Southwark

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1930

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58-68

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'Southwark', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in London, Volume 5: East London (1930), pp. 58-68. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=120518 Date accessed: 21 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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10. SOUTHWARK.

(O.S. 6 in. London, Sheet K.)

The Borough of Southwark includes the parishes of St. Saviour, St. George the Martyr and Christ Church, Southwark, and St. Mary, Newington. The principal monuments are Southwark Cathedral, the remains of Winchester House and the George Inn.

Ecclesiastical


Cathedral Church of St Saviour, Southwark

Cathedral Church of St Saviour, Southwark

(1) Cathedral Church of St. Saviour (anciently St. Mary Overy) stands on the W. side of Borough High Street. The 12th-century walling of the N. transept and chapel is of ragstone rubble. The ashlar and freestone of the later work is mostly Reigate stone with Purbeck marble introduced for shafting in the N. transept. The vault-webs are of chalk. The roofs are covered with lead. The Priory of St. Mary Overy was founded by William Pont de l'Arche and William Dauncey in 1106 for canons-regular of the order of St. Augustine. Of the early 12th-century church only two doorways and a recess in the N. wall of the Nave, possiby the core of the transept walls and the N. spring of the apse of the N. transept chapel, now remain. The foundations of this chapel have, however, been traced beneath the present pavement. The church at this time consisted of an aisled nave, transept with one apsidal eastern chapel probably in both arms and a presbytery of indeterminate size and form. At the end of the century the N. transept chapel was re-built square. The church and most of the monastic buildings were destroyed by fire in 1212. The re-building was at once taken in hand and continued throughout the century. The E. and N. walls of the Presbytery were first undertaken with the E. bay of the S. wall, the remainder of that side following shortly after. The E. ambulatory and chapels are of about the same date and the nave was re-built contemporaneously. The general re-building next embraced the N. transept about 1280, when a large window was inserted in the S. wall of the ambulatory and two more in the first bays of the Presbytery aisles. The S. transept was re-built some thirty years later. The piers of the central tower were probably re-built or recased at the same time, and the stage above is of slightly later date. The church was damaged by fire temp. Richard II, and in 1390 the altars, etc., were dedicated by Simon, Bishop of Achonry. During the 14th century the arches of the E. presbytery wall were filled in, a window inserted in the N. wall of the ambulatory and a chapel built out to the E. of it. Flying buttresses were also added to the Presbytery. The two upper stages of the tower were apparently built early in the 15th century, as in 1424 seven bells were hung in the tower and the stage below was apparently at that time a lantern. The nave roof fell in 1469 and was re-built in wood together with that of the N. transept, under Prior Burton. In the 15th century the parish chapel of St. Mary Magdalene in the angle of the Presbytery and S. transept was re-built (it had been founded by Peter des Roches, Bishop of Winchester (1205– 1243). Early in the 16th century the reredos was erected by Fox, Bishop of Winchester, and a large window inserted in the gable above it. The priory was dissolved on October 27th, 1539, and the church became parochial, the dedication being altered to St. Saviour and the parishes of St. Mary Magdalene and St. Margaret, Southwark, being amalgamated. The E. ambulatory was walled off and used as a bake-house, but was restored to the church in 1576. The church was repaired in 1578. In 1676 the E. end of the church was damaged by fire and in 1689 the pinnacles of the tower were altered. The restoration of the Presbytery was undertaken in 1822, when the clearstorey, triforium and vault were largely reconstructed, the E. gable window removed and modern work substituted, and practically the whole building refaced externally. At the same time the chapel of St. Mary Magdalene was destroyed and the arches between it and the S. presbytery aisle replaced by walls and windows. The two arms of the transept were restored in 1830, when an entirely new S. window was inserted and the projecting chapel E. of the ambulatory was pulled down. In 1832 the ambulatory was completely restored, and in 1838 the nave was pulled down and a pseudo-Gothic building erected in its place. This building was pulled down in 1890 and the present nave built on the old lines 1890–97.

The planning of the E. ambulatory and chapels is very unusual, and the Reredos is handsome early 16th-century work.

Architectural Description—The E. Ambulatory and Chapel Aisle (39½ ft. by 61½ ft.) is of the same width as the E. arm and aisles (Plate 109). It is divided into three bays from E. to W. and four from N. to S. and dates from the early 13th century. The four bays of the E. wall have each a triple lancet window all modern, but reproducing the general lines of the original work. In the third bay they take the place of an archway now destroyed, opening into a projecting eastern chapel (called the Bishop's Chapel) now destroyed. The E. wall is finished externally by four modern gables, each with a triplet of modern lancet windows lighting the space above the vault. Between the bays are modern buttresses of two stages tabled back at the top, and, at the N.E. angle, is a semi-hexagonal turret formerly containing a stairway to the leads. The facing throughout is entirely modern. The N. wall has a pointed three-light window in the E. bay, originally of 14th-century date but now entirely restored, the lights are trefoiled and above them is net tracery of large quatrefoils. The second and third bays have each a single lancet window all restored on the old lines with jamb-shafts having moulded capitals and bases. The S. wall has, in the E. and third bays, a lancet window uniform with those on the N. In the second bay is a late 13th-century window of three trefoiled lights with as many circles in the pointed head; the mullions and jambs have attached shafts with foliated capitals and moulded bases. These windows are all modern restorations on the old lines. The ambulatory and chapel-aisle are of equal height throughout and are roofed with a ribbed vault of stone, quadripartite to each bay and having moulded ribs and springing from piers and vaulting shafts. The piers consist of four detached shafts separated by wide hollows with separate bases to the shafts and continuous moulded capitals. The vaulting-responds are each of three engaged shafts with similar capitals and continuous bases. The vault has been reconstructed. In the centre of the W. side the vaulting-shaft is replaced by a moulded corbel resting on a head-corbel (all restored). The two arches formerly opening into the presbytery on the W. are replaced by a solid wall forming the back of the reredos of the High Altar; the upper part is enriched with blind tracery of three trefoiled lights to each bay and much restored. In each bay is a doorway (see Reredos).

