18. CHRISHALL. (A.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)ii. S.W. (b)viii. N.W.)
Chrishall is an agricultural parish and village on
the borders of Cambridgeshire, about 6 m. W.
of Saffron Walden.
b (1). Parish Church of the Holy Trinity
stands near the middle of the parish. The walls
are of flint rubble with dressings of limestone and
clunch. The roofs are covered with lead, tiles
and slate. The West Tower and the nave were
built towards the end of the 12th century. In the
13th century a N. aisle or N. transept was added,
which was destroyed when the present North
and South Aisles were built c. 1400. The Nave
was rebuilt in the 15th century, and the clear-storey was added probably at the same time.
The Chancel, except the W. wall, was rebuilt
about the beginning of the 15th century, probably
outside the walls of the former chancel, and shortly
afterwards the tower was much altered, and the
second stage was added. The North Porch was built
possibly in the 16th century. The church was
restored in 1868–9, and again in 1878, when the N.
porch was much altered and the North Vestry and
South Porch were added.
The Church, Plan
Architectural Description—The Chancel (23½ ft.
by 20 ft.) has a modern E. wall and window. In
the N. wall are three windows of mid 15th-century
date, much restored; they are each of two cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred
head, and have moulded external reveals; the
sill of the easternmost window was raised during
a 19th-century restoration, together with the floor
and the lower part of the middle window was
destroyed when the modern doorway of the
vestry was inserted below it. In the S. wall are
two late 15th-century windows; the eastern
window is of three uncusped lights under a four-centred head; externally the heads of the lights are
modern; the western window is of two cinquefoiled lights, with tracery under a segmental head,
all much restored, except the tracery, which has
been slightly renewed; between the windows
is a doorway, probably of mid 15th-century date,
but almost completely restored. The chancel-arch is modern, except possibly the responds,
which are of doubtful date; on the gable above
the arch is a sanctus bell-cot of c. 1400, with a
stone roof and a modern gable-cross.
The Nave (57½ ft. by 19 ft.) has an embattled
parapet. The 15th-century N. and S. arcades
are each of four bays, almost uniform in detail,
the two-centred arches are of two chamfered
orders; the outer order is continuous, and the
inner order springs from semi-octagonal attached
shafts with moulded capitals and simple bases;
in the N.E. angle, embedded in the wall about 7
feet above the floor, is the defaced capital of a
13th-century semi-circular respond of an earlier
arcade. On the S. side of the E. respond is the
upper doorway of the rood-loft, with a few steps
in the thickness of the wall. The clearstorey has
four modern windows on each side.
The North Aisle (8 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall,
a modern window. In the N. wall are three
windows of c. 1400; the easternmost is of three
trefoiled lights under a square head with trefoiled
spandrels, and the others are each of two lights.
Between the two western windows is the N. doorway of c. 1400, with jambs and two-centred head
of two continuously chamfered orders, much
restored and entirely modern inside. In the W.
wall is a two-light window of the same date and
design as those in the N. wall.
The South Aisle (11½ ft. wide) has a modern
window in the E. wall, and three modern windows
in the S. wall, containing a few old stones re-set
in the splays; between the two western windows
is the S. doorway of c. 1400, with jambs and two
centred head of two continuous orders, the inner
order moulded and the outer chamfered; the
moulded label is of ogee form and finished with a
moulded pedestal for a niche; on each side of the
doorway is a shield; the eastern shield is represented as hanging from its strap and is charged
with two bars wavy; the western shield has been
restored and is charged with a fesse.
The West Tower (9½ ft. by 9 ft.) is of two stages
with 15th-century diagonal buttresses; the lower
stage is of two storeys and of the 12th century; the
upper stage is of the 15th century and finished with
an embattled parapet of flint and stone chequerwork; it is surmounted by a small lead-covered
spire, probably of late 18th-century date. The
15th-century tower-arch is two-centred and of
three chamfered orders; the outer order on the E.
side is continuous, and on the W. side dies into the
wall; on each side the two inner orders spring
from two moulded corbels attached to semi-circular responds of 12th-century material, re-used
in the 15th century; the bases of the responds are
apparently the original late 12th-century capitals
inverted; they are hollow-chamfered, and have
octagonal scalloped abaci. The 15th-century W.
window is of two lights, but is modern externally
except the sill. In the upper storey of the first
stage, the S. wall has a 15th-century single-light
window with a square head externally restored.
