Thriving civilian settlements grew up beside the fortress (Fig. 37). The settlement on the S.W. side of the
river, opposite the fortress, became important enough to receive the title and privileges of a colonia
probably from Severus and certainly before A.D. 237 since it is so described on an altar then set up at
Bordeaux by a York merchant. In the town, the capital of Britannia Inferior, a remarkable concentration
of buildings has been revealed over the years; and it was demonstrably defended, for a Roman wall has
been found in three places on the perimeter (see Defences below). Evidently occupation was also comparatively dense immediately outside the fortress, in the canabae or extramural settlement, particularly on
the S.E. where the confluent rivers formed natural defences. The foregoing comprise the Civil Town and
Extramural Settlement and are described topographically under those heads. Thereafter are described
the evidences of settlement and workshops further afield comprising the Suburban Sites, again topographically arranged.
CIVIL TOWN, later a colonia, S.W. of the river Ouse
Defences and Streets
(16) Defences: The fragments of walling discovered
that relate to the town defences are listed below (a–d)
(Figs. 37, 38). The Inventory entry for Monument (12)
has shown how N.E. of the river Ouse the walls of
mediaeval York in part follow the defences of the
legionary fortress, which are buried in the earth bank
crowned by the 13th-century wall. Similarly S.W. of the
river, in the sector between the present and the old Railway Stations, the mediaeval defences not only coincide
with the boundary between the Roman built-up area
and a Roman cemetery, but cover remains of massive
walling (see a–c below). No archaeological study of
present-day standard was made of these remains: but
the fact that they are covered by the early mediaeval
bank is very strong presumptive evidence for their
Roman date. Differences in structure between them
might well be accounted for by rebuilding in the Roman
period. Apart from this sector, however, the line of any
Roman defensive wall is unsupported by structural
evidence of any kind.
(a) (N.G. 59685162). In 1839, when the northerly of the
two railway arches was cut through the mediaeval defences, a
wall with 'a double facing of worked stone and the interior
filled with zig-zag masonry' was found within the mediaeval
rampart (C. Wellbeloved, Eburacum (1842), 47–8). The cutting
for the more southerly archway was made in 1845. Bearing in
mind the haphazard attitude of the day to watching, it may be
noted that Robert Cook, who describes archaeological finds
then made in letters to Thomas Bateman (preserved in the
Sheffield Museum), does not record the finding of any wall.
(b) (N.G. 59735173). A wall of rubble roughly coursed
was encountered in 1939 in making a tunnel for cables through
the mediaeval defences (Figs. 39, 46), but the opportunity for
careful archaeological study was missed (YAJ, XXXV (1943).
(c) (N.G. 59815180). Clay and stone foundations of a wall
were found in 1874 during the construction of the more
southerly of the two road archways through the mediaeval
defences N. of the old Railway Station (J. Raine in YPSR
(1874), 9, and unpublished notes in the York Public Library).
During the construction of the more northerly archway Raine
records 'nothing found but coins' (J. Raine's notes ibid.).
(d) (N.G. 59695162). During construction of the old Railway Station in April 1840 'a very massive Roman wall' was
found close E. of (a), running approximately S.E. towards Bar
Lane. This would bring the line within that of the mediaeval
wall. (Unpublished: MS. notes in the Yorkshire Museum.)
(17) Streets etc. (Figs. 37, 38): The main axis of the
civil town, S.W. of the river Ouse, was formed by the
road to the legionary fortress from Tadcaster, the
Roman CALCARIA (see Approach Roads, Road 10), and
buildings were aligned with it. Road 8 (see p. 3) must
have entered the built up area W. of the bath house and
other buildings, Monument (34), on the site of the old
Railway Station and would appear to have governed
their alignment, which was not that of the main axis.
On their alignment too is a cobbled channel (see (d)
below), under the Railway Offices, that may have been
associated with a parallel street further to the N.E.
The main axial road, now represented in distorted
form by Toft Green and Tanner Row, had another
street parallel with it 120 ft. S.E., which is now represented by the mediaeval street, Micklegate, as far as
Barker Lane; and possibly the line of other Roman
streets may be preserved in warped form in the
mediaeval street-plan, which could be interpreted as a
distorted grid (YA and YAS Procs. (1953–4), 63–4). The
only Roman evidence for the plan S.E. of Micklegate is
however the street fountain (see (c) below) from
Bishophill Junior (Plate 21). This and the other vestiges
relating directly to the street-plan of the civil town
S.W. of the river are here listed:—
Fig. 39 (for position, see x–x, Fig. 46). (From drawing in Yorkshire Museum)
(a) Street, represented by Micklegate between the Bar
and Barker Lane though not directly underlying it: at Barker
Lane the later street diverges E. to the post-Roman river
crossing at Ouse Bridge. The Roman street continued N.E. on
the old alignment though eventually blocked by the large
colonnaded building, Monument (30), where Railway Street
now is. In 1910 it was found just within Micklegate Bar (N.G.
59775148), with a 'central grit channel' (G. Benson, York I, 18;
Archaeological Map of York (1929)). In 1821 it was found
under the front of the terrace-houses, Nos. 78–82 Micklegate,
immediately N.E. of Barker Lane (N.G. 59895161) at a depth
of 9 ft.; it had kerbstones at least 1 ft. deep and stone paving
(Yorkshire Gazette, 8 Dec. 1821).
(b) Street, road-cobbling, in North Street at a depth of
10 ft. The exact position and orientation were not recorded
(G. Benson, York I, 79).
(c) Street fountain (Plate 21), found in 1906 in sewer excavations in Bishophill Junior (N.G. 60005144) and now in the
Yorkshire Museum. It consists of a tank 3¾ ft. square and 3 ft.
high made of slabs of magnesian limestone 7½ ins. thick, closely
fitted and bound with iron. The back slab rises an extra 8 ins.
where it is pierced by an inlet 3 ins. in diameter; the outlet
consists of a semicircular duct of the same diameter cut in the
top edge of the right-hand slab. The structure was found set in
thick layers of clay and protected by a vaulted superstructure.
The mediaeval tower of the church of St. Mary Bishophill
Junior contains reused Roman masonry. Pottery and tiles have
been found in the neighbourhood (YA and YAS Procs.
(d) Cobbled channel, running 185 ft. approximately N.W.
from N.G. 59915175, was found during preparatory excavations for the Railway Offices in 1901. It was 6 ft. wide (YPSR
(1901), pl. VI, 104).
Structures (Religious and other Public Buildings and
Houses, Baths, etc.) (Figs. 37, 38):—
(18) Buildings (Fig. 40), walls and foundations etc.,
under the church of St. Mary Bishophill Senior (N.G.
60135141), were excavated in 1959 (Unpublished: field
notes with R.C.H.M.). Previously, in 1885, a wall
running S.W. to N.E. and perhaps part of a hypocaust
were cut through under the street close to the S.W.
(N.G. 60125139). (Unpublished: MS. note in the Yorkshire Museum.)
