Ecclesiastical Buildings

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1972

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'Ecclesiastical Buildings', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in City of York, Volume 3: South West (1972), pp. 3-48. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=125585 Date accessed: 25 July 2014.


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ECCLESIASTICAL

York S.W. of the Ouse formerly comprised seven intramural parishes, of which three extended outside the walls and between them covered most of the suburban area. The extramural parish of St. Clement, which had given its name to Clementhorpe by the time of the Conquest, had become united to that of St. Mary Bishophill Senior for taxation purposes by the early 14th century; the benefices were formally united in 1586 when the small parish of St. Gregory was also merged with that of St. Martin in Micklegate, after a similar long period of effective union for taxation. There are now no monumental remains of the churches of St. Clement and St. Gregory, and St. Mary Bishophill Senior was demolished in 1963 (see Monument (9)). Within the suburban area were two chapels-of-ease, both to the parish of Holy Trinity (or St. Nicholas), Micklegate, namely St. James on The Mount, all trace of which has gone, and Dringhouses (see Monument (12)). The rural parish of Acomb was brought within the city boundaries in 1937 (see Monument (11)).

(4) Parish Church of All Saints (Plate 93), stands in a churchyard of some extent on the W. side of North Street; it is built partly of rubble, partly of magnesian limestone ashlar, and has roofs of modern tile.


Fig. 24. (4) Church of All Saints, North Street. Architectural development. (New work in darker stipple.)

The church, which later belonged to the Priory of Holy Trinity (Monument (5)) in Micklegate, is not mentioned in the foundation charter of c. 1090–1100. It is listed among the possessions of the Priory in a letter of Pope Alexander III (1166–79) and in the charter of Henry II (1175–88) (EYC, vi, 76–7, 84–5). The original church was a simple rectangular cell, a local type found in the late 11th century, to which a S. aisle was added in the later 12th century. In the 13th century it was enlarged as a cruciform building with aisleless Chancel and aisled Nave of three bays. (fn. 1) The E. end was partly rebuilt in the first half of the 14th century when chapels flanking the chancel were added. The N. Chapel was built in c. 1324/5 when John Benge, chaplain, founded at the altar of St. Mary a chantry for the souls of John and Hugh Benge and their ancestors (CPR, 1324–7, 31). The E. window of the chancel, of which the contemporary glass is now in the E. window of the N. aisle, dates from c. 1320–40. The E. window of the S. Chapel, probably the choir of St. Katherine mentioned in a will of 1406 (Raine, 253), has reticulated tracery of c. 1340. Much work, including the widening of the Aisles, was being carried out between c. 1390 and c. 1410. In 1394 Richard Byrd of North Street, tanner, left 6s. 8d. to the new fabric of the church (Shaw, 83). In 1407 William Vescy, mercer, left 100s. for improving and ornamenting the choir and founded, at the altar of St. Thomas the Martyr, a chantry which was licensed in 1410 (CPR, 1408–13, 162). This altar was probably in the N. aisle by the third window from the E., which had a figure of St. Thomas. An inventory made in 1409/10, after the death of Hugh Grantham, mason, records that he owed John Ebirston 6s. 8d. for stone for a window in All Saints, North Street, and that he was owed 40s. for the window. Grantham was also owed £4 by John Thornton and William Pontefract; this may connect John Thornton with glass that would on stylistic grounds be associated with him. In 1410 Adam del Bank, dyer, founded a chantry at the altar of St. Nicholas (fn. 2) in the S. aisle and left 10 marks to repair the altar of St. James in the same aisle and the stonework of a window there (Raine, 254). In 1429 Reginald Bawtre, merchant, left 1005. to the fabric of a new glass window in the N. aisle, and glazing of the windows in both aisles continued until c. 1440 (see Fittings: Glass). The church was extended W. by two bays in the second quarter or middle of the 15th century with a Tower in the W. bay of the nave, and had been entirely re-roofed by c. 1475. Mention of an anchoress in 1430 (Raine, 254) suggests that the S. extension of the S. aisle (see Architectural Description) was already complete. The W. piers of the nave arcades both have a rare mason's mark found on other early 15th-century buildings in York. In 1467 Thomas Howson, Vicar, desired to be buried opposite the image of Our Lord crucified, which stood above the central window of the W. front. In 1482 Margaret Clerk gave 6s. 8d. towards the consecration of a bell in the tower (Raine, 254). In 1444 John Sharpe, tile maker, left 3s. 4d. to the fabric and 500 'thack tile'. In 1448 Richard Toone, tanner, left one fother of lead for the roof, if begun within a few years. The arms of Gilliot on a boss on the chancel roof refer to John Gilyot, Rector 1467–1472/3 (Borthwick Inst., Register of George Neville, ff. 15, 155); they occur again on a misericorde (see Fittings: Seating). A major restoration, including the rebuilding of the S. wall, was carried out by J. B. and W. Atkinson in 1866–7 (APS Dictionary of Architecture, viii (1892), York, 5; Borthwick Inst., Faculty Papers, 1866/1) at a cost of £1,600. Further work was carried out in 1884 and in 1907–8. The plan prepared by J. W. Tate in 1866 and redrawn by E. R. Tate in 1908, shows the chancel one bay further E. than at present (C. Kerry, 'History and Antiquities of All Saints' Church, North Street, York', in AASRP, ix, pt. 1 (1867), 57–69; P. J. Shaw, All Hallows, North Street (1908)).


Fig. 25. (4) Church of All Saints, North Street.

Architectural Description—The church is an aisled quadrilateral without structural division between chancel and nave; the tower at the W. end of the nave is set within the quadrilateral. The present division between chancel and nave is modern. The plan prepared in 1866 and redrawn in 1908 shows the nave extending one bay further E. as in the mediaeval arrangement.

The Chancel and Nave (79½ ft. by 12 ft.) (Plates 94, 95, 96) have the base of a 13th-century E. wall of small blocks of ashlar flanked by angle buttresses of which those to the E. were refaced in 1867 and those to the N. and S. now show only as slight projections from the added E. walls of the aisles. Internally the E. wall is plastered but the base of one bay of a 13th-century wall arcade is visible on the S.; it consists of a two-centred arch with moulded label containing a heavy trefoiled head on attached shafts with bell caps. On the S. it abuts on a similar bay in the S. wall; between the bays is a band of dog-tooth ornament. The E. window, an insertion of c. 1320–40, has original jambs, but the mullions are recut or modern. Externally the head has a wavemould, which merges into the chamfered jambs; the label has been trimmed back. Internally all members are chamfered; at springing level on either side is a small demi-figure with long hair and bonnet and holding a spray.

The lower part of the N. wall has exposed rubble incorporating an aumbry at the E. end. The first arch of the N. arcade is two-centred, of one chamfered order and built of freestone. The E. respond and the first pier each have a chamfered cap with octagonal shaft; the respond retains part of a chamfered base and the pier has a moulded octagonal base on a square plinth. Original tooling and masons' marks like those on the piers opposite indicate an early 15th-century date. The second pier has a hollow-chamfered abacus cut off to E. and W. and with claw tooling probably of c. 1200; it has a crudely moulded cap and bold necking. The column is monolithic Roman shaft reused with a top course of fine gritstone. The second and third arches are identical, with small voussoirs and of one large chamfered order. Masons' marks identical with those in the arcade opposite suggest a date in the early 15th century, perhaps incorporating reused material. The third pier has a square abacus with octagonal capital and similar base with bold angle stops. A corbel on the W. face has a demifigure like those in the E. window (Plate 18). The pier, like that opposite, is probably of the 14th century.

The fourth pier has a circular chamfered abacus and bell cap with nail-head ornament and a bold necking. The base has two flattened rolls on a square plinth. Cap and base are in magnesian limestone and have 13th-century tooling. The fourth and fifth arches are two-centred, of two chamfered orders, the fifth arch being higher than the fourth. Both have claw tooling of Early English character and of the early 13th century contemporary with the pier. Large springing courses at the E. end of the fourth arch indicate a 14th-century modification; the fifth arch was modified at the W. end when a pier replaced the earlier W. wall. The fifth pier resembles the third. A mason's mark associates it with the pier opposite and other York work of the first half of the 15th century. The contemporary sixth arch is higher than those to the E., of two chamfered orders and with very large voussoirs which bond into the pier of the tower.

The E. respond and the first two piers of the S. arcade have square abaci with plain octagonal caps and octagonal shafts. The second pier has a moulded base set on an older plinth; it has finer detail than the first. The first and second arches have large voussoirs. The piers have masons' marks that associate them with the first pier on the N. and indicate an early 15th-century date. The third pier resembles that opposite and is probably of the 14th century; the plinth is set awkwardly on a larger and older one. The third arch is higher than those to the E.; it has very slight chamfers, stopped to the piers, of one square order and is probably of the 14th century. The fourth pier, of the late 12th century, has a square abacus, hollow-chamfered on the lower edge and swept inwards to a round necking; the whole is one piece of gritstone. The top course and the three lowest courses are of brown gritstone with haphazard tooling; the other courses are of magnesian limestone finely axed. There is a round water-holding base and a bold oblong plinth projecting to N. and S. The fourth and fifth arches, like the third, are each of one square order with a slight chamfer. The fifth pier and fifth arch resemble those opposite but a straight joint on the N. side suggests that the arch is earlier than the pier of the tower.

