Ecclesiastical Buildings

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English Heritage

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1939

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125-156

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'Ecclesiastical Buildings', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Oxford (1939), pp. 125-156. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=121706 Date accessed: 25 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Ecclesiastical Buildings


Arms of the See of Oxford

Arms of the See of Oxford

(27) Parish Church of All Saints (Plates 198, 200), stands on the N. side of High Street. The walls are of Oxfordshire stone faced in ashlar; the roofs are covered with slates. The mediæval church was entirely demolished in 1699 and the present church was built in 1707–8 from the design, it is said, of Henry Aldrich, Dean of Christ Church. Various restorations have taken place in 1865, 1888 and 1920 and the spire was re-built in 1874; the external stonework has been largely renewed.

The church is a good example of its period and the font from St. Martin Carfax is noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Body of the Church (74½ ft. by 44½ ft.) is five bays long and three bays across. The walls stand on a high plinth and basement and have coupled Corinthian pilasters between the bays and at the angles, supporting the main entablature; above this is an attic storey with plain coupled pilasters between the bays, a dentilled cornice and a balustraded parapet. Except at the W. end, each bay of the main storey has a round-headed window with a key-block; the middle bay of the E. wall has a recess of similar form; each free bay of the basement has a segmental-headed window with key-blocks. Each bay of the attic storey has a shorter segmental-headed window with a key-block. The W. bay of the side walls has a square-headed doorway with moulded architrave, cornice and curved pediment; it is covered by a portico with coupled Corinthian columns supporting an entablature, continued from the main entablature, and a pediment; the soffit is coffered. The interior is divided into bays by triple fluted pilasters of the Corinthian order supporting a continuous entablature; the main windows have shields-of-arms of the colleges of the University on the key-blocks; above the gallery in the W. bays are stone cartouches-of-arms; the attic storey has plain triple pilasters between the bays and the windows have cherub-head key-blocks; the general architectural arrangement is continued across the W. wall and in the attic-bays are (a) the arms of Prince George of Denmark on a double-headed eagle, (b) the arms of the University and (c) the arms of the City, all in stone. The flat plaster ceiling is coved at the sides and groined back over the attic windows and bays; it is divided into fifteen compartments by broad enriched ribs springing from the central wallpilasters and having rosettes at the intersections; the three central panels have modelled wreaths with central rosettes and the other panels have modelled foliage; the groins have foliage and cartouches-of-arms of the benefactors of the building of 1707—(a) Queen Anne; (b) Montague Bertie, 2nd Earl of Abingdon; (c) Nathaniel Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham; (d) Thomas Smith, Bishop of Carlisle; (e) John Hall, Bishop of Bristol; (f) Sidney, 1st Earl of Godolphin; (g) Sir Cresswell Levinz; (h) Fitzherbert Adams, Rector of Lincoln College; (i) William Talbot, Bishop of Oxford; (j) Francis North, 2nd Lord Guilford; (k) Sir William Dashwood, Bart.; (l) Sir Edward Norris; (m) Dr. William Lancaster; (n) Dr. Smith; (o) Henry Chivers and (p) Henry Rowney.

The West Tower (Plate 198) (about 12 ft. square) is ashlar-faced and of two stages. The ground-stage has rusticated masonry and an entablature continued from that of the church; the E. wall has a doorway similar to those in the body of the church; the other three walls have each a round-headed window with a key-block and shaped apron. The upper stage has rusticated anglepilasters and an entablature; each face has a round-headed window with moulded imposts and archivolt and of three lights with intersecting tracery; below the window, in each free side, is a circular panel with triple key-block; those on the N. and S. have achievements of the arms of Nathaniel, Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham and that on the W. forms a window. The stage is finished with a balustraded parapet. The spire was re-built in 1874 and consists of a colonnaded circular stage with an entablature and balustraded parapet with vases, and an octagonal spire.


The Parish Church of All Saints

The Parish Church of All Saints

Fittings (of early 18th-century date unless otherwise specified)—Brass-Indents: In churchyard—N. of church, (1) of man and wife with inscription-plate; (2) of man and wife with inscription-plate; (3) of plate; 15th-17th-century. Candelabrum: of brass with ball, two tiers each of ten branches and mitre at top. Chair: modern, but incorporating enriched early 17th-century panel. Communion Rails: of oak with panelled standards, panels of pierced and carved foliage and moulded rail. Doors: In N. and S. doorways, two, each of two upper and two lower panelled leaves. In tower—in E. doorway, of two panelled leaves; in N. doorway, of one panelled leaf. Font (Plate 26): formerly in St. Martin Carfax, octagonal bowl with moulded upper and lower edges, range of blank shields and small panels above, and range of quatre-foiled panels below, panelled octagonal stem with buttressed angles and a carved standing figure in the middle of each face, five being bishops and others perhaps St. Stephen and St. Lawrence, probably late 14th-century. Glass: In middle upper window in E. wall, panel with achievement-of-arms and inscription "Sir John Walter Bart. g ... the glassing of this church Ano. Dni. 1708." Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In body of church—against S. wall, (1) of William Levins, 1616, mayor of Oxford, and Ursula his wife, 1575, altar-tomb and effigy, altar-tomb with black marble supports and slab with shield-of-arms on front edge, painted alabaster effigy (Plate 95) of man in armour with cloak; at gallery-level, further W., (2) stone cartouche with shield-of-arms of Moore of Bankill (?), defaced inscription and cherubs, probably early 18th-century. On W. wall, at gallery-level, (3) to Dorothy (Dunch), wife of William Wright, 1686, draped marble tablet with cherub head and achievement-of-arms. In tower—on E. wall, (4) to Katherine (Seaman), wife of John West, 1667–8, stone tablet; (5) to Gilbert Nichols, 1691, stone tablet; on N. wall, (6) to John Paynton, 1675, also to John Paynton, his father, 1681, Ann, his mother, 1680–1 and Mary his sister, 1692, oval tablet; on W. wall, (7) to William Cornish, 1679, mayor of Oxford, and Henry, 1681, Catherine, 1681, Elizabeth, 1687, Anne, 1649 and William, 1689, his children, tablet; (8) to Jane, daughter of Zachari Edwards, 1694, white marble scrolled tablet. Monuments (2), (3), (4) and (6) from St. Martin Carfax. In churchyard—E. of church (9) to Mary, wife of Thomas ..., late 17th-century headstone; N. side, (10) to William Wright, 1686, and Dorothy Lambourne, his daughter, 1757, slab; N. of church, (11) to John Paine, 1686, slab. Floor-slabs: (1) to Thomas Marshall, S.T.D., 1685, Rector of Lincoln College and Dean of Gloucester, with cartouche-of-arms; (2) to Elizabeth, wife of William Danrig, 1711; (3) to Martin Wright, 1664, mayor of Oxford, Mary, 16.. and William, 1693, his children, and William Wright, his grandson, 1694; (4) to William Bayly, 1683, mayor of Oxford; (5) to Anne (Phipps), wife of George Phipps, 1702, with achievement-of-arms; (6) to Frances (Browne), wife of William Phipps, 1684, also to William Phipps, 1701. Panelling: In ground-stage of tower—panelling in two heights with dado-rail and cornice. Paving: Of alternate squares of white and grey stone, set diagonally. Plate: includes, from St. Martin Carfax, a cup and cover-paten of 1597; a stand-paten of 1632 given by William Marten; a flagon of ewer-form of 1610 given by Daniel Hough in 1645; plate of All Saints includes a secular standing-cup of 1606 with repoussé ornament, baluster-stem and steeple-cover, given by Richard Kilbey, Rector of Lincoln College, in 1620; a flagon of 1673 given by Susanna, Baroness Grey of Ruthin, with her arms; and a stand-paten of 1712. Pulpit (Plate 42): hexagonal with central post and fluted ogee-shaped stem, each face with central round panel, ribs, enriched cornice and base-moulding, in S. panel the inlaid initials I.H.S., stairs with twisted balusters; sounding-board with inlaid soffit and entablature with cherub-heads, pediments and vases, square standard with Composite pilaster on each face. Reredos (Plate 200): of stone with Ionic side-pilasters, entablature and pediment, on face of pilasters, carved cherub-heads and drapery, in middle, black marble panels with Commandments, Creed and Lord's Prayer, given in 1717. Royal Arms: On gallery-front—of Queen Anne, in carved wood. Rain-water Heads: On exterior—with date 1707. Stalls: mostly modern, but incorporating old work, including various pierced and carved panels. Miscellanea: near Monument (1)—length of carved and enriched stonework, probably from 16th or 17th-century monument; also a 14th-century moulded label.

Condition—Good.

(28) Parish Church of St. Aldate stands on the W. side of St. Aldate's Street. The walls are of rubble with local freestone dressings; the roofs are covered with slates. Owing to the extensive modern restorations and alterations little structural evidence survives of the development of the building. The Chancel may date from the 12th century as the restored and re-set arcading in the organ-chamber is said to have come from the N. wall. The South Aisle is of c. 1320– 30 and was built by John of Docklington; in it he founded a chantry of St. Mary in 1335; the Crypt below the E. end is of the same date. The North Aisle was built by Philip Polton, fellow of All Souls and Archdeacon of Gloucester, shortly before 1461 as a chapel of St. Saviour. An upper storey was added to the S. aisle early in the 17th century as a library for Pembroke College; it was removed in 1862. The church was restored and enlarged in 1862 when the arcades of the Nave were re-built, the North Chapel added or re-built, the N.W. Vestry and the South Chapel added, and the S. aisle extended W. The West Tower was re-built in 1873–4; in 1905 the N. chapel was converted into a vestry and organ-chamber and the floor of the chancel was raised. The South Porch is modern.

Among the fittings the monuments and font are noteworthy.


Church of St. Aldate, Plan

Church of St. Aldate, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (35¾ ft. by 17½ ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall is a modern window and a modern arcade of two bays. In the S. wall is a window, all modern except the late 14th-century splays and moulded rear-arch; further W. is a modern arcade of two bays. The chancel-arch is modern. Re-set in the E. wall of the modern N. chapel is a much restored 12th-century wall-arcade, said to have come from the N. wall of the chancel; it is of five bays and has round arches of one square order and springing from shafts with cushion-capitals.

The Nave (68¾ ft. by 23¼ ft.) has modern N. and S. arcades of four bays.

The North Aisle (14¼ ft. wide) is of the 15th century and has a moulded plinth. In the N. wall are three slightly restored windows, each of three cinque-foiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded jambs and label; the partly restored N. doorway has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with a label. In the W. wall is a partly restored window of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head.

The South Aisle (14½ ft. wide) is of early 14th-century date, extended W. in 1862. In the E. wall is a modern arch set in the lower part of the original E. window; this is partly restored and of five trefoiled ogee lights with net-tracery in a two-centred head, with moulded reveals, labels and head-stops. In the S. wall are four windows, the easternmost modern externally, the two middle windows original but partly restored and the westernmost modern; they are each of three trefoiled ogee lights with net-tracery in a two-centred head with labels and some old internal head-stops. The S. doorway and the window in the W. wall are modern.

The Crypt (24¾ ft. by 14½ ft.), under the E. end of the S. aisle, is of early 14th-century date and of two bays with a stone vault; this is of quadripartite form with chamfered cross, diagonal and wall ribs continued down the walls as grouped responds. In the E. wall is a blocked window and in the S. wall is an early 16th-century doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; further W. is a square-headed window.

The Roofs are modern but the chancel and N. arcade have stone head-corbels of c. 1500.

Fittings—Bells: six and sanctus; 2nd and 3rd by Michael Darbie, 1654; 4th by Ellis Knight 1627 5th by Henry Knight, 1620. Book: In N. aisle— chained Book of Homilies, 1676. Brackets: In S. aisle—on E. wall, one with carved foliage; on S. wall two carved with heads of a king and queen, 14th-century. Brasses: In nave—on S.W. respond, (1) of Lewis Owen, 1597 and Griffin Owen, 1607, plate with kneeling figures of men in gown and hood at prayer-desk, with shield-of-arms. In N. aisle—on W. wall, (2) of Arthur Strode, 1612, plate with kneeling figure of young man in gown at prayer-desk, with shield-of-arms; (3) of Nicholas Roope, 1613, plate with kneeling figure of man in gown and hood at prayer-desk, with shield-of-arms. Chests: In vestry—(1) plain, with one lock, moulded lid and inscription on front, "1692.I.R.,R.O.,C.W." (2) similar and smaller but with three locks and inscription "St. Aldates 1709". Communion Table: In S. chapel—with heavy turned legs, late 16th or early 17th-century. Font (Plate 26): octagonal bowl with moulded top enriched with angels' heads, sides each with quatre-foiled panel enclosing a man's head and with foliage-spandrels, moulded stem with carved leaves and mutilated lions at alternate angles, 15th-century. Cover, of oak and of octagonal pyramidal form with moulded ribs and vase at top, panels painted with figure-subjects representing the crossing of the Red Sea, late 17th-century. Monuments: In chancel—against N. wall, (1) of John Noble, LL.B., Principal of Broadgate Hall (now Pembroke College), 1522, altar-tomb and effigy of alabaster, altar-tomb with seven shallow canopied niches each with a figure of an angel holding a shield and partly mutilated, later shield-of-arms and initials scratched on two shields, E. and W. ends each with two similar niches and figures of a man and wife kneeling at a prayer-desk with eight children at the E. end and two angels at the W. end, on edge of slab, carved inscription with the versicle Nunc xp~e etc. from matins of the dead in the Sarum Breviary and Job xix, 21; effigy (Plate 135) of man in gown and hood, head on cushion with two angels, partly mutilated. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (2) to Anne, wife of John Woolley, 1710 and her husband, 1718, plain slab; (3) to John Woolley, 1690, also to his grandsons James, 1704–5, John, 1705, and John, 1708– 9, sons of John Woolley, stone tablet with cherub-heads and flowers. In N.W. vestry—on S. wall, (4) of John West, 1695–6, Mary (Kirke) his wife, 1686 and Ann their daughter, 1674, marble wall-monument (Plate 29) with busts of man and two women in square-headed recess, flanked by Ionic columns supporting an entablature and pediment, three cartouches-of-arms and large cartouche-of-arms re-set at side; on W. wall, (5) to George Lowe, 1682, black marble oval tablet; on S wall, (6) to Lucretia (Tipping), wife of Richard Carter 1708, and their two children, Richard and Jane, white marble tablet. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (7) to Ann (Doyley), wife of Robert Willson, 1652–3, alabaster and slate tablet, with scrolls, pediment and lozenge-of-arms; (8) stone tablet recording benefactions of John Hall, Bishop of Bristol (1691–1710) and Master of Pembroke, with side-pilasters, pediment and cartouche-of-arms; (9) to William Chipps, mason, 1710(?), oval tablet; on W. wall, (10) to William Collier, 1691 (?), slate tablet. Niches: On N. aisle—over W. doorway and in W. wall outside, recesses with cinque-foiled heads and sunk spandrels, 15th-century. Piscinae: In chancel—in sill of S. window, sex-foiled drain, 13th or 14th-century. In S. aisle—in S. wall, rectangular recess with remains of ogee head and finial, octofoiled drain, cut back, early 14th-century. Plate: includes cup and cover-paten of 1680 with the names and initials of the churchwardens and the date 1681 and a flagon of 1674, given by John West and Mary his wife, 1674. Seating: In N. aisle—small bench with shaped ends, probably early 17th-century. Miscellanea: In vestry—incorporated in modern bookcases, traceried panels, three with a crowned shield with the initials I.H.C., 15th-century, said to have come from Takeley Priory. On W. wall of N. aisle—tablet with the inscription "W.F. These pilers were made A.D. 1581."

Condition—Good, largely re-built.

(29) Parish Church of St. Clement formerly stood E. of Magdalen Bridge where part of the church-yard still survives. The existing church was built in 1828 on a new site 600 yards N.E. of the Bridge. It contains, from the old church, the following:—

Fittings—Bells: Two and sanctus; 1st by James Keene of Woodstock, 1636; 2nd, long-waisted and probably of early 14th-century date. Chest: In N. aisle—with three locks, probably 17th-century. Plate: includes cup (Plate 41) of 1551 with band of engraved ornament and initials G.B. and W.W.; paten of 1685, with the date 1686 and the names of the churchwardens; cup (Plate 41) and cover-paten of 1684 from St. Michael Lichfield, with inscription and figure of saint.

Condition—Rebuilt.

(30) Parish Church of St. Cross, Holywell (Plate 204), stands on the E. side of St. Cross Road. The walls are of rubble with dressings of local stone; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. The chancel-arch was built late in the 11th or early in the 12th century and the contemporary Chancel and Nave were probably of much the same size as the existing features. The West Tower was added about the middle of the 13th century and by this time the nave had N. and S. aisles which were extended to overlap the tower. The N. arcade and North Aisle were re-built about the middle of the 15th century and the top stage of the tower is said to have been added in 1464 by Henry Sever, Warden of Merton College. The two aisles were pulled down at some unknown period with the exception of the W. bay of the N. aisle and the E. part of the S. aisle which formed a chapel. In 1592 a S. porch was added; it was removed at the restoration. The church was restored in the 19th century when the N. aisle was re-built, the S. arcade and Aisle re-built, the clearstorey altered, and the South Porch added; the North Vestry and Organ-Chamber are modern.


