138. GREAT HORWOOD.
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xiv. S.W. (b)xiv. S.E. (c)xix. N.W.)
c(1). Parish Church of St. James, stands in
the middle of the village, and has walls of yellow
oolitic rubble, with dressings of similar stone.
The roofs are covered with lead and with tiles.
The earliest detail is that of the 13th-century S.
doorway, which has been re-set, possibly from the
original aisleless nave; c. 1340 the Chancel was
re-built and a N. vestry was added or preparations
were made for it; c. 1360 the West Tower was
built or begun, and towards the end of the century
the North Chapel was added. In the 15th century
the North and South Aisles were built, the nave was
slightly widened towards the S.; N. and S. porches
were constructed, and the W. tower was completed
or the upper stages were re-built. In the 19th
century the church was twice restored, the second
time in 1874, the North Vestry was built or re-built,
the North and South Porches were re-built and the
N. chapel, if not also re-built, was completely
Architectural Description—The Chancel (33½ ft.
by 18 ft.) has a moulded external cornice of
the 14th century, much restored on the N. side.
The 14th-century E. window is of four cinque-foiled round-headed lights with elaborate tracery
in a two-centred head; the external jambs and
head are of two orders, the outer order moulded,
the inner chamfered and cusped; the internal
and external labels have grotesque head-stops.
In the N. wall, at the E. end, set high up, and
opening into the vestry, is a small doorway of
uncertain date, with chamfered jambs and roughly
triangular head; the rear arch is in the vestry:
a doorway at the floor level also opens into the
vestry, and is of c. 1340, with an elaborately
moulded two-centred head; a chamfered string-course is carried over it to form a label, with a
head-stop on the E. side, and is continued towards
the W. as a label above the two arches opening
into the chapel; the E. arch is of the 14th century,
two-centred, and of two chamfered orders; the
W. arch is modern. In the S. wall are three 14th-century windows: the two eastern are each of
three trefoiled lights with elaborate tracery in a
two-centred head; the internal and external labels
have head-stops, one representing a man in a
liripipe hood: the third window is of two trefoiled
lights, with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head;
the sill is carried down low, and there are hooks
for hinges in the W. jamb, but no rebate or transom:
between the two western windows is a doorway
of c. 1340, with a moulded two-centred head,
much weathered, and a two-centred rear arch;
the sill-course of the windows is carried over the
doorway to form a label. The 14th-century
chancel arch is two-centred, and of two continuously chamfered orders. The Vestry is modern, but
contains an old piscina (see Fittings). The North
Chapel (24 ft. by 13 ft.) has, in the E. wall, opening
into the vestry, a modern doorway; high up in
the wall is a window of three lights and tracery,
almost completely modern, but with a few old
stones in the jambs. In the N. wall are two
modern windows. In the W. wall, opening into
the aisle, is a 15th-century arch, two-centred and
of one chamfered order, of ironstone, with a large
broach-stop on each side; the jambs are of one
square order, much scraped; between the arch
and the N. wall of the chancel is the narrow
doorway of the former rood-loft, set level with
the arch, but now blocked; it is of ironstone, and
is also visible in the aisle. The Nave (43 ft. by
18 ft.) has late 15th-century N. and S. arcades
of four bays; the two-centred arches are of two
orders, the outer order hollow-chamfered, the
inner moulded; the octagonal columns have plain
moulded capitals and bases, and the responds are
semi-octagonal. The North Aisle (13 ft. wide) has,
in the N. wall, three 15th-century windows, all
restored, especially the westernmost, and each of
three cinque-foiled ogee lights and tracery in a
four-centred head, and with a transom above the
lights: between the two western windows is the
late 15th-century N. doorway of two continuously
chamfered orders, with a two-centred head and
an external label; the jambs have been much
restored. In the W. wall is a window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head;
it is apparently of somewhat earlier date than the
aisle and was probably brought from elsewhere.
The South Aisle (12 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall,
a late 15th-century window of four cinque-foiled
lights and tracery under a square head, with an
external label which has been much restored;
the rear arch is four-centred. In the S. wall are
three windows of the same date and design as
the N. windows of the N. aisle, and all considerably
restored; between the two western windows is the
S. doorway, which is of mid 13th-century date,
re-set and much restored; the two-centred head
and label are moulded, and the jambs have shafts
with plain bell-capitals; the moulded bases are
modern or much restored. In the W. wall is a
window similar to the W. window of the N. aisle.
The West Tower (12 ft. square) is of three stages,
with diagonal W. buttresses, an embattled parapet,
and a circular staircase in the thickness of the
S.W. angle, rising above the parapet as a small
octagonal turret with a pyramidal stone roof;
the parapet and roof are modern. The 14th-century tower arch is two-centred and of three
orders, the two outer orders chamfered, and the
innermost moulded, all dying on to square responds.