The North Aisle (13½ ft. wide) (Plate 96) has an E. wall with large blocks of ashlar below and smaller, less regular pieces above. The first bay of the N. wall is similar with a chamfered plinth. The E. window of c. 1340 has three ogee-headed trefoiled lights and reticulated tracery. A similar window in the first bay of the N. wall had the head cut off, presumably when the present 15th-century roof replaced an earlier one running N. and S. To N. of the E. window externally is a small niche with four-centred head, blocked with brick before 1908. The second, third and fourth bays each have a window of three cinque-foiled lights under a square head; the window in the fifth bay is of two lights. Much of the walling is restored but the masonry with large blocks at the base and a chamfered plinth is original, of the 15th century. W. of the fifth bay is a 15th-century three-stage buttress with oversailing plinth. The sixth bay is of ashlar in small blocks with a two-centred doorway, probably inserted as there is brick on either side. The seventh bay sets back at a straight joint; the base is of large ashlar with very fine joints, the upper part of brick. The W. wall is of good magnesian limestone and has a boldly moulded plinth. The W. window has three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery. The South Aisle (15 ft. to 16 ft. wide) has an E. wall of the 14th century incorporating some very large blocks of magnesian limestone at the base. The heavily restored E. window has three trefoiled lights and reticulated tracery. The S. wall was entirely rebuilt in 1867. The present S. doorway in the sixth bay was formerly between the second and third windows; it was widened in 1908. It is of the 13th century, and has a two-centred head and continuous reveals with a band of nail-head ornament between two rolls. Much mediaeval stone, including many coffin lids, was used in the rebuild. A modern porch and vestry mask the sixth and seventh bays. The W. wall is of one build with the rest of the W. end; the three-light window has vertical tracery. At the S. end internally is a small oblong opening with chamfered reveals; beyond is an archway with a four-centred head. High up in the wall is another small opening like the first. All three were probably associated with the cell of the anchoress mentioned in 1430.

The Tower (10 ft. square) (Plate 11) is of three stages surmounted by a spire, in all 120 ft. high. The two-centred tower arch of two chamfered orders springs without capitals from two octagonal piers (Plate 95). The lower N. and S. arches of two hollow-chamfered orders merge into the piers; on the W. sides the inner orders form responds with square bases and bold stops. A doorway with chamfered reveals at the N. end of the W. wall leads to a newel stair, which is corbelled out above. Outside, above the W. window, is a small niche, now with ogee trefoiled head, but originally a two-light window. The second stage is octagonal with weathered angles and a two-light window of 15th-century type in each of the cardinal faces. The third stage, also octagonal, has a tall two-light transomed window in each cardinal face. Above the third stage is an openwork parapet with three lights to each side. The octagonal spire is of ashlar with the window heads and mullions largely renewed.

The timber Roofs of the chancel and chancel aisles (Plate 97) are each of five bays. The trusses have moulded principals with collars and hammer beams, with arched braces between. The hammer beams are carved as figures of angels (Plate 43). There is a moulded collar purlin and a single moulded purlin on each side. There are carved bosses under the collar and side purlins; the arched braces of the chancel have foliated spandrels. The chancel roof timbers are heavier than those of the aisles and in general the carvings in the N. aisle are better than those in the chancel; those in the S. aisle are rather crude. The angels are generally represented winged and with flowing hair. They are shown playing musical instruments or holding emblems or, in three instances, a church or shrine. Many of the wings and other details are missing or damaged. The bosses include human and animal heads, grotesques, and foliage. The two E. bosses in the centre of the chancel portray Christ, bearded, with head dress and a cord round the brow, and an angel holding a shield with the arms of Gilliot.

The N. aisle of the nave is covered with a barrel vault of plaster with 19th-century cased ties forming four bays. Above the N. nave arcade three stone corbels, wall posts and a chamfered wall plate of the mediaeval roof remain; the wall plate stops short over the fifth post from the E., where the original nave ended.

Fittings—Aumbry: in chancel in N. wall, with two trefoiled openings under square head, mediaeval. The church plan of 1866 (Shaw, opp. 14) shows two other aumbries, both in N. aisle: at E. end of the N. wall, and under third N. window where an altar of St. Thomas the Martyr stood.

Bells: three; (1) 'Soli Deo Gloria 1640', (2) 'God send vs all the blisse of heaven Anno D(omi)ni 1627', both probably by William Oldfield; (3) small sanctus bell with 'ihc' (G. Benson, The Bells of the Ancient Churches of York (1885), 10). Benefactors' Tables: two, both in N. aisle, on N. wall, large panels with round pediments and bold moulded frames; entries now indecipherable but see Shaw, 70–1, (1) to E., probably made 1764 ('Painting and Lettering new Benefaction Table ...' with a reference to Widow Wade's gift—Church Wardens' Accounts in Shaw, 69), (2) to W., perhaps made in 1764, relettered in 1804, among gifts recorded is Samuel Harsnett, Archbishop of York, 1630, silver chalice and cover with his Arms (see Plate). Bracket: on N. arcade, on W. of third pier, supported on small figure with close-fitting tunic and tonsure, 14th-century.

Brasses and Indents. Brasses: in S. aisle of chancel, (1) rectangular plate (Plate 36) with inscription in black letter 'Orate sp(ec)ialiter pro a(n)i(m)abus Will(el)mi Stokton et Rob(er)ti Colynson quondam maior(um) ciuitatis Ebor. & Isabelle vxoris eoru(n)dem quor(um)a(n)i(m)ab(us) propicietur deus Amen' (William Stockton, Lord Mayor 1446, d. 1471; married secondly Isabella, widow of Robert Colynson, Lord Mayor 1457, d. 1458); set in large freestone slab commemorating John Wardall; W. of (1) at entrance to aisle, (2) (Plate 27) oblong plate inscribed 'Oret q(ui)sq(ue) speciali(ter) p(er)t(ra)nsie(n)s p(ro)a(n)i(m)ab(us) Tho(m)e Clerk quo(n)da(m) cl(er)ici ciuitatis Ebor. & toci(us) com(munitatis) & Margar(e)te vx(oris) q(u)i obieru(n)t xvj dieb(us) ffebr. & Marcij A(nn)o do(min)i Moccccolxxxijo q(u)or(um) a(n)i(m)ab(us) p(ro)piciet(ur) d(eu)s Amen' (Thomas Clerk, clericus, free 1449; Freemen, 1, 170), and Evangelists' symbols (N.E. for St. Mark missing), set in small marble slab. On same slab, indent for brass (3) Thomas Atkinson, 1642, now fixed on wall of N. aisle (Plate 35), lettered in capitals and also inscribed 'Vixi dum volui, volui dum Christe volebas. Mortuus et vivus sum moriorq(ue) tuus' (Thomas, tanner, son of Henry Atkinson, tanner, 1589; Freemen, ii, 32). In S. aisle, on S. wall, (4) large oblong plate (Plate 35) with shield-of-arms of Askwith differenced with a crescent and inscription to Thomas Askwith (Sheriff 1592), 1609, and wife Anne; below (4), (5) oblong plate, Charles Towneley, 1712 (Plate 36). Indents: in N. aisle, (1) oblong, in grey marble; (2) small, in tapered coffin lid of freestone; W. of (2), (3) similar, in coffin lid; at entrance to chancel, (4) in marble slab, and (5) oblong, in worn stone; in S. aisle (6) for figure and inscription plate together, in marble slab.

Chairs: three; (1) with straight back with two shaped and carved horizontal members, turned front legs and rail, 17th-century; (2) similar but broader and heavier, probably reproduction; (3) (Plate 44), early 18th-century. Chest (of drawers): in S. aisle, of oak, with two drawers above two recesses with fielded-panelled doors and all with contemporary brass handles, late 18th-century. Coffins and Coffin Lids (see also Brasses and Indents, Indents (2) and (3)): In N. chancel aisle, (1) freestone, tapered, with incised cross, 14th-century (perhaps of Margaret Etton (1391) or William Meburn (1394), both of whom wished to be buried before altar of Blessed Virgin Mary. In S. aisle, at E. end, (2) freestone, with incised foliated cross and a chalice below. In tower, against W. wall, (3) thick lid with foliated cross and multi-stepped base; (4) with foliated cross (Plate 27), 13th-century. In porch, (5) top of small freestone lid with foliated cross; (6) part of lid with large foliated cross in relief in round recess; (7) complete lid with simple cross, hatchet by cross shaft; (8) part of decayed lid with foliated cross; (9) upper part of lid with simple foliated cross; (10) lid with two crosses, bow and arrow under one and sword under other. Lids (5), (10) found in S. wall in 1867. Outside, (11)–(15) built into S. wall; W. of fourth window, (11) lower part of cross with stepped foot; under fourth window, (12) part of cross; under same window and to W., (13) part of lid with stepped bottom foot to cross; near E. side of fifth window, (14) piece of coffin lid with black letter inscription; under same window, (15) incised shaft of cross; built into S. wall of porch, (16) stone with part of one incised cross shaft; to W. of church, (17) stone coffin, tapered and with shaping for head, lidless; all 13th or 14th-century. Font: plain octagonal bowl curving inwards to octagonal shaft resting on moulded base, bowl with mediaeval tooling, shaft and plinth with modern tooling, base perhaps reused 15th-century capital, steps and cover modern.