The Eastern Arm or Presbytery (64¾ ft. by 26¼ ft.) is of early 13th-century date (Plates 106, 108). The E. wall up to the base of the clearstorey is concealed by the reredos of Bishop Fox. The two pointed and moulded arches ranging with the main arcade, though filled in, are partly visible from the E. or ambulatory side. At the triforium level the 13th-century wall is pierced by two round-headed doorways formerly opening from the space over the vault into the triforium passage, but now blocked by the reredos. The gable with its three lancet windows is entirely modern. The N. and S. walls of the eastern arm are similar and each of five bays; they date from the first part of the 13th century, the four western bays on the south being the latest in date. The main arcades consist of pointed and deeply moulded arches of three orders having moulded labels on the presbytery-side; they rest on piers alternately circular and octagonal with a semi-circular respond at the E. end and a semi-octagonal one at the W. The inner order of the N. arches rests on circular detached shafts against these piers, and the inner order on the S. on corbels of inverted conical form terminating in head-stops. Three clustered and attached shafts on the inner or presbytery face of each pier are carried up to support the main vault, and similar but smaller groups on the opposite faces support the aisle vaults. The moulded bases of the piers follow the outline of the pier and its accompanying shafts, as do also the moulded capitals except for the angle-shaft of the S.E. pier and the presbytery vaultingshafts, round which the abacus only is carried, as a band-course. The outer order of the E. arch is stopped above the spring on the E. by a small moulded capital above a hollow which formerly contained a short shaft resting on the main capital. The main arcade, triforium and clearstorey of the N. side are divided by moulded string-courses and vertically into bays by the vaulting shafts which are banded by the triforium string and finished with deeply moulded capitals at the base of the clearstorey, the string-course of slightly different section coincides in level with the abaci of the capitals. Each bay of the triforium (Plate 107) has four pointed and moulded arches springing from piers and responds. Each pier has on the face an attached circular and filleted shaft with moulded capital, into the bell of which the fillet is continued up; the base rests on a square sub-base with carved spur-ornaments at the other angles. The responds have plain shafts and a line of dog-tooth ornament. At the back of these arches is a narrow triforium passage, each main bay of which is isolated by a solid pier behind the vaulting shafts. The arches of each sub-division are carried back against the rear wall in the form of small barrel vaults, and the piers are tied back by moulded stone lintels at the springing level, resting on corbels against the rear wall. One doorway in each bay gives access to this passage from the space over the aisle vaults. The jambs and head have a continuous moulding on the presbytery side, but are plain behind; on the N. side and in the E. bay of the S. these doorways are round-headed, but in the remaining bays on the S. they are segmental-pointed. The clearstorey consists of a large moulded arch in the centre of each bay (enclosing a tall lancet-window) and two narrow side arches, many distorted to horse-shoe shape; they rest on square piers, both piers and responds having small attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. At the back runs the clearstorey passage, which is unbroken from E. to W., and the piers are tied to the wall by a moulded lintel at the spring of the arches and by a stone tie at a lower level. The inner reveals of the clearstorey windows are splayed and have a moulded edge. Externally the walls are entirely modern with flat gabled buttresses between the bays and square clasping buttresses at the E. angles, the N.E. angle being crowned by an octagonal pinnacle. Between the first and second and between the third and fourth bays the clearstorey walls are supported by 14th-century flying buttresses arched below and having a tabled coping above; they have been entirely refaced. The S. wall of the presbytery is similar to the N., but has certain indications of a slightly later date. The mouldings are different, the bases of the triforium shafts (except in the first bay) have circular sub-bases, the shafts have no fillets and the labels of the main arcade terminate in several instances in foliage-stops. The main vault is quadripartite with moulded ribs springing off the level of the base of the clearstorey; the cells are of chalk. The vault with most of the clearstorey has been reconstructed.

The North Aisle of the presbytery (13½ ft. wide) is of early 13th-century date and opens at the E. end into the ambulatory. In the N. wall are three windows. That in the E. bay is of three pointed lights (c. 1280) and is otherwise similar to the middle window in the S. wall of the ambulatory. In the second and third bays are single lancet-windows corresponding to those in the N. wall of the ambulatory. All these windows are wholly or partly of modern restoration. In the fifth bay is a square-headed 16th-century doorway to the adjoining chapel. It has a moulded oak frame with chamfered and moulded base-stops. The bays of the aisle are divided by vaulting shafts corresponding to those against the main arcade piers opposite, with two attached and one free shaft. The group between the second and third bays is destroyed below the capital by a monument. Below the window-sills internally runs a moulded string-course much restored. The aisle-vault is quadripartite with moulded ribs, similar to that over the ambulatory. The exterior of the wall is entirely refaced. Opposite the E. presbytery wall is a buttress with a gabled head, and supporting the flying buttresses of the presbytery vault are two 14th-century buttresses of deep projection capped by square panelled and crocketed pinnacles. The western of these forms part of the E. wall of the Harvard Chapel.

The South Aisle of the presbytery (13½ ft. wide) is similar in general character to that on the N. In the first bay of the S. wall is a late 13th-century window of three trefoiled lights, otherwise similar to that in the N. aisle. In the second and third bays are modern lancet windows with a modern doorway in the third bay. In the fourth and fifth bays are modern arches to the organ-chamber. The four last bays formed an open arcade to the parish chapel of St. Mary Magdalene before its destruction in 1822. Much of the pavement of this chapel still remains in situ in the graveyard. The exterior of the S. aisle has three 14th-century buttresses of deep projection, two capped by pinnacles and supporting flying buttresses, like those to the N. aisle. Some small portions of original facing remain.