The Church of St. Cross

The Church of St. Cross

Architectural Description—The Chancel (26¼ ft. by 14 ft.) has an E. window all modern except perhaps the moulded internal reveals which may be of the 15th century. In the N. wall is a modern archway. In the S. wall is a much restored 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. The late 11th or early 12th-century chancel-arch is semi-circular and of one square order; the chamfered imposts have axe-worked diaper-ornament; N. of the arch is a round-headed recess probably a former doorway to the rood-loft; S. of the arch is an opening for the pulpit.

The Vestry and Organ-Chamber are modern but incorporate two 15th-century windows, one of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head and the other of two trefoiled lights in a two-centred head.

The Nave (40½ ft. by 19¾ ft.) has a mid 15th-century N. arcade of three bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders, springing from octagonal columns and semi-octagonal responds, all with moulded capitals. The S. arcade is modern but the arches may incorporate old material; if so it is of the 13th century; the arches are two-centred and of two chamfered orders springing, on the E., from a moulded corbel with carved foliage, perhaps ancient.

The North Aisle (14½ ft. wide) has been re-built except for the 15th-century W. bay. In the N. wall are four 15th-century windows; the three eastern are re-set and are each of two cinque-foiled lights in a two-centred head; the westernmost window is of two cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head. In the W. wall is a 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head.

The South Aisle (12¼ ft. wide) is modern except for part of the E. wall. In the S. wall are three windows incorporating 15th-century material; the re-set 15th-century S. doorway has moulded jambs and four-centred head. The window in the W. wall incorporates 15th-century material.

The West Tower (11½ ft. square) is of two stages, the lower (Plate 14) of mid 13th-century date and the upper of c. 1465 and finished with a modern embattled parapet. The E. tower-arch is perhaps of the 14th century and is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, dying on to the responds. The N. and S. tower-arches are each two-centred and of three chamfered orders, the outer two continued down the responds and the inner springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; on the S. face of the S.E. pier is one jamb of a former doorway to the blocked tower-staircase. The W. window is a single lancet-light with remains of a square-headed label above it; below it is a doorway with jambs and two-centred arch of three chamfered orders, partly restored, with moulded imposts. The bell-chamber has a modern doorway in the E. wall; in the N. and S. walls is a restored 15th-century window of two trefoiled lights in a square head; in the W. wall is a window of one pointed light.

Fittings—Bells: five, 2nd and 3rd by Richard Keene, 1677; 4th by Henry Knight, 1620; 5th by Ellis Knight, 1641. Brasses: In nave—(1) to Agnes, wife of Thomas Hopper, 1625, Jane, his daughter, 1625, erected by Robert Hopper his son, plate with kneeling figures of two women at prayer-desk and inscription plate. In tower—on S.E. pier, (2) to Eliza, third wife of Thomas Franklin, 1622, plate with figure of woman in bed with four infants. Hour-glass: In S. aisle—17th or 18th-century, from St. Martin Carfax. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In churchyard—S.E. of chancel, (1) to Hercules, William and Elizabeth, infant children of Hercules Osbaldeston, c. 1700; (2) to Thomas, 1642 and John Billingsley, 1660; headstones; S. of nave, (3) to William Merryman, 1628 and Anne, his wife, 1619, table-tomb. Floor-slabs: In nave—(1) to A. E., 1674 and E. E., 1692; (2) to .... Langford and wife, 16..: (3) to Mary, wife of Francis Sayer, 1672; (4) with date 1711. In tower—(5) to Joane, wife of John Dickeson, 1645; (6) to Mary, wife of Nathaniel New, 1699; (7) to Mary, daughter of John Souch, 1640. In S. aisle—(8) to ..... Sayer, 17th-century; (9) with date 1693. Niche: In S. aisle—in E. wall, recess with cinque-foiled ogee arch in square traceried head and moulded base, probably early 16th-century. Plate: includes cup (Plate 41) of 1569; alms-dish of 1683, given by V. P. (Ursula Perrot), with lozenge-of-arms and a flagon of 1702, given in that year by K. Venn.

Condition—Good.

(31) Parish Church of St. Ebbe stands on the corner of Church Street and St. Ebbe's Street. The walls, where old, are of rubble with freestone dressings. The re-set W. doorway is evidence of a mid 12th-century building and the N.W. Tower seems to have been built in the 13th century. This tower is said to have fallen in 1648 but this probably applies only to the upper part. The rest of the church was entirely re-built in 1814 and the top stage of the tower is modern.

Architectural Description—The West Doorway is of mid 12th-century date, much restored and re-set in its present position in 1904, and has a round arch of two orders with a moulded label; the outer order, with cheveron-ornament, is mostly ancient but the moulded inner order with beak-heads is a modern copy; the original inner order, partly restored, has been recovered and set against the W. wall, further S.; the jambs have each two shafts, with moulded bases and capitals carved with scallops, a volute and other ornament.

The North-West Tower (about 9 ft. square) is of four storeys. The ground storey has a modern lancet-window in the N. and W. walls. The second storey has no windows. The third storey or bell-chamber had in the N., S. and W. walls a window of two pointed lights in a two-centred head with a label; the N. window has been blocked and the head raised; the S. window has lost its mullion; the mullion of the W. window is modern; in the E. wall is a modern doorway. The top storey is modern.

Fittings—Chests: In N. chapel—(1) of hutch-type, with strap-hinges and three locks, probably late 17th-century; (2) framed with wide end standards, iron straps and strap-hinges, probably 17th-century. Glass: In S. aisle—in S.E. window, (a) made-up shield of de la Pole impaling France and England with a label, 15th-century; (b) shield of William Juxon, Bishop of London 1633–60; (c) shield of Sir William Norreys and Joan (Vere) his wife, c. 1500; (d) shield probably of Philip of Burgundy impaling that of Joanna of Spain, 16th-century; (e) impaled shield of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, c. 1500; (f) shield as (c); (g) City of London; (h) part of figure of St. James, inscription with name Maria, two crowns and fragments, 15th and 16th-century; in second window, Virgin and Child, heads only old, made-up figure of St. Ebbe, mostly modern, fragments of borders, tabernacle-work, inscriptions, etc., 15th-century. In N. chapel—in N. window, fragments set in border. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. aisle—on N. wall, (1) to Frances, daughter of John Whorwood, 1678, stone tablet with scrolls, skull and cartouche; on W. wall, (2) to Robert Whorwood, 1688, draped white marble tablet (Plate 35) with cherubs and cartouche-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In N. aisle—(1) to William Bodley, 1697; (2) to Thomas Wildgos, 17.., and another, 1706; (3) to Ann, wife of Thomas Browne, 1705. Plate: includes an Elizabethan cup (Plate 41) and cover-paten, the latter with the initials and date S.T. 1569; a cup (Plate 41) and cover-paten of 1689, given by Mary Adeane, 1691, with lozenge-of-arms on the cup; two patens of 1672, given by Robert Whorwood, 1672, with shield-of-arms; a flagon of 1696, given by Gabriel Seymor, 1696; and an alms-dish of 1703, given by Catherine Adee, 1822. Seating: In W. porch— small bench, probably late 17th or early 18th-century.

Condition—Good.

(32) Parish Church of St. Giles (Plates 7, 14) stands at the N. end of St. Giles Street. The walls are of rubble with dressings of local stone; the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The Nave was built in the 12th century and no doubt had aisles; towards the end of the century the West Tower was built and the aisles extended to enclose it on the N. and S.; the top stage of the tower was added shortly after. Early in the 13th century the Chancel was re-built, the North and South Aisles and arcades re-built and the South Porch added. The South Chapel was added about the middle of the century and at the end of the century the N. and E. walls of the chancel were re-built. The nave-walls were raised probably late in the 15th or early in the 16th century. The church was restored c. 1850–2 when the S. chapel was largely re-built with the re-use of earlier features and the S. clearstorey windows were restored. The church was again restored in 1920.


The Parish Church of St. Giles

The Parish Church of St. Giles

The church is of considerable interest and among the fittings the font is noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (35 ft. by 15¾ ft.) has a largely modern E. window of three pointed lights in a two-centred head with a moulded label and shafted splays and mullions; in the gable is a small window of one trefoiled light. In the N. wall are three late 13th-century windows, the first of two pointed lights in a two-centred head with a label; the middle window is a lancet-light. In the S. wall is a window similar to that last described, but with a round rear-arch; further W. is a mid 13th-century arch, semi-circular and of one chamfered order with labels and one foliage-stop; the E. respond has a moulded impost. The restored 13th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of one chamfered order with moulded label and imposts.

The South Chapel (35 ft. by 17½ ft.) has been re-built, except the E. wall. The mid 13th-century E. window is of three trefoiled lights with geometrical tracery in a two-centred head with shafted splays and mullions and moulded label and rear-arch; in the gable is a blocked round-headed light. In the S. wall are two windows almost entirely modern; the doorway is modern. In the W. wall is a 13th-century arch, two-centred and of one square order; the moulded imposts appear to be of late 12th-century date, probably re-used.

The Nave (54¾ ft. by 16½ ft.) has early 13th-century N. and S. arcades of four bays, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders springing from cylindrical columns and semi-cylindrical responds with moulded capitals and bases, except on the N.E. where the arch springs from a moulded corbel with a carved foliageknot; the two first capitals on the N. have nail-head ornament; the moulded labels have head and mask-stops; above the second column on the N. and cut into by the arches are two blocked 12th-century clearstorey windows each of one round-headed light; there were formerly two more similar windows exposed but these are now plastered over; on the N. face of the N. wall, at the E. end are the moulded kneelers of the E. gable, before the later clearstorey was added. The clearstorey windows are modern.

The North Aisle (13 ft. wide) is of early 13th-century date and has, in the E. wall, a window of two lancetlights with chamfered rear-arches springing from a free shaft with moulded base and foliated capital; the internal label has foliage-stops. In the N. wall (Plate 7) are four windows; the easternmost is of three graduated lancet-lights with labels; the rear-arches spring from splay-shafts and free grouped shafts, all with moulded bases and foliated capitals; the second window is of two lancet-lights with labels; the chamfered rear-arches spring from a free shaft with a moulded capital and base; the third window is similar to the easternmost, but with a plain chamfered rear-arch and no shafts; the westernmost window is of two pointed lights with a circle in a two-centred head with a label; the N. doorway has chamfered jambs and two-centred arch with moulded imposts and label with defaced beast-head stops; between each bay of the aisle was formerly a cross-arch of which the second has been removed; the others are or were two-centred and of one or two chamfered orders and spring from moulded corbels; some of these have carved heads; the eastern part of the N. wall, below the windows, has a wall-arcade of round chamfered arches and of two double and one single bays; the double bays have free central shafts (one modern) with moulded capitals and bases; the four eastern bays of the aisle are gabled towards the N. but the W. bay is gabled towards the W. and has in that wall a window of three graduated lancet-lights with remains of labels.

The South Aisle (14¼ ft. wide) was built early in the 13th century. In the S. wall are six windows, the easternmost of two lights and modern externally but with 13th-century splays; the other five windows are each of one lancet-light with a modern label; the much restored S. doorway has a two-centred arch of two orders, the inner hollow-chamfered, and continued below the imposts, and the outer moulded and springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the label is moulded and has foliage-stops; under the two eastern windows is a partly restored wall-arcade of two bays with segmental arches springing from one free and two attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. In the W. wall is a lancet-window.

The West Tower (12½ ft. square) is of three stages, the two lower of late 12th-century date and the bell-chamber rather later and finished with a 15th-century embattled parapet. The E. tower-arch is two-centred and of two square orders, springing from semicylindrical shafts with moulded bases and capitals carved with large 'water-leaves'; above it is part of the weathering of an earlier roof; the N. and S. walls have each a two-centred arch of one square order with moulded imposts; above the S. arch is the weathering of the 12th-century aisle-roof. The W. window is of a single pointed light. The second stage has, in the E. wall, a round-headed opening; the other three walls have each a window of one square-headed light. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of two pointed lights with moulded arches springing from one free and two jamb-shafts, with moulded and simply foliated capitals and bases; above is a single lancet-opening and the whole is enclosed in a moulded and shafted outer order with a two-centred arch and label.

The South Porch is of early 13th-century date and has a much restored two-centred outer archway of two moulded orders with a label; the jambs are modern.

The Roof of the chancel is of braced collar-beam type and probably of the 14th century. The 15th or early 16th-century roof of the nave is flat-pitched and of five bays; the trusses have tie-beams with curved braces forming flat four-centred arches with traceried spandrels; on the tie-beams are short king-posts with foiled spandrels on each side; the stone corbels are carved with shields, a king's and a bishop's head and angels holding shields.

Fittings—Bells: eight; 8th by Ellis Knight, 1632. Chest: In N. aisle—plain with three locks and anglestraps, late 17th-century. Consecration Cross: On N.W. respond of tower—painted formy cross in circle, red on white ground, 13th or 14th-century. Font (Plate 26): square bowl with curvilinear faces, vertical bands of dog-tooth ornament and shafts at angles; round stem with one attached and one free shaft towards each angle of the font, all with moulded capitals and bases on a square plinth, early 13th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Thomas Rowney, 1694, white marble tablet with scrolls, flowers, cherub-heads and cartouche; (2) to Susanna, wife of John Sayer, minister of Harwell, 1694, stone and slate tablet with scrolls and cartouche-of-arms. In S. chapel—on E. window-sill, (3) of [Henry Bosworth, 1633, mayor of Oxford], kneeling figures of man and wife, prayer-desk, two daughters and one son, fragments of monument formerly in N. aisle. In churchyard—on E. wall of chancel, (4) to Peter Nicols, 1677–8, defaced tablet; on N. wall of N. aisle, (5) to John Lucas, 1681, oval tablet; S. of S. porch, (6) 15th-century table-tomb, with quatre-foiled sides and ends and moulded top slab. Floor-slabs: In S. chapel—(1) to Margaret (Windebank), wife of Samuel Turner, S.T.P., Dean of Canterbury, 1692, also her son William Turner, S.T.P., Archdeacon of Northumberland, 1685, with lozenge-of-arms; (2) to Edward Wriglesworth, M.D., 1701 (?). In N. aisle—(3) to Benjamin Greenway, 1711; (4) to M. S. 1701; (5) to Thomas Rowney, 1694, Catherine his wife, 1705, John and Catherine his children, 1672 and William his grandson, 1704; (6) to John Willyer (?), 1687. In S. aisle—(7) to ...., 16 .., and Barbara, his wife 1689 (?), and a daughter; (8) to Elizabeth Suten, 1643; (9) to [Alisandre de Dev]port, fragments of 14th-century slab with marginal inscription. Painting: In N. aisle—on S. splay of E. window, remains of painting, perhaps drapery, in red on white, 13th-century or later. Piscinae: In chancel—recess with square head and two square drains, mediæval; further W., pillar-piscina with moulded head, base and square drain, late 13th or 14th-century. In S. chapel—in S. wall, recess with trefoiled head and shelf, 13th-century, drain modern. In S. aisle—in S. wall, recess with trefoiled head, shelf, one round and one quatre-foiled drain, late 13th-century. In N. aisle—in E. wall, recess with trefoiled head, shelf and quatre-foiled drain, 13th-century. Scratching: On E. respond of S. arch of tower— scratched name, 16th-century. Seating: In N. aisle— bench with shaped arms, top rail on five turned balusters, 17th-century. Sedile: In chancel—in S. wall, recess with two-centred head springing from free shafts with cushion-capitals and moulded bases, 12th-century material, re-set. Stoup: In S. porch—recess with pointed head, bowl missing, mediæval. Miscellanea: In S. chapel—wooden roof-boss with cross paty and foliage and colour, date uncertain. In chancel— credence-table incorporating balusters and shaped brackets from a 17th-century communion-table.

Condition—Good.

(33) Parish Church of St. Martin Carfax, on the N.W. angle of Carfax, was re-built, except for the tower, in 1820–2 and was demolished, with the same exception, in 1896. The West Tower was built perhaps in the 14th century and was restored in 1896 when the turret and top-stage were added.

Architectural Description—The Tower is of local rubble with dressings of the same material; it is of three stages of which the top stage is modern. The ground stage has a modern doorway in the E. wall. In the N. wall is a modern rectangular light with an original narrow pointed light above it. In the W. wall are the splays of the W. doorway, not visible externally. The second stage has traces on the E. face of the gable of the former nave and a blocked rectangular opening. In the N. wall is an original window of one trefoiled light; there is a similar window in both the S. and W. walls; below that in the W. wall is a blocked lancet-window. The ground-stage has old ceiling-beams with wall-posts and struts.