Glass (fn. 3) (described from sill of window upwards and from spectator's left to right in each range of panels): In chancel, E. window, I (Plate 98), Lower range, (a) kneeling figures of Nicholas Blackburn junior (Lord Mayor 1429, d. 1448) and his wife Margaret (d. 1454) beneath shields bearing letter 'B' and arms of Blackburn differenced with mullet; (b) seated Trinity; (c) kneeling figures of Nicholas Blackburn senior (Lord Mayor 1412, d. 1432) and his wife Margaret (d. 1435), beneath shields bearing 'B' and arms of Blackburn. Inscriptions in part original but greatly falsified in 1844. Main range, glass mostly original, (a) St. John Baptist (Plate 104) bearing Agnus Dei on book; (b) St. Anne (Frontispiece), teaching the Virgin to read in a book inscribed 'D(omi)ne exaudi or(ati)onem mea(m) aurib(us) p(er)cipe ob(secre)ti(onem meam)' (Psalm cxliii, 1); (c) St. Christopher (Plate 104), bearing the Infant Christ, round his head a scroll inscribed 'Cristofori d(omi)n(u)s sedeo qui crimina tollo'. Glass originally in second window in N. wall; date probably between 1412 and 1428; moved by 1846, restored in 1844 by Wailes of Newcastle, who supplied in new glass most of lower part of window and all tracery lights; cleaned and releaded 1966.

In N. Aisle, E. window, II (Plate 99). Lower range: (a) Annunciation (Plate 102), much restored; (b) Nativity, much restored; (c) Christ rising from the tomb, angel and soldiers original. Upper range: (a) Adoration of the Magi, largely original; (b) Crucifixion, restored except for figure of St. John; (c) Coronation of the Virgin, largely original (Plate 102); tall canopies at heads of main lights, including geometrical traceries, and borders largely of old glass (Plate 107); tracery lights almost entirely 19th-century but some of background of oak leaves and part of figure of St. Michael in topmost light original. Glass originally in E. window of chancel, dating from c. 1320–40, the earliest in the church, moved to present position by 1846, restored 1844 by Wailes, releaded 1877, cleaned 1967.

N. wall, first window from E., III (Plate 98). At base of each light a panel containing three kneeling figures of donors, all looking to E.; inscriptions now lost formerly recorded the names of Roger Henrison of Ulleskelf, freeman, 1401, and Abel de Hesyl, living in parish in 1327 (YASRS, lxxiv (1929), 168), chamberlain 1329–30, and bailiff 1336–7 (YASRS, lxxxiii (1932), 192). Above, portrayal in individual panels (from l to r, upwards) of the signs of the end of the world as narrated in the 14th-century poem, 'The Pricke of Conscience' (ed. R. Morris (Berlin, 1863), 129–31), though the inscriptions beneath the panels differ from the text (restorations below from Henry Johnston's (fn. 4) record of the window in 1670): (1) Rising of the Sea, '[Ye first day fourty] cubetes [certain Ye see sall] ryse vp [abowen ilka mountayne]'; (2) Subsiding of the Sea, 'Ye seconde day ye see sall be so lawe [uneth] men sall it cee'; (3) The Waters return to their former level, 'Ye iij day yt sall be playne And stand as yt was agayne'; (4) Fishes rise out of the Sea (Plate 108), '[Ye fforth day] fisches sal mak[e a roring Hideus & hevy] to mannes [heryng]'; (5) The Sea on fire, 'Ye fift day ye sea sall bryn And all ye waters that my ryn'; (6) Bloody dew on Trees, 'Ye sext day sall [herbes &] trees Wyth blody dropes ... grysely bees'; (7) Earthquakes (Plate 108), 'Ye seventh day howses mon fall Castels and towres and ilk a wall'; (8) Rocks and stones consumed, '[Ye viij day] ye roches & stanes [Sall bryn] togeder all at anes'; (9) Earth noises everywhere, '[Ye ix day] erth dyn [sall be Severally in ilk [contry]'; (10) Earth level again, '[Ye tende day for [to] neven Erthe sall be playne & even'; (11) Men come out of holes, '[Ye xj day] sall men come owte [Of their] holes & wende a bowte'; (12) Dead men's bones arise, 'Ye xij day sal dede mens banes Be sumen sett & ryse all at anes'; (13) Stars fall from Heaven (Plate 103) 'Ye thirtend day suthe sall Stevyns fra the heuen fall'; (14) Death of all living (Plate 103) 'Ye xiiij day all yat liues yan Sall dy bathe chylde man & woman;' (15) Universal Fire, 'Ye xv day yus sall betyde Ye werlde sall bryn on ilk a syde'. In the Tracery lights: (W.) reception of the Blessed by St. Peter; (E.) damned dragged by demons into hell; in topmost light, fragments of seated Majesty recorded in 1670. Glass in original position, almost certainly by John Thornton of Coventry, and donors' names suggest early 15th-century; restored 1861 by J. W. Knowles of York, releaded 1877, cleaned 1966.

N. wall, second Window, IV (Plate 109). At base, in E. and W. lights, panels showing donors, the former in 1670 in a S. window (? second), the latter of Reginald Bawtre (d. 1429) formerly in next window W.; in middle light, two shallow arches, presumably from original canopies (see below). In main panels, six of the Corporal Acts of Mercy (Plates 111–13). In lower range: (1) Clothing the Naked; (2) Visiting the Sick; (3) Relieving those in Prison. In upper range: (4) Feeding the Hungry; (5) Giving drink to the Thirsty; (6) Entertaining the Stranger. Main Canopies, not belonging, perhaps slightly later than main panels (Plate 107). Glass (excepting main canopies) originally in fifth N. window, of two lights, implying three panels in each light; probably dating from between 1410 and 1435; former arrangement included figure of Nicholas Blackburn and undifferenced arms of Blackburn, probably indicative of memorial to the father of Nicholas Blackburn senior (d. 1432), namely Nicholas Blackburn of Richmond, senior, freeman, 1396. Present arrangement of 1846 or earlier, when presumably canopies were changed for height; restored by J. W. Knowles 1861, releaded 1877 and 1966.

N. wall, third Window, V (Plate 100). Three large figures: St. Thomas the Apostle, with scroll inscribed 'D(omi)n(u)s meus et deus meus'; Christ bearing cross-staff with pennon, with scroll inscribed 'Thoma [ten]dite manu(m) manu(m) i(n) latus meu(m) qui no(n) viderunt'; archbishop, probably St. Thomas of Canterbury, whose altar was in this bay in 1407. Borders include niches containing small figures of prophets (Plate 110); canopies with pinnacled turrets with pairs of figures. Reginald Bawtre (see foregoing) bequeathed £5 in 1429 (Shaw, 90). Glass releaded 1877; after exchanges, figures restored to original positions during cleaning and releading 1966.

N. wall, fourth Window, VI. In lowest range: arms of (1) John Alcock (1430–1500), bishop of Ely; (2) France Modern and England quarterly, mutilated and remodelled; (3) Beauchamp. In middle range: (4), (6) roundels; (5) arms perhaps of Percy, inserted 1966 (in E. window of chancel in 1659: BM, Lansdowne MS. 919, f. 14v.). In top range: arms of (7) Luttrell (?); (8) (unidentified 1); (9) (unidentified 2)—(8), (9) said to have come from Winchester. Some patterned background quarries and canopies, 15th-century. All of plain glass in 1730 (Gent, 163); by 1877, when releaded, containing heraldry from E. window of N. aisle, transfer having probably been made c. 1845 at restoration by Wailes; again releaded and extensively rearranged 1966.

N. wall, fifth window, VII. In main lights, tops only of elaborate canopies, 15th-century (for rest of original glass, see N. wall, second window, IV).

In S. Aisle, E. Window, VIII (Plate 99). Glass including remains of original glazing, c. 1340, drastically restored by Wailes 1844. Lower range: (1) female donor; (2) the Agony, Christ kneeling before the Cup; (3) female donor. Upper range: (4) St. Mary; (5) Crucifixion; (6) St. John. The main panels set in background of quarries within wide borders, an unusually early example of such treatment; middle light with border of castles and cups, and outer lights with vine scrolls; quarries, some original, with oak sprays. Medallions containing angels and grotesque figures playing musical instruments in upper parts of main lights and in tracery.

