37. HARLOW. (C.b.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)xli. N.W. (b)xli. N.E. (c)xli. S.W.
Harlow is a parish and small town 6 m. N.N.E.
of Epping. The Parish Church, the Chapel at
Harlowbury and Chantry House are the principal
a(1). Foundations thought to be of Roman
buildings were casually observed about 1 m. N.E.
of the mound by Harlow railway station, in making
a ditch in 1819 (Archæologia xix, 410; Wright's
Essex i, 269). Nothing further is known of the
site or nature of these discoveries.
a(2). Parish Church of St. Mary and St.
Hugh stands in Churchgate Street, 1,200 yards
E. of the centre of the town. The walls are of
flint-rubble intermixed with some pieces of freestone, and with a few Roman bricks in the S.
wall of the nave; the dressings are of stone, and
the roofs are tiled. The Nave was built probably
in the 12th century, and the original Central Tower
was possibly of the same date, or may have been
added with the North and South Transepts late
in the 13th century. The Chancel and North-East Vestry are probably of late 14th-century date.
In the 19th century, the Organ-chamber, Vestry
and South Porch were added, the central tower
largely re-built, and the whole structure so drastically restored that its history is almost entirely
obscured. A west tower of brick is said to have
been removed in the 19th century.
The cruciform plan is unusual in Essex, and the
old glass, brasses and chest are noteworthy.
The Church, Plan
Architectural Description—The Chancel (35½ ft.
by 20 ft.) has in the E. wall a window entirely
modern except the splays and rear-arch with
label, which are probably of late 14th-century date.
In the N. wall, opening into the vestry is a late
14th-century doorway of clunch with moulded
jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with
traceried spandrels and a modern label; further
W. are a modern doorway opening into the organ-chamber, and an archway for the organ. In the
S. wall are two windows, all modern except for
the jambs, splays and segmental rear-arches,
which are probably of late 14th-century date;
between the windows is a doorway similar to the
doorway in the N. wall but of different detail
and with an original moulded label.
The North East Vestry (10 ft. by 8 ft.)
has both in the E. and N. walls a late 14th-century window of a single trefoiled light with
moulded jambs under a square head. In the W.
wall is a modern doorway.
The modern North Vestry has, in its E. wall, a
window all modern except the jambs, splays and
label, which are probably of late 13th or early
14th-century date; this window was originally
in the E. wall of the N. transept.
The Crossing (17½ ft. by 18½ ft.) has on each
side a modern arch with re-built or much restored
piers. In the N.W. pier is a modern stair to the
The Central Tower is modern with the possible
exception of the core of the lower walls.
The North Transept (10½ ft. by 10 ft.) has in
the N. wall a window of five trefoiled lights with
tracery, all of the 18th century except the splays,
which are possibly of late 13th-century date.
The South Transept (10 ft. by 7½ ft.) has at the
N. end of the E. side a window now entirely
modern but probably of late 13th-century origin,
as the thickened pier of the central tower is cut
back to avoid blocking it. In both the S. and W.
walls is a modern window.
The Nave (59 ft. by 22½ ft.) has in the N. wall
four windows, all modern except the westernmost,
which is a single round-headed light of the 12th
century. In the S. wall are four windows and a
doorway, all modern. The window in the W. wall
is also modern.
Fittings—Brasses: In N. transept, mounted
on boards—(1) inscription lost, small figures of
man in armour with wife, c. 1430; (2) of Thomas
Aylmer, 1518, and Alys, his wife, small figures
of man in civil dress, with wife, seven sons and
four daughters, and shield of arms; (3) of [William
Sumner, 1559] figure in civil dress, inscription
lost; (4) to George Deryngton, 1575, inscription
only; (5) of Jane, wife of Edward Bugge, 1582,
figures of man and wife above small figures of
three sons and two daughters; two shields of
arms; (6) of W. Newman, 1602, cloaked figure
in civil dress, and figure of death holding a dart;
(7) of John Gladwin, 1615, figure in civil dress;
(8) of Margery (Cely), wife of Robert Lawson,
1617, figures of man in civil dress, with wife, and
shield of arms; (9) of Richard Bugges, 1636, and
his two wives, Vahan (Streinsham) and Elizabeth
(Bowles), figure of man in armour with lace
collar and walking stick, two wives and three
shields of arms; (10) probably of Francis Reve,
1639, and his wife, Joan (Jocelin), 1642, figures of
man and wife kneeling, and shield of arms, inscription lost. On floor of crossing—(11) figures of
civilian, late 15th-century, with wife, four sons
and five daughters, inscription lost. Chest:
(Plate p. xxxiii) In S. transept—front with shallow
carving and poker-work in three bays between
tall niches containing armed figures similarly
rendered; the panels indistinctly depict some
military scene; above each panel a frieze containing amorini standing in an arcade, and grotesque
animals; inside lid, poker-work of nude figures,
etc., probably Italian work, early 17th-century.
