28 GARWAY (C.d.)
(O.S. 6 in. (a)L, N.W., (b)L, S.W., (c)L, S.E.)
Garway is a village and large parish 11 m. S.S.W. of
Hereford and 9 m. W. of Ross. The church and dovecote are the principal monuments.
b(1) Parish Church of St. Michael (Plate 95),
stands near the middle of the parish. The walls are of
sandstone rubble with dressings of the same material and
some tufa; the roofs are covered with stone slates. It
was founded as a preceptory of Knights of the Temple
some time in the 12th century, and the church, consisting
of the Chancel, perhaps with an apsidal E. end and a
round nave, was built in the last quarter of the 12th
century. The detached Tower was built early in the
13th century, and rather later the chancel was extended
to the E. and the South Chapel added; the Nave was
re-built on a rectangular plan late in the 13th century.
Later alterations include the rebuilding of the E. wall
of the chancel and the S. and W. walls of the S. chapel,
and much reconstruction of the S. and W. walls of the
nave, the former probably in the 16th century. A 14th
or 15th-century N. porch has been subsequently
destroyed. The corridor between the nave and the
tower is probably a 17th-century addition, and the upper
part of the tower was probably reconstructed at the
The remains of the round nave and the enriched
chancel-arch of the original church are of particular
Architectural Description—The Chancel (36½ ft. by
17¾ ft.) is mainly of the 13th century, except the late
12th-century W. half of the N. wall, but the E. wall was
re-built, probably in the 16th century. In the E. wall
are three re-set windows; the middle window is of c.
1250 and of two uncusped lights with a quatrefoil
under a semi-octagonal label of four-centred form, and
the two side windows are each of a single light with
chamfered jambs and semi-circular head. In the N.
wall are three windows of c. 1250; the two easternmost
are each of a single lancet, chamfered and rebated
externally, and the westernmost is a single light with a
trefoiled head; the lower part of the window has been
blocked, when the rood-stair was inserted in the
embrasure. On the original part of the wall is a double-chamfered external string-course, cut through by the
windows. In the S. wall is an arcade of c. 1250, of two
bays with two-centred arches of three orders with a
chamfered label on the N. side; the two outer orders
are chamfered and the inner order rounded; the
central pier is cylindrical with small attached shafts at
the cardinal points and the responds are similar with
three attached shafts each; all have moulded capitals
and bases set on chamfered plinths, and a moulded band
midway between capital and base; the E. respond has
sunk considerably, making the first bay of the arcade
very irregular, and much of the bases has been covered
by the raising of the chancel floor. The chancel-arch
(Plate 96), of c. 1175–80, is semi-circular, plain on the
E. side and of three orders towards the nave, the outer
carved with cheverons, the middle order with an interlacing cheveron pattern and the inner having each
voussoir moulded across the arch; the inner order is
supported on a plain respond, and the two outer orders
are carried on detached shafts with carved 'water-leaf' capitals (Plate 10), except the inner shaft on
the N. side which has a grotesque head and interlacement; the shafts have mutilated moulded bases;
the abacus terminates on the N. side in a carved
rosette and is continued round the whole respond on
both sides; the W. faces of the capitals and bases
to the detached shafts, together with the angle-dressings
to the responds, have a marked outward curve towards
the W., following the line of the former round nave,
but on the N. side they have been cut back to conform
with the line of the later walling. High up in the
N. end of the wall is a late 15th or early 16th-century
doorway to the rood-loft; it has a four-centred head,
rebated on the E. side and approached by a flight of
stone steps against the N. wall of the chancel.
Garway, the Parish Church of St Michael
The South Chapel (28¼ ft. by 13¾ ft.) was largely
re-built, perhaps in the 16th century, but the lower part
of the S. end of the E. wall is probably of 13th-century
date. The E. window is of 14th-century origin re-set
in the 16th century; it is of three lights, the middle
light cinque-foiled, the side lights trefoiled, all in a four-centred head with a moulded 16th-century label with
original carved head-stops. In the S. wall are two
16th-century windows each of two square-headed lights
with chamfered jambs and heads. In the W. wall is a
window uniform with those in the S. wall, and to the
S. of it is a doorway of the same date with chamfered
jambs and four-centred head.
