Aylesbury

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1912

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'Aylesbury', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Buckinghamshire, Volume 1: South (1912), pp. 22-40. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=121016 Date accessed: 26 November 2014.


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6. AYLESBURY.

(O.S. 6 in. xxviii. S.E.)

Ecclesiastical

(1). Parish Church of St. Mary, stands near the middle of the town, and is built of squared rubble, roughly coursed, and partly re-faced with ashlar; the dressings are of stone. The roofs are covered with lead. There was probably a 12th-century church on the site, but it appears to have been entirely re-built in the first half of the 13th century. The plan is cruciform. The Chancel, Central Tower, and Transepts, each with a small Chapel on the E. side, the Nave, and the North and South Aisles are of the 13th century; there was possibly a S. porch of that date. In the 14th century the Lady Chapel was built S. of the S. transeptal chapel, and the aisles were extended laterally to form Chapels. In the 15th century the two-storeyed North Vestry was added N. of the N. transeptal chapel, and the South Porch was re-built, the whole building, except the chancel, re-roofed, and the clearstorey added. Early in the 19th century the church was in a dangerous condition, from the failure of the foundations, and in 1850 a complete restoration was carried out by Sir Gilbert Scott.

The building, with its massive central tower, is of fine proportions. Among the fittings the late 12th-century font is especially noteworthy, and has given a name to a type known as the 'Aylesbury' fonts (see Plate, p. xxvii.).


Aylesbury, Parish Church of St. Mary

Aylesbury, Parish Church of St. Mary

Architectural Description—The Chancel (41½ ft. by 25½ ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall are three early 13th-century lancets, set in the alternate bays of an internal arcade with pointed moulded arches and shafted jambs which have moulded capitals and bases, all considerably restored; below the arcade is a 13th- century string-course, continued to the modern arch of the organ-chamber, and finished with a modern boss; a second string-course of the 13th century continues the label from the spring of the arches to the door of the former rood-loft on the W.; partly under the W. arch of the arcade is a 15th-century doorway, with moulded jambs and four-centred head; it opens into a diagonal passage leading to the organ chamber, in which was formerly the staircase to the rood-loft; over the modern arch opening into the organ-chamber, is the upper doorway of the rood-loft, with chamfered jambs and head. The S. wall was re-built in 1850 to match the N. wall; a large blocked archway has a modern doorway in it, opening into the S. transeptal chapel. The Central Tower (23½ ft. by 18½ ft.) is of three stages, and has diagonal buttresses above the ground stage, a N.E. stair-turret, an embattled parapet, with carved traceried panels, and a lead lantern and spire. Externally the tower has been almost entirely restored and re-faced, but the original design is said to have been followed; the 15th-century embattled parapet of the turret retains some original gargoyles, but has been otherwise restored; the parapet of the tower was also of the 15th century, but has been entirely renewed; the lantern and spire were copied from the former 17th-century design. On the ground stage the four arches which support the superstructure are two-centred and of two chamfered orders, originally of the 13th century, re-built in 1850, some of the old voussoirs being re-used; the shafted piers are modern. The tower stairs start from the W. wall of the N. transept (see below), cross to the N.W. pier of the tower, and continue to the triforium level; the lower part of the stairs was altered, apparently in the 15th century, when heavy abutments, since removed, were built to counteract the weakness of the piers; at the triforium level the stairs pass from the N.W. to the N.E. angle; the inner walls are pierced with an arcade, of late 13th-century date, considerably restored, of two bays in each wall, each bay having a two-centred chamfered arch with a diamond-shaped piercing in the spandrel, supported by engaged shafts, with moulded capitals and bases, and sub-divided by two smaller pointed arches, resting in the centre on a single shaft; the triforium is lighted by two windows on the N. and two on the S., each of two narrow lancet lights with cusped heads, completely restored. The bell-chamber is lighted by two large lancet windows in each wall; the external stonework is modern, but the rear arches are of late 13th-century date, and of two chamfered orders, which are not concentric; the inner order is continuous, and the outer order has on one side of each window an attached shaft with moulded capital, while the pier between the windows is without shafts. Above the bell-chamber, in the N.E. turret, is a blocked doorway, which possibly marks the original height of the staircase and tower before the 15th-century parapet was built; the wall sets back outside, leaving four external piers at the angles, probably intended as the base of a roof or spire. The North Transept (32 ft. by 20½ ft.) has, in the E. wall, opening into the organ-chamber, an arch with shafts, mouldings, and dog-tooth ornament of 13th-century character, almost entirely restored, but retaining a few original stones; a modern doorway opens into the N. vestry. In the N. wall is a large window of five lights and tracery in a two-centred head; the moulded arch and jambs are of the 14th century; the mullions and tracery are modern: below the window is a moulded 13th-century string-course. In the W. wall, above the string-course, is a 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights and tracery in a four-centred head: S. of the window is the 15th-century doorway of the tower staircase; it has moulded jambs with elaborate stops and a moulded two-centred arch with carved spandrels under a square head, and a moulded label which has return stops: S. of the doorway is a two-centred arch of two moulded orders, opening into the N. aisle chapel; the elaborate 13th-century moulding and ornament, similar to the arch in the E. wall, and the jambs, each with five clustered shafts having bell capitals, have been much restored: above this the wall has been widened towards the W. by a rough chamfered arch to form a passage for the tower stairs, which cross to the N.W. pier of the tower. The clearstorey windows are of late 15th or early 16th-century date, and are each of two cinque-foiled lights in a flat four-centred head. The North Transeptal Chapel (17½ ft. by 11 ft.), now the organ-chamber, has a modern E. window. In the N. wall, opening into the vestry, is an original doorway with plain square jambs and an oak lintel; the N. face of the wall has a chamfered plinth, showing that it was originally external. The North Vestry (12 ft. by 11½ ft.) has, on the ground floor, in the N. and E. walls, small rectangular single lights, restored outside, but with original iron bars. In the E. wall, at the S. end, is a modern doorway. On the first floor, in the W. corner of the N. wall, is an original arched fireplace; in the middle of the wall is a window of two lancet lights, set in a two-centred head, the spandrel incised with flower ornament; it is apparently of the 13th century, removed from some other part of the building; the stonework below the spring of the arch is modern. In the S. wall is a recess, which may have been the original doorway, possibly opening from the rood-stairs, or from a gallery in the N. transeptal chapel; the room is now approached only by a ladder and trapdoor. The South Transept (31 ft. by 21 ft.) has, in the E. wall, an arch opening into the S. transeptal chapel, similar to the 13th-century arches in the N. transept, and considerably restored; it was blocked in the 15th century to strengthen the abutments of the tower; in the blocking wall is a 15th-century window of three trefoiled lights with sunk spandrels under a square head; it was originally glazed, but the groove for glass has been filled up: S. of this window, opening into the Lady chapel, is an early 14th-century double arch, of two separate chamfered orders resting on engaged shafts with moulded capitals and bases; it was formerly bricked up, and has been much restored. In the S. wall is a modern copy of the 15th-century S. doorway, with a heavily moulded four-centred arch, and having, externally, traceried spandrels, a series of cusped panels above the arch, and on each side a niche with an image, all set in a moulded square frame; above the doorway is a large window of five lights and tracery under a square head, of 15th-century style, entirely restored. On the S. and W. walls is a 13th-century string-course. Only the W. wall has clearstorey windows, which are similar to those in the N. transept, but less restored; the two arches opening into the S. aisle chapel are modern restorations, similar to the arches in the N. transept. The South Transeptal Chapel (12 ft. by 10½ ft.) has a modern E. window. In the S. wall, opening into the Lady chapel, is an arch of two chamfered orders, with square responds, of early 14th-century date, but much restored. The Lady Chapel (25 ft. by 16 ft.) has an E. window of three trefoiled lights and tracery in a two-centred head, entirely restored, except the moulded rear arch and inner jambs, which are of early 14th-century date. In the S. wall are two windows, each of two pointed lights in a two-centred head, all modern except the moulded 14th-century rear arch and inner jambs; the small S. doorway is also modern. The Charnel (21 ft. by 13 ft., and 6½ ft. high), under the Lady chapel, has walls of rough stone, with irregularly formed recesses in them. On the W. side are remains of stone steps; the present entrance is a trapdoor. There is no evidence to show that the charnel is of earlier date than the Lady chapel. The Nave (75 ft. by 25 ft.) has N. and S. arcades of six bays, opening into the aisles and chapels; the piers are quatrefoil in plan, with moulded bases and capitals; the two-centred arches are of two plain chamfered orders, with a much restored label in the nave, all the piers have been re-built, using the old material, and the arches have been restored. The late 15th-century W. window is of six cinque-foiled lights and elaborate tracery of heavy moulded bars in a four-centred head; the W. doorway has a trefoiled arch on each side of it, all modern copies of the 13th-century design. The North Aisle Chapel (32½ ft. by 19½ ft. at the E. end, 22 ft. at the W. end) has, in the N. wall, three windows, each of three lights: the easternmost has 14th-century jambs and a moulded rear arch of later character, the external stonework and tracery being modern: the middle window, probably in a 14th-century opening, has late 15th-century jambs and modern tracery; the external label is much decayed and one stop is broken: the westernmost window is of late 15th-century date and of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head; the moulded jambs have broach stops; the external stonework is much restored. In the W. wall is a late 15th or early 16th-century window, only slightly restored, of three cinque-foiled four-centred lights with sunk spandrels in a depressed head. The North Aisle (42½ ft. by 9½ ft.) has, in the N. wall, a late 15th-century window similar to the N.W. window of the chapel; and further E. a modern doorway, apparently copied from an original doorway. The W. window is a two-centred single light, considerably restored, with a moulded 13th-century rear arch. Spanning the aisle, from N. to S., are three depressed four-centred arches, inserted in the 15th century; they spring from moulded corbels on the nave arcade, and are supported on the N. wall by semi-octagonal engaged shafts, with moulded bases and capitals; these arches connect the external buttresses with the wall of the nave, and all have been considerably restored. The South Aisle Chapel (32 ft. square) has been considerably re-built. In the middle, supporting the roof is an oak post (see Roofs). The three windows in the S. wall are modern. The South Aisle (43 ft. by 10 ft.) has, in the S. wall, two windows, the eastern of two lights, with 15th-century moulded jambs and modern tracery: the second a lancet, with a shallow splay and chamfered sill; the moulded internal jambs and head are similar to those of the easternmost window in the N. aisle chapel, and are probably of the 14th century, re-set, possibly in the 17th century; the external stonework is modern: the S. doorway, at the E. end of the wall, is modern. The window in the W. wall has a plain four-centred chamfered head of c. 1500; the tracery is modern. The three arches spanning the aisle, similar in form to those in the N. aisle, were apparently erected in the 15th century, but possibly replaced arches of an earlier date; the mouldings differ and may incorporate parts of the earlier mouldings: the arches spring from modern corbels on the nave arcade and on the S. side from chamfered engaged shafts, with moulded and carved corbels supporting the inner orders; the westernmost arch is without a shaft, and has been considerably restored. The South Porch has a 15th-century entrance archway, with continuously moulded jambs and two-centred arch; inside the entrance, above the spring of the arch on each side, is a mutilated corbel, which seems to indicate that the porch has been re-modelled. In each side wall is a shallow stone arcade with five pointed arches, and part of a sixth, having shafts with moulded bell-capitals and plain bases of 13th-century character, which rest on a stone bench with a modern top; the arcades are evidently re-set and considerably restored, but were possibly in an original porch. The Roof of the chancel is of the 13th century, with roughly wrought trussed rafters, partly restored. The Lady chapel has a low-pitched roof of mid 15th-century date, with moulded oak tie-beams, shouldered purlins without tracery, and brackets carried on embattled and moulded corbels of stone. The roof of the N. transept is of late 15th or early 16th-century date, considerably restored; the four principals are carried on curved brackets with traceried spandrels, supported on corbels; one original corbel is of moulded stone, and two others, also original, are of wood, one carved with a lion's head crowned: the S. transept has a similar roof, much renovated; all the corbels are apparently original, of wood. The N. aisle chapel has a 15th-century roof similar to those of the N. and S. transepts, in three bays, with two principals and two half-principals; the flat tie-beams are embattled and moulded, the brackets are carved as buttresses with cusped panels; the purlins and rafters are modern, the tracery is restored. The roof of the S. aisle chapel is of the 15th century, slightly sloping to a central ridge running E. and W., supported in the middle by an oak post, originally rough and square, now re-worked to a polygonal section, with a base and capital cut out of the solid post, with four curved modern brackets from the post to the beams; the ceiling is in sixteen panels, divided by moulded beams, and sub-divided by the rafters. The S. porch has a 15th-century roof similar to those of the transepts.