Coffin-lid: In organ-chamber—on floor, tapered
slab with foliated cross on calvary, 13th-century.
Glass: In N. vestry—in E. window, re-set from
E. window of chancel, 14th-century panel (Plate
p. xxxiv.) with representation of the Blessed Virgin
and Child; fragments of a vine-leaf border,
probably 14th-century; quarries of oak-leaves,
flowers, etc., 15th-century. In N. transept—in
N. window, much old glass re-set, including 14th-century canopied heads; 15th-century fragments;
two crowned wreaths each surrounding roses and
panels containing the portcullis badge and the
initials H.R. and fleurs-de-lis, all early 16th-century;
crown and garter with shields of royal arms,
France modern quartering England, and crowned
wreath with similar shield, 16th-century; a
series of round-headed panels with inscriptions
and date 1563, representing incidents in the life
of Solomon, in faded yellow and white, the panels
surrounded by arabesque ornament, herms,
satyrs, etc., oval panel with achievement of arms,
probably late 16th-century; panel of lion holding
shield bearing ermine, a knot; a garter enclosing
the royal arms, and an oval cartouche with a
shield of the arms of Compton, bishop of London,
and a mitre, all late 17th or early 18th-century;
fragments of brown-line heads of men and women,
and wreathed panels containing portraits of Charles
I. with martyr's crown, and Queen Anne crowned,
all early 18th-century. In S. transept—in E.
window, angel seated on clouds and playing a
horn, angel holding crown, and two shields of
arms, all 17th or early 18th-century. Monuments:
In N. transept—on W. wall, (1) to Peter Gunning,
bishop of Chichester and afterwards of Ely, buried
at Ely, 1684, square wooden tablet, with sides
broken by curves, and containing inscription
panel flanked by small terminal figures. In S.
transept—on E. wall, (2) to John Wright, 1659,
wooden tablet with grotesque flanking figures
and surmounted by figures of Faith, Hope and
Charity; on W. wall, (3) of Alexander Stafford,
1652, and Julian (Stacey), his wife, 1650, life-size
figures of man in armour and of woman kneeling
and praying, in modern recesses. In churchyard
—at E. end, (4) to Ann Waylett, 1676, headstones
with incised skull and cross-bones; (5) to John
Waylett, similar stone, date buried. Plate: includes flagon of 1618, another of 1623, both with
donor's name and date 1640; large cup and paten
of 1639 with name and Stafford knot; two silver
candlesticks of 1697, and spoon of 1709, all inscribed. Sedilia: In S. transept—in triple recess
with chamfered jambs and two-centred heads
Tiles: In floor of E. vestry—several ornamented
in red and buff with fleurs-de-lis, birds, beasts,
small shields, etc., mediaeval. Miscellanea: In
N. transept—on E. wall, panel with Lord's Prayer
in frame, carved with foliage, instruments of the
Passion, etc., late 17th or early 18th-century.
Condition—Good, largely re-built.
a(3). Chapel (Plate p. 115), in the grounds of
Harlowbury, ½ m. N.W. of the church, now
desecrated. The walls are of flint-rubble with
dressings of Reigate stone; the roofs are tiled.
It was built c. 1180 and is a simple rectangle (33 ft.
by 15 ft.).
Architectural Description—In the E. wall are
three original round-headed windows, two of which
are now blocked; above them are remains of two
other windows. In the N. wall are two original
windows with round heads; between them are
traces of a third and similar window; further W.
is the original N. doorway with semi-circular
arch of two moulded orders; the jambs had each
two shafts, the inner attached and the outer
free but now lost; the capitals have carved water-leaf ornament. In the S. wall are two windows,
both blocked, the eastern is original and similar to
those in the N. wall; the western is of early 14th-century date and has part of a trefoiled ogee light;
further W. is a doorway, probably modern. In
the W. gable is an original round-headed window
and above it are traces of another window cut
away by the later roof.
The two inserted floors are probably of the 16th
century and have heavy chamfered beams.
The Roof is of five bays with chamfered tiebeams and king-posts with moulded capitals
and bases, all probably of the 15th century.
b(4). Homestead Moat, at Harlow Tye, 1 m.
E.S.E. of the church.
a(5). Harlowbury, house, ½ m. N.N.W. of the
church, is of two storeys, timber-framed and
plastered; the roofs are tiled. The eastern wing
of the house was built probably late in the 16th
century and the western wing late in the 17th
century. The walls have mostly been refaced
and there are modern additions on the N. side.
Condition—Good, much altered.
The following monuments, unless otherwise
described, are of the 17th century and of two
storeys, timber-framed and plastered or weather-boarded; the roofs are tiled. Many of the buildings
have original chimney-stacks, wide fireplaces
and exposed ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good, or fairly good, unless noted.