The church of St. Mary is aligned approximately S.W. to
N.E.; the Roman building is on a slightly different alignment,
but both S. corners coincide. The S.W. wall of the church (the
liturgical W. wall) incorporates remains of the Roman S.W.
wall as its basis: this is visible above ground outside, and is
distinguished by the difference in alignment. Similarly the S.E.
wall of the Roman building largely underlies the S.E. (liturgical S.) wall of the church, but here it is buried; the two walls
diverge to the extent that the E. corner of the Roman building
comes just inside the church. The dimensions of the Roman
building are not certainly known; the N.W. wall was not
found, but the width was more than 17 ft.; the length was at
least 53½ ft. A party-wall stood 18 ft. S.W. of the N.E. wall.
The walls were 2½ ft. to 3 ft. thick, faced with magnesian limestone ashlars and on concrete foundations projecting up to 1 ft.
beyond the walls. The N.E. room had had a stone-flagged
floor. The building was dated by sealed sherds of Castor ware
to the 4th century A.D. The only evidence of earlier structures
was a drain (?) crossing under the N.E. room diagonally.
Later levels were disturbed by burials.
(19) Building, with bath (Fig. 41), was discovered in
1852 'two-thirds of the length up' Fetter Lane (N.G.
60075156) in sewer excavations that crossed three rooms
obliquely. The floor-level was 8 ft. below the modern
street. The walls still stood four and five courses high.
Fig. 41. (After J. Raine)
Room (i) was 36 ft. across and bounded on the N.E. by an
ashlar wall 4 ft. thick and separated from Room (ii) on the
S.W. by another wall with a footing of tiles laid on concrete,
the concrete being laid on gritstone blocks. Room (ii) had
flooring of red sandstone flags 1¾ ft. by 15/6 ft. and 4 ins. thick
laid on a bed of pounded tiles and mortar 4 ins. deep. Wall and
floor were rendered with red cement and were part of a cold
plunge bath, 9 ft. across, its S.E. extent being marked by a
brick sleeper-wall. S.W. of (ii) and separated from it by
another stone wall lay Room (iii), 21 ft. across, with a floor of
tiles comprising tegulae with the flanges cut off, stamped LEG
IX HIS; they were laid on concrete 2 ins. deep. The dimensions of beams found, probably roof timbers, 30 ft. long and
more than 1 ft. square, suggest a building some 26 ft. or 27 ft.
wide (Yorkshireman, 5 June 1852. Unpublished notes by J.
Raine in the York Public Library).
(20) Building, in the angle formed by the junction of
Trinity Lane and St. Martin's Lane (N.G. 60025154),
was excavated in 1947.
A fragment of a wall with box-tiles and a concrete floor
were found under the debris of a collapsed wall and ceiling.
There were indications that the upper part of the building had
been of timber. Beneath the building were earlier layers,
possibly of the second half of the 2nd century (JRS, XXXVIII
(21) Building, colonnaded, under Trinity Lane, in
front of the doorway to the house 'Jacob's Well' (N.G.
59905156), was found between 1895 and 1901 during
Two column bases were revealed, and one of them, now in
the porch of Holy Trinity church, is a crude Attic base in gritstone (see Inscriptions etc., No. 12c). Some 90 ft. S. of the
bases a fragment of wall on cobble foundations was found
beneath the foundations of the old choir of Trinity priory
church. Other remains, including antefixes and tegulae, have
been found in the priory precinct, especially from the site of
Wesley Chapel in Priory Street. (Unpublished notes by W. H.
Brook in the possession of Mrs. S. Brook.)
(22) Buildings, under Micklegate, were found in 1837
during sewer excavations from Priory Street to the Bar.
Much of the street was said to be filled with the remains
of Roman buildings. They would have had frontages on
the N.W. side of the Roman street, Monument (17a).
(C. Wellbeloved, Eburacum (1842), 54, 66; Report of the
City Commissioners (for the sewer site), in the Yorkshireman, 9 Sept., 18, 25 Nov. 1837.)
(23) Structure and altars were revealed in 1752
during sewer excavations towards the centre of Micklegate (N.G. 59855156), near Nos. 88–90 (Micklegate
House). 'Two or three firm floors of pebble [were] cut
through at a depth of 8 ft to 10 ft.'; they could have been
the metalling of the street, Monument (17a), or have
belonged to a building fronting on the street. Several
altars were found; one, which is inscribed, is now in the
Yorkshire Museum (see Inscriptions etc., No. 36). (W.
Camden, Britannia (ed. R. Gough, 1806), III, 303.)
(24) Building (Fig. 42), walls, etc., under the street,
opposite No. 78 Micklegate (N.G. 59915161), was found
during sewer excavations in 1946 (JRS, XXXVII (1947),
170. Photographs, plans and notes in the York Public
A wall with a doorway ran N.W to S.E. and another from
the S.W. joined it at right angles; the doorway was immediately S.E. of the junction. The walls were well preserved,
standing in places to a height of 5 ft. 11 ins., 2 ft. thick, faced
with small limestone ashlars on both sides and upon cobble
foundations 2 ft. deep. The top of the foundations was 11 ft.
below the modern street level.
(25) Buildings, 'divided into compartments'; these
were found in 1821 in excavations made in building Nos.
78–82 Micklegate (N.G. 59895161). They fronted on the
N.W. side of the street, Monument (17a), opposite
Monument (24). (Yorkshire Gazette, 24 Nov., 1, 8 Dec.
(26) Building, with colonnade, was found in 1853
during sewer excavations in Micklegate, W. of the
junction with Railway Street (N.G. 59985163).
The foundations consisted of large blocks of gritstone. The
fragments of column shafts, one being 4 ft. long, and of a
squared and moulded pedestal-base 1 ft. 2 ins. high and 1 ft.
4 ins. square, all of gritstone, are in the Yorkshire Museum (see
Inscriptions etc., No. 12). A large gritstone block carved
with a double volute, built into the tower of the church of St.
Martin-cum-Gregory nearby, is probably post-Roman.
(YPSR (1853), 10; YMH (1891), 27, 71, no. 91.)
Fig. 42. (From drawing in York Public Library)
(27) Building, mosaic pavement only, 60 yds. N.W.
of Micklegate Bar and partly under the bank of the
mediaeval city defences (N.G. 59735149), was partly
exposed in 1814.
A coloured engraving of the pavement was published by
W. Fowler of Winterton between 1814 and 1818 (Plate 23).
Various borders enclosed a central octagonal panel depicting
two stags, four corner panels depicting joints of venison and a
background consisting of a 'perspective box' pattern. The area
exposed in the 19th century and since destroyed measured
24 ft. by 15 ft. The building to which the mosaic belonged was
immediately S.E. of Road 10 and lay outside the line of the
wall (Monument 16d). (W. Hargrove, History . . . of York
(1818), II, 175.)