Fittings—Bells: eight, modern, and sanctus inscribed 1612, W. Y. [William Yare]. Bracket: on E. wall of the Lady chapel, semi-octagonal, embattled and moulded, late 15th-century. Brasses and Indents. Indent: in N. transept—in fragments of slab now supporting effigy of knight (see Monuments), of shield, and stud, possibly for fixing another shield. Chests: in N. transept, with interlacing iron bands, two locks, one in lid, two padlocks, probably late 17th-century: in upper storey of vestry, oak, with moulded styles and buttresses, two framed lids with strap-hinges, late 15th or early 16th-century, imperfect. Credence Table: on S. side of chancel, of wood, three sides panelled and carved, one panel opening, four turned legs, mid 17th-century. Doors: between organ-chamber and vestry, of studded oak battens, with ornamental strap-hinges, large central iron boss, with heavy iron bar on pivot, catch on door-jamb into which the bar swings, raised by handle or key, fitting into middle of boss, probably 13th-century: to organ-chamber from chancel, of studded oak battens, with strap-hinges, 15th-century. Easter Sepulchre: in N. wall of chancel, near E. end, with two-centred, slightly stilted, elaborately moulded drop arch, jambs having short attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases, late 13th-century, much restored and re-cut, sill modern. Font: circular ogee fluted bowl, band of stiff-leafed foliage in relief at the top, stem with double cheveron moulding, square scalloped base with panels of conventional foliage, and a carved leaf between each scallop at the top, late 12th-century; found in three pieces buried in débris in different parts of the church. Locker: in N. wall of chancel, double, with trefoiled heads, rebated jambs and mullion, re-cut, the heads almost entirely modern. Monuments: In N. transept—in recess in N. wall (see Brasses and Recesses) (1) alabaster recumbent effigy of knight wearing bascinet, mail aventail and hawberk, gipon and elaborate hip-belt, plate arm-pieces with elbow-cops, plate cuisses, jambs and knee-cops, scaled sabatons with spurs, head resting on helm, with animal's head as crest, sword broken, feet resting on lion, on gipon traces of coat of arms—a fesse dancetty between (apparently) three leopards' heads, two in chief much worn, one in base scarcely traceable—no inscription, c. 1390, found near the reputed site of the Franciscan Friary in Aylesbury, and said to be of James Butler, third Earl of Ormonde, but the arms negative the assertion; on N. side, (2) large tomb of the wife of Sir Henry Lee, daughter of Lord Paget, 1584, and her three children; kneeling figures of Lady Lee and her daughter, and two chrisom infants, under a canopy, all of alabaster; two inscriptions and four shields with arms. In S. transeptal chapel—on W. wall, (3) to Thomas Reie and Thomas Turnis, 1596; (4) to Alexander Farmberow, 1628. In N. aisle chapel—in recesses in N. wall, (5–6) two stone coffin lids, each with cross in relief, 14th-century, the head of cross on eastern lid, modern. Niche: in E. wall of N. transept, with trefoiled moulded arch, shafted jambs, moulded capitals and bases, 13th-century. Piscinæ: in E. wall of N. transept, in square rebated recess, with square sunk basin supported on small clustered shaft, having moulded base and foliated capital, late 13th or early 14th-century: in same wall, further S., with moulded jambs and two-centred trefoiled head, 14th-century, plain shallow basin and small shelf, modern: in S. wall of Lady chapel, modern copy of 14th-century design: in E. wall of N. aisle chapel, with moulded jambs and two-centred trefoiled head, chamfered stone shelf, 14th-century, basin and additional shelf modern: in S. wall of S. aisle chapel, with cinque-foiled head, originally trefoiled, chamfered jambs and shelf, deep fluted basin, in the soffit at back, built into the wall, a carved head, probably 13th-century, re-cut at a later date. Recesses: in N. wall of N. transept, low down, with two-centred cinque-foiled drop arch, elaborately moulded, the points of the foils cusped, short shafted jambs with moulded capitals and bases, 14th-century, contains effigy of knight (see Monuments): in N. wall of N. aisle chapel, two, each with elaborately moulded two-centred drop arch and label, jambs with small attached shafts, moulded capitals and bases, 14th-century, all re-cut, carved bosses of labels apparently modern. Seating: in chancel, misericordes, two ranges, four seats in each with shaped and moulded divisions; on N. side, only one hinged seat original, carved with grotesque animal and foliage; on S. side, four seats original, first, carved small animal and foliage, second, human head and foliage, third, human figure supporting the seat on his back, fourth (at the W. end), only blocked out for carving, unfinished, late 15th-century, mouldings at the top and E. standards modern: on N. side of chancel, two bench ends, with traceried panels and carved poppy heads, 15th-century: in the N. transept, two high-backed seats, partly original, with one original bench end, carved and moulded, 15th-century, restored with modern work: at W. end of S. aisle, modern, except the traceried heads of the panels in six standards, and part of head in seventh standard, 15th-century: near S. doorway, front of seat with moulded rail at the top, and five cinque-foiled ogee panels with traceried heads, 15th-century: in upper storey of vestry, traceried heads of similar panels, in three pieces, one piece with five heads and part of a sixth, the other pieces with three heads and part of a fourth, all 15th-century. Sedilia: in S. wall of Lady chapel, in range with piscina, with cinque-foiled ogee heads, carved crockets and finial, 14th-century, all restored except parts of one jamb and mullions. Miscellanea: in blocked arch in E. wall of S. transept, large sunk cross, of stone, with moulded edges, stopped near base, probably 15th-century, partly restored; in S. jamb of W. window of N. aisle, inside, consecration cross—Latin cross, cusped at internal angles, on base of two steps, enclosed in quatre-foiled circle: in N.E. corner of nave, nine fragments of carved and moulded stones, including heads, crockets, etc., 13th, 14th and 15th-century; vestment cupboard, in N. transept, of oak, with panelled sides and moulded cornice, late 15th or early 16th-century; three swinging brackets, only one original.

