Braintree

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1921

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'Braintree', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Essex, Volume 2: Central and South West (1921), pp. 27-35. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=122616 Date accessed: 21 October 2014.


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11. BRAINTREE. (F.a.)

(O.S. 6 in. (a)xxxv. S.W. (b)xxxv. S.E.).

Braintree is a parish and small town 6½ m. N.W. of Witham. The principal monuments are the Church and the houses numbered 37, 45 and 47. Since this survey (1914) certain minor monuments have been destroyed.

Ecclesiastical

a(1). Parish Church of St. Michael stands in the town. The walls are of flint-rubble intermixed with some Roman bricks and puddingstone, and dressings of clunch and Bath stone; the roofs are covered with tiles and slates, and the spire is shingled. The presence of Roman bricks in the Chancel probably indicates that it and the Nave were built in the 12th century, but they were almost entirely re-built c. 1240, when the North and South Aisles and West Tower were added. Late in the 14th century the North-East Vestry was built, and c. 1400 the North Chapel was inserted between it and the N. aisle. In the 15th century the S. aisle was widened and lengthened westward, and c. 1530 the South Chapel was added, the N. chapel probably enlarged and re-roofed, the N. aisle widened, and an upper floor inserted in the N.E. vestry. During the 19th century the church was much restored, the N. aisle and N. chapel largely re-built and extended and the North-West Vestry and North and South Porches added.

The 16th-century roofs of the N. and S. chapels are noteworthy.


The Church, Plan

The Church, Plan

Architectural Description—The Chancel (38 ft. by 22 ft.), has in the E. wall a modern window. In the N. wall is a doorway to the N.E. vestry; it has chamfered jambs and two-centred head and is probably of the 14th century re-cut; further W. is the late 14th or early 15th-century archway to the N. chapel or organ-chamber; it is of two chamfered orders, and the jambs of the inner order have semi-octagonal moulded corbels. In the S. wall is an early 16th-century arcade of two bays with four-centred arches of two moulded orders; the central pier has four rolls and four attached round shafts with moulded capitals and a common moulded base, and the responds have each a similar shaft. The chancel-arch is modern.

The North-East Vestry is of the 14th century and of two storeys. It has on the N. wall an embattled cornice and a moulded string-course with a grotesque head. In the ground-storey, and in the E. wall is a square-headed window of uncertain date. In the N. wall are a modern window and doorway, and in the W. wall is a modern doorway opening into the N. chapel. In the upper storey in the E. wall is a modern window with some old stones re-used in splays.

The North Chapel or organ-chamber (21 ft. square), has in the E. wall a modern window and doorway, and the N. wall has been entirely re-built, but the two windows have old internal jambs with attached shafts and the western window has shafted splays in addition, all 15th-century, re-used. In the W. wall is a modern arcade of two bays.

The South Chapel, called the Jesus Chapel, (39 ft. by 11 ft.), is of the 16th century and has buttresses with crocketed pinnacles, mostly restored. In the E. wall is a window of four lights with a four-centred head, moulded jambs and label, and modern tracery. In the N. wall high up at the W. end is the blocked entrance to the former rood-loft; it has moulded jambs and a four-centred arch of early 16th-century date. In the S. wall are three windows, all modern externally except the moulded four-centred heads and moulded labels of the first and third. Between the second and third window is a partly restored doorway with a four-centred moulded head; the soffit of the rear-arch is panelled and cusped; W. of the third window is an early 16th-century doorway to the rood-loft stair; it has moulded jambs and four-centred arch.

The Nave (52 ft. by 22 ft.), has a N. arcade of the 13th century, largely restored, and is of three bays. The arches are two-centred and of two hollow-chamfered orders, and are carried on a circular and an octagonal column, both with moulded capitals and bases and square plinths; the plinth of the eastern column has spur-ornament; the W. respond has a moulded abacus and semi-octagonal corbel, which carry the inner order; the E. respond has an impost moulding. The S. arcade is similar, but the corbel of the W. respond has a mutilated carved female head attached. The clearstorey has six modern windows on each side.

