Appleby

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1936

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'Appleby', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Westmorland (1936), pp. 4-14. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=120726 Date accessed: 29 July 2014.


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2 APPLEBY (F.c.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a)IX, S.E., (b)XV, N.E.)

Appleby (Plate 69), the county-town of Westmorland, stands on both banks of the River Eden. The two parishes of St. Lawrence and St. Michael now form one civil parish. These churches and the castle are the principal monuments. The town is grouped mainly about the long rectangular market-place with the two columns known as High and Low Cross at the two ends.

Ecclesiastical

a(1). Parish Church of St. Lawrence (Plate 62) stands at the N. end of the market-place. The walls are of sandstone rubble and ashlar, and the roofs are lead-covered. The earliest part of the existing building is the lower part of the Tower, which dates probably from the 12th century; the church is said to have been re-built in 1178 after being burnt four years earlier; it is possible that the base of the E. wall of the chancel is of this period, as is one re-used capital in the N. arcade. Late in the 13th or early in the 14th century much of the church, including the Chancel, North and South Chapels, Nave and Aisles, was re-built, with the South Porch, incorporating an early 13th-century archway. The church suffered in the Scottish raid of 1388, and the repairs of the 15th century include the rebuilding of the upper part of the tower, the addition of the clearstorey and the lengthening eastwards of the S. chapel. In 1654–5 Anne Countess of Pembroke "caus'd a great part of Appleby church to be taken down and caus'd a vault to be made in the N.E. corner for her to be bury'd in"; the work seems to have included the rebuilding of the N. chapel, the arches at least of the arcades, the buttresses and all the roofs. The church was restored in 1861–2 and the North-West Vestry added in 1904–5.

The church is of no great architectural interest, but the monuments and organ are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (33½ ft. by 19 ft.) has a modern E. window. The N. arcade of two bays seems to have been largely re-built in the 17th century with old materials of various dates; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders; the octagonal pier has a late 12th-century square capital cut back to the octagonal form; the E. respond has a flattened round shaft with a fillet and moulded capital perhaps of the 17th century; the W. respond has a corbel-capital perhaps of the 13th century. In the S. wall is a 14th-century window-opening altered in the 17th century and with the mullion and tracery removed; it has a two-centred head; further W. is an arcade of c. 1300 and of two bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the pier is quatre-foiled with a fillet on the face of each shaft, moulded capital and base; the responds have each a flattened and filleted shaft, with a moulded capital. The chancel-arch is modern.

The North Chapel (36½ ft. by 13 ft.) has one window in the E. and two in the N. wall, all modern. In the W. wall is a half arch probably re-built in the 17th century; it is of two chamfered orders springing from a chamfered N. respond with a moulded impost.

The South Chapel (34 ft. by 13 ft.) has one window in the E. and two in the S. wall, all modern; the S. doorway is also modern. At the W. end is a half arch of two square orders and of uncertain date.


Appleby - Parish Church of St. Lawrence

Appleby - Parish Church of St. Lawrence

The Nave (64¼ ft. by 19½ ft.) has N. and S. arcades of c. 1300 much retooled and perhaps partly re-built in the 17th century; the arches are two-centred and of two chamfered orders with a hollow between the orders and a moulded label on the side towards the nave; the quatre-foiled piers are similar to those in the chancel and have moulded capitals; the respond-corbels on the E. are modern; the W. responds have each an attached shaft with a moulded capital. The 15th-century clearstorey has three windows on the N. and four on the S. side, all of three trefoiled lights in an elliptical head with a moulded label; the parapet is embattled and pinnacled and on the E. gable are the weathered remains of a sanctus bell-cote.

The North Aisle (12¼ ft. wide) has five modern windows in the N. wall and a modern doorway in the W. wall.

The South Aisle (13 ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, five windows, the four easternmost modern and the fifth of the 14th century and of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head; the early 14th-century S. doorway has a segmental-pointed arch of two chamfered orders with a moulded label; the jambs have modern shafts carrying the outer order; the W. bay of the aisle is divided from the rest by an early 14th-century half-arch of two chamfered orders; the inner order springs from attached and filleted shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the W. wall of the bay is a 15th-century window, similar to those in the clearstorey but with modern mullions.