The Nave (33¾ ft. by 22¾ ft.) has the original walling
remaining on the S. side of the chancel-arch, from the
ground to the level of the abacus, above which it has
been cut back square with the existing side walls. In
the N. wall are two 13th-century windows, the eastern
of two lancet-lights with a trefoil in the spandrel, and
the western a single lancet-light, now blocked; between
the windows is a blocked 13th-century doorway with
chamfered jambs and two-centred head above which
are visible the lines of the roof of a former porch; over
the doorway, externally, carved in low relief, is a Dextra
Dei. In the S. wall are two late 14th-century windows,
each of three trefoiled lights in a square head with a
rough relieving-arch above; there is a massive 17th-century buttress at either end of the wall and above the
eastern one is a straight joint; between the buttresses
is a stone seat. In the W. wall is a late 14th-century
window, probably re-built and of three trefoiled lights
in a segmental-pointed head; below the window is a
13th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head with a later moulded label; above the
window is a stone carved with a phœnix in low relief;
in the N. end of the wall, built of re-used 14th-century
material, is a 17th-century doorway with stop-chamfered
jambs and high four-centred head.
The foundations of the round 12th-century nave
(about 43½ ft. diam.) were uncovered in 1927, on the N.
and S.W. of the existing nave. The actual wall on the
N. was 3½ ft. thick on a footing about 6 ft. thick.
Overlying the foundation on the N. were parts of the
side walls of the destroyed N. porch.
The Passage (14¼ ft. by 6½ ft.) connecting the nave
with the N.W. tower is a 17th-century addition built
mainly with re-used material. In the N.E. wall is a
small square-headed loop and in the S.W. wall a small
window formed by the head of a 13th-century lancet
with a plain square-headed doorway to the S. of it.
The North West Tower (15¾ ft. square) is of early
13th-century date, except the top storey which was
partly re-built, perhaps early in the 17th century. It is
in two stages and of three storeys internally; it has a
pyramidal roof. The ground stage has in the S.E. wall
a segmental-pointed archway with chamfered imposts.
In both the S.W. and N.W. walls is a single lancet-light
with chamfered jambs and head. The second storey
has in each wall, except the N.E., a single lancet-light
with chamfered and rebated jambs and head; the lower
part of the S.E. window has been blocked and the N.W.
window has been entirely blocked. The third storey
has about six feet only of the 13th-century walling with
the splays of the original windows, one in each wall
except the S.W. wall which had two windows. In the
upper part of the top storey in each wall are two small
The Roof of the chancel is of late 14th or early 15th-century date and of three main bays with modified
king-post trusses; subsidiary trusses have braced
collar-beams only, forming flat segmental arches; the
wind-braces are cusped to form trefoiled arches. The
roof of the S. chapel is of 16th-century date, and of
four bays with moulded tie-beams, except the easternmost which is a re-used chamfered beam; part of the
roof is hidden by modern boarding. In the N.W.
corner, re-used as a corbel, is part of a 13th-century
moulding or string. The roof to the N.W. tower is
carried on a timber-framed structure, with two rows
of vertical struts to the wall-plates.
Fittings—Altar: In chancel—stone slab with chamfered edge and five crosses on top, framed into modern
communion table, mediæval. Bells (Plate 25): five,
1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, all by Abraham Rudhall, 1710.
Brackets: In nave—on N. wall, octagonal capital with
moulded upper edge, re-used, c. 1500. In passage, on
S.W. wall, with plain top tapering to semi-octagonal base,
15th-century, re-set. Chair: In chancel—of oak, with
grooved legs, posts and stretchers, fluted rails below
seat, shaped arms, panelled back with guilloche ornament to top and bottom rails and scalloped top, first
half of the 17th century. Chests: In S. chapel—(1)
large oak 'dug-out' with flat coped top and lid hung
on three big strap-hinges carried round chest; ends
bound by single straps, 13th-century or earlier, much
decayed; (2) of oak, hutch type, with moulded top
and bottom edge, notched ends to front with three
sinkings for lock-plates now missing, three plain lock-plates remaining and lid in two pieces each with two
strap-hinges, 17th-century or earlier. Churchyard Cross:
S. of S. chapel—octagonal to square base, 15th-century,
shaft modern. N.W. of tower—octagonal shaft,
square at base, on round stone slab and with modern
dial on top. Coffin-lids: In chancel—(1) re-used in
step, with chamfered edge and carved with quatre-foiled
head of cross in low relief and stepped base, late 13th-century; (2) adjoining above, with one edge moulded,
one cut away, carved with incised cross with long shaft
and stepped base; (3) adjoining (2), plain with moulded
edge; (4) re-used as tread to step of rood-stair, carved
with part of circular foliated cross, late 13th-century;
(5) part, re-used in step between chancel and nave,
carved with incised circular quatre-foiled cross. In
passage—(6) part, re-used in soffit of window in N.E.