Condition—In good repair.

Secular

The town contains, especially in the vicinity of the church, many buildings of 17th-century or earlier date; a considerable number have been so much altered that they have become practically modern; those retaining more evidence of their date are specified below.

St. Mary's Square, N. side

(2). The Derby Arms Inn, is of two storeys and an attic, built probably in the 17th century. The walls have been re-faced with modern brick, but some of the chimneys are original, and the beams in the ceiling of the gateway are old. The roofs are tiled.

Condition—Good.

E. side


Aylesbury, Plan Shewing Positions of Monuments

Aylesbury, Plan Shewing Positions of Monuments

(3–10). Cottages, Nos. 2-8, and No. 6, Church Row, are in one range, of two storeys and an attic, built of brick and timber in the 17th century, now much restored. The roofs are tiled. The walls in front are of modern brick or covered with cement; a little of the original timber-framing and brick filling remains at the back. Five of the chimneys are of 17th-century brick.

Condition—Good.

(11). The Foresters' Arms Inn, on the N.E. side of Church Row (see also (10) above), is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century, but much restored. The walls are of brick, with some timber, and the front is cemented. The roof is partly tiled and partly covered with slates. A large chimney at the S. end of the house is of old thin bricks, and a smaller stack is covered with cement.

Condition—Good.

Kingsbury, N.W. side

(12). House, No. 30 (see Plate, p. 30), at the corner of Kingsbury and Church Row, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber early in the 17th century, now much restored. The roof is tiled. At the W. end, facing Church Row, much of the original brick and timber remains, and the upper storey projects and is gabled.

Condition—Fairly good.

(13). The Rockwood Ale House, adjoining (12), is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century. The front is covered with rough-cast; the original brick and timber shows above a modern addition at the back. The roof is tiled. One chimney stack is of 17th-century brick.

Condition—Fairly good.

(14). House, now two dwellings and a shop, Nos. 34-38, adjoining the E. end of the Rockwood Ale House, is of two storeys and an attic, built of brick and timber in the 16th century. The roofs are tiled. The S. front has been restored, and the upper storey and gable are covered with plaster; at the E. end, No. 38, the upper storey projects and rests on an original moulded beam. Some of the chimneys are of old thin bricks. In the ceiling of the shop is an original moulded beam, and other ceilings have chamfered beams with moulded stops. In the floor of a loft at the back is part of a 17th-century rail of carved oak.

Condition—Fairly good.

(15). House, No. 54, now a baker's shop, is of two storeys; it is possibly a 17th-century building, but has been restored, and the front covered with cement. The roof is tiled. Inside the house is some mid 17th-century oak panelling, richly carved and moulded.

Condition—Good.

S.W. side

(16). The Red Lion Inn, at the corner of George Street, is of two storeys, partly timber-framed and covered with plaster, partly of brick. The roofs are tiled. It consisted originally of a small rectangular block, facing N.E., and built c. 1600; late in the 17th century an L-shaped block was built at the back, with the inner angle of the L facing S.; in the 19th century a second L-shaped block was added at the S.E. end, with the inner angle facing W., and other additions were built round the courtyard at the back. The N.W. front is refaced with modern brick. The N.E. front is covered with plaster, and has a large covered gateway in the middle. At the back the main building is gabled and timber-framed, with late 17th-century brick filling; on the first floor is a blocked window; the S.W. wing is of old timber and whitewashed brick and has, on the first floor, two late 17th-century windows with oak mullions, now blocked. The original part of the house has, at the S.E. end, a chimney of early 17th-century brick, and at the other end a chimney of slightly later date; in the upper storey the original timbers of the roof, with wind-braced purlins, etc., are visible. The other parts of the house have old timbers in walls and partitions.

Condition—Good.

(17–25). Houses and Shops, in a block of small buildings, some modern, bounded by Kingsbury on the W. and by Buckingham Street on the E., are of two and of three storeys, built of brick, many being covered with plaster in front. Some of the roofs are covered with tiles and the others with slates. One house, now a shop, No. 23, Kingsbury, is of the 16th century; the others are of the 17th century, and restored. No. 23, Kingsbury, is covered with plaster in front; the upper storey originally projected, but has been under-built. In the ceiling of the shop are two large moulded cross-beams; the return of the moulding at the end of one beam shows the position of the original front of the lower storey. No. 114, Buckingham Street, at the N. end of the block, and probably originally two houses, is of mid 17th-century date. The walls are timber-framed, now much restored, and part of the front is covered with rough-cast. Two windows at the back are original and have casement fastenings of iron, elaborately pierced; a dormer window has an old iron casement with a spring catch. At the N.W. corner of the block three small Shops have a little 17th-century brickwork in the walls facing a small back yard; one window, now blocked, is original and has a chamfered wood frame and mullion. One chimney stack is also original. Near the N. end of the block a small Shop, facing Kingsbury, has an early 17th-century panelled door, old floor-boards and timber-framed internal partitions. The Eagle Inn, and another House, facing Kingsbury, have each a chimney of 17th-century brick, restored. The floors of the Eagle Inn have original boards, and there is a stop-chamfered beam in one of the ceilings. No. 19, Kingsbury, adjoining the Eagle Inn, also has old ceiling-beams and floor-boards. A Shop at the S. end of the block has walls covered with plaster, and on the S. front the upper storey projects slightly, the lower storey having been built out probably to nearly the same level. The ceilings have encased beams, and in one room is an early 17th-century panelled door. Some Outbuildings facing Buckingham Street are of 17th-century timber-framing with modern brick filling.