(28) Structure, under the shop at the N. corner of
Blossom Street and Queen Street (N.G. 59725145), was
found in 1826. It was vaguely described, but may have
been the paved corridor of a Roman house. Like
Monument (27), it lay outside the line of the town
defences as represented by Monument (16d). (W. Hargrove, New Guide . . . York (1838), 37; YA and YAS
Procs. (1953–4), 41.)
(29) Structures, under North Street to Tanner's
Moat, were found in 1893 during sewer excavations.
They were poorly recorded (YPSR (1893), 8).
(30) Building, colonnaded, under the Co-operative
Society Stores in Railway Street near the junction with
Tanner Row (N.G. 600517), was found in 1898, 8½ ft.
below the surface.
Seven stone bases 3 ft. in diameter stood 6 ft. apart in a line
slightly divergent from the adjacent modern street. Four
further bases stood in a line parallel with the first and 40 ft.
away nearer the river. Mid-way between the two lines at the
Tanner Row end, an intermediate base was noted. Other extensive remains were exposed but not recorded. A hoard of
two hundred silver coins was dispersed; of these, fifteen, the
latest of Geta, reached the Yorkshire Museum. An inscribed
altar also comes from Railway Street (see Inscriptions
etc., No. 35) and a cobble and clay wall-foundation was found
in Railway Court. (G. Benson, York I, fig. 20, Appendix A,
79; YPSR (1898), x.)
(31) Building, with a heavy gritstone facade, and
various architectural fragments were found in 1901
during preparatory excavations for the present Railway
Offices in Tanner Row (N.G. 599517). They were as
(a) Wall, remains of a facade parallel to and about 30 ft.
back from the main Roman Street, 3 ft. thick and composed of
gritstone blocks 3 ft. by 2 ft. by 1½ ft. The fragment stood 5 ft.
high and was 9 ft. long. Other remains discovered of walls 1 ft.
thick and standing two courses high in worked stone were
probably of internal divisions behind the foregoing. The
building extended back at least 50 ft. and was more than 30 ft.
wide. An earlier circular stone-lined well 3½ ft. in diameter was
underneath one of the fragments of walling. (b) Three column
capitals, found widely separated on the site; these are now lost.
One was enriched with acanthus leaves, the others had plain
mouldings (see Inscriptions etc., Nos. 11a, b). (c) Fragment
of a segmental conduit, some 50 ft. W. of (a); it was 3 ft.
across and built of worked stones 1 ft. thick. (d) Pit, 8 ft. below
Roman ground-level, near (c), rectangular, 5 ft. by 4½ ft., and
lined with upright 3 ft. oak planks. (YPSR (1901), pl. VI, 104.)
(32) Buildings, dedication-stone, mosaic pavement,
foundations, etc., were found in the 18th and 19th
centuries under and near Toft Green (N.G. 598517)
The religious dedication-stone and the foundations of
one apsed building were discovered in 1770 in the
course of digging the cellar of a house in Toft Green
opposite and N.W. of Barker Lane. In 1840, whilst the
street (Toft Green) was being revetted adjacent to the
old Railway Station and almost opposite Barker Lane
(N.G. 59835166), a mosaic pavement set in a concrete
floor 6 ins. thick and wall foundations of a second apsed
building were uncovered at a depth of 6 ft. (Fig. 43).
Although under the street, a collapse of soil enabled a
large part of the mosaic to be recovered.
Fig. 43. (From Hargrove MS., Yorkshire Museum)
The dedication-stone comprises a large slab of gritstone with
an inscription recording the building of a temple of Serapis by
the legionary legate, Claudius Hieronymianus (see Inscriptions etc., No. 54). It was found within the apsed building
and below the foundations, which were of a soft brick set in a
hard mortar. (York Courant, 21 Aug. 1770; Gents. Mag. (1770),
391; R.S. Pegge in Archaeologia III (1775), 151.)
The mosaic is now in the Yorkshire Museum and shows a
bull with a fish tail (Plate 22). The find was adjacent to the
remains found in 1770 and may be part of the same complex.
The room containing the mosaic was 12 ft. wide and extended
almost to the centre of the street, being 27 ft. long; the S.E. end
was apsidal with an external buttress; at the N.W. end was a
curved step. A parallel wall stood S.W. of the room. The walls
were 2 ft. thick. Some 30 ft. S. of the building was a Roman
well. (Unpublished notes in the Yorkshire Museum; J. J.
Sheahan and T. Whellan, York and the E. Riding (1855), I,
295–6; YMH (1891), 94, no. 3). A tile drain with flagstone
cover was found in 1853 in Tanner Row opposite the old
Railway Station (Yorkshire Gazette, 19 Feb. 1853).
(33) Building, in Barker Lane, comprising foundations of Roman date, was found in 1875 whilst making a
shallow drain (J. Raine's unpublished notes in the York
(34) Public Baths, furnace etc. and remains of other
unidentified buildings, were found on the site for the old
Railway Station and yard in 1839–40, during excavations for the station building, and again in 1939 in
excavating for a bomb shelter in the mound of the
mediaeval defences behind the old Station. Many fragments over a large area were uncovered; several could
be identified as belonging to baths, but those recorded
with any accuracy were isolated; the result is that they
cannot be related together in a consistent plan. Indeed
there is no certainty that all the fragments belonged to
the same complex; nor need all have been contemporary, for the 1939 excavations demonstrated that the
buildings had had a complicated structural history.
Even with these reservations, however, clearly the
baths were important and extensive. They included a
caldarium that has been described as the largest in
Britain (Arch. J., CIII (1947), 76). All the buildings of
ascertained alignment were, with one minor exception,
parallel not with the main Road 10 but with the minor
Road 8 (Fig. 38). Most of the buildings lay N.E. of the
continuation of this last. Remains in the extreme N. of
the site suggested that a Mithraeum stood nearby (see (g)
Traces of earlier use of the site included 1st-century
timber buildings, also on the minor road alignment. The
site encroached on the N.W. and S.W. upon a cemetery
(see Burials: Railway Station Cemetery), but the relationship between buildings and burials was not properly
recorded even where the two overlapped. Modern
analysis is further confused by the later use of the area
for a friary; this too had its burials, which, from the
inadequate records made, are not always distinguishable
from the Roman burials.
The fragments of structures etc. found were as
(a) Room, rectangular to apsidal end, 130 ft. N.W. of Toft
Green (N.G. 59775166); O.S. 60 ins. (1853), Sheet 11. The
dimensions were 39 ft. by 24½ ft., the long axis being approximately N.W.-S.E., with the apse at the N.W. end. The S.E.
wall had foundations 5 ft. wide; no trace of the other walls
remained except the internal plaster, which survived to a height
of up to 3 ins. above the floor. The floor was composed of 'lime,
pounded sherds of fine terra-cotta, and unburnt pounded lime,
laid on rubble stones and grouting, and finely polished' (C.
Wellbeloved, Eburacum, 70). The apse was almost a semicircle.
(b) Baths (Fig. 44), suite of five or more rooms, 120 ft. N. of
the foregoing (N.G. 59805172); O.S. 60 ins. (1853), Sheet 11.