wall, with hollow-chamfered edge and foliated cross,
13th-century; (7) part, re-used on seat, with row of
circular sexfoils on either side of stem and foliated cross,
late 13th or early 14th-century. In N.W. tower, with
circular quatre-foiled and foliated cross, late 13th-century.
Communion Rails: with moulded top and bottom rails
and turned balusters, probably early 18th-century.
Door: to N.W. tower-stair, mostly modern, but
incorporating portions of 17th-century door of battens
with strap-hinges. Font: octagonal bowl with top
rim carved with modern ornament and modern cross in
small panel on one side, octagonal stem with moulded
capping and chamfered base, 14th-century. Glass:
In S. chapel—in E. window, re-set, some lozenge-shaped quarries with foliated designs, 14th-century.
Inscriptions and Scratchings: In S. Chapel—on head of
piscina, in deep incised lines, a chalice and wafer with,
on one side, a fish, and on the other side a snake;
between head and rear-arch of W. door, incised emblems
of the Passion; on S. jamb of W. door, partly obliterated, a fish or human leg; on W. wall, two fishes.
On exterior face of E. wall of chancel and walls of S.
chapel, Maltese cross and numerous scratchings,
probably masons' marks. Monuments and Floor-slabs:
Monuments. In churchyard—W. of S. chapel, (1) to
Mary Phillips, 1702, headstone; near S.W. buttress of
nave, (2) similar to (1) with illegible inscription, early
18th-century. Floor-slabs. In chancel—partly hidden
by steps to altar (1) to William Evans, 1704; later
inscription to his daughter Anne. In N.W. tower—
(2) to Ann Morgan, 1642–3. Niche: In S. chapel—in
E. wall, plain rectangular opening covered with plaster.
Panelling: In chancel—forming back to seat against N.
wall, mid 17th-century. Piscina: In S. chapel—in S.
wall with stop-chamfered jambs, trefoiled head and
sex-foiled drain, late 13th or early 14th-century, re-set.
Plate: includes a cup of 1576, with incised band of
ornament round bowl and enrichment round base.
Seating: In nave—thirteen benches, of oak, with heavy
ends, outer shaped, inner plain, and plain backs with
chamfered edges to rails, 16th or 17th-century. In N.W.
tower, shaped end of another bench. Stalls: In
chancel—on S. side, made up with modern seats, backs
and ends of early 17th-century panelling, in three heights
with arabesque work in most of panels in the top row.
Stoup: In chancel—re-set in N. wall, with chamfered
two-centred head and projecting semi-octagonal bowl.
In nave—by W. door partly hollowed out of wall,
with projecting curved bowl, with rim partly broken
away, possibly 16th-century. Miscellanea: In chancel—
three Prayer-desks and also Reading-desks to choirstalls, incorporate early 18th-century turned balusters.
In nave—set on bracket on N. wall, gable-cross with
four heart-shaped piercings and, in centre, hand in
blessing, 17th-century. In S. chapel—on sill of
easternmost window in S. wall, rectangular block of
stone, carved on four sides with conventional oak
Condition—Good, recently repaired.
b(2). Church House Farm, immediately S. of the
church, is a modern building on the site of a preceptory
of the Knights Templars, subsequently a commandery
of the Hospitallers. The 14th-century Dovecot built by
the latter still exists, and to the W. of this there is an
early 17th-century barn.