Fittings—Some fittings removed to All Saints church q.v. Bells: six, 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th by Richard Keene, 1676; 3rd by R. Keene 1678 with the churchwardens' names. Clock: now fixed on E. face of tower—modern clock-face set in a wooden tablet with scrolled supports and pediment; below the tablet, two brackets supporting figures in civil costume (now at the Town Hall) of quarter-boys with bells; flanking them, Doric columns supporting an entablature with the inscription "Fortis est veritas"; 17th-century. Indent: In tower—of figure of woman, canopy, two shields and marginal inscription, 15th-century. Weather-vane: of wrought-iron with cock, probably 18th-century.

Condition—Good.

(34) Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin (Plates 131, 203), stands on the N. side of High Street. The walls are of rubble with ashlar and dressings of Headington and other local stones; the roofs are covered with slates and lead. Though a church existed here at least from the 11th century the earliest part of the present structure is the North Tower which was built c. 1280; it was built against the end of a N. transept, the roof-line of which can be seen on its S. face; there are similar indications of a building to the E. of the tower but it is not certain if this was actually erected; evidence also survives of a chapel to the E. of the early transept and part of the arch opening into it survives. The spire was added c. 1310–20 and c. 1320 the Congregation House and Library were begun at the expense of Thomas Cobham, Bishop of Worcester; it was still unfinished in 1327; the upper storey was built as a library. The North Chapel, W. of the tower, was built by Adam de Brome, rector, c. 1328. The rest of the church was re-built in the 15th century; the Chancel, having become ruinous, was re-built by Walter Lyhert, Bishop of Norwich 1463; the Nave and Aisles were re-built by the University c. 1490, the N. aisle including part of the earlier N. transept. The Choir Vestry was perhaps built late in the 16th century, but may have replaced an earlier vestry. In 1637 Dr. Morgan Owen, Chancellor of the University, built the South Porch, designed by Nicholas Stone, on the site of a 15th-century porch; probably in the same century the small building N. of the W. end of the chancel was erected on part of the open court here. Much re-fitting was done to the church by Dr. Ralph Bathurst, Vice-chancellor, in 1673 and in 1733 the N. chapel was partitioned off and refitted. Galleries were inserted in 1827. The spire was repaired in 1808 and largely refaced in 1848–51; the church was generally restored in 1861–2 when the exterior was almost entirely refaced, including the outer halves of the windows; the spire was further restored in 1893–4; the arcade of the N. chapel was again opened out in 1932.

The church is a fine example of 13th to 15th-century work and the porch is an interesting 17th-century feature. Among the fittings the stalls, sedilia and funeral-pall are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (69¼ ft. by 24 ft.) is of c. 1463 and has a moulded plinth and buttresses finished with restored pinnacles. The E. window is of seven cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label. The N. and S. walls have each five windows, of three cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label; the recess of the N.E. window is carried down to a seat and has cinquefoil-headed panels at the back; below the second window on the N. is a doorway, with moulded jambs and two-centred head. The two-centred chancel-arch is of three moulded orders, springing from moulded and shafted responds with moulded capitals and bases.


The Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin

The Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin

The North Vestry has a modern E. window. In the W. wall is a 15th or 16th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights in a square head; S. of it is a doorway with a segmental-pointed head.

The Nave (95 ft. by 22¼ ft.) has late 15th-century N. and S. arcades of six bays with piers, responds and arches of similar detail to the chancel-arch. The clearstorey is finished with restored panelled parapets and pinnacles; on each side are six windows each of four cinque-foiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals; below the windows, internally, are string-courses carved with running foliage; at this level, between the windows, are carved half-angels, mostly holding shields, three of which bear the arms (a) ascribed to Richard Fitzjames, Warden of Merton and afterwards Bishop of London, (b) those of the See of Winchester, and (c) of John Taylor, Provost of Oriel; these angels form the bases or pedestals of a series of tall niches with vaulted and traceried canopies, cornice and cresting. The W. window is of seven cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head, with moulded reveals and label; the W. doorway has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels enclosing shields of the arms of John Russell, Bishop of Lincoln and Chancellor of the University (1483–94), and the University; the label-stops are carved with defaced angels holding shields.

The North Aisle (about 12½ ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, remains of a 13th-century archway, now blocked and partly destroyed; part of the two-centred arch is visible on the E. face of the wall; there is also a modern doorway and remains of a later, probably 17th-century, archway into the existing vestry. In the N. wall is a 14th-century arcade of two bays, with two-centred arches of two hollow-chamfered orders continued down the pier and responds and having a moulded label; further W. are two 15th-century windows, each of four cinque-foiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label; the 15th-century N. doorway, now blocked, has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head, with foliage and shields in the spandrels; the shields bear the arms of Draycott and Fitzjames. In the W. wall is a window, similar to those in the N. wall. The aisle is finished with a restored panelled parapet and pinnacles.

The South Aisle (13 ft. wide) is of late 15th-century date and has E. and W. windows and six windows in the S. wall all similar to those in the N. aisle; the fifth S. window is blocked; below the first S. window is a doorway probably of the 17th century; it has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head; the main S. doorway is of the 15th century and is of similar form, with foliated spandrels. The parapet and pinnacles are similar to those of the N. aisle.

The North or Brome Chapel (40½ ft. by 21 ft.) is of c. 1328, largely remodelled in the 15th century and having a parapet and pinnacles similar to the N. aisle. There are two 15th-century windows in the N. and one in the W. wall all similar to those in the N. aisle; under the N.W. window is a doorway, now blocked; it has moulded jambs and elliptical arch in a square head, with shields in the spandrels bearing the date 1569.

The North Tower (16½ ft. square) is of late 13th-century date and of two main stages and three storeys. The S. tower-arch, blocked probably in the 15th century is two-centred and of four hollow-chamfered orders; the responds each have or had, one attached and four free banded shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the archway is visible on the N. side and the head of the arch is visible also on the S. side above the aisle roof. There was a similar arch in the E. wall, of which the orders and the capitals of the S. respond, the capitals of the N. respond and the arch itself, can be seen on the E. face of the wall; the arch has been blocked probably to reinforce the tower; this arch is lower than the S. arch and above it is an early 14th-century window of three trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall is a late 13th-century window of four cinque-foiled lights with geometrical tracery in a two-centred head; the head is moulded and the jambs and mullions are moulded and shafted; the tracery is mostly modern; below it is a restored late 15th-century doorway with moulded and shafted jambs and four-centred arch in a square head, with traceried spandrels enclosing roses. The W. wall originally had a window similar to that in the N. wall and of which the head with part of the tracery remains; it is blocked and below it is a four-centred arch set in the opening, probably late in the 15th century; it has a rose on the soffit at the apex of the arch. In this arch is a stone screen and doorway of 1733. The bell-chamber, has, in each wall, a restored window of three trefoiled ogee lights with intersecting tracery in a two-centred head; the jambs are shafted. Of the two staircases in the N. angles of the tower, that on the E. has been completely blocked and that on the W. blocked up to the ringing-chamber. The tower is finished with a restored pierced parapet and at each angle are two restored gabled pinnacles with statues all modern (except a figure of an archbishop) and copied where possible from the earlier statues now in the Congregation House. At the back of these pinnacles are four loftier pinnacles each of two gabled stages and all restored; all these pinnacles and the spire-lights are enriched with ball-flower ornament and reproduce work of early 14th-century date. The spire is octagonal with ribbed angles; each cardinal face has a restored spire-light; it is of two trefoiled and transomed lights in a two-centred head under a crocketted gable.


City of Oxford

City of Oxford
Plan showing the position of monuments

The Congregation House (45¼ ft. average by 18 ft.), now a chapel, is of early 14th-century date and of two storeys; the upper, formerly the Library, is now a parish room. The chapel (Plate 205), now of three bays, formerly extended one bay to the W.; it has a stone vault of quadripartite form with chamfered cross, diagonal and wall-ribs springing from ribbed pilasters with moulded bases; there are foliated bosses at the intersections of the ribs and the E. cross-rib is moulded; in the former W. bay of the chapel there are remains of the wall-ribs on the N. and S. walls but the vault itself has been destroyed. In the E. wall of the chapel is a partly restored window of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall are three recesses, formerly windows but now blocked and used to obtain light from the lower parts of the 15th-century windows of the upper storey. In the S. wall are two windows similar to that in the E. wall. The W. bay has a late 15th-century N. doorway with moulded jambs, two-centred arch and a defaced ogee label; the S. doorway is modern. The parish-room has in the E. wall a partly restored 14th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights in a two-centred head with an ogee point. In the N. wall are three much restored late 15th-century windows similar to those in the N. aisle. In the E. bay of the S. wall is an early 16th-century bay-window, much restored and of two cinque-foiled lights on the face and one on each return; the recess has a flat four-centred arch and a moulded cornice; further W. is a doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head; it is now blocked and is cut by the floor of the room; in the two W. bays are three 14th-century windows, each of one trefoiled ogee light and partly restored. The staircase hall or former W. bay has a late 15th-century oval quatre-foiled window in the N. wall and a doorway in the S. wall with moulded jambs and flat four-centred head of the 16th century.

The Vestry, S. of the W. bay described above, was formed probably in the 17th century by the building of its E. wall across the former open courtyard. It is of two storeys and the upper has a 17th-century window in the E. wall of three four-centred lights.

The South Porch (Plate 202) was built in 1637 and restored in 1865. The outer archway has square jambs, moulded imposts and round archivolt with a panelled tapering key-block forming the base for the niche above and carved with cherubs; the soffit of the arch is coffered and the spandrels are carved with angels holding scrolls. Flanking the archway are large twisted composite columns supporting a continuous entablature with a broken and scrolled pediment supporting decayed seated figures of angels; the columns stand on pedestals carved with goat's heads and swags; in the middle of the entablature and rising above the pediment is a niche with flanking pilasters, shell-head, bracketed cornice and pediment; in the niche is a standing figure of the Virgin with the Child and on the pediment is a device of the arms of the University. The side walls of the porch are splayed back and the soffit has an elaborately panelled and traceried fan-vault of rather more than half a bay and cut by the entrance-archway.

The Roof of the chancel is modern but springs from 15th-century stone corbels carved with foliage, grotesque and other busts, including a king and perhaps a bishop. The late 15th-century roof of the nave is low-pitched and of six bays; the moulded tie-beams have curved braces, forming four-centred arches with traceried spandrels, and springing from moulded wood corbels; the other main timbers are also moulded. The roof of the N. aisle is painted but the trusses may be of the same date; they rest on moulded wood corbels. The roof of the S. aisle is similar and the trusses are probably of late 15th-century date; the braces form four-centred arches with traceried spandrels. The N. chapel has a roof of three bays similar to that of the nave; the stone corbels are carved with angels holding blank shields; there are wooden angels at the feet of the intermediate principals; this roof is said to have been put up in 1510. The late 15th-century roof of the parish-room is flat-pitched and of four bays, with moulded main timbers, curved braces to the tie-beams and panelled boarding, which has carved paterae at the intersections.

In front of the S. porch is a pair of early 18th-century wrought-iron gates, with scrolled standards and scrolled and enriched overthrow, with the arms of the University; flanking the gate are rusticated stone piers, with cornices and vases.

