fig. 92, A. 15. Found in London; now in the London
Museum. The vessel has the inbent rim and internal
groove of Loeschcke's type 4b. On the exterior wall is the
spiral "handle" so commonly found on "plain" Arretine
forms (cf. Loeschcke, Pl. X, 9, 12, 15a, b). Beneath the
handle is a mask in applied relief.
(16) Fig. 92, A.16: London Museum, A. 17498. Found in
Tooley Street, Southwark. Good, brownish-red, smooth
glaze. The rouletted rim is followed by a narrow plain
moulding. The wall is decorated with a mask and a
wreath of repeated bifid leaves, in the form of a low-curved
festoon. For closely similar masks on Arretine ware,
see Chase, op. cit., Figs. 108, 142. The decorated wall
is bordered below by a narrow plain band and a basal
moulding which shows traces of rouletting. The rim is
defined internally by a circular groove. (fn. 10)
An examination of these pieces demonstrates that they cannot be assigned to the early flourishing
period of the Italic industry. Typologically, they belong to the first four decades of the 1st century of
our era; perhaps the fragment, Brit. Mus. Cat., L166, may be even a little later.
In this connection it is interesting to note the evidence from dated sites in the north-western provinces.
Thus at Haltern, in the Augustan period, Arretine ware is alone represented. At Sels, a site dating to the
reign of Augustus and evacuated in that of Caligula, both Italian and Provincial sigillata are forthcoming; upwards of a hundred stamps of Arretine potters and many other Italics sherds have been
At Hofheim, which was occupied in the reign of Caligula (A.D. 40), no stamp of an Italian potter has
been found, whilst this ware is only represented by three fragments of an Italic character. (fn. 11) At Aislingen,
which was occupied from late in the reign of Tiberius, the Arretine ware is restricted to the stamp of
L.GELLI, in planta pedis, and two other fragments. (fn. 12) In the legionary fortress at Neuss, which was first
occupied c. A.D. 25, only a single example of Arretine ware has been found—a plate, stamped XANTHI
in planta pedis (Bonn. Jahrb. 111/112, XXXVI, 24). At Grimmlinghausen, occupied in and after A.D.
40, Arretine ware is represented only by a single example stamped ATEIVS/XANTHVS (CIL. XIII,
10009, 55). In Britain the evidence is less clear. Occasionally the ware of a potter who was working as
late as the Nero-Vespasian period found its way to this province, e.g., L.R.PIS(ANVS), found near
Cambridge (CIL. VII, 894). At Richborough, on the other hand, the small area at present excavated,
though certainly occupied in the Claudian era, has failed to yield a single fragment of Arretine. At
Colchester, notwithstanding the presence of typologically pre-Claudian examples of Provincial fabric,
Arretine ware is only represented by a solitary cup (Oswald and Pryce, op. cit., XL, 14). At Silchester,
however, which is known to have been occupied before the Claudian period, probably as early as the last
third of the 1st century B.C., (fn. 13) 32 pieces of Italic type have been recorded. On the balance of the evidence,
it would seem probable that some of the 15 or 16 fragments from London found their way to the site
previous to the conquest, thus indicating something of a pre-Claudian settlement of Italian and other
traders. (fn. 14) Nevertheless, in view of the suddenness with which Claudian London sprang into prominence
as a commercial centre, and the comparative abundance of Claudian pottery from the site, it is safer to
leave open the possibility that the Arretine sherds may have been brought in on the first stream of trade
after the conquest and before the complete extinction of traffic in this ware. The question whether
these fragments of Italic ware reached London in the ordinary way of commerce and are consequently of
pre-Claudian date, or whether they are of the nature of "survivals" brought over by the Claudian
invaders or their immediate successors, does not therefore admit of a definite answer.
(II) Provincial Ware.