The Central Tower (21 ft. by 26 ft.) rests on four lofty pointed arches (Plate 108) of which the E. and W. are 13th-century, the W. being somewhat the later in date. The N. and S. arches are 14th-century. The E. arch is of four moulded orders on the W. face and three on the E. The inner order rests on a moulded and foliated square capital with a square diminishing shaft under, terminating in a head-corbel, a man with long hair on the N. and a mitred bishop or abbot on the S. The W. arch is of four moulded orders, the inner resting on a moulded half-round corbel with a short shaft below terminating in heads, a king on the N. and a queen on the S., both probably modern. The N. arch is of three moulded orders, with a moulded label finishing with head-stops on the S. face, the western wearing a crown or coronet. The orders spring from as many attached round shafts separated by hollow-chamfers and having moulded capitals and bases, the latter resting on a common plinth some 11 ft. high. The S. arch is similar to the N. in every respect, except that the shafts are carried down and finish with moulded bases at the floor-level. The springing-line of all the tower arches is level with the base of the presbytery clearstorey. A moulded internal string-course, a short distance above the crowns of these arches, divides this from the second stage which is open to the church. A gallery roofed with a pointed barrel vault is carried round in the thickness of the walls at this level and communicates by doorways with the roofs of the presbytery transepts and nave. It is approached by a circular stairway adjoining the N.E. tower-pier. The gallery opens to the crossing by four pointed 14th-century arches in each face. The two middle arches are coupled with a free circular shaft between them and attached shafts to the outer jambs with moulded capitals and bases. The other arches are similar and all have moulded labels carried along the wall face as a string. Above this a course of moulded corbelling supports the flat wood ceiling. The third stage is of similar date and in the walls, internally, are remains of arcading or windows of that date. In each face was a large pointed arch divided into two lights and flanked by smaller arches, each equal to one of the lights of the centre arch. The moulded jambs and mullions have been almost entirely hacked away, and have recently been uncovered; the mouldings have, in places, been restored. The fourth stage with the bell-chamber above dates from the early 15th century. In each face are two lofty two-light, transomed windows with traceried heads; each light has a cinquefoiled head both above and below the transom. The windows have external moulded labels and a moulded rear-arch which is original, the rest being restored. Below the windows, both externally and internally, is a moulded string-course. The fifth stage or bell-chamber is marked by a moulded string-course externally. In each face are two windows somewhat similar to those in the stage below, the rear-arches being original. Across the angles of the tower are pointed stone squinches for a spire, which was never built. The tower is finished with an embattled parapet of flint and stone chequer-work all restored but representing an ancient feature. At the angles rise lofty octagonal pinnacles with embattled cornices and crocketed spirelets, much restored but dating originally from 1689.

The North Transept (35½ ft. by 25 ft.) is mainly a late 13th-century building (Plate 111), but the core of the lower part of the walls is of the 12th century. It projects three bays from the central tower, the bays being divided by circular vaulting shafts of Purbeck marble, with moulded capitals and bases and banded at the spring of the arcade and at the base of the clearstorey. A number of lengths of shafting have been restored in Cornish marble and all the capitals are modern. The two northern bays on the E. side of this transept are similar and have each a pointed wall arch, deeply moulded and resting on side shafts with moulded bell capitals and bases and having a moulded label with restored foliage-stops. The northernmost shaft is of marble and the others of freestone with marble capitals. These two arches have each a sub-arch opening into the 'Harvard Chapel'; the first of these is of early 12th-century date with a distorted round head and square responds with shallow fluted capitals, abaci and necking. The second arch is modern. The southernmost bay on the E. side contains the arch to the N. Pres bytery Aisle. It has a pointed late 13th-century arch with side-shafts like those to the other bays, but here the curve on the S. is broken and the arch is brought vertically down on to the capital. This arch encloses a pointed early 13th-century sub-arch, of which the northern jamb is entire, with moulded angles and an inner moulded order springing from a moulded corbel resting on a carved head. The southern half of the arch dies into the later jamb except for one member of the inner order which springs from a diminutive corbel. In this jamb is a pointed doorway to the circular tower stairway. The combined clearstorey and triforium is uniform on the E. and W. sides and each side has three windows; the two northern pairs are each of two plain pointed lights, with a pierced spandrel in the pointed head, having attached shafts to the jambs and mullions with moulded capitals and bases. The rear-arches are moulded and spring from similar jamb-shafts. The southern pair are similar in detail but of one light only, the lower half of the window being blocked by a wall following the rake of the adjoining aisle roofs (on the W. this wall is modern). The triforium passage is carried along the sill level of these windows, with square-headed openings in the jambs, but this is not continued in the N. end of the transept, and is entered from the aisle-triforium by pointed doorways in the raking walls before mentioned. All these windows are largely original late 13th-century work except the northern pair, which is much restored. The N. wall of the transept has two late 13th-century wall arches with jamb-shafts, etc., like those on the E. wall, but of these only the W. half of the E. arch retains any considerable amount of original work; the jambs are, however, mostly original. The plain wall space behind is at any rate in part 12th-century work, and under the E. arch a short length of original string-course, with billet-ornament, remains. Behind the W. bay of this wall is exposed externally a blocked round-headed doorway of the 12th century, formerly the entrance to the night-stair from the dorter. The arches have moulded labels with restored carved stops. Above the string-course over these arches the wall is entirely modern with a large four-light geometrical window. The W. wall is similar to the E. with three wall-arches to the ground storey, all largely original late 13th-century work except for the N. half of the N. arch. The wall-face enclosed by the two northern arches is modern; the S. arch encloses an acutely pointed early 13th-century arch to the N. nave aisle, chamfered on the angles. The chamfer to the N. half of the arch terminates at the crown in a minute carved bishop's head. The transept is covered by a modern plaster-ribbed vault.

The Harvard Chapel (formerly the Sacristy) (27 ft. by 23 ft.) opens into the N. transept by the two arches already described. The E. wall has a modern three-light window. The wall to the N. of it is of late 12th-century date, and in the angle is a considerable length of vaulting shaft with a moulded base and square plinth set diagonally. The southern part of the E. wall is of the 14th century much restored and forms the base of one of the presbytery buttresses. The N. wall is of late 12th-century date as to its E. half and of early 12th-century date in the western part, which formed the spring of an apsidal chapel. The curve is still visible externally and the foundations of the rest of the chapel have been uncovered.

