39. HELION BUMPSTEAD. (C.a.)
(O.S. 6 in. iv. S.W.)
Helion Bumpstead is a parish and small village
about 8 m. E.N.E. of Saffron Walden.
(1). Parish Church of St. Andrew stands
in the village. The walls are of plastered flint
rubble with dressings of limestone and clunch;
the vestry, S. porch and W. tower are built of
brick; the roofs are tiled. The Nave is of doubtful date, but is probably the oldest part of the
building. The Chancel was apparently rebuilt
about the middle of the 13th century. The S.
arcade was built, and a S. aisle added about the
middle of the 14th century, and c. 1400 a W.
tower was probably built. The clearstorey was
added early in the 16th century. It is possible
that the S. aisle was destroyed and the arcade
walled up at an uncertain date, but the arcade
was re-opened and the South Aisle rebuilt early in
the 16th century. Early in the 19th century the
West Tower and part of the S. aisle were rebuilt,
and the South Porch and Vestry were added.
The Church, Plan
Architectural Description—The Chancel (28 ft.
by 17 ft.) has a 15th-century E. window of three
cinquefoiled lights with modern mullions and
tracery under a two-centred head; the external
reveals and internal splays are moulded. At the
W. end of the N. wall is a mid 13th-century lancet
window, externally rebated and chamfered. In
the S. wall are three windows; the two eastern
are similar to that in the N. wall; the westernmost
is a low-side window of mid 13th-century date,
of similar detail to the others, with a two-centred
head; the lower part has been blocked. Between
the second and third windows is a doorway of
uncertain date with chamfered jambs and two-centred head. The two-centred chancel-arch is
apparently of mid 13th-century date, much
restored; it is of two moulded orders, and the
responds have keeled shafts with moulded capitals.
The Nave (50 ft. by 21 ft.) has, in the N. wall,
two modern windows with old internal splays
and rear arch. Further W. is the 16th-century
N. doorway, now blocked; it has hollow-chamfered
jambs and two-centred arch. The S. arcade, of
five bays, is of mid 14th-century date, re-cut and
altered early in the 16th century; the two-centred
arches are of two chamfered orders; the piers
are octagonal, with moulded capitals and have
moulded bases much defaced; the E. respond is
roughly chamfered and the W. respond has a semi-octagonal attached shaft with a moulded capital
and no base. The clearstorey has, on both sides,
four windows of early 16th-century date, each of
two uncusped lights under a four-centred head;
the middle pair on each side are blocked.
The South Aisle (8½ ft. wide), was largely rebuilt
early in the 19th century. In the S. wall are
three windows, apparently of the 16th century,
re-set and much restored in the 19th century;
they are each of three uncusped lights under a
four-centred head. Further W. is the 16th-century
S. doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred
arch under a square head; beyond it is a plastered
internal recess, possibly a blocked window. In
the W. wall is a window similar to those in the
S. wall, but of two lights; it has a wooden frame
The West Tower was rebuilt in 1812, but the
tower-arch is of c. 1400; it is two-centred and of
four chamfered orders; the responds have semi-octagonal attached shafts with moulded capitals
and bases; the W. half of the arch is cut off by
the modern wall.
The Roof of the two W. bays of the S. aisle has
moulded purlins, one principal and part of an
upper wall-plate of early 16th-century date.
Fittings—Bells: six, and clock-bell; 3rd by
Miles Graye, 1647; 5th by Miles Graye, no date;
6th by Miles Graye, 1641. Brasses and Indents.
Indent: In S. porch—in slab forming threshold, of
inscription plate, four shields, and possibly figure,
much defaced. Chest: In tower—plain, oak,
iron-bound, with three locks, probably late 16th-century. Consecration Cross: On N.E. buttress
of nave, incised cross formy. Door: In S. doorway
—modern, incorporating two traceried panels and
two ogee-headed panels with crockets of late 15th-century date. Font: octagonal, bowl and stem
with cusped panels, much worn, 15th-century.
Gallery: In nave—at W. end, modern, incorporating nine large open panels and several smaller
ones, late 15th-century date. Monuments and
Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall,
(1) [to Devereux Tallakarne, 1627, and Mary
(Steward) his wife], tablet with terminal figures,
entablature and obelisks, three shields and defaced
inscriptions; (2) to William Gardner, 1667, and
Margaret his wife, 1683, marble tablet with Ionic
pilasters, cleft pediment, and shield of arms. Floor-slab: In chancel—to William Sharpe, 1692.