Space permits only of a brief consideration of the early provincial Terra Sigillata or Samian ware, found
in London. The subject may be conveniently discussed under the two headings of potters' stamps and
early decorated types, located examples of which are plotted on Map, Plate 64. (fn. 15)
(a) Stamps of Early Potters. (fn. 16)
AMANDVS (4), BALBVS (1), BILICATVS (5), COCVS (2), INGENVVS (8), LICINIANA (8), LICINVS
(14), MACCARVS (8), POTITVS (1), REGENVS (1), SALVE (3), SCOTIVS (1), SENICIO (16), and
These potters constitute more than 50 per cent, of those who are known to have commenced work in
South Gaul in the reign of Tiberius, circa A.D. 20. Their decorated types are, almost wholly, those which
are characteristic of the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius. More particularly, the potters Amandus,
Balbus, Bilicatus, Maccarus, Regenus and Salve worked, almost exclusively in the Claudian and preClaudian periods; the activity of the potters Scotius and Senicio may have continued, in some degree,
into the reign of Nero, but their decorated work is almost entirely of a Claudian or pre-Claudian type (cf.
Knorr, Töpfer und Fabriken verzierter Terra-Sigillata des ersten Jahrhunderts, 1919, Pls. 70–72, 75–78).
The terminal date of the activity of the potters Ingenuus and Licinus cannot be so definitely assigned,
for although the major part of their decorative work is typologically Claudian or pre-Claudian (cf. Knorr,
1919, op. cit., 40–42, 45–47), there is some evidence that they continued to work in the reign of Nero.
The potters Liciniana and Seno should be equated with Licinus and Senicio, respectively.
The potter Cocus made some very early and rare South Gaulish plain forms, e.g. Dragendorf 27 with
rouletted wall (cf. Loeschcke's Arretine type 11) and Ritterling type 5 (cf. the Arretine cup by AMAR,
Fig. 92, G. 1). His decoration is typologically Claudian rather than Neronian. Potitus was associated with
the Tiberio-Claudian potter VOLVS, e.g., VOLVSII ET POTITIO at Vaison and VOLVS SII ET POTITIO
It should be noted that the stamps of the potters Amandus, Balbus, Bilicatus, Ingenuus, Maccarus,
Regenus, Scottius and Senicio have been found in the pre-Claudian period at Sels, and that of CaligulaClaudius at Hofheim (A.D. 40–51 ) (fn. 17) . Finally, it is pointed out that many potters (whose stamps have been
found in London), whose work is largely characteristic of the Claudian period, have been excluded from
this list because there is evidence that their activity was continued into the reign of Nero. Amongst them
may be mentioned AQVITANVS, ARDACVS, BASSVS, GALLICANVS, LABIO, MASCLVS, and
(b) Early Decorated Types.
In order to obtain an approximately accurate conspectus of the earliest Sigillata found in London the
decorated types located on the Map (Plate 64), have been restricted to those which are characteristic of
the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius or such as have parallels in the Claudian period at Hofheim
It is sometimes impossible to draw a hard and fast line between Claudian and Neronian decoration, but
no ornamental piece has been accepted for which Claudian or pre-Claudian parallels are not forthcoming.
On this account many examples of decorative types which fall into the period Claudius-Nero have not
been plotted on the map.
It will be seen that about 50 definitely early pieces have been mapped, but in the present context it
may suffice to describe only 9 typical examples.
(1) Crater: Found in Angel Court; now in the London
Museum. The ovolo is full and its tongue is plain, both
features usually met with in Arretine ware. The vessel is
decorated with an upright plant ornament which terminates
below in basal arcading, a class of ornament frequently
met with in the earliest provincial sigillata (cf. Knorr,
1919, op. cit., 41 G, crater at Sels; 40a form 29, by
INGENVVS, at Sels; Ritterling, Hofheim, I, op. cit.,
XXVII, 22, 23, both on forms 30). This type of decoration
is an imitation of an Italic prototype (cf. Oswald and
Pryce, op. cit., XXIV, 10, by NAEVIVS of Puteoli).
The Gaulish crater is a direct imitation of an Augustan
Italic prototype (cf. Oswald and Pryce, op. cit., II, 3, by
ATEIVS). Five examples of this form have been recorded
in Britain; two at Richborough, one at Tong, Kent, and
two in London. Fourteen examples, dated to the reign of
Tiberius, have been found at Bregenz (Knorr, 1919,
op. cit., 1C, 2D, E, F, G, H, J, K; 3 M, N, O, P, 4 V). The
Gaulish crater occurs at Sels in the period TiberiusCaligula (Knorr, 1919, op. cit., 41 G, J), and at Hofheim
in the Claudian period (Ritterling, op. cit., Abb. 46, 1, 2;
47; 52, 4a and b). Fig. 92, G.1.