S. wall, first window, IX (Plate 100). At foot, in side lights, groups of kneeling donors: E., priest, civilian and woman, scroll inscribed 'libera nos' and, over the second, a shield with 'R' impaling a bend, recorded in 17th century as James Baguley, Rector (1413–40), and Robert Chapman (Free, 1423) and wife (the arms of Baguley of Baguley survived in 1659); W., woman between two men. In main lights: (1) St. Michael in plate armour, with scroll inscribed 'laudantes a(n)i(m)as suscipe [san]cta Trinitas'; face stolen 1842 and replaced in plain glass; (2) arms of Whytehead, perhaps old, reset 1861; (3) St. John the Evangelist (Plate 105) in richly embroidered garment powdered with letters 'J' and 'M', with scroll inscribed 'benedictus sit sermo oris tui'. Borders and canopies of side lights original. Probably the original glazing of 1425–40 (between 1846 and 1966 the figure of St. Michael was in E. light of the third N. window); restored by J. W. Knowles 1861, at expense of rector Robert Whytehead, cleaned, releaded 1965–6. (At base of window inscription recording the work of 1861.)

S. wall, second window, X. The original glazing was probably that now in the fourth S. window and two groups of donors below; of the latter that from the E. light is now in the E. light of the second N. window; in the W. light the group included a man and two women with an inscription to Richard Killingholme (Free 1397, d. 1451) and wives Joan (d. 1436) and Margaret (see Floor Slabs (15)).

S. wall, third window, XI. The Nine Orders of Angels (Plates 101, 106). (The following description starts from the top and reads from left to right, range by range, downwards.) In cusped head of each light, three square quarries set diagonally and each within a sun. Top range: (i) Seraph leading archbishop, cardinal and bishop, inscribed above '[Sera]phyn amore [arden]tes [et d(eum circumamb)ulantes];' (ii) Cherub holding book leading doctors and clerks, inscribed above '[Cherubyn (jus)] scient[es] et recte dispone[n]tes'; (iii) Throne leading group of civilians in enriched and furred robes, formerly inscribed '[Throni......sub (iugan)tes]'. Middle range: (iv) Domination bearing sword leading emperor, king and pope, inscribed above 'D(omi)nac(i)ones humilit(er)d(omi)nant[es et b]enigne castiga(ntes)'; (v) Principality bearing cross and sceptre, leading noblemen and bishop, inscribed above '[Principatus] bonis succure(n)tes p[ro in] ferio[ribus o]r[dinantes]'; (vi) Power, in plate armour and holding staff bearing banner of the sun, leading group of clergy(?) and a woman, inscribed above '[Pote]stat[es (e celo) egre]dientes [malignos succumbentes]'. Lowest range: (vii) Virtue bearing spear, leading group of well-dressed men and a woman, inscribed above '[Virt]utes [(mira)cula fa(cientes deum)ita] reuelantes'; (viii) Archangel in cap and holding trumpet, leading group of men, one of whom bears a metal-shod spade, inscribed above '[Archangeli mortales (om)nes] deo [(conducen)tes]'; (ix) Angel in deacon's robe and holding staff, leading three men, one wearing glasses, two women and child, inscribed above '[Angeli] mestos consolantes [diu]ina [annunciantes]'. Such of the glass as is ancient is part of the original glazing of this window; it was complete, apart from slight damage to inscriptions, when drawn by Henry Johnston (p. xxxii) in 1670 (Bodleian, MS. Top. Yorks. C14, f. 96) (Plate 101) and still recognizable in 1730 (Gent, 163). Serious damage occurred later (Plate 30). In 1965 the glass was releaded and restored according to Johnston's drawing.

S. wall, fourth window, XII. In main range, under original canopies (Plate 107): (i) St. James (?), wearing skin robe, head by Wailes; (ii) Crowned Virgin, standing with Child (for border figure see Plate 110); (iii) Mass of St. Gregory (Plate 105); the saint, shown as archbishop with nimbus, holds the Host and adores the half-length figure of Christ emerging from the tomb, on missal quotation from Canon 'Simili modo p(os)tquam cenatum est accipiens et hunc p(re)clarum' and on scroll proceeding from head of Christ 'Accipe hoc care me(us) p(ro) qui(bus)cu(mqu)e pecieris impetrabis'. Glass of c. 1440 originally in second S. window but by 1730 moved to fifth S. window. Cleaned, rearranged and releaded, and many fragments from other windows incorporated to fill lower parts, 1966.

Images: In N. aisle: (1) in fine white limestone, head and shoulders of woman (Plate 39) with traces of blue paint on undergarment and red on outer garment, perhaps 15th-century; (2) Nottingham alabaster carving of Resurrection (Plate 39) with traces of gilding and red paint, 15th-century, set in 19th-century wooden frame; (3) priest pouring wine into chalice, carved oak figure with traces of colour, probably mediaeval, face decayed; (4) King David (Plate 42), carved in soft wood, heavily stained, possibly from 18th-century reredos; (5) St. Lucy (?), figure of woman with sword through throat, much restored.

Inscriptions and Scratchings: for masons' marks, see Fig. 6, p. v. Lord Mayors' Table, in N. aisle long panel with square panel above, both with moulded frames and, at top, third square panel with round pediment, with two maces in saltire and 'G.R.', in top panel and below in oval frames arms of York and following names: Chas. Parrot, Lord Mayor 1723; Thos. Kilby, Lord Mayor 1784; Ino. Kilby 1804; Sir Ino. Simpson, Lord Mayor 1836.

Monuments and Floor slabs. Monuments: on S. wall, between third and fourth windows: (1) John Etty, 1707/8, carved cartouche (Plate 32), inscription, scarcely legible, recorded as 'Nigh to this lyeth John Etty, Carpenter, who By the strength of his own genius and application had acquired great knowledge of Mathematicks especially Geometry and Architecture in all its parts, far beyond any of his Contemporaries in this City, who died the 28th of Jan. 1709 Aged 75. His Art was great, his Industry no less What one projected, th'other brought to pass'. (Etty was buried 30 January 1708); between fourth and fifth windows: (2) Margaret Pennington, 1753, freestone tablet. Floor slabs: all of freestone except where otherwise stated. In N. aisle: (1) Joan Stoddart, 1599, inscribed in ligatured capitals; James, son of Thomas Pennyman, D.D., 1699, Esther, wife, 1745, on same slab in script; and 'Iohn Stoddart· clerke / Parson · of · this Rectory · induct here of Marche 1593' in small incised compartment in lower corner; (2) Joshua Witton, 1674, black marble, with arms of Witton impaling Thornton (Plate 36); (3) Richard Wilson, 1742, Elizabeth, widow, 1766; (4) John Rothum, 1390 (will proved 1 May 1390; Shaw, 45); (5) '[Orate] p(ro) a(n)i(m)a Will(el)mi L[on]disdall de [Ebor tanner et pro animabus El]ene et Alicie uxor(um) ei(us) a(nn)o d(omi)ni MoCCCCo [lxxx] septemo', slab in four pieces (William Lonesdale, barker, Free 1454 (Freemen, 1, 175); will proved 4 March 1487/8 (Wills, vol. v, f. 325)); (6) 'Orate pro a(n)i(m)a Ioh(ann)is de Coupland civis et tannator' (John Coupeland, barker, Free 1425 (Freemen, 1, 138); will proved 8 June 1469 (Wills, vol. iv, f. 135)); (7) Ann Dawson, 1730, Ann Pick and Susannah Cass, 1780, granddaughters; (8) 'D.D.', small stone with large initials. In nave: (9) Mary Mason, 1718/19; (10) Mary Milner, 1783, George, husband, 1789. In S. aisle: (11) Thomas de Kyllyngwyke (Free 1360; living 1381) and wife Juliana, upper half of fine slab with intricate cross-head and part of shaft, black-letter inscription 'hic · iacent · thomas · de [K]yllyngwke · quondam [ci]uis ebor · et Juliana uxor eiusde(m) q(uo)r(um) a(n)imab(us) p(ro)picie(tur) d(eu)s am(en)'; slab palimpsest, on under side a fulling-bat and some shears (Shaw, 45); (12) John de Wardalle (John de Weredale, barker, Free 1355 (Freemen, 1, 50); will proved 30 Dec. 1395 (Wills, vol. 1, f. 90); (13) Anna Clarke, 1795, John, husband, 1800; (14) John Bawtrie [1411] (succentor to the Vicars Choral 1388 (Shaw, 44); will proved 24 April 1411 (Wills, Dean and Chapter, vol. 1, f. 157. Minster Library)); (15) Richard de Killingholme and Joan, Margaret his wives (his will proved 11 June 1451 (Wills, vol. ii, f. 223), black-letter inscription, now mostly indecipherable, 'Orate pro animabus Ricardi Killingholme et Johanne et Margarite uxorum eius' (Shaw, 47); (16) Sarah Grainger, 1825, William, husband, 1830; (17) Elizabeth Harrison, 1772, Alexander and Richard, sons; (18) Susannah Clarke, 1788, Sarah Clarke, 1792; (19) Ann Harrison, relict of James, 1792; (20) Elizabeth Harrison, 1762, James Harrison, 1771.