Fittings—Bells: six; 3rd by Ellis Knight, 1641; 4th and 5th by Newcombe of Leicester, 1612, the former, the 'Music bell,' bears a line of music and four medallions with figures; the latter bears the arms of Oriel College and the University; 6th by Ellis Knight, 1639. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to James Blount, 1600, inscription only; on front of stalls, (2) to William Haukesworth, professor of Holy Writ and provost of Oriel, 1349, inscription only; on S. wall, (3) to Nicholas Quarme, 1598, inscription only. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (4) of Edouard Chernook, 1581, plate with figure kneeling at prayer-desk and shield-of-arms and inscription-plate. In S. aisle—on E. wall, (5) of Malina Boys, 1584, stone arched panel with brass kneeling figures of woman at prayer-desk with seven sons and five daughters and shield-of-arms; (6) to William Tillyard, 1587 and Peter Pory, 1610, to Elizabeth widow of both, 1621, and John, Edward, Christopher, Mary and Elizabeth children of the first husband, inscription only. In tower—on S. wall, (7) of Edmund Croston, incumbent of Biggleswade, 1507, kneeling figure of priest in almuce, figure of St. Katherine, rebus, two scrolls and inscription, indent of Trinity. Indents: In chancel— (1) of foliated cross with marginal inscription in capitals, illegible, early 14th-century; (2) of rectangular plate; (3) of foliated cross, 14th or 15th-century; (4) of figure and marginal inscription, mostly covered by stalls. In N. chapel—(5) of priest and four shields under canopy with marginal inscription and roundels, 15th-century; (6) of similar figure, four shields, canopy and inscription; (7) probably of cross; (8) of cross with traces of marginal inscription in capitals, early 14th-century; (9) of rectangular plate; (10) of rectangular plate. In N. aisle—(11) of man and wife with inscription; (12) of much worn figure. See also Monument (20). Communion Rails: Of cedar and of five bays with panels of carved and pierced scroll-work, carved pendants on standards and enriched base given by Dr. Bathurst, 1673–5. Consecration Cross: In chancel—on S. wall, painted formy cross in circle, red and yellow, 15th-century. Doors: In chancel—in N. doorway, with vertical ribs, 15th-century. In N. aisle —in N. doorway, of two leaves, nail-studded and ribbed, with strap-hinges, late 15th-century. In N. chapel—in N. doorway, with moulded ribs and strap-hinges, 16th-century; in E. doorway, of two panelled leaves, early 18th-century. In tower— door-case of N. doorway, panelled with entablature and panelled ceiling, panelled doors in E., W. and S. sides, early 18th-century. Glass: In chancel—in tracery of E. window, jumble of fragments, 15th and 16th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Ann, wife of Nicholas Hele, M.A., 1664, white marble cartouche with shield-of-arms, (2) to George Langton, 1699 and Alicia (Holloway), his widow, 1714, marble tablet with drapery, cherub-heads, etc.; (3) to Charles Holloway, 1695, marble wall-monument (Plate 32) with Corinthian side-columns, broken pediment and achievement and two shields-of-arms; (4) to William Smythies, 1661, alabaster and slate tablet with cherubs, scrolls, broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms; (5) to George Mompesson, 1635, alabaster and black marble tablet with Ionic pilasters, entablature, pediment and shield-of-arms; on S. wall, (6) to Joyce (Stapleton), wife of Thomas Hardinge, B.D., rector of Soulderne, 1650, stone and black marble tablet with swags, cornice and shield-of-arms; (7) to T[homas] Gurney, M.A., 1661, white marble cartouche in form of beast's skin, with achievement-of-arms; (8) to Charles Holloway, Sergeant-atlaw, 1679, white and black marble wall-monument by William Stanton, with Composite columns, entablature, broken pediment and achievement-of-arms. In nave— on W. wall, (9) to Richard Playdell, 1690 and Richard his son, 1693, white marble draped tablet with cherub-head and cartouche-of-arms; (10) to Richard Pont, Elizabeth his wife and Richard and Arthur their sons, erected 1687, white marble draped tablet with cherubs. In N. aisle—on E. wall, at gallery-level, (11) to Theophilus Poynter, 1709, Theophilus his son, M.B., 1706, and Mary, 1692, Sarah, 1702 and Eleonor, 1703, his daughters, white marble tablet with pediment; on S. wall, at E. end, (12) to Roger Fry, 1681, oval marble tablet with wreath, cherub-head and shield-of-arms. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (13) to John Crosse, 1697–8, white marble tablet with swags, cornice and cherub-heads; (14) to John Wallis, S.T.D., Savilian Professor of Geometry, 1703, white marble monument (Plate 31) with bust of man in gown on scrolled and carved pedestal, with two shields-of-arms; (15) to William Doble, M.A., 1675, alabaster and black marble tablet with scrolls, broken pediment, angels and achievement-of-arms; (16) to Martin Lipyeatt, 1666, stone and black marble tablet with scrolls, broken pediment and cartouche-of-arms; (17) to Francis, daughter of John Barnes, 1679–80, white marble slab; (18) to David Gregory, M.D., 1708, white marble monument (Plate 31) with bust of man on scrolled and carved pedestal, two shields-of-arms. In N. chapel on N. wall, (19) to John Hopkins, Anne and Katherine his wives and William his son, erected 1682, black and white marble tablet with Ionic columns, entablature and broken pediment; on floor, (20) ascribed to Adam de Brome, founder of Oriel College, 1324, plain altar-tomb with Purbeck marble slab and indents of brass cross, figures of the Virgin and Child, figure at base and marginal inscription, 14th-century. In tower—on E. wall, (21) to Sir Sampson White, 1684, Mayor of Oxford, Henry White, Mayor of Oxford, 1724 and Francis White, S.T.B., 1714, double panelled stone monument with flaming urns, cherubs and three shields-of-arms; on S. wall, (22) to Mary (Davis), wife of Joseph Cox, LL.B., 1675–6, alabaster and black marble oval draped tablet with cherubs; (23) to Samuel Jackson, 1674–5, black and white marble oval tablet, with cherubs and cartouche-of-arms; (24) to Daniel Amorrien, a German, 1600, marble tablet with four shields-of-arms; (25) to Stephen Toone, 1681, white and black marble oval tablet with drapery and cherub-head; on W. wall, (26) to Ovenis Julius-Danus, a Dane, 1607, alabaster and black marble tablet with sixteen achievements-of-arms. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to George Langton, 1699; (2) to A.L. (Alice Langton) widow of G.L. (George Langton), 1714; (3) to W.G., 1695; (4) to C.H. (Charles Holloway), 1695; (5) to Charles Holloway, 1679, with achievement-of-arms; (6) to A.S., 1687; (7) to Ellin Jones, 1702–3; (8) to William Parker, A.B., 1709–10; (9) to Thomas Acworth, S.T.B., 1710 (?); (10) to Thomas Acworth, A.B., 1709–10; (11) to Sara, daughter of Henry Jones, 1686; (12) to Mary Acworth, 1714; (13) to Samuell Tilly, S.T.B., rector of Bladon, 1712; (14) to George Symmonds, B.A., 1704; (15) to James Fullagar, 1714; (16) to William Wyatt, 1708–9; (17) to William Cottle, 1714 –5; (18) to Sir Charles Blount, 1644, much worn; (19) to Edward Crolle, 1654–5; (20) to R.A., 1643; (21) to Richard ......., 1630; (22) to M.E., 1643 and I.Y., 1650; (23) to C.L. 1644; (24) to Nathaniel Butler, 1628 and H.S., 1643; (25) inscribed 1643 C.L.Tho.; (26) fragment with date 1643; (27) to Walter de [Ulf]lete, early 14th-century Purbeck marble slab with inscription in capitals and added date 1644; (28) to T.P., 1644; (29) to Henry Brett, 1671, with shield-of-arms; (30) to W.M., 1643; (31) to Joseph Brown, 16[87], Ann Brown, 1686 and Jane wife of Joseph Brown, 1689, with shield-of-arms. In nave— (32) to Thomas Ailin, 1702 and other infants; (33) to various members of the Fulke family 1673–77, now only partly legible; (34) to Elizabeth, wife of William Taylour, 1711–2; (35) to George Bysse, B.A., 1675–6; (36) to Henry Stephen, 17..; (37) to Culpepper Tomlinson, 1711–2; (38) to Henry Brooke, LL.D., early 18th-century; (39) to [John] Foulkes, early 18th-century; (40) to Philip Taylor, 1698–9; (41) to Henry Cripps, 1658. In N. aisle—(42) to John Fulke, 1704; (43) to S.W., 1684; (44) to John Radcliffe, M.D., 1714; (45) to ..., wife of Edward Wordsworth, 1709–10; (46) to Nathaniel Whately, 1704, and Elizabeth his wife, 1723; (47) to Samuel Hoadly, 1692; (48) to Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Blacka[ble, 1665]; (49) to [Thomas Hunsdon], 1701, mayor of Oxford, Elizabeth his first wife, 1682–3, Anne, wife of Stephen Kiblewhite, his daughter, [1715]. In S. aisle— (50) to Eliza Sclater, 1693; (51) to John Crosse, 1697 –8, Ann his wife, 1697 and Margaret wife of John Whitehall, her sister, 1697; (52) to John Nixon, [16]62; (53) to Thomas Fifield, 166[2], Margaret his wife, 16[89] and Walter Fifield, 17[00]; (54) to Sarah Fifield, 1691; (55) to Amos Curteyne, 1688; (56) to Nicholas Maund, 1681; (57) to Judeth King, 1693–4 and Elizabeth Kingwell, 1692, daughters of John Turner. In N. chapel—(58) to M.L., 1645; (59) to A.B., 1645; (60) with date 1646; (61) to T.P., 1709; (62) S.D., 1644; (63) H.M., 1644; (64) stone with date 1644; (65) to Constance (Taylour) wife of James Almont, 17.0. In W. vestry—(66) to M.C. S.V., 1628, 1643. Organ: On screen between chancel and nave but formerly at W. end of nave, organ built by Bernard Schmidt in 1674–5 and altered twice before the end of the century and moved to its present position in 1827; E. front only old and supported on two old fluted Doric columns and two modern columns, and a modern cross-beam; gallery-front of four panelled bays with panelled pilasters and cornice, organ-case with three towers each finished with pierced carving and cornice, intermediate bays of two stages with pierced carving and cornice ramped up to middle tower. Pall: now at the Ashmolean Museum, funeral pall of brocade with a red velvet cross embroidered with the royal arms with dragon and greyhound supporters, crowned roses and portcullises, given by Henry VII, c. 1504. Panelling: In chancel—against E. wall, panelled reredos of five bays divided by fluted Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature, erected 1673–5. In N. chapel—incorporated in bench, length of early 17th-century panelling. Paving: In chancel and nave—of black and white marble squares, c. 1673. Piscina: In Congregation House—in S. wall, recess with cinque-foiled ogee head, 14th-century, sill modern. Plate: includes two cups and patens of 1667 and bearing that date and two flagons of 1698, given by John Crosse, 1698. Pulpit Hangings: now at the office of the University Chest, three pieces, each 5 ft. long, with floral pattern, crowns and gold fringe, Italian 16th-century. Reredos: In chancel—on E. wall, range of seven niches with flanking buttresses and semi-hexagonal canopies of tabernacle work with cinque-foiled heads, crockets, finials, vaulted soffits and cresting of flowers, late 15th-century. Sedilia: In chancel—in S. wall, of three bays with trefoiled and sub-cusped heads with foliated spandrels and buttressed piers and responds, the whole surmounted by a cornice with running Tudor flower enrichment and cresting, 15th-century. Stalls: In chancel—against side walls, panelled backing (Plate 43) with cornice, buttresses and plain square-headed panels, stall-fronts in four lengths on each side and return, each length of five, six or seven bays with buttresses and traceried panels of two cinque-foiled lights, with a quatrefoil and foliated spandrels, standards with shaped tops and carved popey-heads, 15th-century, partly restored and stallseats mostly modern. Miscellanea: In tower—built into S. wall, length of 15th-century cornice, with tuns and scrolls (?), also a length of frieze with remains of eight brackets, three carved with angels holding shields—(a) See of Canterbury impaling Warham, (b) Fitzjames, (c) See of Salisbury impaling Audley, early 16th-century, remains of pulpit, given by Edmund Audley, Bishop of Salisbury. In Congregation House —stone figures, over life-size, formerly on the tower and replaced by modern work, except an archbishop which is still on the tower. They represent St. Hugh of Lincoln, St. Cuthbert, two archbishops, two bishops and a king; in addition a Virgin and Child on a smaller scale; heads mostly late restorations, also a late Virgin and Child in wood.

Condition—Good.

(35) Parish Church of St. Mary Magdalen stands on the E. side of Magdalen Street. The walls are of rubble with dressings of local freestone; the roofs are slate-covered. Some remains of 12th-century work are said to have been found and removed in the restoration of 1841–2. The Chancel and South Aisle were re-built probably late in the 13th century; there seems to have been also an outer S. aisle or chapel, destroyed when the present South Chapel was built c. 1330. The N. and S. arcades of the chancel and Nave were re-built probably early in the 16th century and the West Tower was added or re-built between 1511 and 1531; about the same time the South Porch was added. The church was restored in 1840–2, when the North Aisle was entirely re-built and the rest of the church extensively restored.


The Parish Church of St. Mary Magdalen

The Parish Church of St. Mary Magdalen

Architectural Description—The Chancel and Nave (53½ ft. by 17¾ ft.) have, in the refaced E. wall, a window of late 13th-century type, almost completely restored, of three trefoiled lights with quatre-foiled tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label and rear-arch and shafted splays. The N. and S. arcades are probably of early 16th-century date, considerably re-cut and restored; they are each of three bays with two-centred and moulded arches springing from octagonal piers and semi-octagonal responds with moulded capitals and bases; the N.W. arch springs from a moulded corbel on the wall of the tower.

The South Aisle (16½ ft. wide), has a refaced E. wall; the E. window is of late 13th-century type, almost completely restored; it is of three trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head; the splays and rear-arch are similar to those of the E. window of the chancel. In the S. wall is an early 14th-century arcade of three bays with two-centred arches of two sunk-chamfered orders continued down the piers and responds; the moulded label has head-stops; the early 16th-century S. doorway has moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square-head with quatre-foiled spandrels; above it is a square-headed window. In the W. wall is an early 14th-century window, restored externally; it is of three trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head.

The South Chapel (45½ ft. by 17½ ft.) is of early 14th-century date, much restored externally; the buttresses have canopied niches representing ancient features and the pierced traceried parapet is also a restoration of an old feature. The E. window is of four cinque-foiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head; the splays and rear-arch are moulded and the internal label has head-stops. In the N.E. angle is a stair-turret. In the S. wall are three partly restored windows, each of three trefoiled ogee lights with net-tracery in a two-centred head; the internal reveals, etc. are similar to those in the E. window. In the W. wall is a partly restored window of one cinque-foiled and two trefoiled ogee lights with flowing tracery in a two-centred head; below the window, inside, is a blocked doorway with a segmental-pointed rear-arch; set in it is an early 16th-century doorway with a segmental-pointed head, leading to the staircase to the upper storey of the porch. On the outside of the wall is the weathering of a former building perhaps an earlier porch.

The Crypt under the S.E. part of the S. chapel, is of early 14th-century date. It has two square-headed windows in the E. wall and a blocked window in the S. wall. The vaulting and doorway are modern.

The West Tower (13½ ft. by 14¾ ft.) is of early 16th-century date and of three stages with a modern embattled parapet; the plinth, where free of the church, has two ranges of cusped panels, enclosing shields. The E. tower-arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner with attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The N. and S. walls have each a two-centred arch of two chamfered orders, dying on to the splayed responds or on to the wall. The much restored and re-set early 14th-century W. window is of three trefoiled lights with flowing tracery in a two-centred head. The second stage has, in the W. wall, two windows each of one pointed light; between them is a niche with a much weathered canopy and containing an image, possibly of St. Mary Magdalen. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of two pointed lights in a two-centred head with a label.

The South Porch is of early 16th-century date and of two storeys. The much restored outer archway has hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred head. In the W. wall is a window of two cinque-foiled ogee lights in a square head. The windows of the upper storey are modern.

Fittings—Bells: six and a sanctus; sanctus by R. Keene, 1681. Brasses: In S. chapel—on second pier of N. arcade, (1) of William Smith, M.A., 1580–1, with kneeling figure of man in gown and hood at prayer-desk; (2) to John Perkins, B.A., 1661, inscription only. On N.E. pier of tower, (3) to Philip Caxston, widow, 1514, inscription only. Chair: In N. aisle—with turned front legs, shaped arms and back with enriched panel and the initials E.P., mid 17th-century. Chests: In N. aisle—(1) with central panel and broad uprights at ends, central panel with three bays of traceried heads, each of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head, rosettes in spandrels and heads of lights, at base, a band of small paterae, uprights modern, lid with remains of four panels with trefoiled arched heads and foliated spandrels, cut in the solid, c. 1300, front partly restored; (2) with panelled front and fluted top-rail, late 17th-century, incorporating modern work. Coffin and Lid: In crypt—of stone with shaped head, lid with simple ridge-cross, 13th-century. Door: In case in N. aisle— from the Bishop's room in the City gaol (Bocardo), occupied by the Marian martyrs, of battens with strap-hinges and locks, 16th-century. Font (Plate 26): octagonal bowl with frieze of quatrefoils enclosing small shields, sides of ogee form with elaborate tracery and angle-ribs carried down the stem to moulded bases on the main moulded base, 14th-century. Glass: In S. chapel—in second S. window, seven late 16th or early 17th-century panels, (a) Tobias and Sara delivered of the devil by prayer; (b) Tobias taking the fish; (c) Tobit becomes blind; (d) Tobit restored to sight; (e) Cain slaying Abel; (f) the 9th commandment; (g) Crucifixion with Adam, a pelican and a lion with cubs. Image: see Architectural Description under Tower. Monuments: In S. aisle—on N. wall, (1) to Henry Hall, S.T.B., 1707, lozenge-panel with shield-of-arms on drapery. In S. chapel—on W. wall, (2) to William Crompton, 1620, round-headed slab; (3) to Henry Okeover, 1683–4, oval slab; (4) to Benjamin Guillym, 1662, slab; (5) to Compton Verney, 1689, moulded slab with shield-of-arms; (6) to Edward Joyner alias Lyde, 1702, slab; (7) to Stephen Fry, M.D., 1709–10, slab; In vestry—on S. wall, (8) to John Budgen, 1714, draped stone tablet; (9) to Hester (Philips), wife of Francis Kiblew (?), 1705 and their sons John and George, oval tablet with scrolls, flowers, cherubs, etc.; (10) to Elizabeth (Robinson), wife of Richard Baylie, Dean of Salisbury, 1668 and her husband 1667, plain tablet. On N.E. pier of tower, (11) to William Pickering, M.A., 1635, marble tablet with bust of man in gown in oval recess, cornice with books at top; (12) to Ann, wife of Ferdinando Seborne, 1675–6, and to her husband, 1685 (?), tablet with carved frame and putti. In churchyard—on W. wall of S. chapel (13) to John Join .., 1688–9, stone tablet; near above, (14) slab with date 1643; S. of S. chapel, (15) to Margaret Sarny, 1634 and William Sarny, slab. Piscinae: In S. chapel—in S.E. angle, recess with cinque-foiled ogee head, drain cut away, 14th-century. In S. chapel—in S. wall, recess with restored trefoiled ogee head, octofoiled drain partly cut away, 14th-century. Plate: includes a cup of 1625, given by Perseda Cheney; cup and cover-paten of 1690, the former repaired by John Smith; stand-paten of 1672, given by Alice Markham, with a shield-of-arms; and a flagon of 1714, given by Mary Prynce. Seating: In chancel—two coffin-stools, 17th-century. Stoup: In S. aisle—recess with restored cinque-foiled arch in a square head, broken round bowl, early 16th-century.

Condition—Good.

(36) Parish Church of St. Michael at the N. Gate, stands on the E. side of Cornmarket Street. The walls are of rubble with local freestone dressings; the roofs are slate-covered. The West Tower was built probably in the first half of the 11th century. The Chancel was re-built and probably extended in the 13th century and c. 1280 the South Chapel of St. Mary was added. Probably in the first half of the 14th century the North Chapel and Transept were added probably as chapels of St. Thomas and St. Katherine and in the same century the S. chapel was extended to the W. Late in the 15th century the N. and S. arcades of the Nave were built or re-built with the North Aisle; the tower-arch was re-built about the same period and the South Porch re-built on the site of an earlier porch. The N. chapel was partly re-built in 1833 and the church was restored in 1854 when the chancel was largely re-built and the S. chapel heightened; the N.E. Vestry is modern. The N. Gate of the city adjoined the tower of the church on the N.


The Parish Church of St. Michael

The Parish Church of St. Michael

The church possesses an early W. tower of considerable interest and among the fittings the glass is noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (36½ ft. by 13¼ ft.) has been largely re-built. The much restored 13th-century E. window is of three graduated lancetlights, under a common rear-arch. In the N. wall is a 14th-century archway, two-centred and of two chamfered orders dying on to the responds; further E. is a 15th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. In the S. wall are two much restored 13th-century windows, each of two lancet-lights; further W. is a modern opening. The partly restored late 13th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the inner springing from moulded corbels and shafts.

The North Chapel (22½ ft. by 13¼ ft.) has a late 15th-century E. window of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label with head-stops. In the N. wall is a much restored 14th-century window of two trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head. In the W. wall is a 15th-century arch, four-centred and of three chamfered orders; the chamfered and partly restored responds have moulded capitals and bases.

The Nave (53 ft. by 14½ ft. to 17¼ ft.) has a late 15th-century N. arcade of three bays with two-centred arches of two hollow-chamfered orders, springing from octagonal columns and semi-octagonal responds, all with moulded capitals and bases. In the S. wall is an arcade of two bays of similar date and detail; the restored 15th-century S. doorway has moulded and shafted jambs and two-centred arch with a label; further W. is a much restored window of the same date and of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label.

The North Transept (23¼ ft. by 16¼ ft.) has a modern window in the N. wall. In the W. wall is an arch of c. 1500, springing from the first column of the nave and from a N. respond similar to the nave responds; the main arch butts against the arcade-wall and is of two hollow-chamfered orders; the inner order is returned on to the column-capital to complete a two-centred arch; the spandrel above is open.