Condition—Good, much restored.

Buckingham Street, N. side

(26). House, No. 21, now a shop, is modern, but a small rectangular wing at the back is built of brick and timber, and the size and height of the wall-posts possibly indicate that it is of mediæval date. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Poor.

(27). House, now two dwellings, Nos. 17 and 19, is of two storeys, built in the first half of the 17th century, of timber and brick, now covered with plaster. The roofs are tiled. The plan is of modified half-H type, and the wings project towards the E. The main block, facing the street, probably contained a hall and parlour, and extends beyond the S. wing, the lower storey in the extension being pierced by an archway; the S. wing contains a small room on the ground floor, and the upper storey projects; the N. wing extends further towards the E. than the S. wing and contains domestic offices, etc. In the 18th century the northern half of the main block was re-fronted with brick; the southern half retains the original construction, but is plastered; two or three of the windows of the upper storey may be original, and have plain solid frames and metal casements, with pierced scutcheons, etc. Some of the original timber-framing remains at the back. Inside the house a few chamfered beams are visible, and, in the N. wing, one of them is supported by an original turned wooden column.

Condition—Good, much altered.

(28). House, No. 13, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber in the 16th or 17th century, and almost completely re-faced with brick in the 18th century; the gabled wall at one end, facing a small side alley, retains the original timber-framing. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Fairly good, much re-built.

(29). Roundels, at No. 7: the house is an 18th-century building, but the two terra-cotta roundels set in the wall facing the street appear to be of the 16th century.

Condition—Fairly good.

(30). The Harrow Inn, is a two-storeyed house of brick; the roof is tiled. It incorporates the remains of a rectangular or L-shaped building of the 17th century. Inside the house a few rough chamfered beams are visible.

Condition—Fairly good, much re-built.

Whitehall Street, N.W. side

(31). Window, in the grounds of Ardenham House, about 200 yards N. of the church, is of five cinque-foiled lights with elaborate tracery under a depressed head, of stone, and of late 15th-century date. It is said to have come from Tring Church, Hertfordshire, but was, until recently, in pieces in a field on the road from Aylesbury to Bierton.

Condition—Lower part of mullions and the sill missing, but otherwise in good preservation.

(32-36). Cottages, five, Nos. 17–25, are of two storeys; Nos. 21 and 23 have attics. They are built of brick, and are possibly of late 17th-century date. The roofs are tiled; the chimneys are original.

Condition—Good.

(37). Cottage, No. 27, is of two storeys, built early in the 17th century, and restored in the 18th and 19th centuries. The roof is tiled. In front the lower storey is of 17th-century brick, but the projecting upper storey and the gable have been restored. The back retains some original timber-framing, but much of the brickwork is modern. There is one chimney of old thin bricks.

Condition—Poor.

(38–41). Cottages, four, in one block, Nos. 29–35, are of two storeys, built of brick in the 17th century, re-fronted, and much restored at a later date. The roofs are tiled. The chimneys are original.

Condition—Fairly good.

(42–43). Houses, two, Nos. 39 and 41, are of two storeys and an attic, built late in the 17th century, but entirely restored and re-faced with brick in the 19th century. Only the chimneys are original. The roofs are tiled.

Condition—Good.

(44). House, No. 45, is of two storeys, of timber and brick, built in the 17th century; the front is covered with modern rough-cast. The roof is tiled. The rectangular chimney stack is original.

Condition—Fairly good.

(45). House, No. 47, is of three storeys, built early in the 17th century, probably of timber and brick; the front is now covered with plaster, and one end is of modern brick; additions have been made at the back, but the gable retains the original timber-framing. The roof is partly tiled and partly covered with slates. One large chimney is of original bricks. Some of the ceilings have old beams, and most of the floor-boards are original; one wide fireplace is now partly blocked, and there is one original door of moulded battens.

Condition—Fairly good.

(46–47). Cottages, two, on the S.W. side of Whitehall Court, are of two storeys, built of brick and timber in the 17th century, now partly restored. The roof is tiled; one chimney stack is original.

Condition—Poor.

(48). Cottage, known as No. 1, Whitehall Row, at the back of No. 41, Whitehall Street, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber, probably late in the 17th century. The roof is tiled. The old chimney of No. 41, Whitehall Street, also serves this cottage.

Condition—Fairly good.

(49). Cottage, now two tenements, at the bottom of White Hill, is of one storey and an attic, built probably in the 17th century and much restored. The walls are of brick, partly covered with plaster, and at the W. end is some old timber-framing; the roof is tiled.

Condition—Fairly good.

Oxford Road, N. side

(50–51). The Rising Sun Inn and a Cottage adjoining it at the S. end, are each of two storeys, the upper storey partly in the roof, built of brick probably late in the 17th century. The walls have been partly re-faced and two modern bay windows added on the W. front of the inn; there is also a modern addition at the back. The roofs are tiled. Inside both buildings are wide, open fireplaces, and one room has an open timber ceiling.

Condition—Fairly good.

(52). House, now two cottages, Nos. 4 and 6, is of two storeys. It was built on a rectangular plan with a central chimney in the first half of the 17th century; later in the same century a wing was added at the back, making the plan T-shaped, but modern additions have made it again rectangular. The front was re-faced with brick in the 18th century, and No. 6 is now covered with cement. The original building retains the old timber-framing at the E. end inside a modern addition; at the W. end the lower storey is of late 17th-century brick, and the upper storey is timber-framed with modern brick filling; at the back the late 17th-century wing has old timber-framing, with filling of modern brick. The central chimney stack is of original thin bricks, and has V-shaped pilasters on two faces. In No. 6 is a wide fireplace with corner seats.

Condition—Fairly good.

Rickford's Hill, S. side

(53). Fragments, dug up in the grounds of 'The Primroses', on the reputed site of the monastery of Grey Friars, founded in 1386 by James Butler, third Earl of Ormonde (see Monuments in church). The stones are set in the retaining wall of a bank in the garden, and include two pieces of the moulded jamb of a late 15th-century window; two other stones, reversed and used as steps, are said to have worked chamfered edges underneath; and some old brick walling, now covered, may be part of the Friary buildings. Two small figures of weeping women, in white marble, forming part of a framed setting, possibly of a tomb, were found also on the site, but appear to be of a date not earlier than the 17th century; they are now in the Aylesbury Museum.

(54). Green End House, is of two storeys and an attic; the walls are plastered and painted; the roof is covered with slates. It was built apparently in the 17th century, on an L-shaped plan, enlarged and remodelled in the 18th century. Inside the house are two panelled oak doors, of early 17th-century date, one with a carved frieze and an original double S hinge. Some of the floors have old oak boards.

Condition—Good.

N. side

(55–58). Houses, Nos. 17 and 19, now one dwelling, with Nos. 21 and 23, at the corner of Bourbon Street, form a row of late 17th-century buildings, each of two storeys and an attic, which is lighted by four gabled dormer windows. The front is of brick; at the back the walls are of old timber-framing with brick filling; the roofs are tiled. The chimneys are of late 17th-century brick. Inside the houses the ceilings have original beams, and there are old oak staircases leading to the attic.

Condition—Good.

E. side

(59). The Saracen's Head Inn, is of two storeys with a cellar, built apparently early in the 17th century, on a rectangular plan; early in the 18th century it was re-fronted with brick, now covered with plaster, and additions were made at the back in the 18th and 19th centuries. The gabled N. end shows original timber-framing, and has a chimney stack of early 17th-century brick. The central stack is of 18th-century brick above the roof. Inside the house some of the original timber construction is visible.

Condition—Good.