(2) Crater: Found in Cheapside, now in the Guildhall
Museum. Ovolo the tongue of which has a central depression as on a crater at Hofheim I (Ritterling, op. cit., abb.
46, 1). Scroll decoration, very similar to that on Claudian
forms 30 at Hofheim (Ritterling, op. cit., XXVI, 5;
XXVII, 19). Fig. 92, G.2.
(3) Form 29: The distinguishing feature of this class of
bowl is the central moulding which divides its external
wall into two decorated friezes. Found in Leadenhall
Street [London Museum, A21033]. Fig. 93, G.3.
Dull, matt glaze: Contour nearly hemispherical. Short,
upright rim, the upper rouletted moulding of which is
only slightly deeper than the lower.
Upper Frieze: Continuous scroll, the stalks of which
terminate in sceptre-like leaves and rosettes. This scroll
is an exact facsimile of that on a form 29, found at Claudian
Hofheim, by the potter LICINVS (Ritterling, op. cit.,
Central plain moulding: Bordered above and below by
rows of elongated beads.
Lower Frieze: The decoration is composed of alternating
upright plant ornaments and medallions.
(a) The upright plant has lateral spirals ending in rosettes
and terminates above in a sceptre-like leaf. Below, it
forms a basal arcading, as in the crater, Fig. 92, G.1, and
the lower frieze of a form 29 found at London Bridge
Station, Fig. 93, G.6. The curve of the arcadingis continued
upwards and terminates in an upright, pointed and serrated
An upright bead-row, on which is perched a bird, rises
from the lowest point of the arc, as on a Tiberio-Claudian
form 29 at Bregenz (Knorr, 1919, op. cit., 4S).
(b) The medallion is formed by two twisted circles and
has a central rosette. Arising from its internal circumference are four separate spirals, ending in rosettes.
In the field are two hares with striated rumps as used by
BILICATVS (Knorr, 1919, op. cit., 14A); also a large
rosette closely similar to that on a Tiberian form 29 at
Sels (Knorr, 1919, op. cit., 91 C). The glaze, contour and
decoration of the bowl are typologically Tiberio-Claudian.
It is probably representative of the early work of LICINVS.
(4) Form 29: Found in Tokenhouse Yard, now in the
Guildhall Museum. Fig. 93, G.4.
The rim is boldly out-curved, but materially differs
from the high everted rim of Nero-Flavian examples of
this form; it is probably copied from an Augustan Italic
crater with a similarly curved rim (cf. Oswald and Pryce,
op. cit., XXVI, 1 Haltern). The wall of the vessel has a
On the upper frieze is seen a scroll with sessile bifid
leaves, and rosettes in the field. A closely similar scroll
occurs on forms 29 of Tiberian type at Hod Hill (Brit.
Mus. Cat., M208) and Silchester (May, XI, 2). This
class of scroll with sessile bifid leaves is highly characteristic
of the Tiberio-Claudian period and occurs in the early
work of the potters ALBINVS, LICINVS and VRVOED
and on forms 29, in the style of MACCARVS (Knorr,
1919, op. cit., 1B, 46D, Text Fig. 28, 88A, C). The central
moulding is bordered by rows of large and well-spaced
beads, in the Italian manner (cf. Fig. 93, G.7 and Knorr,
1919, op. cit., Text Fig. 4, M.PERENNIVS). The
repeated gadroons of the lower frieze are full in character,
as in early examples of this ornament.
(5) Form 29: Found on the National Safe Deposit
Co's premises, Queen Victoria Street; now in the Guildhall
Museum. Fig. 93, G.5. The fragment shows the rouletted
central moulding frequently, but not invariably, found on
Tiberian examples of this form. It is a copy of the rouletted
moulding of Augustan Italic craters (cf. Oswald and
Pryce, op. cit., II, 1, 2, 4; see also Fig. 93, G. 7).
Occasionally this technique is found on sites which were
first occupied in the reign of Caligula (cf. Ritterling,
Hofheim, op. cit., XXV, 7a).
(6) Form 29: Found at London Bridge, Railway
Approach; now in the London Museum. Fig. 93, G.6.
Portion of the lower frieze showing an upright plant
ornament with basal arcading. The chronological significance of this decoration has been referred to under No. 1.
