36. HADSTOCK. (B.a.)
(O.S. 6 in. iii. N.W.)
Hadstock is a parish and village about 4 m.
N.N.E. of Saffron Walden, on the border of the
county. The most important monument is the
(1). Dwelling-house, on the south bank of the
river Granta, in the extreme north of the parish
(O.S. 25 in., iii. 3, field 70), north-east of the windmill, partly excavated in 1846–50; stray tiles and
potsherds are still visible on the surface. (See
Sectional Preface, p. xxii.)
(2). Parish Church of St. Botolph stands in
the village. The walls are of flint rubble, with a
little Roman brick in the walls of the tower, all
much covered with plaster; the roofs are tiled,
except those of the nave and S. transept, which are
covered with lead. A cruciform church, of which
the Nave and North Transept remain, was built
about the second quarter of the 11th century; the
church probably had a central tower which was
pulled down at some uncertain date, or fell c. 1200,
when the arch opening into the N. transept was
rebuilt; the walls of the N. transept, except
apparently the N. wall, were rebuilt, possibly in the
13th century or late in the 14th century, when new
windows were inserted and the South Transept was
rebuilt. The West Tower and North Porch were
added in the 15th century. The Chancel, with the
chancel-arch, was rebuilt in 1884, and is said to be
on old foundations, which were found at that time.
The South Vestry and Organ-chamber are modern.
A remarkable cruciform church of pre-Conquest
date, with peculiar ornament. It is possibly the
minster erected by Canute in 1020 to commemorate
his victory over Edmund Ironside at Assandun.
(Ashdon is the adjoining parish on the S.E.).
Architectural Description—The Chancel (32½ ft.
by 17 ft.) is modern.
The Nave (57 ft. by 21½ ft.): the E. bay is set at a
different angle from the three western bays,
indicating the existence in the 11th century of a
central tower, which is also suggested by an irregularity in the walling W. of the arch opening into
the N. transept, and by the greater thickness,
forming an external projection, of the walls above
the transepts. The N. wall is much covered with
plaster, but the S. wall is almost entirely exposed,
and shows bands of slightly varied rubble in a
rough herringbone pattern; one band below the
windows has many ironstone pebbles in it. In the
N. wall, is an early 13th-century arch, two-centred
and of two chamfered orders, with moulded
imposts; the responds stand on 11th-century
plinths with moulded off-sets. Further W. is the
11th-century N. doorway (see Plate p. xxviii.) which
has a roughly semi-circular head of one roll-moulded order with a moulded and carved label;
the jambs each have an engaged circular shaft,
and the capitals are enriched with foliated ornament; above the capitals is a roll-moulded impost
carved with crude honeysuckle ornament. Over
the doorway is an 11th-century window, now
blocked, and further W. are two windows of the
same date, all with semi-circular heads and wide
internal and external splays; they are of flint
rubble, without dressings, and have old wooden
frames. In the S. wall, at the E. end, is a two-centred arch of two chamfered orders (see Plate
p. 144); the inner order has broach-stops, the
outer order a scroll-moulded label with maskstops; the arch is of the 13th century, and of
slightly later date than that opening into the N.
transept, but the responds are of the 11th century,
and are square, each with a circular attached shaft
which has a foliated capital, resembling a cushion
capital in shape; each abacus has a badly formed
roll-moulding at the bottom, and is square at the
top, enriched with crude honeysuckle ornament;
the bases are plain, and stand on high plinths with
four moulded off-sets of deep projection. Further
W. is the S. doorway of c. 1210, now blocked; the
jambs and two-centred head are of two moulded
orders with a double-chamfered label, and the
jambs have each a circular attached column with a
moulded base, a capital enriched with stiff-leafed
foliage, and a square abacus. Above the doorway,
a little towards the E., is an 11th-century window,
and near the W. end of the wall is a second window
of the same date, similar to those in the N. wall;
between them, set lower down, is a 15th-century
window of three cinquefoiled lights with a four-centred head.
Hadstock, Parish Church of St. Botolph
The North Transept (14½ ft. by 15 ft.) has walls
much covered with plaster, which makes the
extent and date of the rebuilding uncertain;
the diagonal buttress at the N.E. angle and the
windows are of late 14th-century date. The N.W.
angle has long-and-short quoins. In the E.
wall is a window of two cinquefoiled lights with
tracery in a segmental pointed head. In the N.
wall is a large window of three cinquefoiled lights
with elaborate tracery in a two-centred head with a
moulded external label.
The South Transept (13½ ft. by 21 ft.) is entirely
of late 14th-century date, where not restored. In
the E. wall is a window of the same design as that of
the E. window of the N. transept, but the tracery is
almost entirely modern. In the S. wall is a window
of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a
segmental-pointed head with a moulded label and
head-stops; the tracery has been much restored or
is modern. On the S. gable is a good 14th-century
The West Tower (12 ft. square) is entirely of
the 15th century and is of two stages; the lower
stage is of two storeys, with diagonal buttresses,
and a S.E. stair-turret rising to the second storey;
the moulded plinth has flint and stone checker
work; the parapet is embattled. The two
centred tower-arch is of two hollow-chamfered
orders. In the S.E. corner is a doorway with
chamfered jambs and four-centred head. The W.
doorway has jambs and a two-centred head of
two hollow-chamfered orders; the external label
is moulded and has head-stops; the W. window
is of three cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a
two-centred head; the external label has headstops. The ringing-chamber has, in the N. wall,
a small trefoiled light with a square external
label; in the W. wall is a quatrefoil window in a
square reveal with an external label. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of two
cinquefoiled lights with tracery in a two-centred
The North Porch is entirely of the 15th century.