(60). House, of two storeys, with an attic and cellar, built at the end of the 17th century, on a rectangular plan, facing N.W.; at the back and S.W. end are modern additions. The front is of dark brick with red brick dressings, and has a moulded plinth, a plain string-course between the storeys, and a moulded brick cornice; the upper storey retains four original windows with oak mullions and transoms. The N.E. end is gabled, of red brick with black headers in a diamond pattern, and at the level of the first and second floors are moulded stringcourses; the E. half of the gable has been heightened. The roof is tiled. The chimneys at each end of the original building are of late 17th-century brick. Inside the house some of the ceilings have chamfered beams, and there are old oak stairs leading to the attic.

Condition—Good.

Castle Street, N. side

(61). House, No. 2, is of two storeys and an attic, built in the first half of the 17th century. The front was re-faced with brick and heightened in the 18th century, and has a moulded cornice; the back is of original timber-framing with brick filling, and has two gables; on the first floor are two early 17th-century windows, with iron frames and ornamental fastenings; two windows on the second floor have similar frames. The W. end has a plastered gable which is visible above the roof of the adjoining house, and shows traces of the heightening of the front; the original bargeboard has been re-used. Inside the house on the ground floor one ceiling has an original moulded beam and others have chamfered beams. On the first floor a room has one wall covered with early 17th-century oak panelling which has moulded muntins, chair rail, and cornice; part of the reverse side shows in the staircase to the attic.

Condition—Good.

S. side, from E. to W.

(62). Cottage, No. 1, is of two storeys, and of early 17th-century date; the S.E. corner was cut away when the adjoining house was built on the S.W. side of Temple Square. In front the lower storey is of modern brick and the upper storey is covered with modern plaster; at the back the walls are of old timber-framing and brick. The roof is tiled. At the W. end is an original chimney stack. Some of the ceilings have chamfered beams, and the roof retains three out of the four original wind-braces of the purlins.

Condition—Fairly good.

(63). Cottage, No. 3, of two storeys, was built probably early in the 17th century, but has been much altered. The walls are of brick and the front is covered with plaster; the roof is tiled. One room has an old fireplace, partly blocked.

Condition—Good.

(64). House, now three tenements, Nos. 7, 9 and 11, is of two storeys and an attic, built c. 1640, but considerably altered. The walls are of brick; the roof is tiled. In front, between the storeys, is a projecting string-course, above which are six windows, three now blocked; the three dormer windows are gabled and that in the middle has, in the head, an ornamental rose in plaster. The timber-framing of the W. wall shows in the next house. The central chimney in the W. half of the building is original. Inside the house are chamfered and rough ceiling-beams.

Condition—Fairly good.

(65). House, now two tenements, Nos. 13 and 15, is of two storeys and an attic, built probably late in the 17th century. The plan was originally L-shaped, but modern additions have been made at the back. In front is a late 17th-century plinth of moulded brick, above which the wall is of modern brick. At the back the original walls are timber-framed, with plaster filling in the main block and brick filling in the wing. The central chimney stack is original, and has an arched recess in the N. face. Inside No. 13 is a chamfered ceiling-beam and a large fireplace, partly blocked.

Condition—Good.

(66). House, now two tenements, Nos. 19 and 21, is of two storeys, with an attic and cellar, built in the second half of the 17th century. In front the W. half of the house, No. 21, is of late 17th-century brick, with a string-course at the level of the first floor, a moulded brick cornice, and original mullioned windows; the lower storey of No. 19 is similar to that of No. 21; the upper storey was heightened and altered in the 19th century. The W. end has a gable of timber and brick, showing above the roof of the next house, and a late 17th-century chimney stack. At the back are modern additions.

Condition—Fairly good.

(67). House, No. 23, is of two storeys, built c. 1550, but enlarged at the back and the interior much altered in the 18th and 19th centuries. The front is timber-framed and covered with plaster; the upper storey projects, except over three bay windows on the ground floor. At the back the old walls are timber-framed; on the ground floor the brick filling is whitewashed, and the upper storey is covered with plaster. The roof is tiled. The central chimney stack is partly of early 17th-century date. A large covered gateway at the W. end of the house is weather-boarded, and beyond it is a malt kiln built of late 17th-century brick. Inside the house are chamfered ceiling-beams and some of the timbers are visible in the walls. The roof over the middle part of the house appears to have been that of an upper hall, and retains three out of the four original curved and hollow chamfered wind-braces of the purlins; the westernmost room also has wind-braced purlins of rougher workmanship.

Condition—Good.

(68). House, Nos. 25 and 27, is of two storeys, and probably of the 17th century. The front is of brick, covered with plaster, and has old mullioned window-frames in the upper storey. The gabled ends are of brick. The roof is tiled. At the E. end is a chimney stack of 17th-century brick. Some of the ceilings have original chamfered beams.

Condition—Fairly good.

Parson's Fee, N.W. side

(69). St. Osyths, formerly the Prebendal Farm, is partly timber-framed and partly of brick; the roofs are tiled. The plan follows the curve of the road in front, and consists of three blocks; the middle block, containing the kitchen and domestic offices, is rectangular, and is probably a fragment of a late 16th-century building; the S. block, now used as an outhouse, is also rectangular but somewhat smaller, and was added c. 1650; the N. or main block was built late in the 17th century; it is of a modified L-shape, with the inner angle facing S.W.

The N. block is of two storeys and an attic, built of late 17th-century brick, with a chamfered plinth, a moulded string-course at the level of the first floor, and a moulded cornice. The front is whitewashed, and has at the S. end a doorway with an oak frame of late 17th-century date; in the roof are two hipped dormers, and at each end is a late 17th-century chimney; the N. and S. ends have each two gables; at the back are three late 17th-century windows with oak mullions, iron frames and spring catches. The middle or 16th-century block is lower than the N. block, and is of two storeys, with walls of black timber-framing and whitewashed brick filling; the front is of one and a half bays. The S. or mid 17th-century block is also of two storeys, but built at a lower level to follow the slope of the ground; it is of narrow timbers, with whitewashed brick filling, and a brick plinth; the front is in two bays. The interior has been much altered; one door in the main block seems to be the original front door, re-fixed. The kitchen has a chamfered ceiling-beam.

Behind the house is a large barn, of six bays, probably a late 16th-century tithe barn, timber-framed and covered with weather-boarding. The roof is tiled, and has queen-post trusses.

Condition—Of the N. and middle blocks, good; of the S. block, poor, the upper floor being too dangerous for use; of the barn, poor.

(70–73). Cottages, four, Nos. 5–8, in one range, are of two storeys, built in the first half of the 17th century, and now covered with rough-cast. The roofs are tiled. In front, each cottage has a bow window on the ground floor; the upper storey projects, and has, over the bow window, a gable with verge moulding cut into dentils.

Condition—Fairly good.

Church Street, N.E. side

(74). House, No. 1, is of two storeys, with an attic and cellars, built c. 1540, and refronted with brick in 1739, when the roofs were altered, and the attic floor was inserted. At the N.W. end the original timber-framed gable is visible above the roof of the adjoining house, but has been heightened with 18th-century brick. The plan appears to have been rectangular; at the back there are modern additions. On the ground floor the original moulded ceiling-beams point to there having been formerly only two rooms, now sub-divided, and the position of the square stops indicates that the upper storey projected; one shaped wall-post remains. On the first floor are several shaped wall-posts and other remains of the original timber-framing of the walls. The staircase has been altered and coated with paint, but the central oak post, carried from the ground to the first floor, one square turned newel, and some of the turned balusters, are original. Some of the original timbers of the roof remain, including two trusses, which have highly cambered tie-beams with chamfered edges, chamfered principals, and moulded purlins with chamfered wind-braces.

Condition—Good.

(75). Roof-timbers, at Ceely House: the house is an 18th-century building, but the roof is made up of the timbers of a 15th-century roof. There are four trusses of two types; one truss has collar and tie-beams, the others have braced collars, and all have double ogee mouldings and appear to have been re-constructed; most of the purlins are double-chamfered and have double ogee mouldings.

Condition—Good; re-constructed.