The North Aisle is entirely modern.

The South Aisle (17 ft. wide), has in the E. wall a small 16th-century window with a round arch in a square head lighting the stair-turret to the former rood-loft. At the W. end of the N. wall is a modern doorway to the W. tower with some re-set stones. The S. wall has been almost entirely re-built, and has four windows and a doorway, all modern.

The West Tower (12 ft. square), contains some Roman brick, and has quoins of freestone alternating with 17th-century brick. It is of three stages, with a broached and shingled spire. The 13th-century tower-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the semi-octagonal responds have moulded capitals and bases. In the S. wall are remains of the splayed jambs of a 12th or 13th-century window. The second stage is internally of two storeys; the lower has in the W. wall a 13th-century lancet window, all modern externally; and the upper has a modern lancet window in both the N. and S. walls. The bell-chamber has in each wall two lancet and three bulls-eye windows, all modern.

The Roof of the N.E. vestry has a moulded wall-plate, probably of early 15th-century date. The southern half of the roof of the N. chapel is of the 16th century; it is flat-pitched and of two bays with moulded wall-plates and beams; at the intersection of the main beams is a boss carved with a figure of St. Michael slaying the dragon; re-set in the N.E. and N.W. angles on modern stone corbels are curved braces with spandrels carved with foliage and shields with the cross of St. George. The 16th-century roof of the S. chapel is a flat lean-to divided into six bays by heavy moulded and carved principal timbers with moulded rafters; at the intersection of the main beams are seven bosses carved with conventional foliage, the initials M.R., the letters I.H.S. with crown of thorns, and shields of arms including the Grocers' Company; a fesse wavy between two running hounds; quarterly a border bezanty for Rochford; and a quatrefoil between four rings.

Fittings—Brasses: In N. aisle—on N. wall (1) to Thomas Wilson, 1627, inscription plate; (2) to Marie (Wood), wife of Richard Everat, and then of John Goody, 1589. On chancel—on E. wall externally, (3) to Samuel Collins, M.D., 1670, inscription plate. Doors: In chancel—in doorway to vestry, of oak boards with applied mouldings, old scutcheon to keyhole and pierced plate to ring-handle, late 15th-century. Lockers: In chancel—in N. wall, rectangular, rebated for door, date uncertain. Monument: In chancel— on N. wall, to John Hawkins, Alderman of the City of London, 1633, and his sons, John and Abraham, 1644; the monument made by Francis Grigs, 1645; it is of marble, with a central panel flanked by Doric pilasters carrying an enriched entablature; over the entablature are two shields and a cartouche of arms. Piscina: In S. chapel— In S. wall, circular drain, moulded three-centred head and jambs, probably c. 1530. Plate: Includes two enriched cups of 1616. Recesses: In S. chapel— under E. window, outside, long recess with chamfered jambs and three-centred head, and with a circular basin at the N. end, probably c. 1530. Miscellanea: In N. chapel—parchment roll with names of those who died of the plague, dated 1684. In upper storey of N.E. vestry—fragments of old masonry, including circular piscina-basin, circular stoup, moulded stones and roof-timber, and a 14th-century carved finial.

Condition—Good, but much restored and altered.

Secular

Monuments (2–75).

The following monuments, unless otherwise described, are of the 17th century, and of two storeys, timber-framed and plastered; the roofs are tiled or thatched. Many of the buildings have exposed ceiling-beams, wide fireplaces and original chimney-stacks, and most of them have been much altered both inside and outside.

Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.