The West Tower (15 ft. by 12¾ ft.) is of three storeys with an embattled parapet. The ground-stage is mainly of the 12th century but has an early 14th-century tower arch, two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the responds have each three grouped shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the N. wall is a 12th-century window of one round-headed light. In the S. wall is an early 14th-century arch, segmental-pointed and of two chamfered orders; the responds have each an attached and filleted shaft with a moulded capital; the W. window is modern. The second storey has a narrow loop in the N. wall; the bell-chamber has in each wall two 15th-century windows each of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head with a moulded label, except the W. window on the N., which has arched heads to the lights.

The South Porch is probably of c. 1300 but has a re-set outer archway of early 13th-century date; it has a two-centred arch of three moulded orders with a label, the middle order has dog-tooth ornament, which is continued down the jambs; these had each two shafts, now missing except for the moulded capitals.

The Roof of the porch is perhaps of the 17th century and has three cambered tie-beams and wall-posts standing on corbels.

Fittings—Books: In nave—Bible of 1617 and a Common Prayer printed by Charles Bill. In S. aisle— three chained volumes of Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 1631. Coffin-lids: In chancel—on S. side, (1) tapering slab with head and shoulders of effigy (Plate 63), probably of a woman, at top and below a raised and foliated cross, base missing, early 14th-century. In porch—(2) two parts of tapering slab with foliated cross on calvary, rose, rosettes and part of shears at sides; (3) lower part of slab with trefoiled base of cross and remains of shears; both 14th-century. Collecting Trays: In nave—two round wooden trays with long handles, 18th-century. Communion Table (Plate 38): In nave—with turned legs and fluted top-rail, probably late 17th-century. Glass: In N. chapel—in E. window, two shields-of-arms of Beaumont and Percy, early 15th-century; in N. window, Old France quartering England, late 14th-century. Monuments: In N. chapel—(1) of Margarett (Russell) widow of George Clifford third Earl of Cumberland, 1616, erected by her daughter Anne, 1617, altar-tomb (Plate 65) and effigy formerly in the chancel, altar-tomb of black marble and alabaster with panelled sides flanked by emblems of mortality, lozenge-of-arms at E. end and achievement-of-arms at W. end, enriched cornice and moulded slab; alabaster effigy (Plate 65) of lady in stomacher, pleated skirt, widow's hood and metal coronet, head on cushion; against N. wall—(2) to Anne, Baroness Clifford, wife successively of Richard Sackvile 3rd Earl of Dorset and Philip Herbert 4th Earl of Pembroke, 1675–6, altar-tomb and wall-monument (Plate 64) of black and white marble, altar-tomb with panelled front, moulded plinth and slab; wall-piece flanked by Doric pilasters supporting entablatures and a curved pediment; on back-piece a series of shields-of-arms representing the descent of the house of Clifford. In N. aisle—on W. wall, (3) to John Webster, 1714, and four of his children, slate tablet. In S. isle—on N. wall, (4) to Gabriel Smalwood, A.M., vicar, 1698–9, tablet. Organ and Organ-case: In N. chapel—formerly in gallery at W. end of church; instrument formerly in Carlisle cathedral and presented to Appleby in 1684. Organ possibly incorporates portions of an instrument mentioned in 1571. Case (Plate 60) probably made early in the 17th century and of three stages and two main bays with three towers of pipes; the towers have moulded entablatures, pierced ogee bands below and rest on projections from the cornice over the key-board stage and cherub heads; the main bays have round arched heads at half their height, with pierced carving and cherub-heads; the bays are finished with a quadrant arch, enriched with carving, against the central tower of pipes; the key-board has a curved pediment and is flanked by bolection-moulded panelling and fluted pilasters; the woodwork retains much gilding, including a scrolled design with lions and putti, and an inscription indicates a repair of 1836. Piscina: In chancel—recess with trefoiled ogee head and round drain, cut away in front, early 14th-century. Plate: includes a cup and cover-paten of c. 1630, cup and cover-paten of 1694, stand-paten, flagon and alms-dish all of 1694 and also four flagons, a bowl and a stand-paten of pewter. Royal Arms: In nave —on W. wall, Stuart Arms, probably of Charles II, with painted text below; also four other painted shields-of-arms of Robson, Lowther, Graham and the town of Appleby. Scratchings: On N. arcade of chancel and in numerous other places, masons' marks, probably mid 17th-century. Screens: In chancel— in W. bays of N. and S. arcades, two of ten and six bays respectively, with trefoiled ogee heads and tracery, moulded muntins and rails, close lower panels, probably c. 1500; in E. bay of S. arcade, of four bays and a doorway with two bay-heads above; bays with trefoiled ogee heads and tracery, moulded muntins and embattled middle rail and door-head, c. 1500. Seating: In chancel—two panelled stall-fronts with trefoiled ogee and traceried heads and two standards with stepped and embattled tops, early 16th-century. In nave—two enclosed pews (the Corporation pew and another) incorporating late 17th-century panelling with carved grotesque beasts and other designs, including a hart chained to a shield and a shield with traces of the painted arms of Clifford impaling Brandon; at W. end of church, two stools with turned legs, probably late 17th or early 18th-century. Sword-rest: In nave—on E. respond of N. arcade, scrolled wrought iron sword and mace rest, with the three leopards of the arms of the town and a pointed oval plate with modern painting of a salamander, probably early 18th-century. Miscellanea: Incorporated in W. gateway of churchyard, portion of window-head.