The South Transept (39½ ft. by 24½ ft.) is entirely of the early 14th century and projects three bays from the central tower (Plate 110). In the N. bay of the E. wall is a pointed arch to the S. presbytery aisle, with moulded orders towards the transept and aisle springing from engaged shafts with moulded capitals and bases (the vaulting shaft adjoining the S.E. jamb-shaft is of the same date); the transept side has a moulded label with head-stops, and the thickness of the wall is supported on three chamfered ribs dying into the face of the jambs. The two southern bays on this side have each a pointed and moulded arch, much restored, stop-chamfered above the floor and formerly opening into the chapel of St. Mary Magdalene; the N. arch now opens into the modern organ-chamber; the S. arch is blocked and pierced by a modern door. The combined triforium and clearstorey is separated from the arcade below by a moulded string-course, the E. and W. sides are similar and have each three windows of three lights (of c. 1350) with pointed and traceried heads; the mullions and jambs have attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases, and the moulded rear-arches have similar jamb-shafts. The lower parts of all these windows are filled in with a modern wall which rakes up, in the N. pair, along the line of the aisle-roofs. The triforium-passage is at the sill-level, with square-headed openings in the windowjambs and is carried round the S. end. The S. wall has two acutely-pointed and moulded wall-arches similar to those on the E. The central respond is mostly modern, having been cut away for a modern doorway and now again restored, the moulded labels have a carved face-stop to the central spring. Under the W. of these arches is the four-centred head of a 15th-century doorway, now blocked. Above these arches is a large modern five-light window, the moulded rear-arch with side shafts is 14th-century. The W. wall is generally similar to the E. and has in the two S. bays wall-arches similar to those on the S. The transept has a modern plaster-ribbed vault with one 14th-century moulded wall-rib against the N. wall. The vault springs from groups of three clustered shafts, carried down to the floor, with moulded capitals and bases banded by the tri forium-string; they are of free-stone. Built into the vaulting-shaft between the second and third bays on the E. side is a 15th-century carved stone block (Plate 112), with an enriched nebuly border, bearing a shield of the Beaufort arms surmounted by a cardinal's hat. The colours have been restored. Much of the work of this transept is modern restoration, especially the window-tracery.

The Nave (103½ ft. by 26 ft.) is entirely modern, but incorporates a few fragments of 12th, 13th and 14th-century work. The modern building stands upon the 13th-century foundations and is seven bays long. The irregular spacing of the aisle bays, in relation to the arcade, perhaps indicates that the outer walls follow the divisions of the 12th-century church, and the greater width of the S. aisle is evidence that it was widened in the 13th-century re-building. The two E. responds of the nave-arcades are of early 14th-century date and are half-octagonal on plan with an attached shaft on the W. face with moulded capital and base (the latter modern) continued round the respond. The vaulting-shafts, at this end, at the triforium-level are also partly of the same date. The base of the W. wall is largely 13th-century and some old stones are reset in the W. responds.

The North Aisle (12 ft. wide) incorporates some ancient portions. In the first bay of the N. wall is the eastern processional doorway from the cloister. It is of the middle of the 12th century; the outer arch has gone and the inner is modern. The external jambs are recessed in four orders, the inner with a vertical line of cheveron-ornament and the three outer with detached circular shafts banded half-way up and having moulded bases and capitals with much weathered foliage and square abaci. The whole is much mutilated and the outer shaft on the E. is missing. In the sixth bay is the internal arch of the W. processional doorway, reset. It is of similar date and of one chamfered order and is partly restored.

The South Aisle (12 ft. wide). In the seventh bay of the S. wall, three bays of a 13th-century wall-arcade are reset, with deeply moulded, pointed arches springing from detached shafts, of which only the damaged foliated capitals remain. In place of one capital, the abacus rests on a moulded corbel.

Roofs. The timber roof over the N. transept appears to include some ancient timbers, possibly brought from the old nave when it was unroofed. The other roofs with their coverings are all modern, the coverings being either of copper or of lead.

The Monastic Buildings stood on the N. side of the church. The Cloister, about 90 ft. from E. to W., flanked the nave on the N., but except for the two doorways already described nothing now remains of it. The Chapter House immediately adjoined the N. transept (it was about 35 ft. by 23 ft.) and had a small vestibule between it and the E. cloister walk. Traces of it remain against the N. wall of the church, and in the angle formed by the spring of the apsidal chapel in the N. transept is a much weathered vaulting-shaft of doubtful date, and the offset of the E. wall. The Dorter Sub-vault running N. from the chapter house was destroyed early in the 19th century.