High Street, S.E. side

a(2). Blandford House, 140 yards S.W. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. It was built c. 1700 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and S.E.; at the back are extensive modern additions. On the N.W. front is an original shell-porch with carved brackets. Inside the building, the original staircase has a moulded rail and string and twisted balusters. In the house is preserved a terra-cotta tablet with the royal arms of Elizabeth, from a former building (Plate, p. xxxvi).

a(3). House, now three tenements, 60 yards N.E. of (2), is of three storeys. It was built c. 1600 on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.W. and S.E.; between the wings are late 17th-century and modern additions. On the N.W. front the upper storey formerly projected but has been under-built. Inside the building are one late 17th-century and two original doors with moulded panels.

a(4). House, now two tenements, N.E. of (3), was built early in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.W. and S.E. On the N.W. front the upper storey projects but has been partly under-built. Inside the building on the ground floor are two moulded wall-plates. In the passage between the two tenements are two original doorways, now blocked, with four-centred heads.

a(5). Malting House, N.E. of (4), is weather-boarded. It is of T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the N.W. end. The upper storey has been largely re-built. Some of the doors have original strap-hinges. Inside the building the chamfered tie-beams have heavy braces.

a(6). House and Barn, formerly a house, adjoining S.E. end of (5). The Barn adjoins the house, and has on the E. elevation an original window, now blocked, with moulded frame and mullion. Inside the building are visible two old windows, now blocked, with diamond-shaped mullions.

Condition—Of house and barn, poor.

a(7). House, now two tenements, 20 yards N.E. of (5), has a N.W. front of brick. It was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and S.E. On the N.W. front the upper storey retains the original late 17th-century casement-windows.

a(8). House, 45 yards N.E. of (7) at the N. junction with Church street, is of three storeys; the uppermost storey is a modern addition. On the N.E. front the upper storey projects, but is partly under-built for bay-windows. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam.

a(9). House, N.E. of (8), is of three storeys. The E. half was built probably in the second half of the 15th century but has been re-built at the E. end; the W. half was added or re-built late in the 16th century. On the W. front both the second and third storeys project; under the lower projection is a curved bracket; the ground-floor is pierced by a passage leading to the back-yard; the W. entrance retains the moulded S. jamb of the 16th-century doorway, and the 16th-century door with alternate moulded battens, three moulded rails, and a foliated hinge. On the S. elevation, the N. half of the upper storey of the 15th-century block projects. At the back of this block the second storey projects 7½ ft. and is carried on three large curved braces, the mouldings of which are carried down the wall-posts; the bressumer is moulded; in the ground-storey is a 15th-century square window formerly of three lights, now blocked; further W. is a contemporary square-headed doorway, also blocked. Inside the building, the W. wall of the E. or 15th-century block is of two bays, each with a two-centred arch of wood, the N. arch is now incomplete. In the upper storey of this block, opening into the projecting gallery, is an original doorway with a two-centred head; in the roof are original king-post trusses.

a(10). House, now shops, N.E. of (9), is of three storeys with attics. It was built late in the 16th century, and has modern additions at the back. On the N.W. front the upper storeys project; the upper and part of the lower bressumer is moulded and carved with billet ornament; the upper projection has original shaped brackets. Inside the building is some original panelling and an original panelled door. The central newel staircase between the first and second floors is original.

a(11). House, now shop, N.E. of (10).

a(12). House, now shop, N.E. of (11), is of modified T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the N.W. end. It has been much altered.

a(13). House, 20 yards N.E. of (12), has two 18th-century bay-windows on the N. front.

a(14). House, now shop, E. of (13), of is three storeys, the uppermost modern. At the back is a long 15th-century wing extending towards the S. On the S. elevation the main block has three gables. On the W. elevation the upper storey of the wing formerly projected but has been refaced. Under the W. end of the main block is a passageway in which are curved brackets supporting the remains of the ceiling-beams. The 15th-century wing is divided internally into six bays, but the former partitions have gone. The roof retains the original king-post trusses.