Condition—Good.

b(2). Parish Church of St. Michael Bongate stands on the E. side of the river. The walls are sandstone rubble and ashlar and the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The re-used 'hog-back' is evidence of the existence of a church here in the 10th or 11th century. The earliest surviving portions of the building are the 12th-century N. doorway with the adjoining N. and W. walls of the Nave and a re-set window in the tower. There is little evidence of the later history of the building, but the Chancel was perhaps re-built and the South Transept added some time in the 13th century, and the S. arcade built and the Aisle added c. 1300; the South Porch was added rather later. In 1658–9 Anne Countess of Pembroke "caused Bongate church near Appleby to be pulled down and new-built at her charge"; it is difficult to say how complete was this rebuilding, and in any case much of the old material must have been re-used. The church was again drastically restored in 1885–6 when the North Tower was added.

The church is of little architectural interest, but among the fittings the 'hog-back,' bells, cup and effigy are noteworthy.


Church of St Michael, Bongate, Plan

Church of St Michael, Bongate, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (29 ft. by 20¼ ft.) has a modern E. window. The windows in the N. and S. walls are also modern except for some stones in the jambs and splays; the late 13th-century N. doorway has moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label and opened into a former vestry; the S. doorway is modern except for the splays. The chancel-arch is modern, but S. of it are remains of the splay of a former squint. High up on the N. wall is a carved and painted stone cartouche with the initials and date A.P. 1659, recording the rebuilding by Anne Countess of Pembroke.

The Nave (59¾ ft. by 20¼ ft.) has, in the N. wall, a modern arch to the tower; farther W. are three modern windows; the 12th-century N. doorway, now blocked, has a flat lintel formed of a 'hog-back' stone (see Fittings) and a round rear-arch. The S. arcade, originally of c. 1300, but now largely modern or retooled, is of five bays, with two-centred arches and quatre-foiled piers; the W. respond is original and has an attached and filleted shaft with a moulded capital and base.

The South Transept (20 ft. by 18¾ ft.) has a modern E. window. The S. window is probably of late 13th-century date with modern mullions and tracery. In the W. wall is a 13th-century lancet-window, probably re-set.

The South Aisle (7½ ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, three windows: the easternmost is modern except for parts of the jambs, head and splays, which are of the 14th century; the second is probably of the 14th century repaired in the 17th century; it is of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head with a moulded label; the westernmost window is similar to the W. window in the transept, but is probably of the 17th century; the re-set 13th-century S. doorway has a two-centred head of two moulded orders, the inner continued down the jambs and the outer modern and resting on modern jamb-shafts. In the W. wall is a window, modern except for part of the splays.

The South Porch has an outer archway, probably of the 17th century, with chamfered jambs and ogee head. In the E. wall is a loop-light and in the W. wall is an early 14th-century window with a trefoiled head.