S.W. side

(76). The Chantry, No. 8, is of two storeys, with an attic over part of the house, and a cellar. It was built possibly in the middle or second half of the 16th century, but early in the 18th century additions were made at the back, and in the 19th century the front was covered with plaster and altered. The roofs are tiled. The central chimney stack is probably original, and the chimney at the S.E. end also may be old, but both are modern above the roof. The dining-room has, in a recess, a large open fireplace, which is in situ, and has been only recently discovered; it has an original heavy lintel of oak, with a four-centred arched soffit and a gabled upper edge; the jambs are of modern stone, but the back of the fireplace is of original long bricks. The staircase may be partly of the 17th century, but is covered with paint, and is said to be largely of pitch pine or deal. The roof of the room over the hall is ridged parallel with the front of the house, and has chamfered purlins; it has been altered in front for three modern gables. The room on the N.W. has a ridged roof at right angles to the front with a chamfered purlin and four curved wind-braces.

Condition—Good.

(77). House, No. 12, is a small building of two storeys, timber-framed, with brick filling, now covered with rough-cast in front; the roof is tiled. It was built in the 17th century, and has been considerably restored. The plan is rectangular. In front there are two gables and the upper storey projects.

Condition—Fairly good.

(78). House, No. 14, was probably built at the same time as (77), but has been more altered. Some traces of original work remain at the back.

Condition—Fairly good.

Temple Square, N.E. side

(79). The Queen's Head Inn, at the corner of George Street, is of two storeys, partly timber-framed and plastered, partly of brick; the roofs are tiled. It was built early in the 17th century on an L-shaped plan; towards the end of the same century a rectangular wing was added at the back, and is now used as part of the next house (No. 3, Temple Square); in the 19th century a further addition was built at the back, and the house was restored. The S.W. front is covered with plaster; the S.E. front is of modern brick; at the W. end is an original chimney stack of thin bricks. The late 17th-century wing is of red and black bricks, and has a central chimney stack and tall wood-mullioned windows, which have been altered to light a workshop. Inside the house are original chamfered beams in the ceilings, and traces of the original timber-framing can be seen in the walls; the late 17th-century wing also has old ceiling-beams and roof timbers. In the modern addition is a recess, formerly used for a dyer's tub; it has an oak lintel made up of part of the head of a 16th-century fireplace, similar to that in No. 8, Church Street (see above).

Condition—Of the original part of the building, good; of the wing, rather poor.

(80). House, now two dwellings, Nos. 3 and 5, is of two storeys and an attic. It consists of a rectangular block, built early in the 17th century, and a small wing at the back, added later in the same century, making the plan L-shaped. The front was re-faced in the 18th century. The back of the main block is of original timber and brick, and is gabled. The wing, also gabled, is of late 17th-century timber and brick, with a projecting chimney stack, of which the lower part is of stone and the upper part of brick. The roofs are tiled. Inside No. 3 is an oak battened door of the 17th century; inside No. 5 is a panelled door of early 17th-century date, and the rooms on the ground floor are lined with late 17th or early 18th-century panelling.

Condition—Fairly good.

N.W. side

(81). House, now the headquarters of the local Territorial forces, at the corner of Castle Street, is of two storeys and an attic. It was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, and appears to have been originally timber-framed, but was re-fronted and enlarged in the 18th century, and again enlarged in the 19th century. The front is of brick, covered with cement; at the S.W. end is an original gable with a barge-board, and the original timber-framing of the wall can be traced inside the next house. The back is covered by the 18th and 19th-century additions. The roofs are tiled. One room and passages on the ground and first floors have original panelling, and in the attic are old roof-timbers, re-used in the 18th century, when the roof was probably heightened.

Condition—Good.

S.E. side

(82). House, now a shop, is of three storeys, built probably in the 16th century, but heightened and much altered in the 19th century. The walls, probably of brick, are cemented; the roof is covered with slates. Inside the shop are some original moulded ceiling-beams similar to those in the next house (83).

Condition—Good.

Temple Street, S.W. side

(83). House, now a shop, No. 28, at the corner of Temple Square, is of two storeys and an attic. It was built in the second half of the 16th century, but has been re-fronted, the upper storey being of 18th-century brick and under-built with modern brick: the roof is tiled. On the ground floor there are moulded ceiling-beams, which show that the upper storey formerly projected.

Condition—Fairly good.

(84). House, No. 26, is of three storeys, built probably in the 17th century or earlier, but refronted with brick and much altered in the 18th century. At the back is some old timber-framing. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Good.

(85). House, now a shop, No. 24, is of two storeys and an attic, built late in the 16th century and re-fronted with brick in the 18th century; the back is covered with plaster; the roof is tiled. In the shop and adjoining front room are moulded ceiling-joists.

Condition—Good.

(86–87). Houses, two, Nos. 22 and 20, now one dwelling and an office, are of three storeys, built early in the 17th century, and much altered in the 18th and 19th centuries. No. 22 is almost entirely of 18th-century brick, but at the back a window on the first floor has a 17th-century iron frame with an ornamental plate fastening. No. 20 is re-fronted with modern brick; at the back is a wing built of timber and brick, probably of early 18th-century date, and re-set in the S. wall of a modern addition is the original oak door-frame of the main entrance. The roofs are covered with slate. In No. 22 one room and an adjoining passage have early 17th-century panelling.

Condition—Good.

(88). House, now a shop, No. 18, is of three storeys, built probably in the 17th century, but much altered in the 19th century. The plan is L-shaped. The front is of modern brick; the wing at the back retains the original timber-framing, with brick filling. The roofs are tiled.

Condition—Good.

(89–91). Houses, three, Nos. 12, 14, and 16, are each of two storeys and an attic, built early in the 17th century, and less altered than other buildings in the street. In front they are timber-framed and covered with plaster. At the back Nos. 14 and 16 are gabled, and have been re-faced with 18th-century brick; No. 12 is also gabled and retains the original timber-framing and brick filling, but the timbers have been plastered and the bricks thickly whitewashed. The roofs are tiled. A chimney stack at the W. end of No. 16 is of 17th-century brick. The rooms on the ground floor of No. 16 have old ceiling-beams; in No. 14 the timber-framing of the walls and roof is visible, and there is an oak door of early 17th-century date. Traces of the timber-framing can be seen also in No. 12.

Condition—Fairly good.

(92–93). Houses, two, now shops, Nos. 8 and 10, now under one tenancy, are of three storeys, built possibly in the 17th century, but much altered. The walls are of 18th and 19th-century brick; at the back, on the second floor, is an old window-frame. The roofs are tiled. Some of the ceilings have chamfered beams.

Condition—Good.

(94). House, No. 6, now a shop, is of two storeys, built probably in the second half of the 17th century, but re-fronted in the 19th century. At the back is a large gabled dormer and a timber-framed wing with late 17th-century brick filling. The roofs are covered with slate. In the wing at the back the ceilings have chamfered beams.

Condition—Good.

(95–96). Houses, two, Nos. 2 and 4, part of the former Post Office (see also (110) below), now shops, are each of three storeys. They were built probably in the first half of the 17th century, but have been re-fronted with brick and much altered. At the back No. 4 has old timber-framing with brick filling, thickly coated with whitewash; No. 2 has an early 17th-century window-frame. The roofs are covered with slate. Inside each house is a panelled door of early 17th-century date; in the walls and ceilings old timbers are visible, and those in the third storey show the original slope of the roof.

Condition—Good.

N.E. side

(97). House, No. 3, is of two storeys and an attic, built probably late in the 17th century, but much altered. The front is of modern brick, the S.E. side, facing an alley, is of 18th-century brick; the back is of old timber-framing with late 17th-century brick filling, and has a gabled dormer window. The roof is tiled. Inside the house are chamfered ceiling-beams with moulded stops.

Condition—Good.

(98). House, No. 5, now a shop, is of two storeys. The front part of the building is probably of early 17th-century date. The front is covered with plaster. At the back, connected only by a covered passage on the ground floor, is a late 17th-century building, which has been re-faced with brick, but retains an original oak door-frame and window-frame, and a chimney stack of late 17th-century brick; the ceilings have old chamfered beams.

Condition—Good.