The 14th-century W. doorway is of two continuously moulded orders, with a two-centred head
and an external label, all much restored; the W.
window is of the 15th century, also much restored,
and of two cinque-foiled lights with a sexfoil in a
two-centred head; the external reveal is of two
orders separated by a hollow, and the label is
moulded. In the second stage is a small pointed
light in the S. wall, and a rectangular loop in the
W. wall. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a
15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights
with a quatrefoil in a pointed head; the external
reveal is of two orders, the outer being of considerable depth; all the windows have labels with
head-stops and have been much restored. The
stair-turret is lighted by three rectangular loopholes. The North and South Porches are modern,
but some 15th-century material is incorporated in
the entrance archways. The Roof of the nave is
of late 15th-century date, low-pitched, and of
four bays, with moulded king-post principals
filled with cusped tracery, and carried on stone
head-corbels; on the soffits of the principals are
shields with the arms of the Passion. The aisles
have low-pitched lean-to roofs of the same date
as that of the nave, with moulded principals
which have plain curved brackets carried on
stone corbels carved in various human and grotesque forms; the purlins are chamfered.
Fittings—Bells: six and sanctus; 2nd by
Anthony Chandler, 1652; 3rd by Robert and
Bartholomew Atton, 1605; 5th by Robert Atton,
1623; sanctus probably by Richard Chandler,
1696. Brackets, for images: In chancel—on S.
side of E. window, carved with grotesque bust
of man, early 14th-century. In S. aisle—on S.
side of E. window, moulded, 15th-century. Font:
octagonal bowl, one side blank, other sides carved
with cusped sunk panelling of window-tracery
type, and on four sides, shields, late 14th-century,
much scraped. Glass: In S. aisle—in upper lights,
and in heads of lower lights of E. window, vine,
fruit and flower designs, late 14th-century, made
up with modern glass. Image: In N. aisle—
in niche, lower half of carved wooden figure, 15th-century. Monument: In chancel—on N. wall,
to Robert Barker, 1636, and Marie (Smith), his wife,
1653, broken pediment and cartouche of white
marble, with arms. Niches: In N. aisle—N. of
chapel arch, with cinque-foiled head, and above it
an embattled string-course, late 14th-century,
re-set. In S. aisle—N. of E. window, with ogee
crocketed and finialled head, flanking buttresses
and three shields, middle shield bearing the
arms of the Passion, dexter shield quartered,
sinister shield paly within a border of roundels
quartering a cross, late 14th-century, re-set.
Panelling: In nave and S. aisle—at W. end,
incorporated in modern seating, part of six linen
panels, early 16th-century. Piscinae: In chancel—with cinque-foiled ogee head, crocketed and
finialled label, with grotesque head-stops, projecting basin, 14th-century. In vestry—with trefoiled
head, 14th-century, weather-worn, basin modern.
In N. chapel—with trefoiled head, 15th-century,
basin modern. In S. aisle—with cinque-foiled head,
projecting basin, 15th-century. Plate: includes
two stand patens of 1697. Screens: In chancel—
four panels and doorway of rood-screen, upper
panels open, each of two trefoiled lights with
tracery in a four-centred head, all cut out of
boards, moulded mullions, close lower panels, late
15th-century, loft and canopy modern. Seating:
In N. aisle—at E. end, incorporated in modern
seat, part of bench-end, 15th-century. Sedilia:
In chancel—triple, formed by low internal sill of
S.E. window, with moulded jambs and mullions,
skeleton canopy with cinque-foiled ogee head over
each seat, crocketed and finialled, E. and W. jambs
and part of E. and W. heads, 14th-century, the
Condition—Good; considerably restored; partly
re-built. The S. wall of chancel leans outwards at
the top, but is apparently sound.
c(2). Manor Farm, ¼ mile N.E. of the church,
is a house of two storeys and an attic, built probably
early in the 17th century, but the only work of
that date now visible is a chimney stack; the
walls are of brick of c. 1700. The roofs are covered
partly with tiles and partly with slate. The
'courts' of the manor are still held in the courtroom. The plan is rectangular, with a small
projection at the back, and a modern addition at
the N. end. In front the wall has blue burnt
headers, and between the storeys is a projecting
string-course; some of the windows are blocked.
There are two gables at each end of the building.
At the back the projection is gabled, and the
windows have moulded wood frames of c. 1700.
One chimney stack has grouped square shafts
built of early 17th-century brick, and another
stack, of later date, is rectangular, with projecting
nibs at the sides.
Interior:—Two rooms have wide open fireplaces;
one of them is partly blocked, the other has a
marble architrave, and above it is a panelled
overmantel with a painting, all of c. 1700. The
court-room is lined with bolection-moulded panelling of c. 1700, and the doorways have moulded
architraves. The entrance passage and the walls
of the staircase have large unmoulded panels.