Fittings—Bells: two; first of long-waisted type (18 ins. high and 19 ins. across the mouth), probably 13th-century; second inscribed in Lombardic capitals "Campana Sancti Michaelis," probably by William de Norwycs (Norwich), c. 1350. Chairs: In chancel—two (Plate 39); first with turned legs, shaped arms, panelled and enriched back with initials and date R.E.R. 1675; second with turned legs, shaped arms, plain panelled back and cresting with initials and date M.B. (16)93. Coffin-lids: In S. aisle—(1) tapering slab with foliated cross on calvary, sword at side, late 13th-century. Re-set in N. and W. walls of tower, outside—(2) various fragments of slabs with cross-heads and base, one with pair of shears and another with lower part of sword, late 13th or early 14th-century. In front wall of cottage on S. side of Brough road—(3) tapering slab with enriched cross and sword, early 14th-century. Hogback: Re-used as lintel (Plate 8) on N. doorway of nave—hog-backed stone with band of three interlacing strands and traces of further ornament at top; ornament on outer face now defaced, 10th or 11th-century. Locker: In chancel—in S. wall, recess with rebated reveals, mediæval. Monument: In nave—in S. wall, recess and effigy said to have been found in N. wall on site of tower-arch, recess with double hollow-chamfered jambs and modern arch, effigy (Plate 63) of woman in high relief with cloak, hanging sleeves, flat head-dress and side hair, head on cushion, with remains of supporting figure, dog at feet, on shoulder of cloak a water-bouget and on cushion by shoulder shield-of-arms of Vipont, c. 1400, repaired in cement. Piscina: In chancel—recess with ogee head and round drain with leaf-ornament, 14th-century. In S. transept— in S. wall, recess with trefoiled head, remains of octofoiled drain in moulded bracket now cut back, late 13th-century. Plate: includes cup (Plate 55) of 1612, said to have been presented by Bishop Nicolson of Carlisle, cup with engraved and repoussé ornament, baluster-stem with brackets, enriched steeple-cover with pinnacle resting on scrolled brackets, cup of secular origin. Scratchings: On W. respond of S. arcade, various masons' marks. Sedile: In S. transept— W. of piscina, recess with modern trefoiled head, late 13th-century. Miscellanea: Re-set in tower— head of 12th-century window. In wall of vicaragegarden—numerous fragments of carved and worked stone including parts of a tomb-canopy with a shield of Vipont impaling Roos, early 15th-century, also various moulded stones, a recess perhaps for a stoup, a late 13th-century shaft and capital and a 17th-century carving of Noah's ark and the dove.

Condition—Good, much restored.

Secular


Appleby Castle, The Keep

Appleby Castle, The Keep

b(3). Appleby Castle, earthworks and outbuildings stand about 600 yards S.S.E. of St. Lawrence's church. The walls generally are of sandstone rubble and ashlar; the house is roofed with slates and lead. The castle passed by marriage from the Viponts to the Cliffords late in the 13th century, and remained in the hands of that family till the death of Lady Anne Clifford in 1676. From her it passed again by marriage to the Earls of Thanet and to the present owner, Lord Hothfield. The main earthworks, probably then consisting of a mound and bailey, date from the 12th century, and on the mound the keep was erected, probably in the second half of the century. The castle was taken by William the Lion in 1174, and perhaps after this the keep was heightened, and the general line of the curtain is perhaps of the same age, the ground round the keep being raised. Repairs are noted in the Pipe Rolls of 1198–1201. A certain amount of late 12th-century work, including a gateway, remains in the E. wall of the house. The N. wall and the W. part of the N. wing of the house with the round tower date from the 13th century, and at the end of the century the existing parapet of the keep was added. The main part of the castle towards the E. is said to have been re-built by Thomas 8th Lord Clifford in 1454; this included the hall-block, the chapel and the N.E. and S.E. towers, represented by the main block of the existing house and of which much of the external walling and some internal walls still remain. The castle was partly dismantled by the parliamentary army in 1648, but Lady Anne Clifford, Countess of Pembroke, restored it in 1651–3; her chief work was the restoration of the keep (then called Cæsar's Tower) and the building of the cross-wall within it. The existing house was largely re-built by Thomas 4th Earl of Thanet in 1686–8 with stone brought from Brougham Castle, and stones were brought from Brough Castle for repairs in 1695, when the N.W. wing was possibly added. The house was restored and windows altered to take sashes in the 19th century. The great gatehouse mentioned in 1422 probably occupied the site of the present entrance on the N. side of the courtyard, but has been removed except perhaps for the large block of masonry on the W. side of that feature.

The castle retains many features of interest, including the noteworthy 12th-century keep, the 13th-century tower and the earthworks.