Piscina: In chancel—with chamfered jambs and
two-centred head, hexagonal drain, probably 13th-century. Plate: includes cup of c. 1600, stand-paten dated 1699, and small cover-paten of uncertain date. Pulpit: modern, octagonal, incorporating seven traceried panels with embattled
sills, cusped heads and foliated spandrels, late
15th-century date. Sedile: In chancel—sill of
S.E. window carried down to form seat. Seating:
In nave—modern clerk's desk incorporating two
traceried panels with cusped and sub-cusped heads
and carved and foliated spandrels, late 15th-century date. In nave—at W. end, two modern
benches incorporating panelled and embattled posts
and remains of benches, late 15th-century date.
In gallery, modern bench with back made up of
panelling, with moulded rails and muntins, and
carved frieze, 17th-century. In S. aisle—at W.
end, modern pew incorporating a small piece of
17th-century panelling. In S. aisle and vestry,
two carved oak benches made up of early 17th-century material, with turned legs, fluted rails
and carved brackets.
Condition—Fairly good; much altered.
(2). At Helions, 800 yards S.W. of the church.
(3). At Horseham Hall, 1¼ m. N.N.E. of the
(4). Boblow, house and moat, ¾ m. S. of the
church. The House is of two storeys with attics;
it was built in the second half of the 16th century.
At the N. end there are modern additions. At
each end is an original chimney-stack, containing
a small original window lighting the attics; the
N. stack has two, and the S. stack three octagonal
Interior—On the ground floor, a room, now
divided by a modern partition, has an original
fluted frieze or wall-plate of wood, flat ceiling-joists,
and a fireplace with an original carved overmantel.
In the S. room are wall-posts and wall-plates, now
covered with paper, and an original fireplace
flanked by columns supporting a frieze carved with
running foliage, and a pediment. On the first
floor are two original square-headed fireplaces of
stone, one flanked by semi-octagonal, and the
other by semi-circular columns.
The remains of the Moat are of irregular shape.
Condition—Of house, good.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century and of two
storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs
are tiled or thatched. Some of the buildings
have exposed ceiling-beams, wide fireplaces and
Condition—Good or fairly good, unless noted.
(5). Moss's Farm, house, 150 yards N.W. of the
church. It is now of irregular L-shaped plan, with
the wings extending towards the E. and N., but
the original plan is uncertain. At the E. end of
the E. wing the upper storey projects.
(6). The Marquis of Granby Inn, 100 yards N.W.
of the church, was built probably c. 1600, and has
modern additions. The original block has been
(7). Cottage, now six tenements, 100 yards E. of
the church, on the E. side of the road, is of two
storeys with attics, and is partly weather-boarded.
It has a small wing at the back.
(8). House, 800 yards N.E. of the church, on
the N.W. side of the Haverhill Road, is of two
storeys with attics, and is partly weather-boarded.
It was built apparently early in the 17th century,
but later, though possibly in the same century, a
cross-wing was added at the N.W. end. The original
chimney-stack has grouped diagonal shafts.
(9). Parsonage Farm (see Plate, p. xxvii.), house,
now four tenements, ¾ m. N.E. of the church, on
the N. side of the Haverhill Road, was built in the
second half of the 16th century, on an L-shaped
plan with the wings extending towards the E. and
N., and with a staircase projection between the
wings. In the 17th century another wing was
added on the N. side of the E. wing, making the
plan half-H-shaped. The E. end of the E. wing
has been re-faced with modern brick. On the
western part of the S. front at the E. end of the E.
wing, and on the E. side of the 17th-century wing,
the upper storey projects. The original central
chimney-stack has three octagonal shafts, and the
W. stack has three circular shafts, all with moulded
bases. Inside the building, on the ground floor,
is an original fireplace, much defaced, with a
moulded mantelshelf and pilasters with moulded
capital and bases.
(10). House, 400 yards E. of (9), was built on
an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards
the W. and N. The original chimney-stack in the
W. wing has a square base with sunk panels on
two sides; it has four octagonal shafts, with
moulded bases, modern at the top. Inside the
building, in the W. wing, is a door made up of
early 17th-century panelling, set sideways; the
panels have an incised design.
(11). Ivytodd Farm, house, 1,150 yards N.W. of
the church, is of two storeys with attics. The
original chimney-stack is double; one part has
grouped diagonal shafts, the other has been rebuilt
as a square chimney; between the two parts is
a small gable.