Plate includes: cup given by Samuel Harsnett, Archbishop of York, 1630, and stand paten, with arms of See of York impaling Harsnett (Plate 37), both with York mark with date letter 'Z' in a pointed shield (1630/1) and maker's stamp 'T.W.' for Thomas Waite, goldsmith of York, Free 1613 (Freemen, 1, 62); paten with a Glory, given by William Orfeur, with York mark for 1782/3 and makers' stamp for John Hampston and John Prince, and two flagons (Plate 37), also given by William Orfeur, each with arms of Orfeur of Cumberland, York mark of 1781/2 and makers' stamp as before; alms dish, given in 1698 by Thomas Simpson (see T. M. Fallow and H. B. McCall, Yorkshire Church Plate, 1 (1912), 6–8; and Shaw, 55 et seq.).

Pulpit (Plate 38): of oak, hexagonal, panels with painted figures on pedestals in moulded panels on five sides, of Hope with anchor, Our Lady with Infant Christ for Charity, Faith holding cup, a woman, and Peace holding doves, and, on frieze, 'and how shall they preach except they be sent', on lower base member, 'Anno Dom. 1675', set on modern stone base. Reredos: between first and second N. windows, war memorial made of carved enrichment probably from early 18th-century reredos. Mr. Etty (probably William, son of the John Etty buried in 1708/9) was paid £8 in 1710 for making and setting up a reredos and Mr. Graime received 10s. 6d. for painting a dove on it (Shaw, 67); noted in 1857 as 'altar piece of oak with pilasters of the Ionic order and gilt capitals, (Sheahan and Whellan, 1, 504). Royal Arms (?): formerly at W. end, large panel with moulded frame and shaped top, destroyed c. 1962; in 1764, the king's arms were renewed and varnished (Churchwardens' Accounts, in Shaw, 69). Stall: one only remaining, misericorde (Plate 19) carved with pelican in piety flanked, on left, by letters 'GIM', for John Gilyot, Master (of Arts), on right, by arms of Gilliot, probably presented by John Gilyot, rector 1467–72/3. Stoup: by N. tower pier small round stoup on square block. Tables of the Creed etc.: In N. aisle E. wall, (1) Commandments, in existence c. 1730, but battlementing probably c. 1860. In S. aisle, W. wall, (2) Creed and Lord's Prayer, similar to (1).

Tiles: with impressed patterns and dark brown, yellow and green glazes, mediaeval, found 1867, said to be in Yorkshire Museum (Shaw, 16). Wand: of mahogany with silver head and silver band. Weather-vane (Plate 92): on spire, elongated cock cut from flat brass sheet, with open beak, flared tail and applied eye; payment to churchwardens, 1759, for 'brass weathercock, Flemish brass for the same, gilding same' (Shaw, 69). Miscellanea: Stones—by N. tower pier, (i) voussoir with chevron and paterae on under-surface, perhaps from chancel arch or arcade c. 1150; (ii) large moulded voussoir, late 13th-century; (iii) large nook-shaft capital, 13th-century; (iv) piece of window tracery with cusp. Table, small, frame and top of soft wood, mainly 17th-century, with two consoles, early 18th-century, and some tracery, possibly mediaeval.

Church of the Holy Redeemer, Boroughbridge Road. This church of 1962–4 includes re-erected parts of the structure of the demolished church of St. Mary Bishophill Senior, q.v.

(5) Parish (former Priory) Church of Holy Trinity (Plates 12, 117), stands on the S. side of a large churchyard, the mediaeval layfolks' cemetery, fronting on Micklegate. The mediaeval walls are of brownish limestone, white magnesian limestone, and a little gritstone; the post-mediaeval walls are of dressed ashlar, with some brick; the roofs are of modern tiles and Welsh slates.

In c. 1090–1100 Ralph Paynel gave to the Benedictine Abbey of Marmoutier, near Tours, the church of Holy Trinity in York together with other properties which had belonged to a wealthy pre-Conquest minster of canons (EYC, vi, 66–9). The Domesday entries show that this minster had been known as Christ Church (VCH, Yorkshire, ii, 192, 274). Of this minster there are no remains in situ, but the 11th-century architectural fragment (see Fittings, Architectural Fragments (1)) interpreted as part of a tympanum indicates a building of distinction. A church with short choir, partly recovered by excavation, aisleless transepts and nave, was built soon after the founding of the priory; only the two western piers of the Crossing and the N.W. angle of the Nave remain. A fire on 4 June 1137 destroyed the Minster, St. Mary's Abbey, 39 parish churches and 'Holy Trinity in the Suburbs' (YAJ, xli (1965), 367). The rebuilt church had an aisled eastern arm of five bays, a crossing of c. 1180, a N. transept with aisles on both sides and an aisled nave of five bays. By c. 1210 the W. end was remodelled, at least in the lower part, in the Gothic style, but completion of the upper parts and of the nave aisles was delayed, and gifts of oaks between 1235 and 1255 indicate the period of construction of the roofs (CCR, 1234–7, 315, 432; 1237–42, 264; 1251–3, 270; 1254–6, 140). The 'new chancel' mentioned in wills of 1459 and 1466 (Raine, 227–8) may have had relevance to the serious decay noted in 1446 when the priory was exempted from taxation on the grounds of poverty (CPR, 1446–52, 69).


Fig. 26. (5) Church of the Holy Trinity.

Pastoral duties presumably formed part of the pre-Conquest church of Christ Church and these would normally have passed to the priory, the laity enjoying certain rights in the nave of the new church. A survey of c. 1225 speaks of the 'parochia sancte Trinitatis' (PRO, E.135/25/1), the designation used in the taxations of 1327 and 1381. In 1304 Gilbert de Gaudibus, priest, was inducted to the vicarage of the altar of St. Nicholas in the church of Holy Trinity, and in 1402 William Byrsgrefe and his wife, Alice, asked to be buried in St. Nicholas, before the altar of St. Thomas. A chantry founded by Thomas Nelson at the same altar in 1474 is stated to be in Holy Trinity Priory (Drake, 264). Documents of 1452 and 1455 describe the parish church of St. Nicholas as adjoining ('iuxta') or annexed to the priory. In 1453 the parishioners of St. Nicholas had permission to set up their steeple upon the gable on the N. side of the priory church (SS, lvii (1871–2), 273).

In 1537 when Miles Walshforth was presented to the Nelson chantry it is described as being 'in the late conventual church of Holy Trinity' (J. Solloway, The Alien Benedictines of York (1910), 315), but in the Chantry Survey of 1548 he is shown holding the preferment in the church of St. Nicholas.

In 1543 Leonard Beckwith was confirmed in his possession of the priory. On 15 February 1551/2 a gale brought down the central tower and the fall probably reduced the choir to ruins and damaged the clerestory and triforium of the nave. In 1564–6 stones were taken from the 'defaced walls' for the repair of Ouse Bridge (YCR, vi, 73, 116) and in 1603 for repair of the city walls (YCA, c. vol. ii, ff. 69–72). By that date the nave aisles had become ruinous and blocking walls had been built in the arcades. In 1722 a vestry was built in the W. bay of the nave. The roof was ceiled in 1732 and a gallery built in 1755–6. Further alterations were made in 1829 (Lawton, 18; Faculty 1829/2 Borthwick Inst.).

Major restorations began in 1850 (Yorkshire Gazette, 10 Aug. 1850), when a new South Aisle was built and the church as a whole was repaired and refurnished by J. B. and W. Atkinson. A new Chancel and Vestry were built in 1886–7 by Charles Fisher and William Hepper, in 1894 a pinewood reredos designed by C. Hodgson Fowler and carved by G. W. Milburn was set up, and in 1898 an original lancet window in the W. wall of the N. aisle was reopened. In 1902–5, the nave ceiling was removed, the W. gallery taken down, and the W. bay of the nave rebuilt, the S. aisle being extended to correspond. On the N. a Porch was erected, partly on the old foundations of the N. aisle. The architect for these works was C. Hodgson Fowler. (T. Stapleton, 'Holy Trinity Priory, York', Archaeological Institute at York, 1846, Procs. (1848), 1–231; J. Solloway, op. cit.).

The main gatehouse of the priory was erected during the 13th century at the entrance from Micklegate to Priory Street. The last survivor of the monastic buildings, it was demolished in 1854, but scale drawings were made (Fig. 27).


Fig. 27. (5) Gatehouse (now destroyed) of the former Priory of Holy Trinity.

Architectural Description—The Eastern Arm of the conventual church (91 ft. by 57½ ft.) was aisled, of five bays with a square E. end, and was paved with small red tiles. The S. arcade was excavated by W. H. Brook in 1899, and pier bases consisting of diagonally placed squares with chamfered angles were disclosed about 4½ ft. below present ground level. The piers were probably square with a large half-shaft on each face, for sections of a respond of this type were found, the shaft having a simple roll necking. Between the second and third bases from the E. was a mass of stone, perhaps the base of the sedilia.

The bottom courses of the S. wall of the S. aisle exist for much of the length and include good magnesian limestone ashlar in large blocks. There was an original doorway in the third bay. The wall is probably of the second half of the 12th century and has fine diagonal tooling. There is little evidence of buttresses.

The Transepts have disappeared, but excavations by W.H. Brook in 1905 proved that the N. transept was of two bays with E. and W. aisles. The S. respond of the W. arcade (Plate 120) is semi-octagonal, with moulded cap and base like those of the nave piers; the white magnesian limestone contrasts with the older work in buff limestone. There is no evidence for the plan of the S. transept, but it is unlikely to have had a W. aisle since the opening from the S. aisle of the nave has a straight face against the S.W. pier of the crossing. The cloister lay on this side of the church.