The bell-chamber has, in the E. wall, a 15th-century window of one cinquefoiled light under
a pointed head with moulded reveals. The N.,
S. and W. walls have each a 15th-century window of
two cinquefoiled lights, with a quatrefoil in a
two-centred head, which has moulded reveals
and an external label.
The North Porch (8 ft. by 7½ ft.) has been almost
completely restored, but in the gable are a few
courses of brickwork, apparently of the 16th century.
The Roof of the N. aisle is of eight bays and
of early 16th-century date; the easternmost and
westernmost bays have moulded main timbers and
foliated bosses, and the alternate principals have
wall-brackets with foliated spandrels.
Fittings—Bells: four; 2nd probably cast at
Bristol in the 17th century; 3rd by W. Haulsey,
of St. Ives, 1621. Brasses and Indents. Brasses:
In S. aisle—at W. end, (1) of [Sir John de la Pole
and Joan, his wife, daughter of John de Cobham]
c. 1375, knight in bascinet, camail, jupon, etc.,
right hand bare and holding that of lady, feet on
lion, lady in gown buttoned down front, close
sleeves, 'nebuly' head-dress, feet on dog; above
the figures a triple canopy with three shields;
(a), two bars wavy for de la Pole, (b), a
cheveron with three lions thereon for Cobham,
(c) de la Pole impaling Cobham, marginal inscription, modern; (2) of a woman, with high-waisted
gown and head-veil, c. 1450, indents of man's
figure, scrolls and inscription-plate; (3) of civilian
and wife, c. 1480, kneeling figures of man in robe
and woman in gown with fur trimming, wired
head-dress, indents of a 'Trinity' (?), scrolls and
inscription-plate. Indent: In N. aisle—at W.
end, figures of man in civilian dress and woman,
inscription-plate and two other plates, early 16th-century. Font: (see Plate p. xxix) square
bowl with chamfered angles, resting on round
central stem and two circular and two octagonal
corner columns with rough capitals and moulded
bases, late 13th or early 14th-century. Glass:
In N. aisle, in N. wall—in tracery of two eastern
windows, remains of oak leaves with borders
late 14th-century. Monuments: In N. aisle
—on sill of E. window, (1) white marble fragments
of tablet, possibly to [Sir John James, 1676],
including Corinthian capitals, heads of cherubs
and broken shield of arms. In S. aisle—in
S. wall, at E. end, (2) in recess, stone effigy
of a woman, wearing close-fitting gown and cloak,
corded across breast, 'nebuly' head-dress; head,
hands and part of body, restored; recess with
moulded segmental head and crocketed label,
flanked by small buttresses above an embattled
cornice; all late 14th-century, cornice much
restored. Niche: S. aisle—over S. doorway
outside, with cinquefoiled head, c. 1400. Plate:
includes cup and standing paten of 1686. Seating:
In nave—eight open benches, modern, but incorporating much late 15th or early 16th-century
material; two benches, with traceried panels
at the back, four corner posts surmounted by kneeling figures, the lower part of one figure is old.
Miscellanea: In tower—ladder to first floor,
every sixth rung is a narrow board with an ogee-shaped soffit.
Condition—Good, much restored; tower now
(1914) being restored.
b (2). Fortified Mount, in S.W. corner of Park
Wood, about 70 yards N.E. of the church, is a circular work about 120 feet in diameter, surrounded
by a ditch, now dry, except on the W. side.
b (3). Homestead Moat, at Parsonage Farm,
½ m. N.E. of the church, has banks revetted
b (4). Chiswick Hall, house, moat and fishpond, about ¾ m. S. of the church. The House
is of two storeys with attics, timber-framed
and covered with plaster and rough-cast; the
roofs are tiled. It was built c. 1600 on an H-shaped
plan with the central block facing S.E., and a
staircase at the back, in the angle between the
central block and the S.W. wing. Originally there
were probably three rooms on the ground floor,
one in each part of the house, but the wings have
now been subdivided. The wings and staircase are
gabled, and the central block has, in front, a gable
resting on shaped brackets, all the gables project
and have heavy verge-mouldings. The original
chimney-stack has four grouped shafts, set diagonally. Inside, the building has been much altered,
but the heavy chamfered lintel of the fireplace
in the central block is visible in two cupboards
on each side of the modern grate.