a(15). House now shop, 12 yards E.N.E. of (14), adjoining the Corn Exchange on the E., is of three storeys, the uppermost modern. It is of modified T-shaped plan with the main or cross-wing at the N. end. The W. half of this wing was built early in the 16th century, and has additions of various 17th-century dates on the E. side and at the back. On the N. front the upper storey of the original block probably formerly projected but has been under-built. Inside the building the ground-floor of the original block has original moulded ceiling-beams and a wall-plate carved with running foliage pattern and elaborate foliage stops. An original doorway retains the mortices of a former arched head.

a(16). Horn Hotel, E.N.E. of (15), was re-built in the 18th century but retains an older wing at the back. Inside the building is a reduced dado of early 17th-century panelling.

a(17). House, now shop, 12 yards E. of (16), is of three storeys, the uppermost modern. It was built late in the 16th century and has 18th-century and modern additions at the back. Inside the building, re-set, is a plaster panel bearing the Royal Arms of Queen Elizabeth and the date 1592.

a(18). House, now shop, adjoining (17) on the E., is of three storeys. It was built in the 15th century, and has at the back 16th or 17th-century additions which have been annexed by (17). In the middle of the E. elevation the upper storey projects over a passageway and is gabled. Inside the building the roof of the main block has original king-post trusses.

N.W. side

a(19). House, now shop, opposite (13). The main block is probably of the 18th century, but adjoining it at the back is a 17th-century block of H-shaped plan with the cross-wings at the E. and W. ends; the W. cross-wing is largely re-built. Re-used in the cellar of the 18th-century block are some moulded beams.

a(20). House, now shop, 20 yards S.W. of (19), at the junction with Sandpit Road, was built on a modified L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.; between the wings is a modern addition. In the upper storey on the W. elevation is an original window.

a(21). House, now office, S.W. of (20), at the junction with Sandpit Road, was built probably in the 15th or early 16th century, but the front part of the house has been almost entirely altered. On the S.W. side is a covered passageway to the yard with a four-centred entrance-archway of two chamfered orders; by the arch is a bracket indicating that the upper storey formerly projected. Further up the passage is a similar archway of a single order, and at the N.W. end the cross-beam has curved brackets. In the N.E. side-wall of the passage is an original doorway with four-centred head. The upper storey of the rear part of the building formerly projected on the S.W. side but has been under-built. Inside this part of the building are three original king-post trusses.

a(22). House, now shop, S.W. of (21), is of three storeys, the uppermost modern. It is of modified T-shaped plan with a 17th-century cross-wing and a 16th-century N.W. wing. In the N.E. wall, opening into the passageway described under (21), is a 16th-century doorway with a four-centred head. Inside the cross-wing are original moulded ceiling-beams.

a(23). Boar's Head Inn, 20 yards S.W. of (22), was built in the 15th century on a half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W.; in the 16th or 17th century an upper floor was inserted in the central Hall, and there is a small modern addition between the wings. On the S.E. front the upper storey projects, and on the inner sides of the two wings it formerly projected, but has been under-built. Inside the building, the staircase has some early 17th-century balusters with contemporary hand-rail. In the roofs are original king-post trusses.

a(24). House, now two tenements, opposite (5), is of two storeys with attics. It is of irregular L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.E. and N.W. On the S.E. front the upper storey projects, the projection of the S.W. half being at a lower level than the remainder. Inside the building, the entrance-passage of the N.E. tenement has a screen, probably of the first half of the 17th century, and of tall panels with moulded muntins. The well-staircase has 17th-century carved newels and modern balusters.

a(25). House, 15 yards S.W. of (24), opposite (3), was built probably in the 15th century on an almost rectangular plan with a central Hall and a gable at each end of the S.E. and N.W. elevations; in the 16th or 17th century an upper floor was inserted in the Hall, and the gabled N.E. end was extended towards the N.W. On the S.E. front the upper storey projects under the gables. Inside the building, on the first floor, in the N.E. wing is an original window, now blocked, with a flat four-centred head, and an original king-post truss.

