Ashendon

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1912

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14-16

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'Ashendon', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1: South (1912), pp. 14-16. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=121012 Date accessed: 26 November 2014.


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2. ASHENDON.

(O.S. 6 in. xxvii. S.E.)

Ecclesiastical

(1). Parish Church of St. Mary, stands on high ground on the S.W. side of the village. The walls are of stone rubble; the roofs are covered with lead, except that of the chancel, which is tiled. The earliest part of the church is the Nave, built early in the 12th century, and having at that time a narrow South Aisle; c. 1200 the nave and aisle were lengthened about 15 ft. towards the W.; c. 1290 the chancel and the 12th-century part of the S. arcade were re-built, and the S. aisle was widened. Towards the end of the 15th century the West Tower was built and the clearstorey added to the nave; a chapel N.E. of the nave existed at that date, and the flat-pitched roof, of which the line is still visible, prevented the insertion of a N.E. window in the clearstorey. The church is said to have been in a ruinous condition early in the 16th century; the E. and S. windows of the chancel may be part of the restorations carried out at a subsequent date. The Chancel was re-built early in the 19th century, some of the old windows being re-set.

The 15th-century recess, with the late 13th-century effigy of a knight, in the chancel, are worthy of note.

Architectural Description— The Chancel (28½ ft. by 16 ft.) has an E. window, apparently of the 16th century, of three four-centred lights under a square head with a moulded label, restored, and the head raised about 12 in. In the S. wall are two windows, each of two uncusped lights under a square head, with a moulded external label; they are apparently of the 16th century, but were restored in the 18th century and at a later date. The chancel arch, of c. 1290, is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, with semi-octagonal responds; the moulded capitals and bases are restored. The Nave (47½ ft. by 16½ ft.) has, at the W. end of the N. wall, a small lancet window, of early 13th-century date; near the E. end, outside, are traces of the jambs of the former arch to the N. chapel, the outline of the two-centred arch being visible inside: in the middle of the wall is a 12th-century doorway, now blocked; the plain jambs and semi-circular head remain outside, but only the outline can be traced inside. At the E. end of the S. wall is an arcade of two bays, of c. 1290, with an octagonal column and semi-octagonal responds, which have moulded bases and capitals; the two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders: W. of the arcade is a pointed arch of c. 1200, with chamfered jambs, of one order, and with a chamfered abacus at the springing. The clearstorey has three windows on the S., and two on the N., of late 15th-century date, each of two trefoiled lights and tracery in a two-centred head; the internal sills are embattled and moulded. The outline of the upper doorways of the former rood-loft can be seen in the N. and S. walls. The South Aisle (9½ ft. wide) has two windows in the S. wall; the eastern, of c. 1300, is of three trefoiled lights and tracery in a two-centred head; the rear arch and the internal and external labels are moulded; the internal sill is carried down to form a sedile: the western window, of c. 1330, is small, of two trefoiled ogee lights, with tracery carved from one stone; the external label and the rear arch are moulded: between the windows is a 14th-century doorway with chamfered and moulded jambs and arch, partly re-cut. In the W. wall is a window consisting of a 13th-century lancet, with a second lancet on the S. side, added possibly in the 18th century. The West Tower (8½ ft. by 8 ft.) is of two stages, with diagonal W. buttresses, a plain parapet, and a circular staircase in the S.W. angle. The late 15th-century tower arch is two-centred, and of two chamfered orders, without responds. In the S.W. corner is the doorway of the staircase, with chamfered jambs and two-centred head. The W. doorway, of late 15th-century date, has moulded jambs and depressed head, with a moulded label which has large plain shield-stops: the W. window, of the same date as the doorway, is of two trefoiled lights and tracery in a two-centred head, with a moulded external label continued as a string-course. In each wall of the second stage is a small window; that in the W. wall has a four-centred head, the others have square heads; each window is closed by an oak shutter, closely pierced with holes. The Roof of the nave is possibly of the 17th century; it is flat-pitched, of four bays, with plain tie-beams and wall-pieces, resting on wooden corbels; the curved wall-brackets are apparently modern. The S. aisle has a 15th-century lean-to roof, of four bays, with chamfered principals and purlins; the purlin is modern in the two W. bays; the rafters are plain and the wall-plates moulded; the curved brackets rest on stone head-corbels.