The Keep (Plate 66) (44½ ft. square without the buttresses), called Cæsar's Tower in the 17th century, was originally and is now again of four stages. The three lower stages were built c. 1170 and the upper stage added probably before the end of the century. The parapet was raised and the turrets added or re-built in the 13th century. The keep was roofless in the 17th century, but was restored in 1651–3 by Lady Anne Clifford, who inserted the main cross-wall. The 12th-century walling is of small squared ashlar, rather more finely jointed in the upper part; the angles have clasping buttresses continued up to the angle-turrets. The ground-level appears to have been raised round the base of the building and no plinth is now exposed above ground. The ground stage had two original looplights in the N. and S. walls, but the western loop on the N. has been altered to form a doorway. There is another loop in the E. wall with the opening enlarged; the doorway in the E. wall is original, and has a round arch of two plain orders, the inner cut away to heighten the opening. The 17th-century cross-wall has a segmental-headed doorway at the E. end, and on the S. face is an ornamental cartouche formerly enclosing a small metal inscription. The ceiling has 17th-century chamfered beams. The second stage may originally have been approached by an external staircase of the usual type against the E. wall; this has been replaced by a modern staircase to the doorway on this side; the doorway has original jambs and a modern head, but the line of the older and higher head is still visible above the arch. This wall has one and the three other walls two original windows, each of two square-headed lights and set in a round-headed external wallrecess or outer order; the S. windows are now blocked. The 17th-century cross-wall has two fireplaces with heavy chamfered lintels and on the S. face are two cartouches of the arms of Clifford and Vipont. The ceiling retains some chamfered beams. The third stage has, in each wall, two windows similar to those in the stage below; those on the S. are blocked, and between the heads, internally, is a 12th-century mask-corbel. In the 17th-century cross-wall are two fireplaces on each face, similar to those below, and the ceiling has exposed beams. The fourth stage was divided into two storeys, probably in the 17th century, but the intermediate floor has been removed. The lower parts of the E. and W. walls retain the weatherings of the original roof before the later 12th-century heightening; it was formed of two pents with a central valley; the N. and S. walls have a row of internal corbels at the level of the first parapet and corresponding to a regular course of upright stones on the external face. Above the former valley in both the E. and W. walls are two square-headed windows probably of the 17th century. The 17th-century cross-wall has one fireplace in each face with stone curbs, and at the E. end of the wall is a doorway with a flat arch in a square head. The upper part of the stage is unlit, but was formerly floored, as some beams remain in the N. chamber, and there are two fireplaces in the cross-wall. The existing roof is perhaps of the 18th century, but below it are the corbels of an earlier roof which may equate with the remains of an earlier crenellation below the existing parapet and visible externally. The tower contains a number of 17th-century panelled doors and the two S. angles contain spiral staircases, continued up to the roof, where the newels terminate in 13th-century shafts with moulded capitals and bases and supporting round or pointed arches; the turret-doorways have shouldered heads; the two other turrets, much restored, have steps leading up to the lanterns with capitals and bases to the newels; the lanterns themselves are probably of 1784, the date on the vanes. The parapets are embattled and have loops in the merlons.

The House forms an L-shaped block at the E. end of the enclosure. It is mainly of two storeys with basement and attics. The late 17th-century W. front (Plate 68) is ashlar-faced with a cornice between the storeys and below the plain parapet, which is pierced for balusters over the door-bay. The windows were formerly each fitted with a stone mullion and transom, now removed and replaced by sash-windows; between the side windows are narrow pilasters. The central doorway has a moulded architrave, flanking pilasters supporting carved consoles and a broken and scrolled pediment. The windows in the basement are probably of c. 1651–3 re-set, as many of the stones bear assembly-numbers; they have beaded edges and moulded labels continued as a string-course. The dormer-windows of the attics have straight or curved pediments. The canted end of the S. wing has been much altered and is now largely modern; it contains a doorway, on the angle, probably of mediæval date and with moulded jambs and triangular head; there is also a window with a pointed head and panelled spandrels bearing the initials and date A.P. 1671. The N.W. wing was built probably c. 1695 and has a cornice between the storeys and below the plain parapet. The windows of the basement have been altered for sashes and have moulded labels continued as a string-course. The ground-floor windows appear to have been replaced in modern times, but the upper windows are similar to those on the main W. front; they have beaded edges and architraves. All these ranges are built against the outer wall of the castle, which is of earlier date. At the S. end the outer walls and probably the thick internal wall on the N. formed parts of a 15th-century tower; the outer walls have a moulded plinth and the original ashlar face extends up to the top of the ground floor; above this the walling is later. On the S. front is a projecting garde-robe with a loop-light and finished with corbelling at the first floor level as though for a parapet. The second storey on the E. has a square-headed 15th or 16th-century window with moulded reveals and the line of a round arch above. The adjoining walling to the N. of the tower is probably partly a late 17th-century re-construction and contains two windows similar to the lower windows on the W. front of the same block. There are three windows in the upper floors similar to those below and two blocked windows. Further N. is a late 12th-century doorway set in a splayed projection; it has a round arch and a portcullis-groove with a recessed round-headed arch above, probably of two orders. The lower walling to the N. as far as the former N.E. tower is probably of late 12th-century date except for a length of 10 ft. in the middle which is of later ashlar; the windows are similar to those to the S. of the doorway. The former 15th-century N.E. tower is ashlar-faced in the two lower storeys and of later walling above; it has a moulded plinth which is stepped up over the earlier walling at the S. end. On the E. front is a mediæval loop-light and on the N. front are two loops contrived in the blocked opening of an earlier and probably 16th-century window; other windows are similar to those on the E. front. A straight joint indicates the former extent of this tower towards the W., and near it is a grotesque gargoyle or corbel. The walling (Plate 67) between the N.E. tower and the round tower is of uncertain date, but perhaps of the 13th century in the lower part, with a late 17th-century heightening above. The windows are similar to those on the other side of the range. The 13th-century Round Tower is ashlar faced and has a battering plinth; the upper part is a later mediæval heightening, and the parapet is probably of the 18th century; the weather-vane on the roof is dated 1779. The lower windows are probably 17th-century insertions, but on the top floor is a 16th or 17th-century window of four lights with a moulded label; this same floor has also a mediæval garde-robe projection.