Fittings. Brass: In S. aisle of presbytery—on N.W. pier, to Susanna Barford, 1652, inscription only. Candelabrum (Plate 7): over middle of crossing, of brass with ball at lower end inscribed "The Gift of Dorothy ye relict of Jn° Applebye Esqe to ye Parish Church of St. Saviour Southwarke 1680," with three radiating rows of scroll-work branches with modern sconces fitted with electric lights and with dove immediately below hook of supporting pendant; pendant of ornamental wrought-iron scroll-work with four-way projections in middle enriched with Tudor roses with mitre below and crown above, probably a later addition. Chair (Plate 112): In S.E. chapel of Ambulatory— with turned and square legs and posts, carved rails to seat, shaped elbows, and a back hinged to the elbows with screwed oak pins to form a table-top; the inside of back (underside of table-top) carved in low relief with a round-headed panel and a border and inlaid with a vase containing foliage and flowers: border of carving on upper surface of table-top: early 17th-century. Chest: In N. transept—set on low modern stand, chest (Plate 113) of oak with front in five bays, the middle bays flanked by Ionic pilasters tapering downwards and having round-headed panels, and the end bays by Doric pilasters, all ornamented with inlay foliage-work of coloured woods and standing on pedestals enriched with inlay arabesque-work and supporting a continuous entablature with triglyphs and strapwork ornament in relief in the frieze; within end bays, small round-headed recesses inlaid respectively with achievements-of-arms of Offley and Harding, and similar recess in middle bay with inlay of vase of flowers; intermediate bays treated in imitation of masonry with imitation window-frame in middle enclosing panel of flowers and strapwork in inlay, with moulded sill and eared architrave surmounted by inlaid frieze, dentilled cornice and a pediment; base with moulded plinth and capping with panelled drawers to middle and end bays which project slightly, and inlay foliage-work to intermediate bays representing conventional groups of buildings with towers. Ends of chest with Doric fluted angle-pilasters enclosing moulded panels with inlaid arabesque-work and resting on decorated moulded base with jewel-ornament. Lid contains three flush panels, the end panels decorated with arabesque-work and middle panel with merchant's mark incorporating initials H.H.O.; said to have been given by Hugh Offley and his father-in-law Robert Harding in 1588. Coffins and Coffin-lids: In N. transept—on floor against N. wall, tapering stone coffin with remains of lid in two portions with hollow-chamfered edge and top carved in relief with ornamental cross with a sun, a moon and two stars between the arms, mid 13th-century. In S. transept—large stone coffin with shaped head and two draining holes, 13th-century. Communion Table (Plate 15): In E. ambulatory—of oak (?) with moulded lower rails on ball-feet and twisted legs with moulded bases and Corinthian capitals, grouped in fours at the corners, supporting entablatures and moulded top; front partially filled with shaped ornamental panel with carved circular panel in middle carved with IHS with surrounding cherub-heads and flanked at top by cherub-heads and doves carved in the round, early 18th-century. Door: re-used between N. aisle of presbytery and the Harvard Chapel— square-headed in two vertical panels with central moulded rib and studded with flat-headed nails; small ring-handle decorated with serpents, and having a pierced sex-foil plate; plain strap-hinges set in moulded frame with shaped stops to jambs, early 16th-century, repaired. Glass: In Harvard Chapel—in E. window, square panel with arms of Queen Elizabeth within a Garter, in yellow stain and enamel brown line on white glass, late 16th-century with modern repair. Niche: In N. transept—in N. wall, with rebated jambs and square head; formerly divided by central mullion now broken away; above head shallow trefoiled panel, late 13th-century. Monuments and Floorslabs: Monuments: In ambulatory—against E. wall, (1) an emaciated recumbent stone effigy in a shroud, 15th-century; (2) to Nicholas Norman, waterman, 1629, and Elizabeth his wife, 1629–30, slab with inscription; on S. wall, (3) to James Shaw, Alice his wife, 1693, Capt. Joseph Williams her nephew, and Alice his daughter, wife of William Overman, 1697, tablet with broken curved pediment and achievement-of-arms. In presbytery—on N.E. pier, (4) to John Hayman, 1646, merchant-tailor, inscription; (5) to Richard Humble, alderman, Margaret (Pierson) his first and Isabel (Hinclimmon) his second wife, who survived him, and Elizabeth his daughter interred with her father in 1616, altar-tomb (Plate 114), surmounted by kneeling figures of man and his two wives in early 17th-century costume under round-headed canopy with attached square Ionic pilasters at the angles on panelled pedestals and supporting entablature surmounted by Jacobean cresting with achievement-of-arms in middle of each side and obelisk at the angles; panelled base with moulded plinth and capping and figures of six children in relief in panels, erected by Peter, son of Richard, and restored in 1873; on S.E. pier, (6) to William Mayhew, 1609, tablet with inscription; on S. side, within easternmost bay, (7) of Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester, 1626, altar-tomb (Plate 115) surmounted by painted recumbent effigy (Plate 123) of bearded man wearing skull cap, small ruff, rochet and mantle of the Garter with right arm folded across his breast and holding book in hand; modern inscription-tablet at end of tomb, and detached slab near by of polished black slate or touch bearing painted inscription probably of 1703; modern canopy, with reset shield-of-arms of the see of Winchester impaling Andrewes supported by allegorical figures of Justice and Fortitude; formerly in the Bishop's Chapel; has been twice moved and restored in 1703, 1810 and 1919. In N. aisle of presbytery—under easternmost window, (8) altar-tomb with recumbent effigy (Plate 122) in oak of man in mail-armour with coif and long surcoat, leather breeches, legs crossed and right hand sheathing his sword, c. 1270, set within recessed canopy with cusped segmental head and panelled soffit, 15th-century; beneath second window from the E., (9) altar-tomb, with plain top within recessed canopy uniform with recess to (8) with traces of red, blue and gold and 18th-century or modern inscription-slab at back of recess to Thomas Cure, 1588, with Latin epitaph; (10) of John Trehearne, [1618], and his wife, wall-monument (Plate 116) with three-quarters length painted figures of man and wife wearing ruffs and in costumes of the period, on either side of and with hands on inscription-panel, set in recess flanked by panelled and enriched Corinthian pilasters carved in low relief with trophies of death, lamps, books, fruit, etc., and supporting entablatures with continuous cornice having coffered soffit; on back of recess, two shields and one achievement-of-arms, base flanked by panelled pilasters with, in middle, panel carved in relief with kneeling figures of two sons and four daughters; (11) to John Symons, 1625, plain inscription-tablet; (12) to John Morton, 1631, tablet with broken pediment and achievement-of-arms; (13) to John Gawen, 1647, panel of painted wood with shield-of-arms. In N. transept— against N. wall, (14) of Lionel Lockyer, 1672, with reclining effigy (Plate 116) of man in full wig and costume of the period on plain slab supported on pulvinated pedestal; above slab Ionic columns supporting entablature with large winged cherub-head in middle of entablature and broken curved pediment enclosing cartouche-of-arms; behind figure, inscription-panel flanked by panels carved with branches of palms; monument repaired 1741; (15) of Richard Blisse, 1703, and Elizabeth (Matthew) his wife, 1729–30 (Plate 118), with bust of man wearing full-bottomed wig, set in front of recess under draped canopy flanked by panelled Corinthian pilasters supporting entablatures and shaped pediment surmounted by two flaming vases and cartouche-of-arms; inscription-panel below with moulded base and winged skulls as corbels, and flanked by scroll-brackets and cherub-heads, all surmounted by gadrooned shelf supporting at sides weeping cherubs or putti; on W. wall, (16) to Joyce, 1626, wife first to James Austin and afterwards to Sir Robert Clerke, Baron of the Exchequer, wall-monument (Plate 119) with draped inscription-tablet in form of winnowing fan and shield-of-arms on a broken spade in base and, in upper part, winged allegorical figure of Agriculture standing on a rock, through which twines a serpent and from which spouts water, and surrounded by wheat-sheaves, all between panelled pilasters carved with emblems of the harvest, surmounted by cornice and broken curved pediment and flanked by seated figures of mourning harvesters, erected 1633, restored 1706, 1764 and again in 1831; (17) to William Austin, 1633–4, inscription-tablet of black marble. In S. transept —on W. wall, (18) to William Hare, 1698, grocer, white marble tablet with shield-of-arms on carved apron and almost obliterated painted inscription to Mary his wife, 1714; (19) of John Bingham, 1625, saddler, wall-monument (Plate 117) in two stages with lower stage in form of double round-headed recess enclosing inscription-panel with frame of strapwork, female busts, etc., and two