The North Aisle (Plate 14) (11¼ ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, two windows uniform with the S. window of the nave; the early 15th-century N. doorway has jambs and two-centred arch of two hollow-chamfered orders with a label and defaced stops. In the W. wall is an early 15th-century archway, two-centred and of two hollow-chamfered orders dying on to the responds; it is now blocked and formerly communicated with a destroyed building to the W., of which the line of the pent roof and a fragment of the N. wall are still visible. The South Chapel (37 ft. by 11 ft.) was originally two chapels of c. 1280 and c. 1342; the straight joint between the two builds is visible in the S. wall. In the E. wall is a much restored early 14th-century window of three pointed lights with intersecting tracery in a two-centred head with a label and head-stops. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern of mid to late 13th-century date and of three pointed lights in a two-centred head with a moulded internal head with foliage-stops and a moulded rear-arch and splays; the western window is of the 14th century partly restored and of three trefoiled ogee lights with net tracery in a two-centred head with moulded labels. In the W. wall is a modern window.

The West Tower (Plate 199) (12 ft. by 12¾ ft.) is of early 11th-century date and of four storeys, finished with a plain modern parapet; the walls are of rubble with rubble angles on the S. side and of long and short quoins on the N. side. The 15th-century tower-arch is two-centred and of three hollow-chamfered orders dying on to the splayed responds. In the N. wall is a round-headed double-splay window; in the W. wall is an original doorway, now blocked; it has plain imposts and round head. The second storey has, in the N. wall, a window similar to that below; in the W. wall is a window similar to that in the N. wall but taller. The third storey has, in each wall, an original window of two round-headed lights with imposts and a mid-wall baluster-shaft supporting a cantilever impost; below the N. window is an original doorway with imposts and a round head. The bell-chamber has, in the N., S. and W. walls a window similar to those in the stage below; in the E. wall is a modern opening.

The South Porch has a re-set and partly restored 13th-century outer archway two-centred and moulded and springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals and imposts carried along as a string; the S.W. angle of the porch has a similar attached shaft. In the W. wall is a modern window. The roof is a stone vault with hollow-chamfered ribs forming depressed arches and springing from carved and moulded corbels; the ridge-ribs have a central doublerose boss and paterae at the junction with the wall-ribs.

The Roof of the N. aisle is of early 15th-century date, of pent form and of three bays, with moulded wall-plates, curved braces to the principals and stone corbels carved with double rosettes.

Fittings—Bells: six, 1st by Abraham Rudhall, 1708; 3rd to 6th by Richard Keene, 1668. Brasses: In N aisle—on N. wall, (1) to Gregory Martin, M.A., 1618, inscription only; (2) to Anne (Goodwin), wife of John Prideaux, S.T.P., Rector of Exeter College, 1627, inscription only; (3) to Ralph Flexney, Alderman, 1578 and Catherine his second wife, 1567, plate with coloured kneeling figures of man and wife at prayer-desk, with achievement-of-arms. In S. chapel— on W. wall, (4) to John Pendarves, 1617, plate with figure of man in stall with book. Chest (Plate 27): In nave—of oak and iron-bound, with three locks and four handles, 17th-century. Glass: In chancel—in S.E. window, four trefoil-headed panels (Plate 209) with figures of (a) the Virgin and Child; (b) St. Michael and the dragon; (c) St. Nicholas and (d) St. Edmund of Abingdon; the two last with inscriptions, late 13th-century. In N. aisle—in tracery of N.E. window, head of Christ, part of an Annunciation with a crucifix on the lily, two seraphim, early 16th-century, the three main figures made up with 18th-century work. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Alice (Wright), wife of Charles Harris, 1693, marble tablet with scrolls, flowers and cherub-head; (2) to Charles Harris, c. 1700, white marble tablet with drapery, cherubs and cartouche-of-arms; (3) to Ann, widow of Alderman John Harris, 1685, marble tablet with scrolls and cherub-heads. In N. chapel—on S. wall, (4) to Thomas Crooke, 1608–9, stone slab; (5) to Walter Dotyn, 1603–4, slab with incised figure of man in gown, kneeling at prayer-desk; (6) to Alderman John Harris, 1674, oval stone tablet; (7) to Samuel Durham, M.D., 1689, Alice his wife, 1708 and Anne, their daughter, 1698, convex stone tablet; (8) to Solomon Hext, 1606, stone slab. In S. chapel—on N. wall, (9) of Ann (Berkley), wife of Griff. Lloyd, LL.D., early 17th-century, modern stone tablet with re-set bust of woman, two shields and a lozenge-of-arms; (10) to Jane, daughter of Ann Lloyd, 1596, oval slab. In N. transept—on E. wall, (11) to Richard Walker, 1704, white marble slab. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (12) triangular slab with carving in relief of man, wife, boy and Death, part of early 17th-century monument; on W. wall, (13) oval tablet with illegible inscription, probably late 17th-century; (14) to William Guise, 1683, and Mary his daughter, white marble oval tablet (Plate 33) with cherubs and shield-of-arms; (15) to William Stone, LL.B., parson of Wimborne and principal of New Inn Hall, 1685, octagonal marble slab. In tower—on W. wall, (16) to Philip Ashton and Jane his wife, both 1697, lozenge-shaped marble slab. In churchyard—on S. wall of S. aisle, (17) to Julia (?), wife of Richard Wilson, 1647–8 and to Sara, 163., and Katharin, 1635–6, his daughters, stone tablet with scrolls and pediment. Floor-slabs: In N. transept—(1) to Ann, wife of Edward B...., 1671. In W. tower—(2) to Thomas Wood, 1694–5 and Alice, his widow, 1700; (3) to Charles Harris, 17... Niches: In nave—in N.E. respond, panelled and moulded base of former niche, upper part modern, late 15th-century; in S.E. respond, recess with similar base, cinque-foiled elliptical head, crockets, finial and embattled cornice, late 15th-century. In N. wall of N. aisle—recess with cinque-foiled arch and ogee head with crockets, finial and side-standards, late 15th-century. In S. chapel—in E. wall, recess with cinque foiled inner arch and ogee cinque-foiled outer head with embattled cornice, c. 1500. In S. porch—three, with cinque-foiled heads, 15th-century; on S. wall outside, with sex-foiled arch and trefoiled and sub-cusped head with crockets and pinnacles, 15th-century. Piscinae: In chancel—recess with moulded jambs and trefoiled head, 13th-century. In N. chapel—in S. wall, recess with pointed head and round projecting drain, probably 14th-century. In S. chapel—in S. wall, recess with pointed head and round drain, 14th-century. Plate: includes cup (Plate 41) of 1562 with enriched base; cup (Plate 41) of 1611, given by John Saire and Ann his wife in 1642; flagon of 1672 and stand-paten probably of the same date, both given by James Deane; also two brass repousse alms-dishes, probably 17th-century and Flemish or German. Pulpit: with old framing and five cinque-foiled heads of panels, 15th-century, with modern work. Reredos: In N. chapel—in E. wall, of three bays with cinque-foiled and trefoiled ogee heads to shallow niches, with crockets, finials, moulded pedestals, and continuous embattled cornice, 15th-century, partly restored. Sedile: In chancel—in S. wall, of three bays with moulded jambs and piers, cinque-foiled heads and cornice, quatre-foiled panels on soffit of recess, 15th-century. Weather-vane: on tower—of wrought iron with scroll-work, late 17th or early 18th-century. Miscellanea: In vestry—carved 17th-century head and an erotic female figure. Incorporated in organ-case, eleven trefoil-headed and traceried open panels from a 15th-century screen.

Condition—Good.

(37) Parish Church of St. Peter Le Bailey stands on the W. side of New Inn Hall Street. The old church, which stood some 50 yards further S., collapsed in 1726, was re-built in 1728–33 and was pulled down in 1874 when the present structure was built. It retains from the earlier building the following:—

Fittings—Brasses: In chancel—(1) of John Sprunt, 1419, mayor of Oxford and Alice his wife, headless figure of man in civil dress with feet on greyhound, figure of wife and two scrolls missing; (2) figure of woman, c. 1420; (3) to William Parker, 1510, inscription only; on S. wall, (4) of G.... Box and M...., his wife, c. 1630–40, kneeling figures of man and wife, with inscriptions on same plate. Chairs: In chancel— with turned front legs, enriched arcaded back with conventional tree, 17th-century. In N. aisle, generally similar but with cross in arched panel and enriched top rail, 17th-century. Chest (Plate 27): plain iron-bound, with three strap-hinges and hasps, 16th or 17th-century. Monuments: In N. aisle—on N. wall, (1) to Thomas Bayley, S.T.P., 1709, rector of Slapton, erected by his nephew Abraham Swayne, painted stone tablet (Plate 35) with scrolls, flowers and cherub-heads. In S. aisle— on S. wall, (2) to William Northerne [or Loughburgh], mayor of Oxford, and Margaret his wife, 1383, erected by the city in 1667 and re-erected in 1772, painted stone tablet with scrolls, cornice, broken pediment and cartouche with device. Miscellanea: Incorporated in N. wall of tower—two 12th-century beak-heads and later architectural details. In chancel—set over cupboard, carved fascia with scrolls and birds, 17th-century.

Condition—Rebuilt.

(38) Parish Church of St. Peter in the East (Plate 204) stands on the E. side of Queen's Lane. The walls are of rubble with local freestone dressings; the roofs are lead-covered. The church consisting of Crypt, Chancel, and Nave was built c. 1140–50. The North Chapel was added c. 1230–40 when the chancel-arch was probably widened; the chapel is said to have been built by Edmund of Abingdon and to have served St. Edmund Hall; about the middle of the century the North Aisle and arcade were built. Early in the 14th century the nave was extended W., the N.W. Tower added and rather later the N. aisle re-built. The walls of the chancel and nave were heightened, perhaps in 1481. The South Porch was added late in the 15th century and early in the following century the small Chapel was added N. of the N. aisle; probably about the same time the Vestry was built. The church was restored in 1844–5, 1855–6, 1882, 1906–7, 1909 and the crypt in 1931–2.

The church is of much architectural interest from its 12th-century crypt and chancel; among the fittings the glass is noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Crypt (Plate 212) (35¾ ft. by 20¾ ft.) is of mid 12th-century date and of five bays from E. to W. and three bays across; it is covered by a system of groined vaults with plain cross-arches between the bays; these spring from cylindrical columns and pilaster-responds; the columns have moulded bases and scalloped capitals, three of which have scale or foliage ornament in addition; the third capital (Plate 16) on the N., however, is not scalloped but carved with conventional foliage, beasts, a winged monster and, on the N. side, with a figure-subject of two men and a beast, perhaps David and the lion; the responds have chamfered imposts and bases. The E. wall has three windows, the two side ones of the 12th century and each of one round-headed light; the jambs and external head are of two plain orders; the middle window is probably a 16th-century enlargement and has a four-centred head. In the N. wall is a 12th-century window similar to those in the E. wall but now blocked; further W. is a 12th-century doorway to the turret staircase; it has a lintel, round arch and plain tympanum. In the S. wall are four original windows similar to those in the E. wall; in the middle bay is a doorway similar to that in the N. wall and now opening on to a staircase from the churchyard, but formerly to a turret-staircase like that on the N. side. In the W. wall are three doorways; the side ones have jambs and round arch of one square order and now have a blocking; they open on to passages formerly communicating by steps with the nave; a few steps remain at the end of the S. passage; the middle doorway is similar to those in the N. and S. walls; it opens into a small barrel-vaulted chamber (8 ft. by 7 ft.). The whole arrangement resembles that of the early confessio and it is possible that it may be a 12th-century reconstruction of an earlier arrangement.


The Parish Church of St. Peter in the East

The Parish Church of St. Peter in the East

The Chancel (Plate 201) (37½ ft. by 20¾ ft.) is of mid 12th-century date heightened late in the 15th century. The E. angles have clasping buttresses terminating in small round turrets with conical stone roofs and blocked loops and doorways. The E. wall had originally three windows, of which there are remains of the outer jambs of the flanking pair and parts of the former string-course, with billet-ornament at the sill-level; the existing partly restored 15th-century E. window is of four cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with moulded reveals and label; above it, a square-headed window lights the space above the vault; there are also two round-headed windows, restored and blocked and a similar window in the gable. The end and side-walls have remains of an original string-course with cheveron or billet ornament, much restored; both side-walls have a later heightening with a corbel-table of re-set 12th-century carved heads on the S. side and a range of quatre-foiled panels to the parapet, perhaps of 1481. In the N. wall is an original window of one round-headed light, with an outer order enriched with cheveron-ornament and springing from shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases; the inner face is similarly treated and the splays have each a round-headed recess, presumably the blocked openings to a wall-passage; in the E. bay is a 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the doorway to the central stair-turret is similar but it is now blocked; in the W. bay is a 13th-century arch, two-centred and of three chamfered orders with labels; the responds have each three attached shafts; the middle shaft on the E. has a moulded capital with the abacus continued round the responds; all three shafts on the W. have moulded capitals; above the arch, on the N. face, is part of the 12th-century corbel-table. The S. wall has remains of an original external wall-arcade of intersecting round arches, springing from shafts with cushioncapitals and moulded bases; one of the shafts has carved enrichment; in the E. bay is a window similar to that in the N. wall; one shaft outside and one inside have carved foliage-enrichment; in the same bay is a blocked recess or doorway; in the W. bay is a 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head, with moulded reveals; below it is a modern blocked doorway; further E. is the blocked original doorway to the former middle stair-turret on this side; it is similar to those in the crypt. The 13th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of three chamfered orders; the inner order dies on to the responds and the outer order springs from attached shafts; the responds are largely modern restorations of the 12th-century responds, which were probably re-set and altered in the 13th century. The chancel is covered by a ribbed quadripartite vault of two bays, springing from single shafts in the angles and triple shafts in the middle of the side walls, all with moulded bases; the capitals are generally scalloped but some are carved with foliage, beasts, an angel, etc.; the abaci have cheveron-enrichment and are continued along the side-walls as a string-course; the moulded ribs (Plate 16) have link-ornament in the E. bay and cheveron-ornament in the W. bay.

The North Vestry is of 15th or early 16th-century date. In the E. wall is a window of three cinque-foiled lights in a square head. In the N. wall is a doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. To the W. of the vestry is a passage to the N. turret-staircase; the N. doorway is modern except for the splays and some jamb-stones. The doorway to the turret has a square head and is probably a 16th-century insertion; the openings from the turret to the chancel wall-passage are blocked. In the E. wall is a blocked loop-light, formerly opening into the vestry.

The North Chapel (21 ft. by 16¾ ft.) is of early 13th-century date. In the E. wall are two 13th-century lancet-windows with moulded labels; further N. is a modern doorway. In the N. wall is a partly restored 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with moulded jambs and label. In the W. wall is a 13th-century arch, two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the inner order springs from moulded corbels; further N. is the label of a blocked or destroyed 13th-century lancet-window.

The Nave (74½ ft. by 25½ ft.) has an early 13th-century N. arcade of three bays, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders with a moulded label and head-stops; the piers are of quatre-foiled plan with half-piers as responds, all have moulded bases and foliated capitals, except the W. respond, which has a moulded capital; E. of the arcade is an opening with a two-centred arch, for access to the pulpit. In the S. wall are six windows, the easternmost is of the 14th century and of two trefoiled lights with a cusped spandrel in a two-centred head; the partly restored 15th-century second window is of four cinque-foiled ogee lights with a transom and vertical tracery in a two-centred head with moulded reveals and label; the third window is of 14th-century character but has been completely restored; the fourth window is a single round-headed light of the 12th century and now opens into the upper storey of the porch; below the internal sill is a string-course with cheveron-ornament; the fifth window is of 14th-century character, completely restored; the westernmost window is similar to the third but the rear-arch is perhaps old; the 12th-century S. doorway (Plate 206) has jambs and round arch of three orders, the inner with diaper-ornament, the middle with beakheads and the outer with cheveron-ornament; the 15th-century doorway to the porch-staircase has a two-centred head. The much restored 15th-century W. window is of five cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with moulded reveals and label; the late 14th-century W. doorway has double sunk-chamfered jambs and two-centred arch with a label.

The North Aisle (11 ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, an early 16th-century arch, four-centred and of two hollow-chamfered orders, the inner springing from octagonal moulded corbels; further W. are three windows, the two eastern of 14th-century character but entirely restored except for a few stones; the partly restored westernmost window is of early 16th-century date and of three cinque-foiled lights in a square head; below it is a doorway of the same period, with chamfered jambs and four-centred head.

The Chapel, N. of the N. aisle (9 ft. by 5¾ ft.), is of early 16th-century date (probably 1524) and has a N. window of three cinque-foiled lights in a square head.