Bank Street, E. side

a(26). House, now shop, occupying, with (27), (28), (29), and (30) an island site at the S.E. corner of the street, is of three storeys, the uppermost modern. It was built in the 16th century, and has a modern addition at the back. The upper storey probably formerly projected on the W. front.

a(27). House, now shop, adjoining (26) on the E., was built in the 16th century.

a(28). House, now shop, adjoining (26) on the N., is of three storeys, the uppermost modern. On the W. front the upper storey probably formerly projected.

a(29). House, now beer-shop, adjoining (28) on the N., is now of three storeys and is very much altered. It was probably built in the 16th century. In the cellar an original octagonal pillar of oak supports the main ceiling-beam. The E. part of the N. elevation is gabled and retains part of an original foiled barge-board.

a(30). House, now shop, adjoining (29) on the N., was built probably in the 16th century, and has a modern addition at the back. On the W. front the upper storey formerly projected on curved brackets, of which one remains.


Braintree, Plan Shewing the Position of Monuments

Braintree, Plan Shewing the Position of Monuments

a(31). House, now shop, 20 yards N. of (30), is of three storeys. On the W. front each of the upper storeys projects.

a(32). House, now shop, 40 yards N. of (31), occupying an island site with (33), was built late in the 16th or early in the 17th century. On the W. front the upper storey projects and is gabled.

a(33). House, now shop, adjoining (32) on the N., was built probably late in the 16th century. On the W. front the upper storey projects.

a(34). House, now two shops, 15 yards N. of (33), was built probably on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and E.; the E. wing has since been extended. On the S. elevation the upper storey of the W. part of the E. wing projects and has a moulded bressumer; and the casement windows are probably of 17th or early 18th-century date. The late 17th or 18th-century S. chimney-stack has rebated angles. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam to which a moulded cornice has been added. The late 17th-century staircase has a heavily moulded string and handrail and twisted balusters.

a(35). House, now shop and office, adjoining (34) on the N., is partly of three storeys, the uppermost modern. The building is now of L-shaped plan with a short wing extending towards the N. and a long wing, probably of late 16th-century date, extending towards the E.

W. side

a(36). House, now two shops, opposite (35), is now partly of three storeys. It was built probably in the 15th century on a modified L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W.; at some uncertain date an addition has been built on the W. side of the N. wing, making the present plan half H-shaped. On the E. front the upper storey formerly projected. The front block is pierced centrally by a covered passage-way which retains an original moulded ceiling-beam. Inside the W. wing is an original king-post roof-truss.

a(37). House, 35 yards S. of (36), is of half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. The E. part of the S. wing and probably the S. half of the main block are of the 15th century; the N. half of the main block and the whole of the N. wing were added probably in the 16th century, and in the 17th century the S. wing was extended towards the W.; many alterations, including the re-facing of the E. front, were carried out in the 18th century and later. In the N. wing the ground floor has a 16th-century window of three lights with moulded oak mullions; and the upper floor retains eleven of its original windows, many now blocked, some of four lights and all with moulded mullions. The main block is pierced by a covered passage-way; the entrance has a four-centred arch and moulded side-posts; in the N. wall is a small 16th-century window which contains two original ornamented lozenges of glass. Inside the building, in the N. half of the main block are moulded ceiling-beams, and a late 17th-century staircase with turned balusters. In the N. wing are two 16th-century doorways with four-centred heads, and some late 16th-century panelling; on plaster partitions over two of the original tie-beams are painted the royal arms of Queen Elizabeth, and a pot of flowers and a panel with an illegible black-letter inscription. In the S. wing is a 15th-century king-post roof-truss; in the roof is a piece of carved 16th-century beam, re-used.

a(38). House, now shop, 20 yards S. of (37), was built probably late in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; an original outbuilding W. of the house has been connected to the main block by modern additions, and the N.W. wing has been extended. On the E. front the upper storey formerly projected. The original chimney-stack has one square and three octagonal shafts. Inside the building is some original panelling with a frieze carved with arabesque ornament.