shields-of-arms, the recess flanked by fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting entablature surmounted by upper stage with half-length figure of man in costume of period in round-headed recess, flanked by scrollbrackets and surmounted by cornice and achievement of arms; (20) to William Em[er]son, 1575, with small effigy of emaciated recumbent figure on moulded shelf with inscription-panel above, flanked by pilasters supporting a continuous cornice; (21) to Richard Benefeld, tablet (Plate 117) flanked by scrolls and pendants of husks and carrying entablature and curved pediment, on which are seated putti holding skulls, in middle, shaped pedestal supporting a bust of man in mid 17th-century costume, undated, middle of the 17th-century; (22) to Margaret, daughter of John Maynard, 1653–4, small inscription-tablet with moulded cornice. In N. aisle—against N. wall, (23) of John Gower, the poet, 1408, altar-tomb (Plate 120) recessed in wall with base panelled with seven cinquefoiled panels with painted inscription on upper moulding: "Hic jacet J Gower Arm: Angl. poeta celeberrimus ac huic sacro edificio benefac: insignis temporibus Edw III & Rich II et Hen'i II(II) . . .," painted recumbent effigy (Plate 122) of poet, bearded and wearing metal fillet round hair inscribed IHU MERCI and decorated with roses, head resting on three books entitled "Vox clamantis," "Speculum meditantis" and "Confessio Amantis"; collar of SS round neck; dressed in long gown buttoned down the front; hands in prayer and feet resting on lion; recess with moulded jambs and vaulted soffit and canopy above divided into three bays by pinnacles and with cinquefoiled arches with ogee crocketed labels and finished with horizontal moulded cornice; surface between bays of head with two ranges of trefoil-headed panels; on E. wall of recess, shield-of-arms of Gower, argent on a cheveron azure three leopards heads or, surmounted by a helm with the crest of a talbot; not in situ, removed twice and re-erected; restored in 1748 and with colour renewed. Floor-slabs. In E. ambulatory—(1) to Rev. William Hoare, D.D., 1687–8, with shield-of-arms and late 18th-century inscription below; partly hidden by modern furniture, (2) to Elizabeth (. . . rley), wife of Capt. Francis Grove, 1683; (3) to Capt. John Snell, 16[81] (?) Martha his wife, 1711, and others later with shield-of-arms; (4) to Rebeckah (Englebert) wife of St. John Harvey, 1696, achievement-of-arms and later inscription below; partly hidden by southernmost altar-platform, (5) to Robert, son of John Chilcott, also Joseph and Ancilla Chilcott, 1658; (6) to Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Bliss, in infancy, 1679–80: formerly a head-stone with skull and crossbones in relief; (7) to Francis Zouch, 1691–2, also four sons, four daughters and two grandchildren, also Charles another son, 1702, Mary wife of Francis, 1718–19, and others later; (8) with marginal-inscription in Lombardic capitals to Aleyn Ferthing, 14th-century, said to have been brought from St. Margaret at Hill. In presbytery—(9) to Anne, 1654, wife of Samuel Warcupp, Bailiff of Southwark, with shield-of-arms; (10) white stone slab with shield-of-arms and obliterated inscription, 17th-century; (11) to Thomas Horne, partly obliterated; shield-of-arms, probably early 18th-century; (12) to Samuel Robert and Antony, sons of Antony Rous, 16..; (13) to Mary, wife of Christopher Flower, 1701, with later inscription to her husband, 1706; (14) to Thomas, son of Christopher Flower, 1701; (15) to John Appleby, 1680, and his wife Dorothy, 1682, with shield-of-arms. In N. aisle of presbytery—(16) to Joseph Day, 1682, and Mary, his wife, 1701. In S. aisle of presbytery—now hidden by chest, (17) to [William] Austin, [1699], with shield-of-arms; (18) to Peter Ely, 1675, and other members of the same family of later date; (19) to Dorithy Howard, 1665; (20) to Stephen Osborne, 1704, his three sons "whose nemes was Stephen," his daughters, Elizabeth and Merrial, and later inscription to his sixth child, 1714, and his wife Merrial, 1732. In graveyard—S. side, W. of S. transept, to William Pan[nail] (?), 16[8 ?]5, with shield-of-arms. Painting: In Harvard Chapel—in modern frame, of the dead Christ with saints grouped around and two cherubs at the foot, by Benvenuto Garofalo, 1481–1559. Plate: includes two inscribed cups of 1689, given in 1690; a stand-paten of 1689; a large inscribed flagon of 1664, with inscription recording gift to the church by Eliza Bliss in 1703 and lozenge-of-arms; foreign cup with small bowl and moulded stem with repoussé ornament, broad base with convex lobes, 17th-century; two 17th-century brass candlesticks, probably Italian; also a pendant, said to have belonged to Bishop Andrewes, and consisting of a plum-stone carved with the 'George' and initials N.B. on one side and a coloured head of James I (?) on the other, all enclosed in a glass locket mounted in gold. Recess: In N. aisle of nave—in seventh bay of N. wall, with chamfered segmental arch springing from jamb-shafts, the western with partly restored moulded base and capital with square abacus, 12th-century, the E. jamb and shaft modern. Reredos (Plate 106): To high altar, said to have been built by Bishop Fox in 1520, but now largely of 18th-century and later restoration. In three stages, the lowest stage of three bays, the middle bay behind the altar table mostly modern, the side bays each containing a doorway with moulded jambs and ogee head and splayed segmental rear-arch panelled with tracery; each doorway flanked by canopied niche and surmounted by two smaller similar niches; the two upper stages have each a large central niche with five narrower niches on either hand, all canopied: the niches are separated by crocketed and finialled buttresses and contain brackets for images. The stages are divided by rows of busts of angels holding scrolls, books, musical instruments, etc., their continuity being broken by the central niches and those over the doorways. The cornice is carved with demi-figures of angels holding between them shields-of-arms, and is finished with brattishing. All the niches contain modern images. Royal Arms: In Harvard Chapel—on N. wall, painted on wood with background showing interior of a circular room, royal arms of Queen Anne after the Union, with supporters of two female figures with lion and unicorn in the foreground; in moulded frame with cresting of a crown, skull and crossbones and acanthus; arms partly repainted. In vestry—of royal Stuart arms, carved in wood and painted. Stoup: On W. side of W. wall of N. transept, with ogee head and mutilated square bowl, much weathered, 14th-century. Swordrests: In Harvard Chapel—of painted scrollironwork, probably late 17th-century with modern lozenge-shaped shield and crown on top. In N. transept—on N. wall, of wood (Plate 15), painted in red, black and gold, with carved scrolls at base and sides with two cartouches flanking upper part, one carved with the arms of the City, the other with a merchant's mark and device surmounted by lion's mask and blank shield surrounded by a garter with a crown above, dated 1674; formerly in St. Olave's Church, Tooley Street. Table: In presbytery, with end posts, carved brackets and shields-of-arms at top, middle rail supporting arcade of eight round arches with carved shafts, carved end-rails with drops, early 17th-century, repaired. In Harvard Chapel, with groups of twisted turned legs, plain rails, top rail as moulded entablature, early 18th-century, formerly in St. Thomas, Southwark. Miscellanea: In S. aisle of presbytery, 36 bosses (Plate 121) from late 15th-century roof of nave destroyed in 1830, variously carved, including Tudor flowers, roses, foliage and parts of 'black-letter' inscriptions, a sunflower, foliage and monogram MAR, grotesque masks, Hell's mouth, a hawk within a wreath, a crowned male head, a heraldic device of a tun with three flowers rising from the top with two seated dogs for supporters (for Henry Burton Prior), a shield within a wreath, or a cross engrailed with a cinqfoil gules in the quarter (for the Priory?) a 'pelican in her piety' within a wreath, winged monsters within wreaths and two shields-of-arms, (a) with a chief lozengy and (b) a cheveron. In floor of S. aisle—at W. end, reset portion of Roman pavement consisting of irregular terra-cotta tesserae forming no regular pattern, found within church precinct. Two similar pieces are lying loose on the seat at W. end of the N. aisle. In N. aisle— at W. end, wooden figures (Plate 113) of two angels, one with a trumpet and figure of David (?) with a harp, from the old organ; in case, miscellaneous fragments of Roman pottery found during excavations, yellow and red slip-tiles of 13th-century and later date, portion of a mediæval stoup, 13th-century foliated carving, etc., against W. wall, considerable amount of worked stone of 12th-century and later date, including parts of scalloped capitals, cheveron-moulding, moulded and carved capitals and bases, portions of moulded shafting, part of a coffin-lid with remains of inscription in Lombardic characters ". . . LING"; in recess in N. wall, miscellaneous stonework, including three scalloped capitals, portion of a carved foliage-frieze, a 12th-century capital carved with two dragons with necks intertwined, two sets of coupled capitals with acanthus-foliage, also 12th-century and other capitals and bases of 13th and 14th-century date.