High Street, S. side
a(6). House and shop, 100 yards E. of the crossroads, has an original chimney-stack with grouped
a(7). The Gables, house, on W. side of crossroads, was built about the middle of the 16th
century with cross-wing at the E. and W. ends.
On the N. front the upper storey projects at the
ends of the cross-wings and the timber-framing
is exposed. In the E. wing is an original doorway
with a four-centred head and now blocked. Inside
the building are some original moulded ceiling-beams and king-post roof construction.
Back Street, N. side
a(8). House, now two tenements, 20 yards
N. of (7).
a(9). Cottage, now two tenements, N. of (8).
a(10). Crown Inn, 50 yards S. of St. John's
Church, was built late in the 16th century and
consists of a main block with a cross-wing at the
W. end. There are modern additions on the E.
a(11). Green Man Inn, 600 yards W. of the
parish church, was built late in the 16th century.
Late in the 17th century it was extended towards
the W. Inside the building are two blocked
windows with diamond mullions.
b(12). Almshouse (Plate p. 44), three tenements,
E. of the parish church, was built, according to
an inscription over the door, by Julian, wife of
Alexander Stafford, in 1630. The doorway and
windows have original shaped brackets supporting
hoods, and a similar bracket supports the eaves
gutter. The door is nail-studded and the S.
gable has original moulded barge-boards. The
upper storey projects at the back.
b(13). Queen's Head Inn, 20 yards S. of (12).
The upper storey projects on the E. front.
b(14). House and shop, on the E. side of the road
opposite the parish church.
b(15). The Chantry (Plate p. 111), house, 200
yards S.E. of the parish church, is of three storeys
and was built late in the 16th century on an L-shaped plan, with the wings extending towards the
E. and S. There are late 17th-century and modern
additions in the angle between the wings. The
original entrance porch on the N. front is of timber
and has a round-headed archway (Plate p. 80)
flanked by Doric pilasters with entablatures, the
spandrels have incised ornament and the soffit
of the arch has guilloche ornament; the panelled
key-block has a moulded pendant. The door
itself is elaborately panelled. Some of the windows
have original moulded frames and mullions and
there are remains of pargeted fleurs-de-lis and
Tudor roses on the walls. Inside the building,
the late 17th-century staircase has turned and
twisted balusters and a panelled dado. In the
N. window of the hall are two 16th-century glass
roundels illustrative of the months.
b(16). Cottage, 600 yards N.N.E. of the parish
b(17). Cottage, ¾ m. E.S.E. of the parish church,
has an original central chimney-stack with grouped
b(18). Cottage, at Harlow Tye, 1 m. E.S.E. of
the parish church, has an original central chimney-stack with grouped diagonal shafts.
d(19). Franklins, house, about ¾ m. S.E. of the
parish church, was built late in the 16th century
and has a wing at the back added late in the 17th
century. Inside the building is an oak door-head with a panel inscribed "John Ha (with a
rebus) anno domenoe 1583." In the N. wall is
an original window, formerly with diamond-shaped
mullions and now blocked.
d(20). Shonks, cottage, 2¼ m. S. of the parish
church, has an original central chimney-stack
with grouped diagonal shafts.
Potter Street, E. side
c(21). House, now four tenements, 150 yards
E. of St. Mary Magdalen Church.
c(22). Red Lion Inn, 300 yards N. of (21),
was built late in the 16th century and has a 17th-century extension on the N. There are extensive
modern additions. Inside the original part of
the house, now used as stables, are moulded ceiling-beams.
c(23). House, two tenements, 80 yards N. of
(22), has modern additions on the S. side. The
original chimney-stack has two shafts set diagonally.
c(24). House, 270 yards N.N.W. of (23), has a
later addition at the back and modern additions
on the N. The original chimney-stack has a square
moulded panel with the initials and date M.W.B.T.
1659 and two fleurs-de-lis. Inside the building,
the original staircase has turned balusters and a
c(25). Izards, house, about 700 yards N.N.W.
of (24), was built early in the 16th century on an
L-shaped plan with the wings extending towards
the E. and N.
a(26). New Hall (formerly Brent Hall), house,
outbuildings and moat, 250 yards W.N.W. of the
parish church. The House was built late in the
15th or early in the 16th century and has 18th-century and modern additions on the W. side. At
the N. end is a chimney-stack of c. 1600 with crow-stepped offsets and two shafts, one octagonal and
one hexagonal; on the face is a sunk panel enclosing a heart. Inside the building one room is
lined with 17th-century panelling and a room on
the first floor has exposed timber-framing including
two posts with traces of figure painting; a fireplace
in this room has original moulded jambs and four-centred arch of brick. The S. wing has original
The Outbuildings W. of the house include a barn
of six bays and a square building with a blocked
original window, having bar mullions, set diagonally.
The Moat is incomplete.