a(39). House, now shop, adjoining (38) on the S., is of L-shaped plan with the wings projecting towards the N. and W. It was built probably early in the 16th century, but the main block has been almost entirely altered. On the S. elevation and on the W. elevation of the W. wing the upper storey projects on curved brackets; the bracket at the S.W. angle springs diagonally from a post with moulded top. Inside the W. wing are original moulded ceiling-beams.

a(40). House, now shop, S. of (39), was built probably in the 15th century, but, with the house next S. of it, was completely altered and refronted in 1758; at the back are modern additions. The covered passage-way between this house and (39) has original moulded ceiling-beams which were formerly carried through the house but are now apparently cut away. A wing at the back contains an early 18th-century fireplace of deal carved with pilasters, raised panels, and an enriched cornice; the ceiling has moulded plaster ribs of the same date. In the cellars is some early 17th-century panelling, re-used.

Sandpit Road, W. side

a(41). House, 60 yards N. of junction with High Street, has a modern addition at the N. end. On the E. front the upper storey projects and is supported by the joists and by three variously moulded brackets; and there is an original window, now blocked, with moulded mullions.

a(42). House, now two tenements, 12 yards N. of (41). On the E. front the upper storey formerly projected. Inside the building are some original doors.

Great Square, N. side

a(43). House, now shop, 65 yards E.N.E. from the High Street, was built probably late in the 16th century. The upper storey formerly projected on the S. and probably on the W. elevations. The original chimney-stack has two octagonal shafts.

E. side

a(44). House, now garage, 20 yards E. of (43), has a modern extension at the E. end. The upper storey appears to have been formerly connected with that of (43) over a passage way between the two buildings.

a(45). House, now Constitutional Club, S. of (44), is of three storeys. It was built about the middle of the 16th century probably on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and W.; in the 18th century a staircase was added or re-built at the S. end, and a block was added in brick between the wings, making the present plan roughly rectangular. On the E. elevation each of the upper storeys projects; the third storey has a moulded bressumer, and is surmounted by three gables; the small staircase-wing is also gabled: some of the windows are of the 17th century and have moulded frames and mullions. Inside the building, the original S. wing has on the ground floor a moulded ceiling-beam, at the N.E. corner the joists are trimmed apparently to admit the former staircase; on the E. side is an original fireplace with moulded brick jambs and a moulded oak lintel; in the E. wall are remains of two original moulded oak window-frames, and in the W. wall is a similar blocked window re-set, and part of an original doorway with a four-centred arch; two doors of moulded battens, one with foliated strap-hinges, are probably original; over the fireplace are pieces of 17th-century panelling, re-set. The staircase is probably of early 18th-century date, and has turned balusters, moulded rail, and shaped brackets; the staircase-wall has a dado of early 17th-century panelling of oak with later deal panelling of similar design, and various pieces of carved panelling of the 17th century; re-set on the S. wall is a square of plaster ornament, probably of early 18th-century date, from a former ceiling on the first floor. On this floor is a fireplace, probably original, of moulded plastered brick, with a four-centred arch in a square head; in the spandrels are foliage-ornament and shields with the arms of the Grocers' Company; the overmantel is made up of pieces of carved and moulded panelling of early 17th-century date; at the top of the wall is a cornice enriched with guilloche pattern and said to have been brought from another building; a cupboard next to the fireplace has a late 16th-century panelled door with cock's-head hinges. In the windows are some plaques of German heraldic glass, one dated 1548.

S. side

a(46). House, now Bell Inn and shop, 25 yards E. of (18), is now of three storeys. On the N. front the upper storey projects.