Rooms (i)-(iv) were in line S.W. to N.E. Room (i), 18 ft. by
15 ft., contained a plunge bath with a floor similar to that in (a)
above; from it on the N.E. was a lead outlet-pipe, 6 ins. bore
and 3 ft. long, to a drain; on the S.W. three steps led to two
small Rooms (ii) and (iii); beyond, cement-covered steps led
down into Room (iv) containing a second plunge bath, but
here the foundations had been largely destroyed. W. of Room
(iv) was a small floor, Room (v), 5 ft. square in which was
found a small altar to Fortune recut for use as a building stone
(see Inscriptions etc., No. 33); under the floor was a tile
drain running N.E. Slight traces were found of a further room,
or rooms, lying to the N.E. of Room (i). (C. Wellbeloved,
Eburacum, 71.) An MS. note in the Yorkshire Museum (without reference or pagination) records that the steps from Room
(iii) to (iv) were four in number and of cement-covered brick
laid on rubble, that the side walls were 'at least a yard thick'
(Wellbeloved's plan shows them 2 ft.), and that the lead pipe
had an arch over it of Roman tiles. The MS. also refers to a
square building vaguely located as 'opposite Backhouse's
Garden House', that is, in the same general area as the finds
here already listed. It was about 6 yds. square, with walls more
than 3 ft. thick and standing up to 3 ft. high at a depth of 15 ft.
to the base. It had a double wall in one place. There was no
Fig. 44. (After C. Wellbeloved and O.S. (1853) 60 ins.)
Fig. 45. (After C. Wellbeloved and O.S. (1853) 60 ins.)
(c) Bath (Fig. 45), room and furnace, 250 ft. N.E. of the foregoing baths (N.G. 59855172); O.S. 60 ins. (1853), Sheet 11.
The room was 30 ft. by 37 ft. and contained to the N.E. a
cemented plunge bath, 15 ft. by 30 ft., with a lead base outlet,
3 ins. bore and 3 ft. long, to the N.E. Two steps led down into
the plunge. The rest of the room, floored at a height of 4 ft.
above the bottom of the plunge bath, was paved with red
sandstone flags 4 ins. thick and varying in size from 1 ft. square
to 3 ft. by 2 ft. The furnace adjoined the room on the S.W.;
the entrance to it was flanked by two pillars, each pillar being
formed of eighteen circular tiles 8 ins. in diameter and 2 ins.
to 3 ins. thick; the sides were constructed of small tiles 8 ins.
square and 2 ins. to 3 ins. thick; the roof was of large rectangular tiles. A small room with a cement floor adjoined on
the other side of the furnace. A wall beside this room on the
S.W. was traced for 38 ft. to the S.E. (C. Wellbeloved,
Eburacum, 72; W. Hargrove, New Guide . . . York (1844), 24–5;
MS. (no reference) in the Yorkshire Museum.) The rebuilt
furnace (Plate 21), some of the sandstone flags, lead pipes and
fragments of the cement flooring from this building are now in
the Yorkshire Museum (YMH (1891), 29, 72, nos. 95, 96, 98).
Here also are two stone pillars found nearby (see Inscriptions etc., No. 12f) (YMH (1891), 72, no. 98; C. Wellbeloved, Eburacum, 72, pl. VIII, figs. 7 and 8). A fragment of
the flooring and a pipe are in the Sheffield Museum (nos.
J. 93. 1087–8).
(d) Caldarium (Plates 19, 20. Figs. 46, 47), under the mound
of the mediaeval city wall (N.G. 59755172), close W. of (b)
described above, was excavated in 1939. Unpublished except
for a brief note and plan in Arch. J., CIII (1947), 76–7, fig.
11. Photographs etc. in the Yorkshire Museum. The caldarium
had comprised a large hall, 30 ft. wide, aligned N.E. to S.W.,
with a semicircular apse the full width of the building at the
S.W. end. Projecting from the N.W. wall at the base of the
apse was a small heated room about 9 ft. square inside, probably a bath. Half the width of the caldarium for about 40 ft.
N.E. from the apse and the whole of the small room were uncovered. The building had been levelled to the floor of the
hypocaust basement, which had been of sandstone flags each
about 2 ft. square. The heat was conveyed into the projecting
room through a flue lined with large blocks of sandstone. The
walls, 3 ft. thick, were of rubble and concrete faced inside and
out with small limestone ashlar blocks; they had rubble and
cobble foundations. The apse was buttressed outside, the
buttresses being of masonry similar to the walls and bonded
into them. A masonry drain ran round the outside of the apse.
(e) Structures (Figs. 46, 47), traces of earlier buildings lying
N.E. of the caldarium, (d) described above, and discovered at
the time and in the circumstances set out under that head,
included the following: remains of plaster and wattle walls of
timber buildings associated with abundant pottery of the 1st
and 2nd centuries; a 13 ft. length of walling 2 ft. thick from an
early stone building; a fragment of a building with a masonry
wall 3 ft. thick with an air-duct (?) built against it on the inside
and with external buttresses; three sides of a small square
room with masonry walls, originally plastered internally, and a
concrete floor; fragments of two drains comprising a stoneflagged drain overlying an earlier tiled one. Several fragments
of walling were found in 1959 S. of the foregoing buildings
but they could not be related to any of them. All the structures
with the exception of the 13 ft. length of stone walling were on
the same alignment.
Fig. 46 (for Sections a–c, see Fig. 47; for Section x, see Fig. 39). (From drawings in Yorkshire Museum)
(f) Structures, miscellaneous remains, discovered in 1840 and
referred to in the MS. notes in the Yorkshire Museum, cannot
be identified with those described by Wellbeloved (Eburacum,
70–3), nor were their positions accurately recorded. The following were the most important:—(i) at the N.E. end of the
site, that is, nearer to (c) above than to (a) or (b), a small bath,
4 yds. by 3 yds.; W. of the same the foundation of a thick and
strong wall 100 yds. long with a corresponding wall 12 yds. or
14 yds. 'nearer the Bar' (to W. or S.W.) with several foundations occurring between them. (ii) At the S.W. end of the site,
100 ft. or more S.W. of (a) above, two small cement floors.
(iii) On the site of the Chapel of Lady Hewley's Hospital (N.G.
59855169), the floor of a bath or room, 4 yds. square, of
cement on a cobble foundation, the whole covered by large
square tiles stamped LEG VI VIC and some round hypocaust
Fig. 47 (for positions, see Fig. 46). (From drawings in Yorkshire Museum)
(g) Miscellanea, finds made in the extreme N. of the site
(N.G. 59815180) during construction of the S. road archway
through the mediaeval city wall in 1874, included a statue
of Arimanius (see Inscriptions etc., No. 58), possibly from a
nearby Mithraeum, an uninscribed altar (ibid., No. 45), and a
large piece of cement flooring similar to that in the nearby bath
buildings. (YMH (1891), 30, no. 1; 45, no. 25; 72, no. 100.)