(99). House, No. 13, is of two storeys, with a cellar. The main block is probably of early 17th-century date; the wing at the back was added later in the same century. The front is of modern brick; the back of the main block is timber-framed with modern brick filling; the end of the wing is gabled, and retains late 17th-century brick and timber; the side wall is of modern brick. The roofs are tiled. The main block has chamfered ceiling-beams with chamfered stops, the wing has similar beams with moulded stops, and one original battened oak door remains.

Condition—Rather poor.

(100). House, No. 15, is a three-storeyed building of brick, externally apparently of the 18th century, but a few beams inside the house possibly indicate that it was built in the 17th century.

Condition—Good.

(101). House, No. 17, at the corner of George Street, is of two storeys and an attic. It consists of two rectangular blocks, that facing the street is covered with plaster, and was built probably in the second half of the 17th century; the block at the back was built of brick in the 18th century. The roofs are tiled. At the back of the older part is a late 17th-century chimney stack.

Condition—Fairly good.

Silver Street

(102). The Dark Lantern Inn, is a three-storeyed rectangular house built of brick and timber probably in the middle of the 16th century; the front is covered with modern rough-cast, and the back has been re-faced with 18th-century brick. The roof is tiled. On the ground floor is a large, open fireplace and some mid 17th-century panelling.

Condition—Fairly good, much altered and restored.

(103). House, now a shop, facing a passage S. of the Dark Lantern Inn, is of three storeys, built in the 16th century. At the E. end the original brick and timber is visible, and the upper storey projects; the other walls are covered with modern plaster. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Fairly good, much altered and restored.

Silver Lane, S.E. side

(104). House, now a shop, is of two storeys, built of brick and timber probably late in the 16th century. The walls are now partly covered with plaster; the roof is tiled.

Condition—Much altered and restored.

(105–108). Cottages, a range, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 3a, are of two storeys, built of brick and timber, probably late in the 16th century. The walls have been partly re-faced; the roofs are tiled. The upper storey of the southernmost cottage projects slightly. Some of the rooms have open timber ceilings.

Condition—Moderately good.

(109). Stables, on the N.E. side of Friarage Road, were built probably in the 17th century. The walls are of brick and timber; the roof is tiled.

Condition—Good.

(110). House, part of the former Post Office (see also (95–96) above), on the N.W. side of Bourbon Street, is of two storeys and an attic, built probably in the first half of the 17th century. The front is covered with plaster; the back is thickly whitewashed and retains an old window-frame on the first floor. One room has an early 17th-century oak door.

Condition—Good.

Market Street, S.E. side

(111). House, now three shops, is of two storeys, with an attic and cellars, built of timber and brick probably in the middle of the 16th century. The roof is tiled. The plan was originally of half-H shape, with the wings extending towards the N., but the space between them is now enclosed. The front and E. end are covered with modern plaster; at the back the wall is of old timber and brick, and the upper storey projects; the W. end is similar to the back, but the upper storey has been under-built with brick. Interior:—At the W. end, on the first floor, is a hall of three bays, with a roof of modified queen-post construction.

Condition—Good, much altered.

N. side

(112–114). Houses, now shops, Nos. 1 and 3, probably originally one building, and No. 5, Market Street, with No. 11, Market Square, form part of a range of buildings, of which the two westernmost (Nos. 7 and 9, Market Street) have been recently re-built. They are each of three storeys and an attic, facing S.; the N. half of the buildings is lower than the S. half, and is probably of early 17th-century date; it is timber-framed, covered with plaster, and gabled at the back. The S. half of No. 5 was built probably late in the 17th century; the upper storeys, with a gable, are timber-framed and covered with plaster; they formerly projected, and there is said to be a moulded bressumer in front, now hidden: the S. half of the other houses is probably of early 18th-century date; Nos. 1 and 3 are of brick, and No. 11 is covered with plaster and paint: at the back, visible above the roof of the N. half of the buildings, are timber-framed gables with brick filling, and chimney stacks of late 17th-century brick. On the ground floor of No. 5, at the back, is some mid 17th-century panelling, and the moulded post and bracket of an early 17th-century doorway.

Condition—Good.

Market Square, W. side (see also (114) above)

(115). The Old King's Head Inn, is of two storeys, with an attic and cellars; the walls are of brick and timber. The roofs are tiled. It was built about the middle of the 15th century, but has been much altered, and part of the house now forms a separate tenement.

The hall is a fine example of mediæval domestic architecture, and its large window, which retains some original glass, is of especial interest.

The original plan consisted of four ranges enclosing a fairly large courtyard. The S.W. Range contained the kitchens at the N.W. end and a hall possibly of five bays; above them was a series of chambers. Only two bays remain of the hall, which is higher than the other rooms on the ground floor; the rest of the range has been completely re-built, and is largely of the 19th century, with the kitchens immediately N.W. of the hall. The rooms on the first floor and an attic are reached by two small enclosed staircases of the 18th or 19th century. In the 18th century additions were made on the S.W. side of the range.

The S.E. Range appears to have been sub-divided into several large rooms, but has been very much altered; with the end of the S.W. range it forms the main front of the building, and once faced the market square. On the ground floor, next to the hall, is a long narrow room, forming bar and bar-parlour, and beyond it is the entrance to the yard; this entrance appears to be a 17th-century arrangement. On the first floor are two rooms formed out of one chamber, originally open to the roof, but now ceiled; N.E. of these rooms, and facing the courtyard, is a large room, apparently part of the original plan, but reached by a small 18th-century staircase from the archway. The rest of this wing was almost completely re-built in the 18th century, and part of the N.E. end now forms the separate tenement. The first floor originally projected on both sides along the whole length of the range. The N.E. and N.W. Ranges, almost completely re-built in the 18th and 19th centuries, contain stabling and lofts.

The S.E. Front has three gables; one gable and the wall N.E. of the archway are covered with cement, and all the openings of this part are of the 18th century. The archway, of heavy timbers, has moulded jambs and head with curved bracketing, apparently original material re-used; over it the gabled upper storey projects and has an oriel window, all detail being modern: S.W. of the archway is the large hallwindow which is of ten lights in two stages and is divided in the middle by a large wall-post; all the lights originally had four-centred heads; the lower lights are now square-headed; the mullions, heads and jambs, of wood, are moulded and chamfered and the upper lights have sunk spandrels. The heavy timber-framing of the lower storey is visible at this end, and above the window the gabled upper storey projects and is partly supported by heavy curved brackets.

The N.W. Elevation of the S.E. range, facing the yard, has an old gable over the archway with heavy timber-framing; the rest of this elevation has been almost entirely re-faced or re-built with brick, but at the N.E. end the overhanging upper storey retains some of the original timber-framing.

The other Elevations have been much altered.

Interior:—The hall is divided into two bays by heavy, moulded wall-posts, with curved brackets, in the S.W. and N.E. walls, and there is a third post in the window: they support two moulded ceiling-beams which cross each other at right angles and mitre with the moulded wall-plate: the back of the wall-post in the N. corner of the hall can be seen by means of a trap-door; it has a curved bracket on the N.W. side, showing that the hall originally extended in that direction: the fireplace is much scraped or modern. In the window is a considerable quantity of original glass, consisting of fragments of the figures of angels holding shields, on some of which are the arms of Henry VI. and his wife, Margaret of Anjou; the symbol of the Evangelist St. Mark also appears, with a scroll on which is the name 'Marcus' in black-letter; many of the original quarries are ornamented with flower designs, some with a covered cup and some with the Bohun swan. The roof of the rooms over the archway has been enclosed in plaster; the trusses are of the queen-post type with some form of angle-braces to the tie-beams, but all detail is now hidden.

Condition—Good; very much altered.

(116). The White Horse Inn, is of two storeys. It was built in the 16th century, probably on a rectangular plan, but has been enlarged. The front is covered with modern plaster, and the walls at the back have been almost entirely re-faced. The roof is tiled. On the ground floor is a wide, open fireplace containing a large spit, which is worked by a fan in the chimney, and on the wall of the dining-room a 16th-century inscription in black-letter has been recently uncovered. The roof is of double queen-post construction, and has been heightened.