Appleby Castle, Basement Plan of the Main Building and North West Wing

Appleby Castle, Basement Plan of the Main Building and North West Wing

Interior—The Basement of the main block has a doorway between the main room and the kitchen with a late 17th or early 18th-century architrave and panelled door. The scullery in the S.E. tower retains the mediæval shouldered lintels of the two E. windows. The three rooms to the W. have segmental vaults probably not earlier than the 17th century. The cross-wall at the E. end of the N.W. wing contains a 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and hollow-chamfered three-centred head; farther N. in the same line is a 16th or 17th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and square head; the position of the rebates of these doorways indicates that the earlier N.W. range was only half the width of the existing one. Below the room in the N.E. tower is a cellar with a segmental vault. The parlour in the N.W. wing has a dado of mid 17th-century panelling, and the kitchen has a large late 17th-century fireplace with rusticated stone jambs and three-centred arch. The late 17th-century main staircase (Plate 56), rising from the basement to the first floor, has twisted balusters, square newels with turned pendants and moulded rails and strings; against the walls is a bolection-moulded dado. The Ground Floor contains the Great Hall in the main block. This rises into the top storey, the upper windows being dummies. The walls are lined with bolection-moulded panelling with dado and cornice; the coved ceiling is probably modern. On the inside of the modern entrancedoor is an old oak lock. The corridor leading to the Baron's Chamber has some enriched panelling dated 1622. The room N. of the hall is said to have been the Chapel; in the S. wall is a 15th-century niche or recess with a trefoiled head. The adjoining corridor has a dado of re-used late 17th or early 18th-century panelling. The Dining Room, in the N.E. tower, is lined with panelling similar to that in the hall; the passage-way in the S.W. angle has some re-used early 17th-century panelling. The doorways in the N.W. wing have moulded architraves and panelled doors. On the first floor, the Evidence Room has an overmantel, perhaps of the 17th century, with a panel carved with a humorous subject. The State Bedroom is lined with 17th-century tapestry. There are also several late 17th-century doors and some panelling of the same period. In a lumber-room is an iron fire-back with the Stuart arms and the initials C.R. The upper part of the Round Tower has a staircase in the thickness of the wall and a garde-robe.