(35) House (Fig. 48), with three mosaics, was found in
1853 under Toft Green, 160 ft. S.W. of Barker Lane,
extending from the centre of the roadway to within 1 ft.
of the building-frontage on the S.E. side (N.G.
59775160); O.S. 60 ins. (1853), Sheet 11. The alignment
was that of Road 10 and not that of the nearby buildings
on the old Railway Station site, Monument (34). The
house had at least five rooms. A posthumous coin of
Claudius II (A.D. 268–270) and traces of an earlier
concrete floor were beneath the mosaic in Room
(ii). (Sketch-plan in unpublished notes of James Raine in
York Public Library; Yorks. Gazette, 12 March, 2 April
1853; YPSR (1853), 10; YMH (1891), 28–9.)
Room (i), 18 ft. square with a concrete floor, was separated
from Room (ii) lying to the N.E. by a wall 14 ins. thick. Room
(ii) contained the mosaic, 13¾ ft. square, depicting the Four
Seasons, which is now in the Yorkshire Museum (Plate 24). No
wall was recorded alongside the mosaic on the N.W. nor on
the N.E. but on the S.E. a wall 8 ins. thick provided separation
from Room (iii). The mosaic has a head of Medusa, now very
badly damaged, in the middle between the heads and shoulders
of four female figures representing the Seasons against a simple
geometric background. Spring is symbolised by a bird (Frontispiece), Summer by a rake, Autumn by a bunch of grapes, and
Winter by a bare bough, the attributes being on or beside the
shoulders. Room (iii), S.E. of Room (ii), contained a mosaic
pavement 18 ft. square of which only the border survived,
comprising a band 4 ft. wide; a fragment (Plate 22) in the
Yorkshire Museum shows a simple grid pattern of narrow
lines crossing at right angles. Room (iv) lay immediately N.E.
of Room (iii) and was bounded on the N.W. by a continuation
of the wall separating Rooms (ii) and (iii); a step led into the
area beyond to the N.W. It was 16 ft. square and contained a
mosaic with an entirely geometric pattern; some fragments of
the mosaic are in the Yorkshire Museum, where too was a
drawing made at the time of discovery, but only a photograph
of the latter is now there (Plate 23). Room (v) lay S.E. of
Room (iv) but was too near the limits of the excavation
to be explored.
Fig. 48. (From drawing in Yorkshire Museum)
EXTRAMURAL SETTLEMENT, N.E. of the
The lay-out here was governed by the two main
Roads 2 and 5 (see Approach Roads), leading past the
front of the legionary fortress to the river crossing about
where the Guildhall now is (Fig. 37). Between Ouse and
fortress no evidence of subsidiary Roman streets has
come to light, indeed there is little space for them, nor is
the evidence for settlement here abundant though two
finds in Coney Street, Monument (42), and the building
in Lendal, Monument (43), show that it occurred alongside the two main roads. To the N.W. (in Museum
Gardens) and the S.E. (Spurriergate-Ousegate area)
subsidiary streets probably did exist, at right angles or
parallel to the main roads, the evidence for them, slight
though it is, appearing under Monuments (38), (39) and
A road or street is likely to have issued from the S.E.
gate of the fortress, but whether it was an alternative,
perhaps earlier, route for Road 2 or just for access to
wharves on the river Foss is not certainly known.
Possibly too a road existed by-passing the fortress along
its S.E. side to link Roads 3 and 4 with the Ouse crossing; such a one and Road 2 would have provided the
nucleus for any street-plan in the small built-up area
S.E. of the fortress.
The following Monuments (36–44) are the remains
discovered of the civil settlement on the left bank:—
(36) Building, mosaic pavement, was found in 1871
under 'the buttress on the left side of the entrance door'
of the church of St. Mary, Castlegate (N.G. 60445162)
(YMH (1891), 95).
No further details are known. A column base found in 1883
on the other side of Castlegate, the S.W., in front of Castlegate
House (N.G. 60445159) probably came from a building rather
than a tomb (YMH (1891), 12).
(37) Buildings, architectural fragments, inscribed
stones, wall, well, etc., have been found at different
times under and near the Midland Bank at the corner of
High Ousegate and Nessgate (N.G. 60335168). The
remains were fragmentary and ill recorded but sufficient
to imply an important group of buildings fronting on
the road, Road 2, that crossed the site.
The dedication stones show that the group included a temple
to Hercules and another to numinibus Augustorum et deae Iov . . .,
(see Inscriptions etc., Nos. 4, 52–3); they were found during
the construction of the Bank, in 1839, together with fragments of columns, a capital and a base in gritstone and limetone (ibid., Nos. 11c, 12g) and a well covered by a flagstone.
The Roman level was between 8 ft. and 10 ft. down. (MS.
notes in the Yorkshire Museum; York Courant, 11 May 1843.)
The following have since come to light beneath Nessgate: in
1877 a wall parallel to the Bank and about 2 yds. from it (J.
Raine, unpublished notes in the York Public Library); in 1925
a column base at a depth of 11½ ft. (YPSR (1925), 31), and in
1928 part of a column shaft (Plate 48) carved with scale ornament (YPSR (1928), 25) (see Inscriptions etc., No. 9).
(38) Buildings, masonry, walls, architectural fragments, etc., were found in 1902–3 when Nos. 25–27
High Ousegate were being built (N.G. 60355170)
(YPSR (1902), 64).
The largest fragment was a wedge-shaped mass of masonry
approximately parallel with High Ousegate (S.W.-N.E.), 6 ft.
across the front, 9 ft. across the back and 6 ft. thick. S.W. of it
was a paved passage 4½ ft. wide at the front and 2¼ ft. at the
back, and S.W. again, just appearing within the excavated
area, the abutment of another wall composed of large blocks
of stone. One of the blocks measured 4 ft. by 2 ft. on the face.
The corner of another wall was found 4 ft. S.E. of the large
masonry mass. N.E. of this last were two fragmentary walls
running S.E. to N.W., probably part of another structure, and
beyond again, some 20 ft. away over all, was another paved
passage. Two crude Ionic capitals and two bases were also
found (see Inscriptions etc., Nos. 11d, e, 12d, e).
The remains may well have been those of the facade of an
important public building fronting on a street underlying the
present High Ousegate, a street leading across the S.E. side of
(39) Buildings (Fig. 49), foundations, walls, floors,
including parts possibly of two bath buildings, and remains of roads were observed in 1959 during the building redevelopment of a large site extending along the
N.E. side of Spurriergate from High Ousegate to within
some 35 yds. of Market Street. Only an area at the S.
end some 35 yds. by 23 yds. average was excavated,
mechanically, to the Roman level, some 12 ft. to 13 ft.
below the modern pavement level. The ground had
been much disturbed by the digging of mediaeval pits.
Two lengths of road were disclosed, at right angles to
one another, at the S. end; of these, the length running
N.W.-S.E. was part of Road 2 and is described under
that heading (see p. 1); the other running N.E. was of
much slighter construction. The buildings in the angle
so formed were of different periods, fragmentary, and
in places overlying one another; all were similarly
aligned, parallel with Road 2. Other finds included a
small patch of concrete flooring and a stone gutter.