The Moat, has been filled in at the S.W. angle.
The Fishpond is S.W. of the moat.
Condition—Of house, bad.
a (5). Chrishall Grange, about 2½ m. N.N.W.
of the church, is of two storeys with attics and
cellars; the walls are of brick, and the roofs are
tiled. It was built late in the 17th or early in the
18th century on a simple, symmetrical plan, and
has a modern wing on the N. side. The storeys are
divided externally by a string-course and at both
the E. and W. ends are two curvilinear gables
with moulded copings. The S. front and the back
have each a slightly projecting bay in the middle,
and a moulded cornice.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century, and of two
storeys, timber-framed and covered with plaster;
the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many of the
buildings have original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.
b (6). Cottage, 150 yards W. of the church. At
the E. end the upper storey projects.
Church Street, W. side
b (7). Cottage, two tenements, 750 yards N.W.
of the church, has a half-hipped gable at each end.
The original central chimney-stack has four
grouped shafts, set diagonally.
b (8). House and barn, 150 yards N.W. of (7).
The House has a few original iron casements.
The Barn, S. of the house, has one aisle, and the
walls are of weather-boarded timber-framing.
Condition—Of barn, poor.
b (9). Cottage, at the cross roads opposite the
Post Office, about ¾ m. N.W. of the church.
The walls are probably partly of plastered mud.
In front is a dormer window.
b (10). Post Office, W. of (9), at the corner
of Abram's Lane, was almost entirely rebuilt with
brick in the 19th century. The original central
chimney-stack has diagonal pilasters.
High Street, E. side
b (11). The Red Cow Inn, house and barn,
about ½ m. N.E. by N. of the church. The House
was built probably in the 15th century, but in the
17th century the first floor was inserted and the
whole structure altered. There is a low modern
addition on the E. side. Inside the building,
in the roof, S. of the central chimney-stack, there
is an original steeply cambered tie-beam.
The Barn, S. of the inn, is of three aisled bays,
and probably of the 15th century. The cambered
tie-beams have curved braces.
b (12). Cottage, 75 yards S. of (11). The roof
is half-hipped at each end. The original central
chimney-stack has two square shafts with indented angles.
b (13). Cottage, 100 yards S. of (12), is of one
storey. The original central chimney-stack has
one shaft, set diagonally.
b (14). Cottage, two tenements, 100 yards S.
of (13), is of two storeys with attics.
Broad Green, W. side
b (15). Cottage, two tenements, about ¾ m. N.W.
of the church.
b (16). Cottage, 80 yards N. of (15). Some
original iron casements remain.
b (17). Gentleman's Farm, house, barns and
sheds, 60 yards N. of (16). The House has an
18th-century addition, making the plan L-shaped.
It was much altered, and partly rebuilt with
brick in the 19th century.
The Barns and cow-sheds, S. of the house,
are weather-boarded, and probably of the 17th
(18). Cottage, 60 yards N.E. of (17), has an
original central chimney-stack with diagonal pilasters. A few original iron casements remain.
b (19). Cottage, two tenements, 40 yards N.E. of
(18). A few of the windows have old iron casements.
b (20). Cottage; two tenements, N. of (19).
Crawley End, W. side
a (21). Cottage, nearly 1 m. N.N.W. of the church.
The upper storey projects at the E. end.
a (22). Cottage, 110 yards N.E. of (21). The
original chimney-stack is of cross-shaped plan.
a (23). Cottage, 40 yards N.E. of (22). The
original central chimney-stack has one square
shaft, set diagonally.
a (24). Cottage, two tenements, 100 yards S. of
(23). Some of the windows have old iron casements.
a (25). Cottage, two tenements, W. of (24).
Some old iron casements remain.
a (26). Cottage, two tenements, S. of Mill Causeway, about 1 m. N. by W. of the church.
Building End, N. side:—
b (27). House, on the S. side of the road, about
¾ m. S.W. of the church, was built probably
c. 1710 on an L-shaped plan, with the wings
extending towards the E. and S. The doors
and windows have plain solid frames, and the
windows have old iron casements.
b (28). Cottage, 60 yards N.W. of (27).