The Curtain Wall, W. of the N.W. wing, is of rubble and re-used material, and is perhaps of the 17th century. The existing gateway no doubt occupies the site of the former gatehouse, and the solid block of masonry on the W. side may be part of that structure; it retains part of the plinth on the N. face. Adjoining it on the W. is a 17th-century building probably built by Lady Anne Clifford as a Brewhouse; the upper storey is probably an addition. The original doorway has a triangular arch in a square head, and there is a window, probably of the same age, in the N. wall. From the end of this building the curtain runs westwards to encircle the keep. The portion forming part of the adjoining late 18th-century building is a reconstruction with the old materials and within the original line. Beyond this the wall is probably of the 15th century, and is of rough ashlar with a plinth extending round the first buttress. Farther on the wall is built in a series of short lengths and is of rough ashlar below, probably of late 12th-century date, and later work above; the next buttress is probably of the 17th or 18th century. Between this and the next buttress, which is modern, the wall is of rough late 12th-century ashlar built in short lengths, and in the short length to the fourth buttress is a joint in the masonry, the facing beyond being rubble; this rubble work is continued to within 15 ft. of the re-entrant angle S.E. of the keep, where the ashlar-faced late 12th-century walling begins again; it seems probable that this rubble work is 17th-century repair. The rest of the curtain contains much ashlar-faced work, but has been repaired or re-built in the E. part in rubble. Two semi-circular towers are shown projecting from it in a plan of 1754; both have now gone, but their positions are indicated by the two existing doorways through the wall; traces of the circular internal face of the western tower are still visible, but as the more easterly doorway is not earlier than the 17th or 18th century, the existence of a tower here is doubtful. The length of wall adjoining the house has a chamfered plinth and a hollow-chamfered cornice; there was formerly a two-storeyed building, against the inner face, of which the floor-corbels remain; there is a tall square-headed window in this wall and low down a series of recesses on the inside face.

The Earthworks of the castle itself consist of a deep ditch enclosing both the keep platform and the bailey, the E. end of which, however, is protected only by the steep slope to the river. The ditch on the S. side is 29 ft. below the base of the curtain. The interior has been levelled and altered at various times, but it appears probable that the original work was of the motte and bailey type, the ditch of the motte being continued round its E. side. If so, this part of the ditch has been completely filled in and the motte has probably been lowered in height. A causeway now gives access to the gateway. To the N.W. of the keep was an outer bailey of which the enclosing rampart and ditch (13 ft. deep below the top of the inner rampart) remain on the N.W. and S.W. sides. To the N. of the gateway are two parallel banks with an intervening ditch which extend to the scarp above the river; their purpose is uncertain, but the plan of 1754 shows that the ditch formerly forked at the S.W. end. On the S.W. side of the castle and the outer bailey a long line of bank forms a narrow outer enclosure and returns on the E. towards the house with an outer ditch. Beyond it to the E. is a garden plot, probably of later formation.

The Stables, standing in the outer bailey, were built in 1652–3 by Lady Anne Clifford. They form a quadrangle partly of one and partly of two storeys, with entrances on the E. and W. sides; the walls are of rubble. The openings have mostly been altered, but a blocked archway on the N. front may be original. Lady Anne's Bee-house is a small square building of rubble with a pyramidal roof standing at the S.E. angle of the plantation N. of the house. It is of two storeys and appears to retain an original doorway and window.

Condition—Good.

b(4). St. Anne's Hospital, almshouse, on the E. side of Boroughgate, 250 yards S.S.E. of St. Lawrence's church, is of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. It was founded in 1652–3 by Lady Anne Clifford for a superior and twelve 'sisters.' It has been much altered, and the upper storey, as such, is modern. One tenement on the E. side has been removed and another has been re-built. The building forms a quadrangle entered on the W. side and with a chapel in the N.E. angle. The larger tenement in the S.E. angle was probably built as a common Hall. The W. front (Plate 72) has a central archway with chamfered jambs and segmental head; above it is a panel with a brass inscription and two shields of the arms of Clifford impaling Vipont and Clifford impaling Russell; the inscription runs: "This Almes House was founded and begun to be built in the year 1651 and was finished and endowed with . . . for the yearly mayntenance of a mother a reader and twelve sisters for ever in 1653 by Anne Baronesse Clifford Cumberland and Vescy Lady of the hon' of Skipton in Craven and Countesse Dowager of Pembroke, Dorsett and Montgomery." The windows are modern, but some retain the jamb-stones of the earlier and lower windows. Towards the courtyard (Plate 72) the nine original doorways have chamfered jambs and flat four-centred arches in square heads. The four small windows in the W. range are probably original, and above the inner archway are two shields similar to those over the outer archway. A number of shields in panels are set in the wall-faces as follows: (a) Sackville impaling Clifford, (b) Herbert impaling the same, (c) Vipont impaling Bewley, (d) Vipont impaling Ferris, (e) Vipont impaling Fitz Piers, (f) Clifford impaling Bromfleet, (g) Clifford impaling St. John, and (h) Clifford impaling Dacre. Inside the building, the Chapel has a segmental plaster ceiling and two round-headed windows in the E. wall. It retains the following fittings: a framed chest with straps, locks and drop-handles; on the lid in nail-heads is the inscription "A chest for the Countesse of Pembrookes almeshouse at Appleby 1655"; five panels painted with the Creed, Lord's Prayer and texts; a pulpit enclosed by two sides of 17th-century panelling and old desks with shaped standards.