Fig. 28. (5) Church of the Holy Trinity. North arcade with reconstruction of Triforium and Clearstorey (cf. Plate 118). Masonry with joints shown by broken lines no longer exists.

The two W. piers of the Crossing (24 ft. square) remain intact up to the springing of the arches; the similar E. piers were destroyed when the present chancel was built in 1887. The piers have twin half-shafts to the transept arches; the original bases had small spurs at the angles. The piers have plain surfaces to the W. arch of the crossing and semi-octagonal responds to the nave arcades. The N.W. pier is of good limestone ashlar with fine diagonal tooling where not rechiselled. The S.W. pier is similar but almost entirely rechiselled; on the S. side the late 12th-century respond is bonded and shares the same chamfered plinth. This last runs into the straight face of the opening from the S. aisle into the transept. Some stones just above the level of the pavement may belong to the footings of the early aisleless church.

The Nave (Plates 12, 118, 119) (82 ft. by 27 ft.) is of five bays, with heavy Transitional arcades, octagonal piers and two-centred arches of three chamfered orders. The piers have simple hollow-chamfered abaci, bell caps with roll necking, water-holding bases mostly renewed and chamfered plinths. On the N. side of the third pier is a moulded corbel, contemporary with the cap. The N.W. respond leans outwards, but is coursed through into the W. wall; a jagged line to the S. may indicate insertion. Above each pier of both arcades, internally, is an attached triple vaulting shaft; horizontally above the apices of the arches runs a moulded string which returns round the vaulting shafts.

The only part of the nave standing to its original height is the westernmost bay on the N. side. Here the triforium of the early 13th century shows within the church, having an arcade of three blind lancets with chamfered heads and round shafts with moulded caps and bases (Plate 118). This stage has externally seven similar niches, forming the wall arcading of a room built above the aisle. Above the triforium stage internally is a moulded string carried round the vaulting shafts. The clerestory, visible above the roof, has three arches with two-centred heads and chamfered reveals, the central arch opening to a window, the other two arches blind. There was a clerestory passage internally, and on the outer face a section of moulded water-table survives. The contemporary relieving arches in the two W. bays of the N. side of the nave probably formed part of the construction of the room over the N. aisle. (Fig. 28).

The N. wall has battlements of post-Dissolution date above a string, and at the E. end, an original external string at abacus level, returning on to the transept. In the blocking of each of the three E. bays is a modern three-light window.

The W. wall of the nave is mostly modern, but retains the N. jamb of the W. doorway and the corner pilaster buttresses of the N.W. angle. The N. buttress displays a trefoiled gabled niche, the moulded caps having nail-head ornament. The W. buttress has, above a string, two gabled niches divided by a shaft; on the gables and finials is dog-tooth enrichment; the top of the buttress was heightened at a later period, perhaps when the tower was built in 1453.

The masonry of the Porch (14½ ft. by 13 ft.) is modern, with a window of c. 1829 from the vestry reset in the E. wall. The N. doorway (Plate 15), on the site of an original opening, incorporates some old features reset. The two-centred head has a label with carved stops and is of three orders of which the innermost is original. Two filleted shafts with moulded caps and bases flank a band of nail-head ornament. The outer orders have round shafts with moulded caps and bases supporting a deeply moulded arch with dog-tooth ornament at the angle between the two orders. An original cap survives on the E. side, and a base on the W.

St. Nicholas Chapel (13½ ft. by 12½ ft.) (Plate 118), is contained in the western bay of the N. aisle, beneath the tower; the E. wall is of 1453. The early 13th-century N. wall, of large blocks of ashlar with claw tooling, has an original lancet with moulded label bearing flower stops externally. The window head has an inner chamfered order, which is continuous, and an outer order chamfered and supported on round shafts with moulded caps and bases similar to those of the N. doorway. The aisle wall has an external chamfered plinth and a string course below the lancet. On the inside of the W. wall a straight joint indicates the corner of the original pilaster buttress. The wall, which is of good ashlar up to the sloping line representing the former aisle roof, has a chamfered plinth and a double-chamfered string at sill level. The whole of this wall is set back some 3 ft. behind the W. front of the nave.

The Tower (14 ft. by 12½ ft.) (Plate 117), built above the W. bay of the N. aisle (St. Nicholas Chapel), incorporates the W. bay of the N. wall of the nave as its S. wall. The N. wall is built upon the early 13th-century aisle wall. Similarly the buttress at the N.E. angle is based upon the chamfered plinth of the early 13th-century buttress, but with a greater projection to N., with re-use of original facing stones (Plate 120); it is of five stages, with stop-chamfered angles in the first two stages. The W. buttress is of six stages and is 15th-century throughout. The W. wall, also constructed over the 13th-century aisle wall, has a buttress of three stages against the N. end. In the top stage of the tower, in each of the N., E. and W. walls, above a moulded string, is a round-headed window of two orders; the inner order is continuous with a chamfered reveal; the outer order is chamfered and springs from columns with moulded caps, necking and moulded bases of the 12th century, reused. There is a plain battlemented parapet.

The South Aisle (10 ft. wide) is of 1850 and modern as indicated on the plan; the 19th-century part is built of broad red brick on ashlar footings.

The Roof of the nave is of seven bays; the westernmost bay is modern, but the rest is of the 16th century incorporating 15th-century timbers. Each truss has a tie-beam, a high collar, no ridge, three purlins on either side and kerb principals up to the collar. The first and second tie-beams from the E. are moulded, with recesses for three bosses; the seventh has a central boss with a demi-angel; they belonged to a low-pitched cambered roof of the 15th century.

Fittings—Altar Stone: mediaeval, from St. John's, Micklegate, given to Holy Trinity c. 1958. Architectural Fragments: in St. Nicholas Chapel, (1) carved fragment (Plate 26), perhaps part of tympanum, with dragon in Scandinavian tradition, 11th-century (YAJ, xx, 209). In porch, (2) section of carving, perhaps from collar of composite cross, with coarse pelleted interlace, 11th-century, pre-Conquest (YAJ, xx, 208); (3) three voussoirs from a doorway, each with circular medallion of conventional acanthus, and (4), set in pier, capital with hollow-chamfered abacus and acanthus decoration, all mid 12th-century (Plate 18). Loose in church, (5) capitals, moulded stones, etc. found on Priory site, 12th to 14th-century. Bells: two; treble inscribed '1731 SS EBOR', for Samuel Smith II, founder, Chamberlain of York 1713, Sheriff 1723–4, buried in Holy Trinity 1731; tenor, undated, inscribed '+IHC+ campana: Beate: Marie: Iohannes: Potter: me fecit', 14th-century. Bell-frames, supporting tenor, part, probably 1453. Benefactors' Tables: on S. wall of vestry, (1) large wooden table in moulded frame, dated 1793; (2) similar to above, 1699. Brass: on S. aisle wall, oblong plate inscribed 'Alderman Micklethwait 1632' (Elias Micklethwait, Lord Mayor 1615, 1627), originally fixed to coffin lid (q.v. (1) below).

Chairs: in St. Nicholas Chapel, (1) oak, with turned front legs and shaped top with volutes to straight back having moulded uprights, c. 1700, (2) from St. John's, Micklegate, q.v. Chests: near pulpit, (1) of moulded panelling with some fluted enrichment, early 17th-century; in S. aisle, (2) of fielded panels with two drawers, 18th-century, inscribed 'The Gift of Lawrence and Elsie Dunphy 1951'; in St. Nicholas Chapel, (3) small, with sides narrowing to base and with rounded lid, covered with leather and with enriched metal straps, 16th to 17th-century. Coffin Lids: against W. side of N. crossing pier, (1) part only, with moulded edges and shallow roll at centre and with indents for shield-of-arms and plate (reused for Alderman Micklethwait, see Brass above), 13th-century; in E. side of porch, (2) with foliated cross, 13th-century, found in nave 1902–5; on E. wall of St. Nicholas Chapel, (3) upper part of coped slab bearing on one side a sword and on other a hafted cross and beginning of inscription 'H(i)c iace [t]', late 13th-century; in S. wall of S. aisle, (4) part only, inscribed in black letter 'Hic iacet Walterus fflos'. Door: in main N. doorway, of one leaf with central wicket, externally with mouldings in window form of six lights with rectilinear tracery, 15th-century, extensively renewed, rediscovered 1902–5 (Plate 15).

Fonts: At W. end of nave, (1) large octagonal bowl, perhaps 18th-century, set on modern shaft with cap, and 15th-century base, brought from St. Saviour's, 1953; loose at E. end of S. aisle, (2) small octagonal font fitted with modern drain, found on site of Beech House on The Mount. Font cover (Plate 28), top inscribed 'Anno Domini 1717 Richard Booth William Atkinson Church Wardens', on base 'Anno Domini 1794 Francis Hunt and Marmaduke Buckle Church Wardens', brought from St. Saviour's.