Condition—Good, much restored.

(2) Parish Church of St. George the Martyr stands on the E. side of Borough High Street. It was entirely re-built in 1734–36.

Fittings—Brasses and Indent. Brasses: In N. aisle—on E. wall, (1) to John Jones, 1600–01, inscription only. In S. aisle—on E. wall, (2) to Etheldred (Pecoke) wife of Sir George Reynell, Knight Marshall of the King's Bench, 1618, inscription only. Indent: In N. aisle—of inscription-plate. Chairs: In chancel–two, with turned framing, carved and scrolled back and front rail, c. 1690–1700. Paintings: On wall over gallery—of Moses and Aaron, in carved oak frames, late 17th-century, from St. Michael, Wood Street. Plate: includes cup of 1559; cup of 1640 given by Thomas Dudson; flagon of 1696 and a second flagon, probably of 1699, both given by A.G.A.; salver of 1696, with inscription recording gift by Lawrence James in 1627; paten of 1696, with the date 1573 on the underside of the base and perhaps repaired at the later date; paten of 1710, with Greek and Latin inscriptions. Royal Arms: On front of gallery—carving of royal Stuart arms.

Condition—Re-built.

(3) Parish Church of Christ Church, Southwark, stands on the W. side of Blackfriars Road. It was originally built in 1671, but was entirely re-built in 1738–41.

Fittings—Bells: eight and sanctus; 1st by James Bartlet, 1700. Chest (Plate 7): In vestry —of iron, with straps of same material, two hasps and lock in front and handle at each end, under lid; lock with elaborate mechanism and enrichments, late 16th-century, probably German. Floor-slab: In N. aisle—to Elizabeth, Eleanor, 1707, Matilda, 1704, Edward and Anne Jackson. Gallery: modern, but incorporating some late 17th-century woodwork. Stalls: modern, but incorporating some early 18th-century twisted balusters.

Condition—Re-built.