Fittings—Bells: three and sanctus, 1st, by Robert Atton, 1633, 2nd, 3rd and sanctus by Henry Bagley, 1658. Chest: at W. end of S. aisle, long, plain, of oak, with three locks, probably 17th-century. Chair: in chancel, with high carved back, curved arms, moulded legs, plain rails, mid 17th-century. Communion Table: in chancel, with turned legs, plain rails, carved rail at the top in front, early 17th-century. Doors: S. door, painted, with old strap-hinges: W. door, painted, with old strap-hinges, possibly 15th-century: door of tower staircase, studded with nails, rough crosshinges, probably 15th-century. Font: circular tapering bowl, of hard limestone, large roll moulding round the bottom, probably 12th-century, re-cut later, round stem and chamfered base. Font Cover: hexagonal, with ogee brackets and central pendant, wood, 17th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monument: In chancel—in recess on N. side, recumbent effigy of knight, possibly of the Cheyndutt family, in chain mail, surcoat to knee, with sword, shield bearing arms—a cheveron— legs crossed, feet on lion, of Purbeck marble, probably late 13th-century, defaced, neck patched with cement, left foot broken, traces of colour on sword-belt. Floor-slab: In nave— on N. side, to Ann, wife of Samuel Bampton, 1697. Glass: in head of N.E. window of clearstorey, white and yellow, with foliage pattern, 15th-century. Piscinæ: in chancel, with chamfered trefoiled head, apparently 13th-century, E. jamb probably modern; in S. aisle, with trefoiled two-centred head, chamfered jambs, early 14th-century. Pulpit: five-sided, with raised panels, moulded rails and cornice, c. 1700, base modern. Recess: in N. wall of chancel, long, low, with chamfered depressed ogee arch, moulded label with foliated crockets and finial, 15th-century, carvings choked with whitewash. Miscellanea: above recess in N. wall of chancel, two small shields, of oak, said to be part of rood-screen, each with two coats of arms, one painted over the other, but charges can be traced, the first coat probably 15th-century, the second, not good heraldry, late 16th or early 17th-century: on S. wall of nave, near E. end, plain corbel, which formerly supported the rood-loft: in vestry, oak stool with turned legs, 17th-century: at W. end of S. aisle, similar stool: in vestry, washing-stand made up of 17th-century panelling: on S. side of clearstorey, three lead rainwater pipes with moulded heads; on N. side of nave, two rainwater pipes with plain heads, all possibly 17th-century: in the churchyard, E. of the S. aisle, gravestone to Thomas, son of Adrian and Mary Eagleton, 1661.

Condition—Fairly good; steps to bell-chamber badly worn.

Secular

(2). Cottage, now three tenements, 30 yards N.E. of the church, is of one storey and an attic, built late in the 17th century, but the walls have been re-faced with modern brick. The chimney stack is partly of old brick, and under it is a large open fireplace.

Condition—Good.

(3). East Farm, 240 yards N.E. of the church, was built possibly late in the 17th century, but the walls have been re-faced with 18th and 19th-century brick. The roof is tiled. There are old bricks in one of the chimney stacks. Inside the house is an open fireplace, and one room has large chamfered beams in the ceiling. At the back of the house is an old barn with the date 1676 cut on a beam.

Condition—Good.

(4). Farmhouse, 50 yards N.E. of East Farm, has all the walls re-faced with modern brick, but a stone in the chimney stack bears the date 1692 and the name Richard G—. Inside the house is an open fireplace, partly blocked, and one ceiling has chamfered beams. A stone dated 1696 is built into the wall of a small outhouse at the back.

Condition—Good.

(5). Pollicott Farm, ¾ mile S. of the church, is a house of two storeys and an attic, built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and originally timber-framed, but much of the walling was re-faced with stone rubble and brick about a century later. The roofs are tiled. The plan consists of a rectangular block facing E., and a wide shallow wing at the back, S. of the centre line, with a smaller wing in the N.W. angle containing the staircase. The E. front has, in the middle, part of the original timber-framing, now covered with plaster, and the original entrance doorway, with a moulded oak frame; the rest of the wall has been refaced with stone rubble, and has brick dressings of late 17th or early 18th-century date. The N. end is of stone rubble with similar brick dressings, but the gable has an original barge-board. The S. end is gabled and has a low modern addition; the head of the gable retains the original timber-framing, now covered with plaster, and an original bargeboard; the filling is of 18th-century brick. At the back the main block and the gabled stair case wing are re-faced with modern brick; the ground floor of the other wing is of early 17th-century brick; the upper part is of modern brick and has two gables. At the back of the main block are three original chimney stacks, of which the lower part is of stone rubble finished with a stone string-course; the S. and middle stacks have each three square shafts set diagonally; the N. stack has modern shafts. All the rooms on the ground floor and first floor have old chamfered beams in the ceilings, and three rooms are lined with original oak panelling. The central newel and the upper steps of the staircase in the wing at the back are also of original oak.

Condition—Good.



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