Condition—Good.

E. side

(117). The Bull's Head Hotel, is of two storeys, and was built in the 17th century; the plan is of half-H shape, with the wings projecting towards the E. The main block was almost entirely re-built with brick in the 18th century, and is now covered with cement; some of the original timber-framing remains at the back. The wings have been altered, enlarged and covered with cement. The roofs are tiled.

In the yard at the back of the house is a rectangular Barn, of two storeys, built of timber and brick and probably contemporary with the house; the roof is tiled.

Condition—Of hotel, good; of barn, poor.

(118). The Crown Hotel, at the corner of the High Street and the Market Square, was built early in the 16th century and almost completely re-built at the end of the 18th century. The remains of the original house consist of a rectangular block of two storeys, facing the Market Square, built of timber and brick; the roof is tiled. In front the overhanging upper storey is original, timber-framed, with filling now plastered; it is supported by a heavy moulded bressumer, but was partly under-built, or the lower storey encased with brick in the 19th century. Inside the house a large chamfered joist is visible in the ceiling of the ground floor.

Condition—Good.

Cambridge Street, N.W. side

(119). Outhouse, at the back of Nos. 6 and 8, is a rectangular 17th-century building, timber-framed with brick filling, and now much altered. The roof is covered with tiles and is of plain collar-beam construction.

Condition—Poor.

(120). The Barley-corn Inn, is of two storeys, probably timber-framed, but now covered thickly with cement. The roofs are tiled. It appears to have been built in the 16th or 17th century, and the long low street front, with two gables, probably retains its original form, but all the details are modern.

Condition—Good; much altered.

(121). House, No. 44, is a late 17th-century building of two storeys and an attic. The walls are of brick; the roof is tiled. It forms, with some outbuildings, a long range at right angles to the street, and has, at the back, a small wing containing offices. The roof is ridged from end to end, with a gable facing the street. A few old windows remain, with solid frames and metal casements.

Condition—Good.

S.E. side

(122). House, of two storeys and an attic, built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century, with a small one-storeyed building of uncertain date, now a shop (Nos. 9 and 11), adjoining the E. end. The walls are timber-framed, with brick filling; the roofs are tiled. The plan of the house is rectangular, with two rooms on each floor, and a central chimney stack. The first floor is reached only by a ladder and the staircase to the attic is not original.

Condition—Poor.

(123). Cottage, divided into two tenements, Nos. 5 and 7, in Upper Hundreds, is of two storeys, built in the 17th century. The plan is rectangular, and the original building was probably a long low range, constructed of mud bricks, with some timber-framing and a continuous thatched roof. In the 19th century the walls were partly re-built with brick, and the western half of the cottage was raised and roofed with slate.

Condition—Not very good.

Walton Street, W. side

(124). Cottage, a 17th-century building of two storeys. The walls are covered with plaster, but a little original brick and timber is visible in the gable at each end; the roof is tiled.

Condition—Good.

(125). Barn, S. of Brook Street, was built in the 17th century. It is of two storeys, partly of brick, and partly timber-framed with brick filling; the roof is tiled.

Condition—Good.

(126). Cottage, now three tenements, opposite the brewery, is of late 17th-century date. It is of two storeys, built of brick, with timbers in the gable at each end. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Fairly good.

E. side

(127). The White Swan Inn, is of two storeys, built probably late in the 17th century, but re-faced with modern brick and the W. front covered with plaster. The roof is tiled. Two chimneys are of old thin bricks. On the ground floor an open fireplace remains, and in one ceiling is a chamfered beam.

Condition—Good, much restored.

(128). The Bear Inn, is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century. The walls have been almost entirely re-faced with modern brick, but some 17th-century brick remains; the roof is tiled. On the ground floor is an open fireplace, and one ceiling has a chamfered beam.

Condition—Fairly good.

(129). House, S. of Holy Trinity Church, is of two storeys, built probably in the 17th century. The walls have been entirely re-faced, but one room retains a wide, open fireplace and an open timber ceiling.

Condition—Much altered.

Walton Road, N.W. side

(130–131). Cottage, No. 9, and House forming three tenements, Nos. 11, 13 and 15. The cottage is of two storeys and the house of two storeys and an attic. They were built of red brick, in Flemish bond, c. 1700; the roofs are tiled. The house has a mansard roof with flat-topped dormer windows. The other windows have segmental arches of brick, and a few original metal casements remain.

Condition—Fairly good.

(132). Cottage, now three tenements, Nos. 35, 37, and 39, is of two storeys, built early in the 17th century, of timber and brick, now whitewashed; the roof is tiled. The plan is rectangular, with two chimney stacks, and at the N.E. end is an addition of later date. The street front has a low plinth of red brick, and the timber-framing retains a few diagonal braces.

Condition—Fairly good.

(133). Outhouse, part of a disused Malting, and parts of the Garden Walls at Walton House, are all of the 17th century. The house was re-built in the 18th century; S.E. of it is a small rectangular Outhouse of two storeys, timber-framed, with brick filling, and much restored in the 18th century; the roof is tiled. The Malting, facing the Walton Road, includes a house with a barn attached to it, built in the first half of the 17th century. The house is of two storeys, built partly of brick, and partly timber-framed and weather-boarded; the plan is rectangular; a large covered archway connects the house with the barn, which is also rectangular, and is partly timber-framed, with weather-boarding and brick filling, and partly of brick; the roofs are tiled. The buildings appear to have been converted into a malting in the 18th century, when a kiln and drying-floors were added, forming a long L-shaped addition at the back. The front of the house has three weather-boarded gables, and the upper storey projects; the lower storey has been re-built in brick. Two original windows remain at the back, with wooden frames, iron casements, and much corroded iron fastenings. N.W. of the house, in the brick Wall surrounding the garden, is a blocked gateway with rusticated piers; on it is the date 1674. In the wall separating the malt-yard from the garden are two recesses, with four-centred straight-sided heads, flanked by pilasters, of slight projection, surmounted by dises.

Condition—Of outhouse, good; of malting, poor; of garden walls, fairly good.

(134). Farmhouse, No. 89, is of two storeys, built early in the 17th century, of timber and brick; the roof is tiled. The plan is L-shaped, but the original arrangement is uncertain. The street front has been heavily covered with rough-cast, but a curvilinear gable at the S.E. end is possibly an alteration made in the second half of the 17th century. The back has been much re-built or re-faced with brick, but the original timber-framing remains in the gable at the N.W. end. Inside the house some of the old studding and the rough timbers of the roof are visible on the first floor.

Among the extensive farm buildings are two large barns, both on stone foundations, with framing of rough-adzed timbers and weather-boarded walls. One barn has a thatched roof, and may be of an earlier date than the house; the second has a tiled roof, and is possibly of a later date than the other.

Condition—Of house and barns, good.

S.E. side

(135). Walton Grange, is a two storeyed house, built of timber and brick in the 16th century, now almost entirely covered with rough-cast or tile-hanging; the roofs are tiled. The plan was originally L-shaped, with the internal angle of the L facing W. In the 19th century a modern wing was added at the E. corner, and the main block appears to have been extended towards the S.W. On the N.W. front is a porch with an upper storey supported on turned wood posts, and part of the upper storey of the main block projects. The N. wing has an overhanging upper storey, and in the N.E. wall is some original timber-framing. The S.E. elevation has a projecting semi-circular staircase, apparently modern, but covered with ivy. The large central chimney stack is original, with square shafts, restored at the top. In the kitchen is a chamfered beam with moulded stops which probably show the position of the original S.W. wall.

The coach house and stable adjoining the S.W. end of the house were built also in the 16th century, and form a rectangular block. The walls are timber-framed, except the lower part of the N.W. side, which is of stone rubble, and has four buttresses. The S.W. end is modern; the timber-framing of the other walls is much restored, and all the brick filling is modern. The roof is tiled.

Condition—Good, much restored and altered.

Unclassified

(136). Entrenchment, possibly fragment of a manorial work, near the railway, N.W. of Walton Court.



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