(Unpublished: information from G. F. Willmot.)
Building (i) (Plate 25), partly uncovered beneath Road 2,
comprised a cobble wall-foundation at least 3 ft. thick running
N.W.-S.E. with an arrangement of sleeper trenches 8 ins. wide
adjacent on the N.E. indicative of two adjoining rooms 4½ ft.
wide; their length is unknown. The trenches contained rotted
timber, debris of wall-plaster with impressions of wattle, and
tile fragments. The floors were of concrete and supported a
layer of burnt timber and roof tiles. Some 12 yds. to the N.W.
a 5 ft. by 4 ft. patch of concrete flooring was found, but without apparent association with the foregoing. A late 2nd to early
3rd-century pot found in the foundation of Road 2 gives a
terminus ad quem for the building.
Building (ii) was found 12 yds. N.E. of Road 2. Only one
corner, the W., was uncovered; the S.W. wall consisted of two
courses of large gritstone blocks typically 4 ft. 2 ins. by 1 ft.
11 ins. by 1 ft. in course and cramped together on the top; they
stood on a plinth of smaller blocks with a 7 ins. projection; the
N.W. wall was similar but rather slighter. Within were traces
of a floor of opus signinum with a quarter-round moulding at the
level of the surface of the upper surviving wall-course.
Building (iii), 13 yds. N.W. from and on much the same
S.W. frontage as (ii), was 17 ft. square externally and of
magnesian limestone blocks. The remains were scanty.
Buildings (iv), close E. of (iii), appeared to be of two periods
and to incorporate a bath building. A foundation of gritstone
blocks consisting of 1½ ft. cubes was traced for over 20 ft. on
the alignment of (ii) and (iii) laid against a bed of cobbles 11 ins.
wide on the S.W side. At right angles at the N.W. end was a
core wall 3¼ ft. thick with gritstone facings on a cobble
foundation (Plate 25); a 2nd-century necked jar had been cut
through in forming this last. Any junction of the two walls
was destroyed, but their materials suggest contemporary
works. They were of the first period, of the late 2nd century or
later. The long foundation was overlaid by the mortar-spill
from the wall next described parallel with it and some 4½ ft. to
the N.E. This, built of roughly squared and coursed magnesian
limestone blocks 4 ins. thick facing a concrete core, the whole
being 1¼ ft. thick, stood 2½ ft. high above a footing projecting
1 ft. in two steps on a trench-filled cobble foundation. Beyond
a flue aperture to the N.W. closed by an upright tile 1 ft. 11
ins. square (Plate 25) it was destroyed by a mediaeval pit.
Immediately N.E. was a small hypocaust (Plate 25) defined by
fragmentary remains of limestone walls 1 ft. thick in part over
the earlier gritstone core wall. The chamber had an upright
stone, probably a floor-prop, near the middle and a flue to the
S.E.; the opening to this last showed in the side of the excavation. Emerging from the same side further N.E. another limestone wall, conforming in alignment with the hypocaust, led
some 6 yds. N.E. The limestone buildings represented the
Fig. 49. (After G. F. Willmot)
Building (v), standing close N. of (iv), was apsidal and perhaps part of another bath-house. The walls were of magnesian
limestone 2 ft. thick and the apse had an external radius of
some 10½ ft. A wall, 2 ft. thick and of similar material to the
foregoing, found away to the N.E. may have belonged to the
same building. No floor was found.
Miscellanea: An open gutter of limestone blocks hollowed
down the middle ran beside Road 2, turning N.E. towards
Building (iii). A fragment of a moulded cornice or plinth,
unrelated to any of the foregoing, was also found (see
Inscriptions etc., No. 16).
(40) Wall, of rubble 2 ft. thick, was revealed as
recorded by Benson at a depth of 14 ft. 10 ins. below
Pavement (N.G. 60505180). The depth suggests that it
might have been Roman (G. Benson, York I, Appendix
(41) Building, wall, floor, etc., was found in 1835 at
the S. corner of Parliament Street and Market Street in
excavations for the cellars of the Midland Bank (N.G.
'A thick and strongly cemented wall' at a depth of 16 ft. ran
approximately E. to W.; N. of it was a floor of stone flags.
Over one corner of the floor flowed a spring of clear water.
More building-remains lay to the N. (W. Hargrove, New
Guide . . . York (1838), 52–3). In 1849 'burnt wheat' was found
at a depth of 16 ft. under Market Street, suggesting perhaps the
presence nearby of a granary (J. J. Sheahan and T. Whellan,
York and the E. Riding (1855), I, 306).
(42) Miscellanea, occupation debris and an inscribed
stone, have at different times been found near Coney
On the site of the Yorkshire Penny Bank (N.G. 60255178),
over a small area well outside the fortress defences and ditch
system, was considerable occupation debris, including a coin of
Nerva and sherds of 2nd-century Samian ware (JRS, XII
(1922), 246). These finds are preserved in the Bank. (See also
Inscriptions etc., No. 51).
(43) Building (Fig. 50), walls, etc., was found in 1883
on the site of the General Post Office in Lendal (N.G.
60125192). It stood outside the S.W. gate of the fortress
on an alignment some 14° divergent from that of the
fortress wall and was substantial.
The E. angle was revealed, from which one wall was traced
45½ ft. N.W. and the other 14 ft. S.W.; they were 4½ ft. to
4¾ ft. thick with footings projecting 3 ins. on either side. The
wall stood 3½ ft. high and its top lay 5½ ft. below modern
ground-level. A flagged drain from the fortress crossed under
the longer wall; the footings of this last were built down to
incorporate it. (Plan with notes in the York Public Library.) At
a different time another wall, about 3 ft. thick and approximately parallel to the shorter wall already mentioned, was
found (MS. note, undated, in the Yorkshire Museum). This
was also on the Post Office site, some 60 ft. from the street,
but it need not have belonged to the same building. Yet another
wall, of magnesian limestone, a few feet on the fortress side of
the longer wall already mentioned, is recorded by G. Benson
(York III, 170).
(44) Buildings, of stone and timber, and part of a
street, under the N. walk of the cloister and the nave of
the church of St. Mary's Abbey, in Museum Gardens,
were excavated in 1952–3. (Unpublished: information
from G. F. Willmot.)
Under the cloister-walk and W. of the modern garden path
(N.G. 59925214) was found evidence for (i) a rectangular
timber hut with rectangular post-holes on an alignment
parallel with the N.W. wall of the fortress. The hut was 19 ft.
wide and of unknown length. Associated with it was abundant
late 1st-century pottery, including some that, out of this
context, might have been considered pre-Flavian, though insufficient to suggest a pre-Flavian date for the occupation here.