On the first floor, opening from the landing, are
five doorways of c. 1700, with moulded architraves
and cornices; some of them have contemporary
doors and one doorway has also a moulded frieze
and pediment. Some of the rooms have fireplaces
with moulded stone architraves and panelled
overmantels; one room has large plain panels on
two of the walls, a moulded over-door and a painting in the overmantel; all of c. 1700. The staircase
from the ground floor to the first floor is of c. 1700,
and has a large moulded handrail, twisted and
turned balusters, and square newels; against the
wall are half-balusters, etc.; at the foot of the
stairs is a dog-gate. The plain stairs from the
first floor to the attic are old.
These buildings are nearly all of two storeys,
timber-framed with brick filling, and all of late
16th or early 17th-century date, but most of
them have been restored and altered; the cottages in the hamlet of Singleborough were much
re-built in the 18th and 19th centuries. The roofs
generally are thatched. Inside many of the
buildings in the village old ceiling-beams and other
constructional timbers are visible.
c(3). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, 250
yards N.E. of the church. The walls have been
re-faced with brick; the roof is covered with slate.
The central chimney stack is of thin bricks.
Main road, N. side
c(4). Cottage, about 250 yards E. of the church.
The front is of modern brick. The central chimney
stack has two shafts built of thin bricks.
c(5). Cottage, about 300 yards E. of the church.
The brick filling in the walls is almost entirely
c(6). Cottage, now two tenements, about 360
yards E. of the church. One chimney stack is
of late 16th or early 17th-century brick.
c(7). Cottage, N.E. of (6). The front is of
modern brick. One chimney stack is original.
c(8). Cottage, opposite (7). The brick filling in
the walls is almost entirely modern. At the W.
end is a chimney stack built of thin bricks.
c(9). Cottage, opposite (6). The front is of
modern brick, and the brick filling in the other
walls is almost entirely modern.
c(10). Cottage, now two tenements, opposite (4).
The walls are covered with plaster.
Condition—Fairly good, much restored and
c(11). Cottage, W. of (10). The walls are
covered with plaster; the chimney stack is of
Great Horwood, Plan Showing Positions of Monuments
c(12). Cottage, now four tenements, 220 yards
E. of the church. The walls are covered with
plaster. The chimney stack is of thin bricks.
c(13). Cottage, about 110 yards E. of the church.
At the W. end is a chimney stack of late 16th or
early 17th-century brick.
c(14). Cottage, now three tenements, 90 yards
E. of the church.
c(15). Cottage, now four tenements, on the
E. side of a lane, 80 yards N.N.E. of the church.
The walls have modern brick filling; the roofs
are covered with slate.
c(16). Cottage, on the E. side of the road, 180
yards S. of the church. The timber-framed walls
are covered with plaster. The central chimney
stack is of thin bricks.
c(17). Cottage, on the W. side of the road,
140 yards S. of (16). The front is of modern
brick. The roof is covered with slate.
c(18–19). Cottages, two, the first N. of (17),
the second 80 yards N. of (18). The walls are
c(20). Cottage and Barn, N.W. of (19). The
Cottage is of one storey and has modern brick
filling in the walls. The Barn is weather-boarded.
Condition—Of cottage, fairly good; of barn,
c(21). Farmhouse and Barn, W. of (20).
The House has much plastered filling in the walls.
Two chimney stacks are of thin bricks. The Barn
is weather-boarded and has large timbers in the
Condition—Of house, good; of barn, poor.
The Winslow road, W. side
c(22). Cottage, now two tenements, 300 yards
S.W. of the church. Two chimney stacks are of
c(23). Cottage, N. of (22). The brick filling in
the walls is entirely modern. The roof is covered
Singleborough, main road, W. side
c(24). Cottage, ½ mile N.W. of the church. One
chimney stack is of thin bricks.
c(25). Cottage, 160 yards N.N.E. of (24).
c(26). Cottage, 60 yards N.E. of (25).
a(27). Cottage, 60 yards N. of (26). Two
chimney stacks are of late 16th or early 17th-century brick.
Condition—Of 25–27, fairly good.
c(28). Cottage and Barn, 100 yards N.E. of (24).
The barn has weather-boarded walls on a stone
c(29). Cottage, opposite (25). The walls are
almost entirely of modern brick; the roof is
covered with slate.
c(30). Cottage, opposite (26). The central chimney stack has grouped square shafts built of thin
bricks. The roof is covered with slate.
a(31). Cottage, on the S. side of the road, 2/3 mile
N. of the church. The bases of two original
chimney stacks remain.
a(32). The Six Lords' Inn, 80 yards E. of (31).
One chimney stack is of late 16th or early 17th-century brick.
b(33) Line of Entrenchment, at Briarsbank
Farm, about 1½ miles N.E. of the church.