Secular

(4) Remains of Winchester House, incorporated in warehouse on S. side of Clink Street, 100 yards N.W. of Southwark Cathedral. The walls are of rag-stone rubble with dressings of Reigate stone. The Great Hall and adjoining parts of the house of the bishops of Winchester were re-built c. 1340, and of this building the W. gable, part of the S. wall and an extension of the same wall, towards the W., are still standing. The Great Hall stood upon a basement, and near the W. end of the S. wall of this building is an original doorway, now blocked; it has chamfered jambs and a segmental-pointed head. Above this, in the S. wall of the Hall itself, is another doorway (Plate 8), also original; it has shafted jambs and a two-centred arch of two moulded orders, all much mutilated; E. of this doorway are some traces of a former buttress and further E. are portions of the W. jamb of a window. In the W. wall of the Hall are three blocked doorways, each with moulded jambs and two-centred arch; they were evidently at the back of the former 'screens.' In the gable above is a blocked original window; it was round, about 12 ft. in diameter, and was filled with tracery; only the moulded opening is now visible.

Condition—Fragmentary, but in good repair.

Borough High Street, E. side

(5) House and Shop, No. 71, 200 yards S. of Southwark Cathedral, is of three storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and the roofs are covered with slates. It was built in 1676, or shortly after, by Nicholas Hare, grocer. The W. front has a brick band between the upper storeys, interrupted by a carved stone panel, with a leaping hare, a sun and the initials and date N.H.A., 1676.

Condition—Poor; demolished 1928.

(6) George Inn, 15 yards S. of (5), is of three storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are partly of brick and partly timber-framed; the roofs are tiled. It was built late in the 17th century around the existing courtyard, but of the original building only the S. side now remains.

The building is of interest as the sole surviving example of a galleried inn in London.

The western half of the existing wing (Plate 124) has two ranges of galleries at the first and second floor levels, the lower one supported on cantilever beams and the upper and the roof-front supported on wooden posts in the form of columns and dividing the galleries into six bays; each gallery has a balustrade of turned balusters with a moulded rail; the wall at the back of the galleries is of brick. The eastern half of the range is of brick with a band between the upper storeys. Inside the building, the western room on the ground floor has a fireplace with a segmental wooden lintel and stone jambs. The staircase has straight moulded strings and balusters, similar to those in the galleries.

Condition—Fairly good.

(7) Houses and shops, Nos. 195 and 197, 100 yards N. of St. George's Church, are of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick. They were built, probably, c. 1700 but have been much altered. Inside the buildings, the upper part of one staircase is original and has straight moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels. Some fireplaces have original moulded surrounds.

Condition—Fairly good.

W. side

(8) House, No. 22, 20 yards N.E. of Bedale Street, is of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built, probably, late in the 17th century, but the front portion is of later date. The doorway on the E. front, not in situ, is flanked by carved Corinthian pilasters, supporting an entablature and a pediment enclosing a cartouche with the date 1663. Inside the building, the room on the ground floor is lined with late 16th or early 17th-century panelling and has a panelled door with cock's-head hinges. Above the fireplace are six carved panels, of foreign workmanship, with scenes from the parable of the wise and foolish virgins.

Condition—Good.

(9) Calverts, house behind No. 50, and 30 yards S. of Southwark Street, is of two storeys with cellars; the walls are timber-framed and plastered. It was built, probably, in the 17th century and the upper storey projects on the S. side. Inside the building are some exposed ceiling-beams.

Condition—Good.

(10) Houses and shops, Nos. 146 and 148, 130 yards S. of Union Street, are of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick. They were built, probably, late in the 17th century. The E. front has two projecting bays, carried up from the first-floor level to the full height of the building. The back elevation has brick bands between the storeys. Inside the building is an early 18th-century staircase with moulded strings, turned balusters and square newels with ball-caps. There are two fireplaces with moulded surrounds and an original panelled door.

Condition—Fairly good.

(11) Houses and shops, Nos. 150, 152 and 154, adjoining (10) on the S., are of three storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. They were built in the 17th century, but have been much altered. On the E. front, No. 152 has a projecting bay at the second-floor level, with a cornice. In the same house is a staircase with flat wavy balusters and square newels with ball-caps; in the front room, on the first floor, is part of a modelled plaster ceiling with scrolled foliage.

Condition—Fairly good.

(12) Houses and shops, Nos. 32 and 34, on the S. side of Sumner Street, 20 yards W. of Canvey Street, are of two storeys with attics; the walls are of brick and plastered timber-framing and the roofs are tiled. They were built late in the 17th century, but have been altered and re-fronted. Inside the building some of the timber-framing is exposed.

Condition—Fairly good.

(13) House, now offices and tenements at Honduras Wharf, on the S. side of Bankside, 80 yards E. of Holland Street, is of two storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century, but has been partly re-built at the S. end. The W. front has a brick band between the storeys; the doorway has a cornice over, supported by two large and one small scrolled bracket; between the brackets is carved scroll-work. Inside the building, the two main rooms on the ground floor have panelling with cornice and dado-rail; the fireplace in the N. room has a moulded stone surround and a cornice with carved enrichment. The staircase has cut strings with carved brackets, twisted balusters and newels in the form of fluted columns. The rooms on the first floor have plain panelling, and the walls of the hall and staircase are also panelled.

Condition—Good.

(14) House, two tenements, Nos. 9 and 11, on the S.W. side of Holland Street, 130 yards S. of Bankside, is of two storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 18th century.

Condition—Poor.

(15) House, No. 61, on the E. side of Holland Street, 90 yards N. of Southwark Street, is of two storeys with attics and cellars; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1700 and has on the N.E. front a cornice between the storeys; the doorway has flanking pilasters and scrolled brackets supporting a flat moulded hood; the eaves have a wooden cornice. Inside the building, the rooms have plain panelling and on the ground floor is a moulded ceiling-beam. The forecourt of the house has early 18th-century wrought-iron railings and a gate with an overthrow.

Condition—Bad.

(16) 'Fishermen's Houses,' Nos. 72 to 80, on the S.E. side of Collingwood Street, opposite Christ Church, are of two storeys, timber-framed and weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled. They were built late in the 17th century. Inside No. 78 is part of the original staircase with turned balusters. There are also some original battened doors.

Condition—Good.

(17) House, Nos. 13 and 15, Upper Ground Street, at the E. corner of Bennett Street, is of three storeys; the walls are of brick and the roofs are tiled. It was built in the 17th century and re-fronted early in the 18th century.

Condition—Poor.



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