With the pottery were coins of Vespasian and Titus. The hut
was covered by (ii) a cobbled floor with a robbed wall foundation. This last, which was apparently on a different alignment
from the hut, contained several tiles stamped LEG VI SEV
retrograde. On the floor were coins of Septimius Severus, Julia
Mamaea, Elagabalus, and Valerian. Floor and wall were
overlaid by (iii) the metalling of a street, of uncertain width,
running approximately N.W. to S.E. and made after c. 260
A.D. On each side of the street was fallen wall plaster from
buildings beyond the excavation. Further, over the fallen
plaster was (iv) a cobbled floor with 4th-century pottery.
Under the S.W. corner of the nave of the church (N.G.
59885215) were (v) a robber trench, indicating a wall parallel
with the wall (a) described under Monument (13), and a ditch
or pit with a 2nd-century filling. The whole complex (i–v etc.)
lay outside the Fortified Enclosure (Monument 13).
The remains of the fortress and of the colonia that
developed close alongside the fortress are listed and described above in this Inventory, but scattered remains of
buildings and occupied sites beyond these limits have
also come to light. They are listed and described here as
Suburban Sites grouped topographically, in the way the
Civil Town was grouped, under the two sub-heads:
S.W. of the Ouse and N.E. of the Ouse.
Fig 50. (From drawing in York Public Library)
SUBURBS S.W. of the river Ouse
(45) Building, tessellated pavement only, was revealed in the mid 19th century E. of the junction of
Cherry Street with Clementhorpe (N.G. 60325109);
O.S. 60 ins. (1853), Sheet 15.
An area 11 ft. by 8 ft., representing about half the pavement,
was uncovered; damage had been caused by grave-digging and
2 ins. of cement overlay it. Drawings were made but only a
photograph of one of them survives, in the Yorkshire Museum
(Plate 23). The design was geometrical. No record was made
of the building that contained the pavement. The site was on
elevated ground and nearly 400 yds. S.S.E. of the nearest
building, Monument (18), which stood within the built-up
area of the town; a small cemetery lay between (York Herald,
20 Sept. 1851). See Burials, V Region, a, b.
(46) Building (Fig. 51), behind No. 18 Blossom
Street (Forsselius' Garage), was excavated in 1953–4
(N.G. 59645143). (Unpublished: information from L. P.
Wenham.) The S.W. angle lay some 25 ft. N.W. of
Road 10 and 35 ft. N. of the junction with Road 9 (see
Approach Roads). The building alignment approximated more nearly to Road 9 than to 10.
Fig. 51. (After L. P. Wenham)
The rough limestone footings of the S. and W. walls were
traced a short way; they were about 3 ft. wide. The floor was
of opus signinum; on it was a coin of A.D. 335–40 and sealed
beneath it one of Victorinus, A.D. 268–70. The foregoing was
the last of five buildings for which evidence was found on the
site. The sequence may be summarised thus: (i) a 1st-century
timber building, destroyed by fire; (ii) a 2nd-century building
on clay and cobble foundations, which was superseded by (iii)
a late 2nd-century building, dated by a sealed coin of Faustina
I, A.D. 138–141, also with clay and cobble foundations, which
had painted wall plaster and was probably destroyed by fire;
(iv) a 3rd-century building, roofed in thin stone slates, distinct
from the tegulae on the earlier roofs; (v) the 4th-century
building described above. The alignment of the four earlier
buildings could not be determined.
(47) Building debris, including material possibly
from a mason's yard, comes from the grounds of Mount
School, formerly Diciknson's market garden (N.G.
59155110) (YAJ, XXXIX (1958), 295–6). Here an area
was cleared in Roman times and the debris swept into
The contents of the pits included a lump of lead dross
retaining the shape of a melting pot, wall plaster, stone roofingslates, roof-tiles stamped LEG VI, many worked gritstones, a
moulded base and, amongst occupation debris, coins of
Severus and Gordian. One pit was filled with stone chippings.
These last and the worked stones suggest that the site, at least
in part, was perhaps used as a mason's yard.
(48) Building debris, including material from workshops, was found on the site of the present Railway
Station and just W. of it. Here was a large cemetery (see
Burials) that had covered waste land formerly used for
industrial purposes (Arch. J., CIII (1947), 79). Structural
evidence of kilns and workshops is still lacking but
pottery making and the manufacture of small ornaments here are indicated by the finds.
The finds include a Samian mould, rough-outs of jet pins
and ornaments (Plate 70), unfinished bone pins and a polisher
for them. The mould (Plate 31) is for a figured bowl, of form
37, and is itself of Samian ware, made by the potter x–3 from
central Gaul, and is Trajanic in date; this and another fragment
of a similar mould are in the Yorkshire Museum (YMH (1891),
118, d; see also JRS, XLII (1952), 68, and J. A. Stanfield and G.
Simpson, Central Gaulish Potters (1958), 16, pl. 16, 206). The
rough-outs range from squared but otherwise uncut pieces of
jet to partly turned pieces spoiled in manufacture (YMH (1891),
127, q). Lengths of bone cut ready for making into pins and
partly-finished pins were with the polisher, this last being a
small tapering piece of ivory of square section grooved on one
The building debris found in 1874 at the approaches to
Scarborough Bridge, N. of the Station, included painted wall
plaster, tiles, and a large fragment of tessellated pavement (J.
Raine, unpublished notes, 5–6, in York Public Library). It was
believed to have been dumped in Roman times to level the
ground (York Gazette, 21 July 1883), but it is not impossible
that it came in 1845 from the cutting for the York to Scarborough railway-line, immediately W. of the Station (N.G.
595517). This cutting is known to have yielded painted wall
plaster (T. Bateman, Catalogue of Antiquities . . . Bateman
(1855), E.1.55). Despite this uncertainty, it seems probable that
somewhere on the Station site stood a building with painted
walls and a mosaic floor. This might itself have been a tomb.
(49) Occupation debris, revealed by chance in the
18th century, was found on the gravel terrace overlooking the Ouse 1½m. S. of York and just over ½ m. N. of
Middlethorpe Manor, E. of Bishopthorpe Road (N.G.
600496). Gravel digging disturbed a mass of debris
'within a compass of 50 to 60 yards'.
The debris included Flavian Samian sherds, metal objects,
oyster shells and a great many cattle bones (W. Camden,
Britannia (ed. R. Gough, 1806), III, 304; Archaeologia, II (1773),
182). The reference in contemporary accounts to soil 'like soot
mixed with oil' is probably to a bed of manganese dioxide,
MnO2, which is a feature of the local gravels (Yorks. Geological Soc. Procs., VII (1878–81), 426–8). Another occupation
site has been found further N. at Old Nunthorpe (N.G.
60074998) (YPSR (1934), 46).
(50) Building, mosaic pavement, behind Acomb
House in Front Street, Acomb (N.G. 57385132), was
discovered in the 19th century, but not described (YMH
(1891), 95; information from the Rev. Angelo Raine).
(51) Occupation debris, a surface-scatter of Romano-British pottery sherds of the 2nd-4th century, without
associated finds, was discovered on Bachelor Hill, ½ m.
to the S.W. of Monument (50) (N.G. 56825080) (YAJ,
XXXI (1934), 198, XXXIV (1939), 81).