The North-West Tower (12¾ ft. square) is of two stages and three storeys and is finished with a 15th-century parapet with a band of quatrefoils. The ground-storey has a 14th-century doorway, formerly external, in the E. wall, with chamfered jambs and two-centred head; in the N. wall is a restored loop-light; in the S. wall is a blocked doorway with a segmental-pointed rear-arch. In the W. wall is a doorway inserted early in the 18th century. The second storey has, in the N. wall, a restored window with a square head. The late 14th-century bell-chamber has battered walls and in each is a window of two trefoiled and transomed lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a label; those on the E. and N. have been completely restored.

The South Porch (Plate 206) is of two storeys and of mid to late 15th-century date, with a moulded plinth and a parapet with quatre-foiled panels and carved gargoyles. The restored outer archway has moulded jambs and two-centred arch with a label; above it is a rectangular panel and to the W. is a loop. The side walls have each two windows, three of them of two cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a square head with a label and the N.W. window is similar but of one light and with no label. The porch has a stone vault of two bays with moulded cross, diagonal, ridge and wall-ribs, springing from corbels with foliage and beasts' heads. The S. wall of the upper storey has a window of two cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label; flanking it are two much weathered niches, with side-buttresses, cusped heads, canopies, crockets and finials. The side walls have each a window of one cinque-foiled ogee light in a square head with a label. The upper room has a panelled stone roof of low-pitched form, with pointed heads to the panels and a ridge-rib.

The Roof of the N. chapel is of the 13th century and of trussed-rafter type, with arched braces below the collars. The early 16th-century roof of the nave is of five bays with a narrow bay at the E. end, coved from N. to S.; it is flat-pitched with moulded braces forming four-centred arches under the tie-beams and open panels in the spandrels. The early 16th-century roof of the N. aisle is flat-pitched and of three bays with curved braces under the principals, forming four-centred arches; they spring from moulded stone corbels.

Fittings—Alms-box: In nave—of oak, iron-bound, on square fluted and gadrooned baluster-stem, late 16th-century. Bells: eight and a sanctus; 3rd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th by Abraham Rudhall, 1700, bell-frame, older. Brasses: In N. chapel—(1) to William Robertson, butler of Queen's College, 1478, and Joan, his wife, figures of man in civil costume and wife; on N. wall, (2) to Abel Wilcox, M.A., 1613, inscription only; (3) of Richard Ratcliff, M.D., 1599–1600, plate with kneeling figures of man and woman and inscription-plate, indent of same on E. wall. In nave—(4) broken slab with indents and part of brass scroll with inscription, another slab with indent of shield perhaps part of same memorial, c. 1500, another fragment said to be in private hands; on N. wall, (5) to John Stronge, 1625 –6, plate with emblems of mortality; on S. wall, (6) to Philip Rondel, M.A., 1598–9, inscription only. See also Monuments (6, 13 and 16). Chairs: In chancel—(1) with turned front legs, shaped arms, back with enriched arcaded panel and scrolled cresting, 17th-century; (2) similar but with arcaded panel in back, carved with the Virgin and Child, 17th-century, carving later; (3) with turned posts, enriched arcaded back, shaped arms and cresting, 17th-century. Consecration Cross: In chancel—on S. wall, restored formy cross in circle. Glass: In chancel—in E. window (Plate 208), in main lights, figures of the four Evangelists under Gothic canopies, 17th-century, incorporating some 15th-century work in the figure of St. John; in tracery, a Crucifixion, figures of St. Christopher, two nimbed queens, woman with a flower and basket, probably St. Dorothy, the Virgin and Child and a bishop, 15th-century with some later work. In N. chapel—in N. window, elaborate tabernacle-work in heads of three main lights, with upper parts of two figures of saints, perhaps deacons, one holding a palm (?); in tracery, a Coronation of the Virgin (the heads modern) and figures of St. Peter and St. Paul all under canopies, set up by Vincent Wyking, vicar in 1433; in lower part of window, re-set pieces including a seated figure of Christ, St. John the Baptist, a man's head, a sun and a star, etc., 14th and 15th-century. Images: In niches on porch—standing figures, said to be of St. Peter and St. Paul, probably 15th-century and said to have been renewed in 1722–3. Monuments and Floor-slabs: Monuments: In N. chapel—on E. wall, (1) to John Everie, M.A., 1619, stone and marble tablet with Corinthian side-columns, entablature, obelisks and cartouche-of-arms; on N. wall, (2) to Helen, daughter of Sir John Low, 1683, marble tablet with shelf, sarcophagus, urn and cartouche-of-arms above; on the W. wall, (3) to William Levinz, 1706, marble tablet with Corinthian pilasters, cornice, cherub-heads and cartouche-of-arms; (4) to Peter Eliot, M.D., 1681–2, white marble oval tablet with scrolls, cherub-heads and cartouche-of-arms; (5) to Godscalcus ab Alefeld, 1635, black marble tablet; in N.W. angle, (6) to Richard Atkinson, 1574, mayor of Oxford, and Annes his wife, marble altar-tomb with moulded plinth and slab, side and end with diagonal cusped panels enclosing blank shields, on slab, brass figures of man in robe and one wife, indent of second wife, brass inscription and figures of five sons and six daughters, all palimpsest from parts of a Flemish brass. In nave—on N. wall, (7) to Anne (Mounstephen) wife of James Oldisworth, rector of Kencot, 1700, white marble and stone draped tablet, with blank shield; (8) to James Badger, M.A., 1711, white marble tablet with side-pilasters, cornice and cherub-head; (9) to Elizabeth, daughter of Peter Blake, 1686, white marble tablet with swags, cherub-head and lozenge-of-arms; on S. wall, (10) to William Day, 1665, alabaster and black marble tablet, with side-pilasters and entablature; (11) to Richard Holland, 1677, alabaster and black marble oval tablet with cartouche-of-arms; (12) to Daniel Fogg, 1702, Daniel, William, John, Mary and Thomas, his children and Anne his widow, 1723, white marble scrolled tablet; on W. wall, (13) to John Freind, 1672–3, stone tablet with pediment and brass inscription-plate. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (14) to Elizabeth, wife of Edmund Dickinson, 1670, oval alabaster and marble tablet (Plate 33) with cherubs, masks, cartouche and two shields-of-arms; (15) to Henry Smith, 1640, alabaster and black marble tablet with side-pilasters, entablature, pediment and cartouche-of-arms; (16) to Simon Parret, M.A., 1584, and Elizabeth (Love), his wife, 1572, stone tablet with enriched frame and brass plate with kneeling figures of man in civil costume and wife, nine sons and ten daughters, and three shields-of-arms; on S. wall, (17) to Ursula, window of Emanuel Sandys, 1671 and Samuel her son, black and white marble oval tablet with scrolls, wreaths and cartouche-of-arms; (18) to Edward Potter, 1701–2 and Sampson, his son, 1699–1700, white marble tablet. In aisle-chapel—on E. wall, (19) to Joshua Crosse, LL.D., 1676, Sedleian professor of natural philosophy, black marble oval tablet; on W. wall, (20) to Elizabeth (Sonnibanck), wife successively of Christopher Potter, Dean of Worcester and Gerard Langbaine, Provost of Queen's College, 1692, also to Mary (White), wife of Edward Potter, 1676, draped white marble tablet. In churchyard—on S. wall of nave, (21) to Jacob Bobart, keeper of the Physic Garden, 1679–80, Mary, his first wife, 1655, Ann, his second wife, 1696, their children Ann, Cordelli, Joseph and Margaret and their granddaughter Elizabeth, oval stone tablet with scrolls and cherub-heads; S.E. of nave, (22) to Ann, daughter of Christopher Airay, 1661, headstone; E. of porch, (23) to John Boulte (?), 1668, headstone; (24) to Mary Stevens, daughter of John Boulte, 1680, headstone; W. of porch, (25) to Thomas Deil, 171., headstone; S.W. of nave, (26) to Jacob Bobart, 1679–80, modern slab; S. of porch, (27) to Thomas Beil, 1672, headstone; (28) to Thomas Sedgley, 1714, Elizabeth, his wife, 1697, and to Elizabeth Sedgley, 1722, headstone; S. of Church, (29) to Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Bolt, [16]92, headstone; (30) to Richard Gar .. (?), 1711, headstone; (31) to Thomas Arlebere, 1666 and Thomas, his son, 1665, headstone; (32) to Richard Slater and John, his son, 1680, headstone; (33) headstone with the date 1675; against E. wall of churchyard, (34) to Jane, wife of Thomas Robinson, 1677, headstone; (35) to Abel Baily (?), 1689 and Elizabeth, his wife, 1680, headstone; (36) to ....., daughter of Robert Tombes (?), 1660, headstone; (37) to Dan (?) Sharman, 1679, headstone; (38) to William Barnes, 1708, headstone; (39) to William Man, 1666, headstone; (40) to Anne Long, 1627, headstone; (41) to Lawrence Short, 1671, headstone; against W. wall of churchyard, (42) to S.W., 1693, headstone. Floor-slabs: In N. chapel—(1) to Samuel Sandys, 1663, with achievement-of-arms; (2) to Henry Hyde, 1670, with achievement-of-arms; (3) to Mary (Andrews), widow of John Saintloe, 1699, with lozenge-of-arms; (4) to John Gregory, 1695, with shield-of-arms; (5) to James Hyde, 1681 and Margaret his widow, 1711, with achievement-of-arms; (6) to Anne, daughter of James Hyde, 1665–6. In nave—(7) to the wife of M. Gartside, 1710, Katherine, wife of Charles Prince, 1711 and Charles Prince, 1719; (8) to Mary, wife of Edward Potter, 1676; (9) to Thomas ...., 1651 (?); (10) fragment with date 1643; (11) to Alexander Lewis, 1683; (12) to Daniel Wood, 1670; (13) fragment with date 1637 (?); (14) to W.L., 1706; (15) to Henry Rawlins, 1664–5 and . . . . . . . (Clarke), his wife. In N. aisle—(16) to Peter Hele, c. 1700, with shield-of-arms; (17) to Anne, wife of Dr. Peter Elyot, 1687; (18) fragment with date 1643; (19) to Sarah, widow of Richard Zouch (?), 1683, with defaced shield-of-arms; (20) to William Chillingham, 1659; (21) stone with date 1652; (22) to Joane Clarke, 1636 and Joana, 1635, and Elizabeth, 1635–6, her daughters. Plate: includes a cup of 1569, a cup of 1626, a paten of 1660 given by Elizabeth Narmenfell the same year, two stand-patens of 1683, with the names of the churchwardens, a flagon of 1665, a second flagon of 1683 and five pewter plates. Scratchings: In crypt– various masons' marks. Sounding Board: In nave— hexagonal, with panelled soffit, projecting bracketed angles and pierced strapwork frieze, early 17th-century, twisted legs added to form table. Stoup: In porch— round-headed recess with remains of bowl, late 15th-century. Miscellanea: In porch—stone with moulded trefoiled head and parts of two quatre-foiled panels, 13th-century, four other similar fragments; set in sill of N.W. window, fragment of lower part of large circular font, with cheveron-ornament, bases of small shafts and part of figure, 12th-century.

Condition—Good.

(39) Parish Church of St. Thomas the Martyr stands to the W. of the city. The walls are of rubble with local freestone dressings; the roofs are covered with stone slates. The Chancel was built perhaps late in the 12th century. The Nave was largely re-built and extended to the W. in the 15th or early in the 16th century when the West Tower and a N. chapel were added. The South Porch was built in 1621. The S. wall of the nave was re-built in 1825 and the N. chapel was destroyed and the North Aisle and arcade built in 1846; the Vestry was added in 1898 and the tower was restored in 1936.


Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Plan

Church of St. Thomas the Martyr, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (29¾ ft. by 18¼ ft.) has a partly restored E. window of c. 1330, of one cinque-foiled and two trefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head with moulded reveals and labels. In the N. wall are two entirely restored windows of late 12th-century character, representing ancient features. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern similar to those opposite and the western of early 16th-century date and of three four-centred lights in a four-centred head; between them is a 13th-century doorway with a shouldered head; above it is a weathered head-corbel. The chancel-arch is modern.

The Nave (75½ ft. by 22¼ ft.) has a modern N. arcade. In the modern S. wall are four windows, the easternmost is of three cinque-foiled lights in a square head and the second is of two cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a square head; these are completely restored but probably reproduce 15th-century features; the other two windows are modern as is the S. doorway.

The West Tower (11 ft. square) is of late 15th or early 16th-century date and of three storeys with an embattled parapet. The tower-arch is two-centred and of two hollow-chamfered orders; the responds are of two chamfered orders. The W. doorway has moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with a label; the spandrels have blank shields; the partly restored W. window is of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label. The second storey has, in the N. and S. walls, a partly restored window of one four-centred light in a square head. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a partly restored window of two four-centred lights in a square head with a label.

The South Porch has a semi-circular outer archway of two chamfered orders, moulded imposts and chamfered jambs; above it is a panel with the date and initials 1621, E.F.T.B. and a shield-of-arms of Burton.

Fittings—Bells: six; 3rd and 4th by Abraham Rudhall, 1706. Candelabrum: In chancel—of brass with ball, two tiers of six branches and dove, inscription on ball recording gift by Christian and Anne Kendall, 1705. Door: In S. doorway of chancel (Plate 27)—of battens with two strap-hinges with scrolled ends, two bands with fleur-de-lis ends and five ornamental foliagescrolls, 13th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to William Tylcoke, 1578, two stone panels. In tower—on N. wall, (2) to James Funnell, [1701], oval stone and marble tablet (Plate 35) with drapery, cherub-heads and scrolls; on S. wall, (3) to John Kendall, 1706, erected by Elizabeth, his widow, 1708, stone and marble tablet with Ionic side-columns and entablature; (4) to Antony Kendall, Ann, his wife, and Christiana, Mary, Elizabeth and Sara, their children, marble tablet with scrolls, cornice and pediment, erected 1711. In churchyard— on E. wall of chancel, (5) to Joan, 1683, Joan, 1686 and Mary, 1687, daughters of William Westberry, stone tablet with skulls. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Mary, infant daughter of Byrom Eaton, S.T.P., 1671, also to Henry Eaton, 1675; (2) to James Funnell, 1701. Piscina: In chancel—in S. wall, recess with moulded jambs and trefoiled head, 13th-century, no drain. Recess: In external S. wall of chancel—with chamfered segmental-pointed head, probably 14th-century tomb-recess.

Condition—Good.

(40) Parish Church of St. Margaret, Binsey, stands N.W. of the village. The walls are of local rubble with dressings of the same material and the roofs are slate-covered. The church seems to have been built in the 12th-century but both Chancel and Nave were largely re-built in the 13th century, when the South Porch was added. The E. wall was re-built in the 15th century. The church was restored in 1833 when the E. wall was re-built and again in 1936–7.


Church of St. Margaret, Binsey, Plan

Church of St. Margaret, Binsey, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (16¼ ft. by 17¾ ft.) has a 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a label. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern similar to the E. window but without a label and the western a 13th-century lancet carried down below the transom as a 'low-side'; this part is now blocked. The 13th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous and the inner springing from moulded corbels. On the gable is a partly restored 13th-century bell-cote with two pointed openings and a gable.

The Nave (37½ ft. by 17½ ft.) has, at the E. end of the N. wall, a blocked 14th or 15th-century doorway, probably to the former rood-loft; it has chamfered jambs and two-centred head; further W. is a second blocked doorway, probably of later date, with a square head and only visible externally. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern is a 13th-century lancet and the partly restored western window is of the 15th century and of two trefoiled lights in a square head; the late 12th-century S. doorway has a round arch of one moulded order with zig-zag ornament and a label with dog-tooth ornament and beast-stops; the jambs have each an attached shaft with a carved capital and moulded base. The W. window is modern except for the jambs and splays which are of the 15th century; in the gable is a 13th-century lancet-window.

The South Porch is probably of the 13th century and has an outer archway with shafted jambs and modern head. There is a blocked loop in the E. wall.

The Roof of the chancel is probably of the 14th century and is of two bays, with curved braces forming arches under the collars. The 15th or 16th-century roof of the nave is of four bays, with cambered tiebeams, curved braces below the collars and curved wind-braces.

Fittings—Bells: two; first by Henry Knight, 1650. Font: tapering cylindrical bowl and stem with six partly restored attached shafts having moulded capitals and bases, 13th-century, base modern. Glass: In E. window—upper part of figure of man in civil costume and roundel with head in jewelled cap, 14th-century, upper part of figure of female saint or angel with cross and book, 15th-century, also various quarries and fragments, 15th-century and later. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: headstones in churchyard—S. of church, (1) to John Crutch, 1643; (2) to Mary, wife of Robert Crutch, 1694; (3) to .... Hearne, 1658; (4) to Martha Major, 1688; (5) to A.P., 1699. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Richard Tawny (?), c. 1700; (2) to Thomas Crutch, 1688; (3) to Ellin, daughter of Thomas Feilde, 1650. Piscina: In chancel—pillar-piscina with moulded capital and quatre-foiled drain, recess with two-centred head and moulded shelf, 13th-century. Recess: In E. wall of nave, S. of chancel-arch, rectangular.