Little Square and Swan Side

a(47). House, now two tenements and shop, at S. end of Little Square, is of three storeys with attics. It was built late in the 16th century, but has an 18th-century cross-wing at the N. end. On the E. and W. elevations (Plate p. 96) both the upper storeys on the E. have carved fascias; the lower fascia on the E. elevation is returned round the S. end; under the bressumer are four moulded brackets, one of them elaborately carved. In the gable at the N. end is an original casement window. The wall-plaster retains remains of former ornamentation, probably of late 17th-century date; on the W. elevation, a panel with a rose and crown, and a panel, apparently with the Royal Arms, surrounded by a foliage border; on the E. elevation, a floral border surrounding apparently a heraldic device with two griffons as supporters, all much defaced. Inside the building is a staircase, partly of the 17th century, with twisted balusters.

Condition—Poor.

a(48). Swan Inn, and shop, 30 yards N. of (47), was built probably late in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E.; the E. end of the E. wing was later raised to admit a passage way through the ground storey, and between the wings are modern additions. On the W. front the whole of the upper storey originally projected, but it has been partly under-built; under the projection is an original carved bracket. On the S. elevation the upper storey projects except for a short length at the W. end. Inside the building, in the former N. wall of the E. wing is an original window, now blocked, of four lights with diamond-shaped mullions. The original staircase has a central octagonal newel with a shaped head.

New Street, E. side

a(49). House, now shop and cottages, 70 yards S. of junction with High Street, is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E.; at the back of the N. wing are modern additions.

a(50). House, 110 yards S. of (49), is of L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and E. The E. wing was built in the second half of the 16th century, and the S. wing was added in the 18th century. On the E. elevation the upper storey of the E. wing projects on curved brackets; under the projection is an original door divided into richly-moulded bays by moulded muntins and has an original chimney-stack with six octagonal shafts. Inside the building is some 17th-century panelling and an original panelled door. In the roof is a moulded purlin re-set.

W. side

a(51). House, opposite (50) and 10 yards N. of junction with South Street, with modern addition at the S. end.

a(52). House, now four tenements, 100 yards N. of (51) and S.W. of (49), is of modified L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and E. Most of the back of the house is modern. The upper storey of the E. wing projects on the E. and N.

a(53). Workmen's Home Inn, formerly George Inn, 35 yards N. of (52), is of three storeys, the uppermost modern. It was built on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N. and W., but modern additions make the present plan rectangular. On the E. front the upper storey probably projected but has been under-built. The sign-board is swung from ornamental ironwork probably of late 17th-century date. Inside the building is an original fireplace with a four-centred arch.

a(54). House, now two tenements, on S. side of South Street, 10 yards E. of junction with Hoppit, has two gables on the N. front.

a(55). House, now two shops, on S. side of South Street, 50 yards S.E. of (54), was built probably late in the 16th century, and has modern additions at the back. The original central chimney-stack has diagonal pilaster strips.

a(56). Angel Inn, on the E. side of Hoppit, has an 18th-century addition at the S. end. The original central chimney-stack is of L-shaped plan.

a(57). Godling's Farm, now two tenements, on the W. side of Hoppit, S. of (56), was built probably late in the 16th century on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the N.E. end; on both the N.W. and S.E. sides are modern additions. On the N.E. front the upper storey of the original block projects.

a(58). House, on W. side of Fairfield Road, 70 yards S.E. of Market Place, was built in the latter part of the 16th century, and has modern additions at the back and N. end. On the W. and N. elevations the upper storey of the original block formerly projected; one curved bracket remains.

a(59). House, now shop and office, on S. side of the Coggeshall Road, opposite the County Court and 620 yards from the junction with Bank Street, has a modern addition at the back.

a(60). House, on S. side of the Rayne Road, 40 yards E. of the junction with Sandpit road, was built c. 1600 on a modified L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the W. and S. On the N. front the upper storey of the main wing projects.

a(61). Broomhill Farm, house, S. of the Rayne Road, 1,100 yards W. of the church, has a modern addition on the W. side.

a(62). Cottage, now three tenements, at Giffin's End, 500 yards S.S.W. of the church, was built on a half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.E.; between the wings is a modern addition. Inside the building in the S.E. wing is an original window, now blocked, with diamond-shaped mullions; and there is an original door with moulded panels.