SUBURBS N.E. of the river Ouse, to S.E.-N.E. of
The present course of the river Foss in the area is the
result of 12th-century damming to provide a fishpond,
subsequent reclamation and, lastly, canalising. Formerly
it was wider and tidal; it thus provided convenient
access for boats to unload relatively near the S.E. gate of
the legionary fortress. The old bed was visible in deep
excavations recently made on the Stonebow site, see
Monument (52). The following three structures are
recorded along the old banks of the river.
(52) Structure (Figs. 52, 53), walls, piles, cobbling,
etc., built into the steep W. bank of the old bed of the
Foss river, was found in 1951–2 during deep excavation
for a Telephone Exchange in Garden Place, Stonebow
(N.G. 60595180) (YA and YAS Procs. (1951–2), 28; Arch
Journal, CXVI (1961), 51–6). The river had crossed the
site obliquely, approximately N. to S., the E. bank
being just S.E. of the new Exchange building. In the
12th and 13th centuries the area formed the Stagnum
Regis; it was subsequently part of the precincts of the
Carmelite Friary. This and the two succeeding structures
are therefore unlikely to be mediaeval and are tentatively attributed to a Roman date.
The stone structure was massive, rectangular on plan, 23 ft.
by 20 ft. over all, with a large platform of great gritstone
blocks below it on the riverside. The walls were some 5 ft. thick
and also of large blocks of gritstone. A single sherd of mediaeval
pottery is stated to have been found at a low level mixed among
these stones, but conditions of excavation were not such as to
preclude contamination from a higher level. In front of the
structure, in the river bed, was a double row of piles, which
had either been part of a revetment or supported a wharf. On
the N. these piles were noticed as far as the line of the N. edge of
the stone structure, beyond which accurate observation was
not possible. On the S. they extended some 15 ft., as far as
the edge of the excavation. N. of the structure was a cobbled
area 10 ft. to 15 ft. wide along the top of the river-bank; W.
of this was a scatter of Roman pottery without other signs of
The purpose of the structure is not immediately obvious: its
position and massive proportions suggest a functional connection with the waterfront.
Fig. 52. (After R. A. Hill)
(53) Jetty, wall and timbers, was found in 1829 S. of
the present S. bank of the Foss in sinking a well in the
yard of the Malt Shovel Inn, near and E. of Foss Bridge
(N.G. 60645169). See introductory note to Monument
At a depth of 30 ft., below a layer of 'marine vegetation containing mussel-shells', was a wall of 'Roman bricks' resting on
gravel and supporting a jetty formed of beams and posts (W.
Hargrove, New Guide . . . York (1838), 43).
Fig. 53. Monument (52).
(54) Wharf, columns only, was excavated in 1938 on
the site for the Employment Exchange in Piccadilly
(N.G. 60685154). In Roman times the Foss river ran by
the site, now it is 100 yds. away to the W. See introductory note to Monument (52).
The remains consisted of two rows of rough stone columns
3 ft. high and 1 ft. to 1½ ft. square, which were clearly meant to
support a platform (JRS, XXIX (1939), 204).
(55) Structure, wall and roofing-tiles, was found in
the first half of the 19th century in the churchyard on the
N. side of St. Cuthbert's church, Peasholme Green
(N.G. 60785207). The site is marked on R. Skaife's Map
of Roman and Mediaeval York (1864).
A 'strong' wall ran 'from nearly S.S.E. to N.N.W.' (W.
Hargrove, History of York (1818), II, 346), but no further details
are known. The tiles found in 1836 about 7 ft. down were said
to be stacked (W. Hargrove, New Guide . . . York (1838),
60–1); but an appearance of stacking can result from 'herringbone' work or a roof collapse where the tiles retain their
positions relative to one another in the fall. They included
Sixth and Ninth Legion stamps. More were found in 1911
and are preserved in the church. The E. wall of the church
itself includes reused Roman masonry.
(56) Building, tessellated pavement, was found in
1911 on the N.E. side of St. Maurice's Road (N.G.
The part only, 5 ft. by 3½ ft., of the pavement revealed was
formed of coarse red tesserae about 1 in. square (G. Benson,
York III, 170). A silver Finger-ring inscribed DEO SUCELO
found nearby in 1875 may suggest the existence hereabouts of a
shrine to that god (YMH (1891), 123, vii; see Inscriptions etc.,
No. 140). Another Finger-ring, of gold set with an engraved
onyx, was also found in 1875 in the city moat in the same road
(ibid., 123, v).
(57) Occupation debris, 2nd to 4th-century pottery,
was found near No. 210 Stockton Lane (N.G. 62465325).
The quantities of sherds probably derived from occupation rather than burials; none was later than the mid 4th
century (YAJ, XXXV (1943), 424).
SUBURBS N.E. of the river Ouse, to W. and N.W.
of the fortress
An extensive cemetery, for cremations and inhumations, bounded Road 5 beyond the small built-up area
W. of the fortress. Remains of it were unearthed in the
17th-18th century between the road and the river and
subsequent finds show it to have extended N.W. as far
as The Avenue and N.E. to the line of the BoothamClifton road and beyond. The area cleared in the
17th-18th century revealed no buildings or other evidence of occupation. (fn. 1)
Evidence of scattered occupation (Monuments 58–61)
comes from alongside Roads 6 and 7, reflecting ribbondevelopment, mainly of the 2nd century. (For the above
passim, see Approach Roads and Burials, III Region.)
(58) Occupation debris, and floor, was excavated by
schoolboys in 1954 in Bootham School (N.G. 59955240).
The material was of the 2nd century. (Unpublished.)
(59) Occupation debris, pottery, was discovered in
the 19th century and 1931 at the White House, Clifton
The pottery sherds revealed in quantity were mainly 2nd-century but included a Rhenish motto beaker inscribed
AXSASI (see Burials, III Region, (b) and Inscriptions etc.,
No. 151a). Though the stratification was disturbed, its context
suggested an occupation site rather than disturbed grave goods
(YMH (1891), 99, 107, II. D.b; YAJ, XXXI (1934), 77; JRS,
XXII (1932), 203).
(60) Occupation debris, and floor, was discovered in
1947 at the corner of The Avenue and Clifton (N.G.
A rubbish pit 2 ft. by 10 ft., open in the Hadrian-Antonine
period, was sealed by a dark floor in occupation late in the 2nd
century. A stratum of stiff clay above included 3rd to 4th-century sherds (YPSR (1947–8), 28; JRS, XXXVIII (1948), 88).
(61) Building, tessellated pavement, was found in
1813 in making a sunk fence before Clifton Grove, now
St. Olave's School (N.G. 59425267). The site is marked
on R. Skaife's Map of Roman and Mediaeval York (1864).
Only a small fragment of pavement was uncovered; no
further details are recorded (C. Wellbeloved, Eburacum, 68).
Building debris, including painted plaster, was used in repairing or enlarging Road 6, a few yards E. of this find.