Closely similar decoration occurs on the upper frieze
of a Tiberian form 29 by MACCARVS (Knorr, 1919,
op. cit., 50F).
(7) Form 29: Found in Gracechurch Street, west side.
Now in the London Museum. The repeated sessile,
lyre-shaped leaf of the upper frieze is derived from an
Italian prototype (cf. Oswald and Pryce, op. cit., XXIV,
10, by NAEVIVS of Puteoli), and was used by some of the
oldest South Gaulish potters (cf. Knorr, 1919, op. cit.,
1A ALBINVS, 6B AMANDVS, 11A BALBVS, 14C
BILICATVS, 51J MACCARVS, 77K SENICIO, 78A
SENO, 80 VAPVSO). It occurs in the Claudian period at
Hofheim (Ritterling, op. cit., XXV, 12b, XXVII, 21 and
XXXII, 16, on a crater) but has not been recorded on subsequently occupied sites. Fig. 93, G.7.
(8) Form 29: Found at London Bridge, Railway
Approach; now in the London Museum. Part of the
lower frieze on which is depicted a large straight-wreath,
composed of alternating sessile and stalked leaves. The
stem of the wreath consists of repeated coalescent beads,
as frequently occurring in the work of the older potters
(cf. Knorr, 1919, op. cit., 1A ALBINVS). The bold
character of the design places it amongst the work of the
earliest potters (cf. Knorr, 1919, op. cit., 7Aa, Bb, Cc.
14B BILICATVS, 72H SCOTTIVS). Fig. 93, G.8.
(9) Form 30: the cylindrical bowl: found in Gracechurch Street, west side; now in the London Museum.
The ovolo is surmounted by a series of "grouped" beads,
as on an early form 30 at Hofheim I (Ritterling, op. cit.,
XXXII, 18). The wall is decorated with a scroll the
stalks of which terminate in large leaves (occupying
nearly the whole depth of the wall), spiral buds, seven-lobed
buds and a tri-lobed leaf with three detached "berries."
The bifurcations of the scroll are masked by bifid
"tendril-unions" with basal beads, as on the Hofheim
vessel referred to above.
The central element of the large leaf has a triangular
termination, a feature which only occurs in the earliest
examples of this leaf (cf. Knorr, 1919, op. cit., 2E. 3M, O.
all on craters of Tiberian type of Bregenz; 21D; 32, a
form 29 by FIRMO the elder; 41J crater at Sels). In
later examples of this leaf the central element has a
rounded termination. Large-leaf scrolls are characteristic
of the decoration of some of the earliest examples of the
cylindrical bowl (cf. Ritterling, op. cit. XXXII, 18, and
pieces in the Museums of Cologne and Wiesbaden).
Fig. 93, G.9.
All the above decorative types are found in the period Tiberius-Claudius.
Whilst it cannot be stated that none of the examples of Provincial sigillata, recorded on the map, was
imported during the reign of Nero, the detail-evidence is sufficiently cumulative to warrant the conclusion
that during the course of the Claudian period, London had already attained the position of a flourishing
community. This conclusion is reinforced by the relative frequency of Italic ware found on the site,
whether it be regarded as a "survival" or as suggestive of a pre-Claudian occupation.
(III) Distribution of Early Types.
In considering the distribution of early ware—both Italian and Provincial—it is important to bear in
mind the reservations mentioned on p. 179.
So far as present evidence goes, there is undoubtedly a preponderance of early types in the following
(2) An area to the E. of the Walbrook which especially centres round King William and Gracechurch
(3) An area immediately to the W. of the Walbrook, (fn. 18) at the eastern termination of Queen Victoria
(4) The locality of the General Post Office.
It will, however, be observed that the early fabric is scattered throughout a considerable extent of the
area subsequently enclosed by the walls of Roman London.
Thus, the stamps of the potters MACCARVS and SENICIO have been found at Baltic House in the
N.E., that of BALBVS on London Wall in the N., that of SALVE in Monkwell Street in the N.W., and
that of MACCARVS in Paternoster Square, in the W.
From this wide-spread distribution of early types it may, with some probability, be inferred that at
the date of Boudicca's rebellion (A.D. 60), the area within the enclosure of the later walls was largely
occupied (see p. 31).