Glass: in chancel, in window at E. end of N. wall, in tracery IHS, in main lights grisaille, in side lights quatrefoils with medallions surrounded by foliage, by 'Barnett late of York' (Sheahan and Whellan, 1, 541), given by Crompton family, 1850, moved 1893. Hatchment: on S. aisle wall, under central dormer, for Joshua Crompton of York (d. 1832). Image: in St. Nicholas Chapel, of stone, set in window ledge, the Holy Trinity (Plate 9), 15th-century, bought in 1952 in Delft, Holland, and said to have come from Holy Trinity, York. Inscriptions and Scratchings: in porch, on arch in E. wall of St. Nicholas Chapel, masons' marks (Fig. 7, p. lv). Lectern: of wood, with eagle, turned stem and moulded base on eight claw feet, mid 19th-century. Lord Mayors' Table, in vestry, wooden plaque with arms of York and seven ovals containing names and dates: 1772 Charles Turner; 1773 Henry Jubb; 1802 and 1819 William Hotham; 1810 and 1820 George Peacock; 1816 John Dales.

Monuments and Floor Slabs. Monuments: on N. crossing pier, (1) Thomas Condon, 1759, and Maria, grand-daughter, daughter of Charles Mellish, wife of 14th Lord Semphill, 1806, with impaling arms of Condon. On S. crossing pier, (2) John Burton, M.D., and Mary, wife, 1771, white marble, at top two books, one inscribed 'Mon. Ebor. Vol. 1' (John Burton, 1697–1771, antiquary and physician, published Monasticon Eboracense, vol. i in 1758), and, pendant from a scroll, a seal formerly bearing the arms of Burton with shield of pretence of Henson (Plate 34). In S. aisle, on E. wall, (3) Anastasia, eldest daughter of Thomas Strickland Standish, 1807, with lozenge-of-arms of Standish quartering Strickland; on S. wall, from E. to W., (4) Ann, wife of Christopher Danby, 1615, cartouche; (5) William Fryer, solicitor, 1838, children Thomas and William, and Elizabeth, wife, 1842; (6) Margaret, daughter of John Peers, wife of John Stanhope, 1637; (7) Jane, widow of Thomas Yorke of Halton Place, 1840, white marble slab with pediment and arms of Yorke impaling Reay, signed Skelton; (8) Mrs. Elizabeth Richardson, 1854, oblong white marble tablet set on black marble background with cambered sides and shaped head, signed Essex; (9) Margaret Anne, only daughter of Thomas Yorke of Halton Place, 1847, plain white marble tablet, signed Skelton; (10) William Duffin, 1839, white marble tablet, signed Skelton; (11) Henry Jubb, 1792 (Sheriff 1754, Lord Mayor 1773), Elizabeth, wife, 1793, white marble oval tablet suspended from cornice bearing urn, on shaped grey marble slab, signed Wm. Stead, York; (12) Elizabeth, wife of John Steward, merchant, 1847, John Steward, 1855, tapered white marble slab with moulded cornice and base, signed Skelton; (13) William Crumack, 1847, Martha, wife, 1854, white marble monument, signed Skelton; (14) Mary Swinburne, widow of Sir John Swinburne Bart. of Capheaton, Northumberland, 1761 (Plate 34); (15) Joshua Ingham, late of Stillingfleet House, East Riding, 1836, Elizabeth, widow, 1848, simple marble monument, signed Skelton; (16) Joshua Crompton, of Esholt Hall and Micklegate, third son of Samuel Crompton, of Derby, 1832, his wife Anna Maria, daughter and co-heiress of Anne Stansfield of Esholt Hall who married William Rookes, 1819, oblong white marble tablet with moulded cornice and draped urn, against black marble shaped slab, signed M. Taylor; (17) Elizabeth, daughter of George Ann, 1760 (Plate 34); (18) Thomas Swann, 1832, Harriet Ann, first wife, daughter of Thomas Clark of Ellinthorp, 1812, Anne Swann, second wife, widow of Joseph Bilton, 1831; (19) Elizabeth Scarisbrick, 1797, half-round white marble tablet with border panel of brown marble set on black marble beneath enriched cornice, pediment and urn, bearing lozenge-of-arms of Scarisbrick, signed Thos. Atkinson (Plate 34); (20) John Greene of Horsford, 1728, cartouche with arms of Greene. In Churchyard: E. of main path, (21) Robert Wood, 1780, William, son, 1785; (22) Luke Graves, builder, 1792, Susannah, wife, 1826; (23) Henry Cassons, 1781, Ann, wife, 1803, Ann Ombler, granddaughter to Ann Casson, 1786; N. of church to N.W., (24) Elianor, wife of George Waud, 1784, George Waud, 21 years Clerk of Parish, 1799; to E. of chancel, (25) William Abercrombie, M.D., 1791, Sarah, wife, 1798. Floor Slabs (all of limestone): (1) Frances Olive, widow of Stephen Walter Tempest of Broughton Hall, nr. Skipton in Craven, 1795; (2) Jane, widow of Thomas Yorke of Halton Place, West Riding, 1810, Margaret Anne, daughter, 1847; (3) John Allanson, twice Lord Mayor, 1783, Elizabeth, wife, 1766; (4) [Jonathan Benson, chamberlain, 1725], William, son, [1741], [Mary, daughter, 1739], Ann, wife, 1746, and others; (5) William Green, 1764, wife, 1770; (6) Kezia Raper, 1797, John Horner, wine merchant, 1791, Jane Raper, widow of Leonard Raper, of Kirkby Malzeard, Yorks., aunt to John Horner, 1792, Mary, wife of John Green, fourth daughter of Jane Raper, 1802, Ann Horner, 1818; (7) Walter Richmond, merchant, Kingston, Jamaica, 1803, Jane Richmond, wife, 1808, Ann, daughter, 1798.

Piscina: now loose by W. door, octagonal bowl supported on bell-shaped foliate capital, 13th-century, found during excavations for chancel, 1887. Plate: includes cup (Plate 37) with baluster stem with London date-letter for 1611/12 and inscribed 'Christopher Maude, George Chapman, churchwardens of St. Trinitys in Micklegate 1666'; paten consisting of salver on three shaped feet with London date-letter for 1796/7 and inscribed 'Holy Trinity Micklegate York 1800, Roger Glover, John Gibson, Church Wardens'; paten made of secular salver with London date-letter for 1843/4 and inscribed 'Holy Trinity Micklegate York 1848', given to Church of Holy Redeemer, Boroughbridge Road; silver flagon of tankard shape with London date-letter for 1739/40. Royal Arms: on W. wall of vestry, wood, mid 18th-century. Stoup: in porch E. of entry, found during restorations of 1902–5. Tiles: a number, perhaps found in 1856 or 1871, now in Yorkshire Museum (Cook Collection). Miscellanea (see also Architectural Fragments above): In nave, set on first pier of N. arcade, stone shield-of-arms of Micklethwait, originally part of tomb of Alderman Elias Micklethwait, 1632 (see Brass above). In S. aisle, at E. end, part of Roman figure. In porch, two oak bosses said to have come from St. Crux or St. Martin's, Coney Street. Near path to church from Micklegate, stocks, of two large planks with five holes, post-mediaeval.

Church of St. Clement, Nunthorpe Road. This church of 1872–4, built as a chapel-of-ease to St. Mary Bishophill Senior, became the parish church in 1876. It includes fittings and monuments from St. Mary Bishophill Senior, q.v.

(6) Parish Church of St. John the Evangelist (Plate 121), formerly stood in a small churchyard in the angle between Micklegate and North Street; this has now disappeared in the widening of Micklegate. The church has walls of gritstone and magnesian limestone, and modern dressings of Whitby sandstone, tiled roofs with some slate over the central and S. aisles, and Welsh slates over the N. slope of the N. aisle.

The tower is notable as the only 12th-century example surviving in York; the upper stage is a rare example of work carried out in the period of Parliamentarian control after the victory of Marston Moor.

The earliest church, of which traces remain, was a simple rectangular cell of the early 12th century; only the western angles remain. On the N. a square plinth 9½ in. wide was found by excavation in 1955; on the W. a similar plinth, 5 in. wide, was seen passing under the tower added in c. 1150. This church is mentioned in 1194 (CPL, 1, 462) and in a charter of 1189–1200 (EYC, 1, 176). A S. aisle was added in the 13th century; in 1319 a chantry was founded by John Shupton at the altar of St. John the Baptist in this aisle (CPR, 1317–21, 312; SS, xci, 79n.); it was augmented in 1338 by his son-in-law Richard de Briggenhall (Skaife MS.). The early 14th-century arch leading from the chancel to the chapel at the E. end of the N. Aisle is to be associated with the foundation of a chantry in 1320 by Richard de Toller (CPR, 1317–21, 420; SS, xci, 79–90; see glass in E. window of N. aisle). The rest of the North Aisle dates from rather later in the same century. The South Aisle and arcade, with the upper part of the tower, were rebuilt late in the 15th century. Soon thereafter the N. aisle was extensively remodelled and the W. side extended in connection with the chantry founded by Sir Richard Yorke at the altar of Our Lady (see glass in E. window of N. aisle) and with money from benefactions of 1492–1506 (SS, xci, 78–9; TE, iv, 135n.; AASRP, xi, pt. ii (1872), 252; Raine, 249–50). In 1519 the chancel was said to be in bad repair.