a(63). Bridge Farm, house, W. of the London Road, 1,100 yards S.W. of the church, was built on a rectangular plan with a projecting staircase-wing on the W. side; on this side are modern additions. Inside the building are visible two original windows, now blocked. Two doors with moulded panels are probably original.

a(64). House, 350 yards W. of the London Road, on S. side of road from Beddall's End to Braintree Green, has been re-built except for the N.E. wing which is of the 16th century. At the N.E. end of this wing the upper storey projects on exposed joists.

a(65). Goldingham Farm, house, nearly 1 m. S.S.E. of the church, was built on a T-shaped plan with the cross-wing at the S. end; in the 18th and 19th centuries blocks were added to the sides of the N. wing. On the W. elevation are a door and three windows, all probably of late 17th-century date. Inside the building two rooms have late 17th-century panelling, and there are two moulded doors of the same date. The late 17th or early 18th-century staircase has moulded string and handrail, turned balusters and square newels.

b(66). Cottage, now two tenements, at Chapel Hill, ¾ m. E.S.E. of the church, with modern additions at the back.

b(67). Clock House, 1,500 yards E. of the church, is of two storeys with attics. It was built probably early in the 17th century on a half H-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S.E.; later in the 17th century the N.E. wing was extended, and the house was re-fronted in the 18th century. Inside the building is some panelling of c. 1600 not in situ.

b(68). Stubb's Farm, house, about 1 m. E.S.E. of the church, was built late in the 16th century possibly on an L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the N.W. and S.W.; but the end of the N.W. wing has been re-built. At the S.E. end of the N.E. front the upper storey is gabled and projects; the bressumer is moulded.

Condition—Poor.

b(69). Mark's Farm, house and moat, N. of the Coggeshall Road, 1¼ m. E.N.E. of the church, has modern additions on the N. and W.

b(70). Hatches Farm, now two tenements, 650 yards E. of (69), was built early in the 16th century; early in the 17th century it was extended towards the S., and there are later additions at each end. On the E. elevation the upper storey of the original block projects, and the 17th-century addition has an old window with a moulded mullion. The early 17th-century chimney-stack has attached diagonal pilasters.

b(71). House, now four tenements, on N. side of Coggeshall Road, adjoining the parish boundary, was built in the 15th century on a Z-shaped plan with the wings extending towards the S. and N.; probably late in the 16th century an upper floor and chimney-stack were inserted in the central Hall, and there are modern additions at the back and at the W. end. On the S. front the upper storey of the S.E. wing formerly projected. The central chimney-stack has a moulded capping and diagonal pilaster strips. Inside the roof is an original king-post truss.

Braintree Green

a(72). Cottage, four tenements, at the N. end of Braintree Green and 1½ m. W.S.W. of the church, has later additions at each end. The original chimney-stack is of T-shaped plan.

a(73). Naylinghurst Farm, house, 400 yards S.E. of (72), has extensive modern additions or rebuildings on the E. and W.

a(74). Stanford Farm, house and barn, 350 yards S.W. of (73). The House was built late in the 16th century, but has modern additions on the N. and W. sides. On the S. front the upper storey of the original block projects on exposed joists. The original chimney-stack has two attached octagonal shafts. Inside the building in the N. wall are visible two original windows, now blocked, each of three lights with diamond-shaped mullions.

Condition—Poor.

a(75). House, 100 yards W. of (74), has extensive modern additions on the S.W. side. Inside the building is an original moulded ceiling-beam.

Unclassified

a(76). Earthen Rampart, in the grounds of Mount House, ¼ m. N.E. of the church, said to have formed part of a rectangular enclosure, but now too fragmentary for classification.

a(77). Fascine Dwellings. During excavations for brick-earth on a site near the river Brain and S. of the town, traces of fascine dwellings have been found, including quantities of wood, deerhorn implements, etc.



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