In the churchyard, W. of the church, is a well, known as St. Margaret's Well.

Condition—Good.

(41) Parish Church of St. James, Cowley, stands near the S. boundary of the city. The walls are of local rubble with dressings of the same material; the roofs are slate-covered. The eastern part of the Nave, with the chancel-arch, was built late in the 12th century and in the 13th century the Chancel was re-built and widened; the nave was extended to the W. probably in the 13th century, when the S. doorway was re-set. The West Tower was added in the 15th century. The South Porch is of uncertain date. The church was restored in 1856 when the nave was heightened, the S. porch largely re-built, the N. arcade built and the North Aisle and Vestry added.


Church of St. James, Cowley, Plan

Church of St. James, Cowley, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (27 ft. by 16½ ft.) is of the 13th century and has an E. window of three lancet-lights with moulded labels, mask-stops and a segmental-pointed rear-arch and label. The E. wall has three dwarf buttresses. In the N. wall is an original window of one square-headed light and further W. is a modern arcade of two bays. In the S. wall are two windows, the eastern similar to that opposite, and the second also with a square-head and carried down below the sill as a narrow 'low-side'. The late 12th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of one plain order; the responds have each an attached shaft with moulded base and scalloped capital with a chamfered abacus and impost; on the E. face the chancel-arch is enclosed in a much higher two-centred wall-arch with hollow-chamfered imposts; this was probably intended to support a bell-cote.

The Nave (61½ ft. by 17¼ ft.) has a modern N. arcade of five bays. In the S. wall are three windows, the first of the 14th century and of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head with moulded labels; the second is similar but of three lights and is partly restored; the third window is of the 15th century, restored and lengthened and is of three cinque-foiled lights in a square head with a label; below the middle window are two chamfered stones probably indicating the original position of the S. doorway; the late 12th-century re-set S. doorway has a round head of two orders with a label; the inner order is chamfered and interrupted only by the impost and the outer is moulded and springs from attached shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases.

The North Aisle is modern but incorporates a partly restored N. doorway of late 12th-century date with chamfered jambs, round head, moulded imposts and labels.

The West Tower (8½ ft. square) is of the 15th century and of two stages with an embattled parapet. The tower-arch is two centred and of one continuous chamfered order. In the N. wall is a modern doorway. The partly restored 15th-century W. window is of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head, with moulded reveals. The bell-chamber has, in the N., S. and W. walls, a window of two square-headed lights with moulded reveals; the mullions of the N. and S. windows have been removed.

Fittings—Bells: five and one unhung; 4th by R. Keene, 1693; 5th dated 1694 and unhung bell dated 1691, probably both by the same founder. Bell-frame with the names of the churchwardens and the date 1694. Font: tapering cylindrical bowl, 12th or 13th-century, base and plinth, modern. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In tower—on N. wall, (1) to Richard Wickham, 1612–3, marble wall-monument with round-headed panel, scrolled sides and apron, cornice, cartouche and achievement-of-arms. Headstones in churchyard—S. of chancel, (2) to B.W., 1667; (3) to Richard Apslon, 1662; (4) to T. Read, 1667 (?); (5) to Mary, wife of William Jordan, 1694; (6) to Betteris Walker, 1667–8; (7) dated 1678; (8) to Ann, wife of Harmar Smith, 1664; (9) to Henry Apsylon, 1677; (10) to James White, 1670; (11) to I.L., 1666; (12) to Anna, wife of Ralph Day, 1688; (13) to Ann, daughter of Henry Fackland, 1706; (14) to Henry Fackland Jun., c. 1700; (15) to E.G., 1686 and A.G., 1691; (16) to Susanna, daughter of Edward Groome, 1672–3; (17) to Edward Groome, 1686. Floor-slabs: In nave—(1) to Lionel Phipps, 1709; (2) to George Phipps, early 18th-century; (3) to Kate, daughter of George Phipps, 1705. In W. tower—(4) to William Terrell, 1712; (5) to John White, 1702. Recesses: In chancel—in N. wall, (1) with shouldered head, covered by modern frame; in S. wall, (2) with moulded jambs, trefoiled head and shelf, formerly piscina; (3) with rebated jambs and shouldered head; all 13th-century. Sundial: On E. capital of S. doorway—scratch-dial. Miscellanea: In S. wall of nave, outside, panel with moulded stone frame and guilloche-ornament, 17th-century.

Condition—Good.

(42) St. Bartholomew's Chapel, Cowley (Plate 7), stands to the N.E. of the Cowley Road. A hospital for lepers was founded here by Henry I; it passed through Adam de Brome to Oriel College in 1328 and in the same century the chapel was re-built; it was restored in the 17th century. The hospital eventually became an almshouse and the foundation was merged in the Oxford Charities in 1900. The chapel is of local rubble with dressings of the same material and the roof is slate-covered.


St. Bartholomew's Chapel, Cowley, Plan

St. Bartholomew's Chapel, Cowley, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chapel (34½ ft. by 16 ft.) is of early 14th-century date. The partly restored late 14th-century E. window is of two cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head. In the N. wall is an original window similar to the E. window but with different tracery and with a label; at the W. end of the wall is an original doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head. In the S. wall are two windows both of two cinque-foiled lights, with two-centred heads and labels; the eastern is original and the western of late 14th-century date. The W. doorway has moulded jambs and segmental-pointed head and is of late 14th-century date; the W. window is of one cinque-foiled light; in the gable is an opening with a four-centred head, for a bell.

The lower Roof or ceiling is of the 15th century and of three bays with chamfered tie-beams, curved braces, purlins and rafters and a moulded and embattled wall-plate; the 14th-century high-pitched roof above the ceiling is not accessible except by ladder.

Fittings—Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) to Mary, wife of George Tubman, 1700; (2) to William Sanders, 1696–7 and Dorothy, his wife, 1697. Screen: between chancel and nave—of oak and of seven bays including central doorway; doorway with segmental head and spandrels carved with leaves and shields, bearing the date and initials 1651, O.C. for Oriel College, side-bays with close lower panels and open upper panels with four-centred heads, inner pairs supported by column-balusters and outer with turned pendants, moulded posts and cornice, 17th-century. Miscellanea: In nave, architectural fragments including head-corbel and part of 15th-century shaft.

Condition—Good.

(43) Parish Church of St. Andrew, Headington (Plate 7), stands on the N. side of the village. The walls are of local rubble with ashlar and dressings of the same material; the roofs are slate-covered. The chancel-arch and Chancel were built about the middle of the 12th century. In the second half of the 13th century the S. arcade of the Nave was built and the S. Aisle and the ground stage of the S. Tower were added. About 1400 the chancel was extended or re-built and the upper part of the tower was added c. 1500. The tower was restored in 1679 and the E. wall was re-built in the 18th century. The church was restored in 1864 when the nave was extended to the W. and again in 1881 when the N. Aisle, arcade, Vestry and Porch were added.


Church of St. Andrew, Headington, Plan

Church of St. Andrew, Headington, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (33 ft. by 16¾ ft.) has a modern E. window. In the N. wall is a late 14th-century window of one cinque-foiled light with a label; further W. is a blocked doorway, originally of the 12th century but with an altered head and a 15th-century rear-arch; it has a moulded E. impost; at the W. end of the wall is a modern opening. In the S. wall are two late 14th-century windows, both of two cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The partly restored chancel-arch (Plate 201) is of mid 12th-century date; it is semi-circular and of three orders, one moulded and two with cheveron-ornament, and a chamfered label; the jambs have also three orders, two with cheveron-ornament and one with shafts having scalloped capitals and moulded bases; the abaci and imposts have diaper-enrichment; the arch is enclosed in a two-centred outer arch of the 13th century.

The Nave (74¼ ft. by 22½ ft.) has a modern N. arcade and a modern extension at the W. end. The 13th-century S. arcade is of two bays, with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders with a label; the cylindrical column and half-cylindrical responds have moulded capitals and bases. E. of the arcade is an opening with steps to the rood-loft; it has a square head.

The South Aisle (10¾ ft. wide) is of the 13th century and has an E. window of three lancet-lights with a common two-centred label. The S. wall has two lancetwindows, restored externally, and further W. is the S. doorway; it is modern externally except for the apex of the outer order of the arch, which is of the 13th century.

The South Tower (12 ft. square) is of three stages with an embattled parapet; the ground stage is of the 13th century and the upper part of c. 1500; the stair-turret bears the initials of the church-wardens T.K. and R.C., the date 1679 and other initials W.F. and T.F., evidently referring to a restoration at that date. The E. tower-arch is two-centred and of three chamfered orders with moulded imposts and the inner order springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the N. tower-arch is similar to the S. arcade and has similar responds. In the S. wall is a lancet-window. The second stage has a rectangular opening in the N. face and a narrow loop in the S. face. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of c. 1500 and of two trefoiled lights in a square head with a moulded label.

The Roof of the chancel is of c. 1400 and of three bays with high curved principals under the collar-beams and curved wind-braces; the principals rest on corbels moulded or carved with angels, the heads of a bishop and a man and a shield-of-arms of three scallops.

Fittings—Bells: six; 2nd by Michael Darbie, 1654; 4th by Richard Purdie, 1625, with shield-of-arms; 5th by John Danyell, c. 1460 and inscribed "Sancta Margareta ora pro nobis", with the royal arms; 6th by William Yare of Reading, 1613. Chest: In N. aisle—of hutch-type with iron straps and hinges, three locks, 17th-century. Churchyard Cross: S. of nave—octagonal base with quatre-foiled panels, moulded capping and plinth on three steps, 15th-century, shaft modern, surmounted by weathered capping, probably 17th-century sundial. Door: In S. doorway—modern but with some 13th-century ironwork, including straps and hinges with ornamental ends, old lock. Glass. In chancel—in S.W. window, fragments in grisaille with foliage, 14th-century. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In Churchyard—S.E. of S. aisle, (1) to William Smith, 1705, headstone; (2) to James Tipping, 1700, headstone; (3) to Edmund Smith, 1692–3, headstone; (4) to John Tipping, 1688–9, headstone; S. of S. aisle, (5) to William Coombs, 1694, headstone; (6) to Ralph W. ......., 1678 (?), headstone; (7) to Henery Horrod, 1676, headstone; (8) to Thomas Tutte, 1693, headstone; (9) to Mary, wife of George (?) Godfrey, 1691, table-tomb, also to George, their son, 1692; (10) to Jeanery, wife of ...... Gurden, 1689, headstone; (11) to Thomas (?) Godfrey, 1706–7, table-tomb; (12) to Mary, daughter of Richard Collins, headstone; (13) to John Young, 1688, headstone; (14) to John Collins, 1672–3 and seven children, headstone; (15) to Elizabeth Collins, headstone; against N. wall of chancel, (16) to Katherine (Stamp), wife of Henry Jackson, B.D., 1686, headstone. Floor-slabs: In bell-chamber—(1) dated 1692; (2) to John Franklin, 1701. Picture: In S. aisle—on S. wall, the Marriage at Cana, Flemish, late 16th-century. Piscinae: In chancel—recess with trefoiled head, c. 1400. In S. aisle—in S. wall, recess with pointed head, shelf and modern sill and round drain, 13th-century. Plate: includes cup (Plate 41) of 1701 and stand-paten of 1634. Sedile: In chancel—sill of S.E. window carried down to form seat.

Condition—Good.

(44) Parish Church of St. Mary, Iffley (Plate 210), stands in the village. The walls are of local Oxfordshire rubble with ashlar and dressings of the same material; the roofs are covered with stone slates. The church was built by Robert de St. Remi between 1175 and 1182 and given by Juliana his daughter to Kenilworth Priory before 1190. At this time it consisted of the Nave, Tower, Chancel and perhaps an apse to the E. of it. About the middle of the 13th century the chancel was extended E. by one bay. (This has been ascribed to Robert of Iffley, Prior of Kenilworth (1266– 75–6) but seems to be 20 or 30 years earlier). Late in the 13th century two windows were inserted or enlarged in the original chancel, buttresses added to resist the thrust of the vault and the sedilia inserted. Late in the 15th century windows were inserted in the tower and nave and the rood-loft staircase was built. A S. porch was added at some uncertain period. The pitch of the nave-roof was lowered probably in 1612 when the S. parapet was built; the parapet of the tower is perhaps of the same date. The S. porch was removed in 1820 and the W. gable restored in 1823; the church was restored in 1844 when the nave-roof was re-built; the round W. window, replacing a late Gothic one, was re-inserted in 1860; the tower was repaired, the bells rehung and the rood-loft staircase opened out in 1911.


Iffley - the Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin

Iffley - the Parish Church of St. Mary the Virgin

The church is a standard example of a late Romanesque parish church with elaborate detail; the 13th-century extension is also of interest.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (36¼ ft. by 16 ft.) is of two bays, the eastern of the 13th and the western of the 12th century. The eastern bay has a splayed plinth and clasping buttresses and angle-shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The E., N. and S. walls have each a 13th-century single-light window with double-chamfered jambs and pointed head, shafted splays and moulded rear-arch and moulded internal and external labels; the internal abaci and external labels are continued along the walls as string-courses; a moulded string-course runs under the internal sills. In the E. gable is a re-set 12th-century window with jambs and round head enriched with cheveron-ornament. The buttresses of the E. wall are modern, those of the N. and S. walls are early 14th-century additions. Below and to the W. of the S. window in the E. bay is a 13th-century blocked doorway with a plain round head, visible externally. The E. bay is covered by a quadripartite stone vault with moulded ribs springing from single shafts in the E. angles and triple shafts at the W. end, all with moulded capitals, bands and bases. The cutting back of the earlier E. wall is on the splay and the splay is finished with a two-centred wall-arch, moulded and with zig-zag decoration and a moulded label; the vault at this point has two transverse ribs, one moulded and the other chamfered. The pilaster-buttresses, between the bays, are of two dates as indicated by the differing character and levels of the string-courses. The W. bay is of late 12th-century date and has in the N. and S. walls a late 13th-century window, each of two pointed lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a moulded label; these windows are set in the openings of 12th-century windows, of which the chamfered labels or parts of them remain externally and the whole of the outer order of the splays and rear-arch internally; this order is enriched with cheveron-ornament and the labels are continued along the external walls as stringcourses. The vault of the W. bay is quadripartite with broad ribs enriched with cheveron-ornament and a central boss carved with a monster and lions' heads; the vault springs from triple grouped angle-shafts with scalloped capitals and moulded bases; across the hollows between the shafts are series of square carved paterae or flowers; one carving on the N.E. is a bearded head and one on the S.W. a bird on a nest (plate 15).

The Tower (17¼ ft. square) is of the 12th century and of three stages with an embattled parapet perhaps of early 17th-century date; the top stage and the stair-turret are ashlar-faced. The E. tower-arch is of three orders on the W. and is semi-circular, the two inner orders have cheveron-ornament and the outer a series of large half sun-flowers or flowers of a similar nature; above them is a chamfered label; the responds have each a half-round shaft and an octagonal shaft to the middle order on the W. face, both with scalloped capitals, chamfered abaci and moulded bases; the octagonal shaft is of touch or some other dark marble; the outer order on the W. is plain; on the E. face the arch is of two orders, the outer plain on the responds but with cheveron-ornament on the arch. The N. and S. walls have each a late 15th or early 16th-century window of three cinque-foiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a moulded label; these windows replace and have partly destroyed two original windows of which one side and part of the arch of the outer order of the splays are visible internally; they resemble the similar remains in the chancel; part of the external head of the S. window also survives and a chamfered string-course runs along the wallfaces at the springing-level of the window-heads. At the W. end of the N. wall is the blocked doorway to the stair-turret which has a plain round head and chamfered label; the turret is now approached by a modern doorway on the outside. In the S. wall, E. of the window, is the 15th or early 16th-century rood-loft staircase, cut in the thickness of the wall, both the lower and upper doorways have flat four-centred heads. The W. tower-arch (Plate 14) is generally similar to that on the E., except that the outer order on the W. of the responds is splayed and the outer order on the E. has an attached shaft with a scalloped capital and moulded base; the flat stops of the splayed order are carved with foliage and a bird; the marble shafts, both here and in the E. arch, seem to be monolithic. The second stage is blank except for a square-headed window in the S. wall. The bell-chamber has each face divided into two bays with clasping and pilaster-buttresses; in each bay is a round-headed window with a head of three orders, the middle one springing from shafts with plain or scalloped capitals, moulded bases and chamfered abaci continued round the walls as a string-course; the orders are plain except in the W. window on the S. where the inner orders have cheveron-ornament and the outer order is moulded and has beak-heads; the inner and outer orders are continued down the jambs; all the windows are more or less blocked in the lower parts; the head of each bay in this stage is finished with a corbel-table of alternate round and triangular arches; the parapet string-course has decayed gargoyles; the stair-turret has tall loops and is finished above the base of the top stage with grouped shafts, three on each face, and the whole roughly sloped back at the top to form a semi-conical capping.