The Dovecot (Plate 97) is circular, with an internal
diameter of 17 ft. 6 in.; the walls are 3 ft. 10 in. thick
and are built of local sandstone, roughly squared and
coursed, and retain some external plaster; there is an
external chamfered and stepped plinth. The flattened
domical roof has a circular opening in the middle,
carried up into a square; the roof is covered with
stone slates. The original doorway faces S.W.; the
jambs are chamfered and have rounded shoulders; the
head is formed of a triangular shaped tympanum with
traces of a partly defaced inscription in Lombardic
capitals said to read—"A. Dn~i. Mmo. CCC mo. XXVI
fact. fuit id. colūbar, per (fratrē?) Ricm~." (Archaeologia,
XXXI, p. 182). Inside the building, the wall is sixteen
feet high and has 19 rows of dove-holes, L-shaped on
plan. Opposite the original door are some scratched
crosses and the name T. Gilbert in 14th-century capitals.
There is said to be a circular cistern in the floor.
The Barn is of weather-boarded timber-framing on a
stone foundation. The S. side and part of the W. side
have been re-built in stone. There is a modern addition
at the S.E. corner. The roof is of stone slates and some
modern slates; it is in five bays and is of queen-post
type. There is an original door with chamfered
b(3). Black House, 350 yards N.E. of church, is of
two storeys. The walls are of rubble and the roof is
of stone slates. It was built late in the 16th century
and has modern additions to the N. and W. Inside
the building there is some exposed timber-framing, and
the northern part has a queen-post roof.
b(4). Cottage, two tenements, on the S. side of the
main road, 80 yards E.N.E. of (2), is of two storeys.
The walls are of stone rubble and the roof is of stone
slates. It was built in the first half of the 17th century
and has modern additions at the N. and S. ends. Inside
the building there are some exposed timber-framing and
a(5). Trolway Farm, house and barn, nearly 1 m.
N.E. of the church. The House was originally of two
storeys, but is now ruinous and only the external walls
remain; these are of roughly coursed stone rubble.
The roof is gone and the interior is gutted. It was
built in the 16th century. The S.E. front has a two-light square-headed window with a moulded mullion
and frame and a doorway with an original chamfered
frame and a door with strap-hinges. The N.W. front
has two-light and three-light windows with diamond-shaped mullions and chamfered frames, of wood, and a
small one-light window with chamfered jambs and
The Barn is possibly mediæval and retains one truss
of 'crutch' construction, strengthened late in the 16th
century with squared timber-framing and a queen-post
truss. The stone rubble walls and the two other roof-trusses are of 16th-century date. The N. and S. walls
have loop lights. There are modern extensions on the
W. and N. sides, and the roof is of corrugated iron.
c(6). Broad Oak Inn, about 1¾ m. S.E. of the church,
is of two storeys with attics and cellars. The walls are
of ashlar and brick, with plastered timber-framing
internally. The roofs are of modern slates. It was
built early in the 17th century and has a modern porch
and other modern additions to the N. and S. The S.
doorway has moulded jambs with shaped stops and a
square moulded head; the original door has strap-hinges with shaped ends. Inside the building there
are some stop-chamfered ceiling-beams.
Condition—Good, much altered.
c(7). Cwm Maddoc, farmhouse, about 550 yards
S.S.W. of (6), is of two storeys with attics and cellars.
The walls are of brick and roughly coursed stone rubble
with ashlar dressings. The roofs are covered with
slates. The plan is T-shaped with the cross-wing at
the S.W. end; the main block was built about the
middle of the 16th century and the cross-wing added or
re-built in the 17th century. The upper part of the N.E.
wing is modern, and there are modern additions at the
S.W. corner. The N.E. wing has a chamfered plinth
and part of the original string-course between ground
and first floors. Inside the building there are some
exposed ceiling-beams in the S.W. wing and an original
square-headed stone fireplace with radiating voussoirs.
Condition—Good, much altered.
c(8). Barn at Great Demesne, about 1000 yards W.
of the church. The walls are of stone rubble and
timber-framing; the roof is of stone slates. It was
built in the 17th century on an H-shaped plan; there
are wide doorways in the middle of the E. and W. walls
and loop lights in the N. and S. walls. There are
modern additions on the N., E., and W. sides. The
roof is in six bays and has braced collar-beams.
b(9). Base of Cross, S. of the main road, 350 yards
N.E. of the church. The cross has disappeared, but
the square mediæval base is of local sandstone with a
socket for the shaft of the cross.