The two-centred entrance archway is of two
moulded orders, the outer order is continuous, the
inner rests on semi-octagonal pilasters with
moulded capitals and bases.
The Roof of the nave is plastered, but one old
moulded strut is exposed on the N. side.
Fittings—Bells: five; 2nd and 5th by Richard
Keene, 1700. Brackets: In S. transept—N. of E.
window, moulded, 14th-century; on S. wall, high
up, three, small, moulded, 14th-century. Chest:
In tower—of oak, long, low, iron-bound, no lock,
date uncertain. Doors: In nave—in N. doorway,
of plain oak boards, with three iron straps in front,
riveted through to circular wooden bars at the
back, probably 11th-century; a piece of human
skin, recently found under the ironwork on the door,
now preserved in the Saffron Walden museum.
In tower—in W. doorway, of plain oak boards,
probably 13th-century, with remains of old ironwork; in bell-chamber, plain, with strap-hinges,
probably 15th-century; at foot of stair turret,
with strap-hinges, 15th-century. Font: square
bowl with chamfered angles, circular stem, square
chamfered plinth, probably late 12th or early
13th-century, much scraped and restored. Font-cover: with central post, having turned knob,
supported by bracket-shaped boards, probably
17th or early 18th-century. Glass: In S. transept
—in S. window, five quarries, each with sacred
monogram, and two quarries, each with monogram
"A. R."; all early 16th-century. Lectern: of
wood, desk with carved stem enriched with a
form of cable moulding, cusped and incised
foot, and octagonal base, early 16th-century.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Floor-slabs: In N.
transept—to Barbary, wife of George Boucher,
1683. Niche: On porch, over outer archway.
plain-plastered, with pointed head, uncertain date.
Panelling: In tower—lying loose, three pieces,
each with three panels, two plain and one with
arabesque ornament, early 17th-century. Piscina:
In S. transept—in S. wall, with moulded cinquefoiled head and circular drain, late 14th-century.
Plate: includes cup of 1563, and cover-paten,
without marks, dated 1571. Screen: Under tower
arch—and lying loose in tower—remains, open
upper panels with tracery, close lower panels,
also traceried, one spandrel with carving of fox
in habit, standing in pulpit and seizing a goose,
15th-century, in very bad condition. Seating:
In nave—all the seats, plain, open, early 16th-century, many considerably restored. Stoup:
In porch—W. of N. doorway, square recess with
projecting nib below it, probably stoup, date
uncertain, covered with plaster. Miscellanea:
In tower—from ringing chamber to bell-chamber—
ladder, rough, but some rungs cut in ogee form,
probably 15th or 16th-century. In the churchyard—a well, known as St. Botolph's well, now
Carving on Screen
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are all of the 17th century and of two
storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs
are tiled or thatched. Some of the buildings have
original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces, and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.
(3). The Manor House, 120 yards N.E. of the
church, was built c. 1600, on a T-shaped plan
with the cross-wing at the N.W. end. In the
18th century an addition was made on the N.E.
making the plan L-shaped. The original central
chimney-stack has six octagonal shafts, modern at
(4). Cottage, two tenements, 60 yards N. of the
church. At the S.W. end the upper storey projects
on plain brackets.
(5). Cottage, now two tenements, on the W. side
of the Walden road, 200 yards S.W. of the church,
with plaster panelling on the walls, ornamented
(6). Cottage, 60 yards N. of (5).
(7). Cottage, two tenements, N.E. of (6).
(8). Morris' Farm, house, 90 yards N. of (7), was
built c. 1500, and has a modern addition at the S.
end. The building consists of three bays; on
the E. side the upper storey projects on small
ornamental brackets. The base of the original
central chimney-stack has, on the E. side, three
trefoil-headed niches in terra-cotta. Inside the
building, on the ground floor, the N.W. room has
(9). House, on the W. side of the green and at the
corner of the Linton Road, 150 yards N. of the
church, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.W. and N.W. The part at
the junction of the wings is probably of early
17th-century date, but the rest is a late 17th or
early 18th-century addition. The upper storey
of the original part formerly projected and has
(10). The King's Head Inn, on the S.W. side of
the Linton Road, N.W. of (9). The 18th-century
and modern additions make the plan of irregular
shape. Inside the building the staircase has some
original flat balusters.
(11). House, 50 yards N.W. of (10), with a modern
front and a modern addition at the S.E. end.
The base of the original central chimney-stack
has small sunk panels, one bears the date 1636;
the square shafts are attached.
(12). Cottage, two tenements, on the N.E. side
of the Linton Road, 30 yards E. of (11).
Chalky Lane, S. side
(13). Cottage, two tenements, about 470 yards
E. by N. of the church.
(14). Cottage, 120 yards E. of (13).
(15). Cottage, two tenements, 80 yards W. of