The Nave (42 ft. by 19½ ft.) has, in both the N. and S. walls, two windows, the eastern of late 15th or early 16th-century date and similar to those in the tower but with a flatter head; this pair of windows is set in a pair of original windows of which the outer order of the splays and rear-arch survive and are similar to those of the tower-windows; the outline of the outer head of the N. window and the cut-back of the S. window are also visible; the western pair of windows is of the 12th century; each is of one round-headed light and of two external orders, the inner plain and the outer with cheveron-ornament and a chamfered label continued along the wall as a string-course; the splays and rear-arch are of two orders with cheveron-ornament. The 12th-century N. doorway is set in an ashlar-faced projection with a tabled top; the round arch is of three orders, the inner plain and continuous, the middle with cheveron-ornament and the outer moulded and enriched with wedge-shaped uncarved 'beak-heads'; the moulded label has a series of round bosses; the two outer orders spring from shafts with scalloped capitals (the inner pair enriched) and decayed moulded bases; at the E. end of the wall are the marks of a blocked round-headed recess; there are similar marks in the S. wall The 12th-century S. doorway (Plate 207) is generally similar to the N. doorway but more enriched; the inner order is moulded and has carved rosettes, leaf-designs, the heads of a man and a king, beasts and monsters (Plate 15) including a lion, sphinx, merman and a bird; the outer order has wedge-shaped 'beak heads' as on the N. doorway and the label has ornaments resembling strap-ends; the inner pair of jamb shafts have lozenge and cheveron diaper; the capitals (Plate 17) are richly carved—that on the E. with mounted men fighting, one having a kite-shaped shield (on S. face), and figures of Samson and the Lion (on W. face); the W. cap is carved on both faces with centaurs and a beast; the outer pair of capitals is scalloped but the E. face of the W. cap is carved with a lion attacking a horse. Both side-walls have a plain corbel-table, except for two corbels on the S. side; the S. side has an embattled parapet with the date 1612 inlaid in lead. The 12th-century W. front (Plate 207) is in three stages; the lowest has a central doorway flanked by blind recesses with round moulded heads; the doorway (Plate 15) is round-headed and of three continuous orders; the inner order is very deep and of four ranges of cheveron-ornament, which is repeated on the soffit of the arch; the middle order is roll-moulded, with spiral enrichment and carved beakheads; the outer order is similar but the roll-moulding is plain in the arch; the label is carved with a series of enriched cartouches joined together by lions' heads and each containing a carving as follows—(a) eagle with scroll, probably for St. John; (b) Aquarius; (c) Pisces; (d) winged bull, probably for St. Luke; (e) figure, perhaps the angel of St. Matthew; (f) dove; (g) monster or Jonah's whale; (h) dove and scroll; (i) winged lion, probably for St. Mark; (j) winged ox (?); (k) eagle; (l) seraph; (m) and (n) monsters; a decayed beast or monster forms the label-stop on each side; the second stage of the front is recessed except at the angles and the sides of the recess have each a shaft and zig-zag ornament and the stage is finished by a plain corbel-table; the large round window is modern replacing one of late Gothic character; the top stage of the front has three round-headed windows; each is of four orders, the three inner with cheveron-ornament and continuous and the outer with beak-heads and springing from spirally enriched shafts with moulded bases and scalloped or carved capitals; the carvings are decayed but those to the N. are beasts or monsters and those to the S. appear to be foliage and perhaps faces; the internal reveals of these windows have cheveronornament. In the gable is a blocked opening with cheveron-ornament on the jambs and round head; below it is a band or frieze of carved stones, all with rosettes or flowers in pelletted circles.

The Roof over the chancel-vault is of three and a quarter bays with tie-beams, collars with curved braces and raking struts above; the purlins have curved wind-braces and the rafters, where old, are laid flat; the roof is mediæval. The 15th or 16th-century roof of the tower has two main cross-beams with curved braces. The other roofs are modern.

Fittings—Bells: six and sanctus; 4th by Joseph Carter, 1592; 5th uninscribed, probably 17th-century; 6th by Ellis Knight, 1626; sanctus by Abraham Rudhall, 1709. Chair: In nave—with turned front legs, shaped arms, enriched back and cresting, 17th-century. Churchyard-cross: S. of chancel, octagonal to square shaft on octagonal base, shaft mediæval, base probably later, head modern. Coffin-lid: In church-yard—S. of chancel, coped top with much weathered cross in relief with expanded terminals, probably 13th-century. Consecration Crosses: On internal walls of tower and nave, remains of painted crosses in red, one on the N. and S. walls of the tower and one on the N. and S. walls of the nave, all fragmentary except one on the N. wall of the nave, mediæval. Fonts: (1) in nave, with bowl of touch, the rest of local freestone; the bowl is nearly square with circular hollow; the angles are supported by dwarf shafts, three twisted and original and one of the 13th century; the circular freestone stem has a moulded capping and base; late 12th-century; (2) in churchyard, S. of nave, said to have come from Sandford; bowl only, of sandstone, much weathered; the bowl, partly hidden in the earth, octagonal with moulded capping, 15th-century. Glass: In nave—in N.E. window-tracery, two seated angels, two seraphim (one badly damaged), a rose and two leaves, all in situ, with other fragments, early 16th-century; in middle light, panel made up of fragments, mostly mediæval. In S.E. window, in middle light, numerous quarries with yellow diaper, also a shield of arms of de la Pole quartering Burghersh and impaling France and England with a label, each point charged with three roundels, early 16th-century; in tracery two quarries each with a bird, probably 17th-century. Monuments: In nave—on the W. wall, (1) part of the end of a canopy of grey marble with grouped shafts at the angles and indents of kneeling figures of man and wife with scrolls, a Trinity or Pietá, two saints and three shields, formerly in chancel. In churchyard—on N. wall of chancel, (2) to John Smith, 1659 and Alice his wife, 1678, stone tablet with scrolls, cornice and skull; E. of chancel, (3) to Jane, wife of William Redhead, 1683, head and foot-stones; (4) to William Redhead, 1701, headstone; (5) with date 1677, headstone; (6) with date, 1673, headstone. N. of chancel, (7) to Ann, daughter of John Redhead, 1697, headstone; (8) to John Broadwater, 1708, headstone; (9) to John Broadwater, 1714, headstone; (10) to Matthew Willkins, 1700–01, and Elizabeth daughter of Thomas and Elizabeth Willkins, 1702, headstone; N. of tower, (11) to Ralph Jackson, 1697, and Sarah his wife, headstone; (12) to Richard Browne, 169.; (13) to Joane Browne, 1694, headstone; (14) to Richard Webster, 1678, and Susan his wife, 1698–9, headstone; S.E. of chancel, (15) to Margaret, daughter of William Moore, 1658–9, headstone; S. of chancel, (16) to Ralph Blay, 1691, headstone; (17) to Martin Blay, 1657, headstone; S. of Tower, (18) to John Hester, 1636–7, headstone; (19) to Anne Bleay, 1701 –2, headstone; (20) to Anne, daughter of Robert Browne, 1689, headstone; S. of nave, (21) to Joseph Broadwater, 1705, headstone; (22) to John Bievy, 1685, headstone. Piscina: In chancel—of pillar-form with half-round drain in moulded cap, tapering end to shaft, mid 13th-century. Plate: includes a cup of 1675 "augmented" by Mr. Newlin and others of his family. Recesses: In chancel—in S. wall, two, eastern with moulded jambs and slightly shouldered square head; western, at back of piscina, with chamfered and rebated jambs and slightly shouldered head, both mid 13th-century. Scratchings: On nave—on jambs of N. doorway, two small crosses; on S. jamb of W. doorway eight-armed cross. Sedilia: In chancel—in S. wall, of three bays with hollow-chamfered trefoiled arches, with moulded labels and foliated stops, under common square-headed label; outer jambs and divisions between bays each with attached shaft having a moulded capital and base, late 13th-century, in hard dark stone.

Condition—Good.

(45) Parish Church of St. Peter, Wolvercote, formerly a chapel of St. Peter in the East, stands in Upper Wolvercote. The walls are of local Oxfordshire rubble with dressings of the same material. The roofs are covered with slates. The W. Tower was built early in the 14th century but the rest of the church was re-built in 1860 and the Vestry was added in 1935.

The Walter monument and the font are of some interest.

Architectural Description—The West Tower (10¼ ft. by 9¾ ft.) is of three stages with a restored embattled parapet and was built early in the 14th century. The semi-circular tower-arch is of the 15th century; it is moulded and springs from moulded corbels; the partly restored late 15th-century W. window is of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label; the W. doorway, of the same date, has moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with paterae in the spandrels and a label. The second stage has a triangular-headed opening in the E. wall and a square-headed loop in the S. wall. The bell-chamber has, in the N., S. and W. walls, an early 14th-century window of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head; the mullions have been replaced in wood; this stage has a stone roof consisting of a series of segmental-pointed arches, springing from corbels and supporting stone flags.

Fittings—Bells: six, 2nd and 4th by William Bagley, 1707. Brass-indent: In N. aisle—of two plates, with inscription to Edmund [Reynolds], 1630. Font: tapering cylindrical bowl with two bands of partly finished cross-hatched ornament divided by a shallow incised band, 12th-century. Glass: In chancel—in S. window, grisaille, with borders of leaves, probably c. 1300. Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. chapel—(1) of Sir John Walter, 1630, chief baron of the Exchequer, alabaster and marble altar-tomb with effigies, reassembled and formerly finished with a canopy of two bays; altar-tomb with pedestals for columns, effigy of man in legal robes and two wives, Margaret (Offley) and Anne (Wytham), kneeling figures of three sons and three daughters; above arch of chapel, achievement and two cartouches-of-arms from same monument. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (2) of David son of Sir John Walter, 1679, Lieutenantgeneral of the Ordnance, white marble tablet, ascribed to John Bushnell, with bust and cartouche-of-arms. On E. wall of vestry—(3) headstone with date 1690. Floor-slabs: In N. chapel—(1) to Joseph Hall, 1713; (2) to Mabell, wife of Richard Collins, 1680. In N. aisle—(3) to Mary, wife of Richard Rowland, 18th-century; (4) to Jeffery Webb, 1663 and John, his son, 1681; (5) to [John], son of Hugh Beckford, early 18th-century; (6) to Mary, daughter or wife of William Hicks, early 18th-century, (7) to .... Hall, 1711; (8) to Richard Hall, 1696 and his father, Richard Hall, 1696.

Condition—Good.

(46) The Greyfriars Priory stood immediately outside the city wall, a short distance to the W. of Littlegate Street. The Franciscans reached Oxford in 1224 and shortly afterwards were settled on a site in the parish of St. Ebbe, within the city wall. The later site outside the city wall was acquired in 1244–5 and here the church and buildings were erected. The church adjoined the line of the wall on the S. and its dimensions are preserved by William of Worcester. The friars had permission to make a postern in the city wall, between the old and new sites, in 1248; this may be represented by the recess and doorway, described under the City Wall (51).

The existing remains of the house are very scanty. They include (a) a length of rubble walling on the W. side of Littlegate Street; (b) a portion of rubble walling, uncovered by recent demolitions, running N. and S. about 20 ft. W. of Penson's Gardens and (c) a featureless rubble building at the W. angle of Wood Street and Charles Street. The walls (a) and (b) may be parts of the E. and W. boundaries of the precinct, but the building (c) may be a reconstruction with old materials. The culvert of Trill Mill Stream may be partly of mediæval date. Preserved at the City Library, but brought from this site, is the head of a 13th-century window of two lights.

(47) Rewley Abbey stood about 300 yards N. of St. Thomas' church; the site is now occupied by a coaldepot and allotment-gardens. The abbey was founded by Edmund Earl of Cornwall as a 'studium' for members of the Cistercian order; in 1281 it became an abbey of that order. The abbey was dissolved in 1536 and most of the buildings seem to have been demolished before the end of the century.

The remains now consist of a length of precinct-wall of roughly squared and coursed stone with a doorway near the middle of it. The wall runs parallel to and a short distance to the S.W. of the Oxford canal. The doorway (Plate 7) is of the 15th century with moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head, with quatre-foiled spandrels and a label with head-stops. Two shields-of-arms from this site are now in the chapter-house at Christ Church.

Condition—Poor.

(48) Oseney Abbey stood 300 to 400 yards S.W. of St. Thomas' church and the remains form part of the outbuildings of Oseney Mill. The Augustinian Priory of St. Mary Oseney was founded by Robert d'Oilly the younger in 1129; it was raised to the status of an abbey about 1154. The abbey was dissolved in 1539 and the church became, until 1546, the cathedral of the new diocese of Oxford. After this date the church and other buildings were gradually demolished. The small surviving building was probably ashlar-faced but has been much patched with rubble and the gable-ends are timber-framed. It seems to date from the 15th century and in the E. wall is a blocked window of two trefoiled lights. The roof, probably of the 16th century, is of queen-post type. There is no evidence of the original purpose of the building which was, in any case, a quite subsidiary one; the main claustral block stood some little distance to the E. From the N.E. angle of the building runs a short length of wall with a 15th-century archway; it has moulded jambs and four-centred head. Other portions of walling incorporated in later buildings are probably mediæval.

Condition—Fairly good.

(49) Godstow Abbey, ruins and bridges, stands in the N.W. corner of the parish of Binsey. It was founded in 1133 by Edith, widow of Sir William Launceline, in honour of St. Mary and St. John the Baptist, for nuns of the Benedictine order. The church was consecrated in 1139. The abbey was suppressed in 1539. The walls are of local Oxfordshire rubble and ashlar. From various early prints and drawings of the site it would appear that the conventual church stood immediately outside the existing N. wall of the enclosure and extended beyond it to the E. The W. end of the church seems to have stood about where there is a break in the line of the existing boundary and adjoining it was a N.W. tower partly overlapping the W. front; this tower seems to have fallen in the latter part of the 18th century. The cloister lay to the S. of the church within the existing enclosure and parts of the arcade-wall were still standing in 1718. The gatehouse stood to the N. of the tower and probably astride the modern roadway. The existing enclosure is roughly rectangular in form and the walls appear to be mediæval on the S. and part of the W. sides; in the S.E. angle is a small early 16th-century building (Plate 7), probably a chapel and perhaps that attached to the Abbess' Lodging. It is of rubble with dressings and was of one storey in the E. half and of two in the W. half, the upper one probably forming a gallery. The E. window is of three four-centred lights in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label. In the N. wall is a squint at the first floor level of a former building on the N.; further W. the wall sets back and in it is a doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head; there is a similar doorway, above it, at the gallery-level. In the S. wall are three windows, the easternmost of early 16th-century date and of two trefoiled lights in a square head with moulded reveals and label; the middle window is of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head and is probably of the 15th century, re-set; the westernmost window is of one light with a segmental-pointed head. In the W. part of the building, which is now roofless, are the holes of the beams and joists of the former gallery. It is evident from the squint and upper doorway in the N. wall that there was an adjoining two-storey building on that side, but there are no traces of its junction and it may have been of timber. Immediately N. of the building, in the E. boundary wall, is a blocked doorway, of the same date, with chamfered jambs and segmental head. The rest of the E. wall has a chamfered plinth and an offset on the W. face; it would appear to have been entirely re-built, at some uncertain date, of old materials. The S. boundary wall has a moulded plinth and is of c. 1500; it returns about 10 yards to the N. at the W. end and is carried across a former drain or watercourse on a two-centred arch; this drain probably flushed the rere-dorter of the abbey. The E. part of the N. boundary-wall has apparently been entirely re-built in modern times; near its W. end on the S. side is a rough recess and on the outside face are remains of two openings. To the W. of the break on this side, the walling may be mediæval and has a plinth; it returns S. at the W. end and in it is an archway (Plate 7) of c. 1500 with double hollow-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch with a label; it is now blocked. To the W. of the main enclosure is a second enclosure with a wall on the N. side and ditches on the other three sides. The wall is heavily overgrown but contains two loop-lights perhaps of a barn or outbuilding; towards the E. end is the diagonal buttress of an otherwise destroyed building.

On the site are numerous loose worked and moulded stones and a stone coffin with a broken lid, bearing a simple raised cross. In the Ashmolean Museum is the fragment of a 14th-century slab from Godstow, given in 1703; it bears the stem of a cross and an inscription in separate capitals referring to a chantry at Godstow.

The Bridge which forms the approach to the site from the N. is of two spans, the southern of which was re-built in 1892. The N. arch is pointed and is perhaps of mediæval origin, though the soffit has been renewed in modern brick. The central pier has a cut-water on the W. side. Immediately S.W. of the abbey-site is a second bridge with an irregular arch of rubble. The date is uncertain but the structure may be mediæval.

Condition—Of abbey, ruined.



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