Condition—Good.

b(5). Market Crosses, standing at the S. and N. ends of Boroughgate, are both of the same form. The S. cross was erected probably late in the 17th century, but the N. cross appears to be a later copy of the 18th century. The S. cross consists of a pedestal with cornice and base, standing on four steps and a Doric column surmounted by a sundial block and weather-vane. The pedestal has the later inscription "Retain your Loyalty. Preserve your Rights." The gnomons of the sundial are of fish-tail form, and on the N. face of the block are painted the arms of the town. The vane is dated 1836.

Condition—Good.

a(6). The Moot Hall, in Boroughgate, 90 yards S.S.E. of St. Lawrence's church, is of two storeys. The walls are probably of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered. It may have been built late in the 16th century, though there is no evidence of this apart from a stone with the date 1596 found in an adjoining outbuilding now destroyed. The windows are all of the 18th century and there is a bell-cote on the S. gable. The re-set S. doorway has chamfered jambs and a flat four-centred head; above it is the stone with the date 1596 and the initials R.A.W. Inside the building is some re-set panelling of c. 1600 and some later panelling said to have come from Kirkby Stephen.

Condition—Good.

Monuments (7–16)

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century and of two storeys; the walls are of rubble and the roofs are slate-covered.

Condition—Good or fairly good.

a(7). House and shop (Plate 72), on the E. side of Boroughgate opposite (6), is of three storeys. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, but the top storey with the two gables was added late in the 17th century. The front is ashlar-faced and has moulded string-courses between the storeys terminating in ornamental stops. The original doorway has moulded jambs and enriched imposts; the windows were originally of stone, but all have been altered, except those on the top floor which form graduated triplets with arched heads to the lights and short labels. Some original stone windows remain at the back. Inside the building, the roof has three trusses, with tie-beams, curved principals and collar-beams. A fireplace in the N. wall has stone jambs and an elliptical arch.


Appleby, Map Showing Castle Earthworks & Town

Appleby, Map Showing Castle Earthworks & Town

b(8). House, on the W. side of Boroughgate, 200 yards S. of St. Lawrence's church, is of three storeys. It has been much altered, but retains an original window and a doorway with moulded jambs, carried up to form an embattled enrichment on the face of the lintel. Inside the building are some original doors.

a(9). Post Office, 80 yards N. of (8), is modern, but re-set on the front is a panel with the date and initials 1673 W. and I.W.

a(10). Slapestone House, on the W. side of Battlebarrow, 220 yards N.N.E. of St. Lawrence's church, has been much altered, but retains a two-storeyed porch with a low gable; the outer archway has moulded jambs, round arch and enriched imposts; it is flanked by enriched and fluted columns supporting an enriched entablature.

a(11). Cottage, 50 yards N. of (10), retains a doorway with moulded jambs and flat four-centred arch in a square head (Plate 30) with the initials and date I.E.L. 1662.

a(12). The Friary, 100 yards N. of (11), is modern, but stands on the site of a house of White Friars founded in 1281. Set in the S. end of a barn is part of the head of a 14th-century window.

a(13). Appleby Grammar School, 630 yards N.N.W. of St. Lawrence's church, is modern but incorporates a doorway from the old building in the town, now destroyed. The school was founded in 1574. The doorway has moulded jambs and segmental arch, with two arched sinkings on the face of the lintel; it is flanked by enriched pilasters supporting a cornice above which is an inscribed panel and pediment. The inscription runs "In perpetuum usum archididascali impensis Tho. Smith, S.T.P." and on the lintel the words "et Ran. Sanderson A.M. 1671."

Nearby are preserved a number of pseudo-Roman inscriptions, collected by Reginald Bainbridge c. 1602 and largely his own work. Others of the same series are built into a wall in Chapel Street.

a(14). Castle Bank, house, 220 yards S. of the castle, is of two storeys with attics. It has been largely re-built and enlarged, but incorporates a 17th-century building at the N.W. end.

a(15). Stables, on the E. side of The Sands, 250 yards S.E. of St. Lawrence's church, are modern but incorporate two stones with the initials and date T. and M.L. 1668.

a(16). Cottage, formerly Queen's Inn, 50 yards S.E. of (15), has a window with the date 1692.



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