The steeple was blown down in 1551–2; repairs in narrow red brick of the later 16th century indicate that the tower fell towards the N.E. The present timber-framed Belfry was added in 1646, when the bell cast in 1633 was hung; three more bells, saved by Lord Fairfax from St. Nicholas Hospital without Walmgate Bar in 1644, were hung in 1653 (AASRP, xxviii, pt. i, 439– 40). The works of 1646 also included the making of a Vestry, removed in 1955, in the W. end of the N. aisle. In c. 1763 new steep-pitched roofs were built above the mediaeval timbers. The floor, raised by 1½ ft. after the great flood of 31 December 1763, was again raised in 1819 after Ouse Bridge was rebuilt (ibid., 436; J. W. Knowles MSS.).


Fig. 29. (6) Church of St. John the Evangelist.

In 1850 the E. wall was rebuilt further W. to widen North Street, a Porch was added, and buttresses and windows were renewed on the S. side. The N. side also was restored with Whitby stone, and the whole church repaired and refurnished under George Fowler Jones as architect (Sheahan and Whellan, 1, 517). At this time the Yorke window was restored by J. W. Knowles (J. W. Knowles MSS.). The church was reopened for worship in 1851 (Yorkshire Gazette, 8 March 1851). In 1866 the church was again repaired under Messrs. J. B. and W. Atkinson; in the nave an open timber roof was substituted for the flat panelled ceiling; windows were opened in the W. wall of the tower, and a new organ was made by Postill of York (AASRP, viii, pt. ii for 1866, cii). The church was closed in 1934 and the fittings were dispersed in 1938–9 when the Corporation took over the fabric (Yorkshire Gazette, 25 Feb. and 7 Oct. 1938; YAJ, xxxiv (1939), 113–14), which was later given to the York Civic Trust and restored to form the Institute of Architecture of the York Academic Trust. (T. W. Brode, 'Notes on the History of St. John the Evangelist, York', in AASRP, xxviii, pt. i for 1905, 435–50; also 'The Old Parish Account Books of St. John the Evangelist, York', in ibid., xxix, pt. i for 1907, 304–22; E. A. Gee 'An Architectural Account of St. John's Church, Micklegate', in YAYAS Procs. (1953–4), 65–82). Now (1971) The Arts Centre.

Architectural description—The Church (67 ft. by 56 ft.) is a trapezoid without any structural chancel (Plate 124): the tower is built within the W. end of he nave.

The E. window of the Central Aisle (60 ft. by 17 ft.), two-centred with three lights, has intersecting tracery reproducing that of the early 14th-century original. At the W. end of the N. arcade, on the N. side, can be seen the line where the tower wall abutted on the original aisleless nave; the rest of this wall was rebuilt when the aisle was added in the 14th century. A chamfered water-table shows on the N. side cut into by the 15th-century roof timbers. Above the arches this wall was rebuilt in narrow red brick after the fall of the tower in 1552. The early 14th-century E. arch of the N. arcade is two-centred; it has two chamfered orders and responds with moulded caps; moulded bases exist below the present pavement. To the W. are two bays of rather late 14th-century work, with an octagonal pier and responds without capitals. The arches are two-centred, with two chamfered orders of which the inner merges into the pier and the outer terminates on both sides in simple corbels. The bases have a hollow and roll, partly concealed by the present floor. To E. of the S. arcade is a small square-headed opening with chamfered reveals but no glazing groove; it was probably a squint to the High Altar. The arcade is of three bays with octagonal piers and responds, without capitals. The two-centred arches have two chamfered orders, the outer resting on square corbels. The first pier from the E. has a water-holding base; this and the nine courses above it are probably 13th-century work in situ; the rest of the arcade and the rubble walling above are of the late 15th century, the second pier and the W. respond having bases formed of inverted 13th-century capitals.

The E. window of the North Aisle (65 ft. by 18 ft.) has a four-centred head, and moulded label with weathered headstops; it is of four cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery and reproduces the E. window of the Yorke chantry, of c. 1500. The N. wall is of magnesian limestone, with three buttresses. Sections of 14th-century masonry remain, but to W. of the doorway the wall is later and includes pieces of stone coffins and lids. The window at the E. end, of 1850, cuts into the head of a 14th-century canopy, perhaps the tomb of Richard Toller (d. c. 1335). The remaining windows, of three trefoiled lights with four-centred heads and vertical tracery of c. 1500, have hollow-chamfered reveals. The doorway has a two-centred head with chamfered reveals and externally shows the weathering of a former porch; inside it has a segmental rear-arch, to E. of which is the edge of the splay of an early window, now plastered over. Further W. is a late 15th-century window of two cusped lights without tracery, repaired in brick after the fall of the tower. A Vestry (11 ft. by 18 ft.) was formed at the W. end of the aisle in the 17th century; at the N.W. angle was a 19th-century brick chimney-breast.

The E. wall of the South Aisle (68 ft. by 16 ft.) has a three-light window of 1850 reproducing that of the 15th century. The S. wall (Plate 121) is of magnesian limestone and mainly of the late 15th century, with dressings of c. 1850. The four-stage mediaeval buttresses were renewed in 1850. The original windows have four-centred heads and are of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery and hollow-chamfered reveals. To W. of the modern porch is a 15th-century window with flattened head, two trefoiled lights and vertical tracery.

The Tower (14½ ft. by 15 ft.), built against the W. face of an aisleless nave in c. 1150, was later incorporated within the church. There is a stepped plinth (excavated in 1955) and the lowest courses are of large oblong pieces of gritstone, probably reused Roman material. Above is late Norman masonry of good quality, of magnesian limestone with fine diagonal tooling. The N. and S. walls are pierced by low two-centred archways of the later 14th or 15th century with continuous chamfered orders (Plate 124). Over each arch is part of the rear-arch of a 12th-century window with well cut voussoirs, set W. of the centre of the tower. The N. wall was much damaged by the fall of 1552; at the top of the wall within the aisle is a blocked oblong window with chamfered reveals. The outer face of the S. wall shows the scar of a wall running E., now gone; rubble filling links the tower to the 15th-century arcade wall. Good Norman ashlar extends as high as the aisle roof. The W. wall contains a 12th-century window (Plate 15) with chamfered reveals and an internal splay; rear-arch and jambs have finely tooled voussoirs. The blocking removed in 1955 included an illegible 15th-century black-letter inscription. Above the aisle roofs are small square lights with internal splays in the 15th-century masonry of the N. and S. walls, and in the W. wall is a two-light window of the 19th century. The top stage, of 1646, is timber-framed with studs about a foot apart and with later brick infilling.

The W. wall of the church is rough and incorporates walls of adjacent houses. Internally, two half-arches from the W. wall act as flying buttresses to the leaning tower.

The external Roofs have three parallel ridges. The roof of the N. aisle has an oak ceiling of c. 1500 (Plate 17) at the level of the cambered tie-beams. The moulded tie-beams and purlins form panels, with bosses at the intersections, coloured in 1956. The bosses included (1) arms of Yorke (see Glass), (2) arms of Yorke impaling Mauleverer (both removed in 1850 and placed within panels at E. end) and, (3) in situ merchant's mark on a shield, probably for Sir Richard Yorke; (4) arms of the Merchants' Staple of Calais. There are two trusses together above the third arch of the N. arcade and the roof to W. is of the same form, with similar mouldings, possibly of c. 1510. The ceiling of the S. aisle is similar. At the E. end, 15th-century square bosses set lozenge-wise include: (1) head wearing bishop's mitre; (2) face under liripipe head-dress; (3) eagle set on leaves (for St. John Baptist, whose altar was below).

Fittings—Altar stone with small incised crosses from blocking of canopy in N. wall, mediaeval, removed to Holy Trinity, Micklegate, in December 1955. Bells: six ((4) (5) (6) from St. Nicholas Hospital) and sanctus; (1) treble probably by William Oldfield, 17th-century; (2) inscribed '+ Sancte (rest indecipherable) and with shield with three helmets placed two and one, 14th-century; (3) inscribed 'Jesvs be ovr speed 1633', by William Oldfield; (4) inscribed in black letter '[sanc]te [G]eor[gi] ora pro nobis', and with two crowned shields, one bearing a cross and one ihc, 15th-century; (5) inscribed '+ ad: loca: sancta: trahe: Betris: Ros: tu: Nicholaue'; and above, on the crown, 'Nicholauus', 15th-century; (6) tenor, inscribed, '+ Tome: propicia: sis: UUalleuuorch: Uirgo: Maria: Ao: Di: Mo: CCCCo: UIIIo' and, above, 'Maria'. (5) and (6), by the same founder, have inscriptions in the same Lombardic alphabet; the donors commemorated were Lady Beatrix de Roos (d. 1414) and Thomas de Walleworth, Master of St. Nicholas Hospital (d. 1409). (7) small prayer or sanctus bell, of uncertain date, given to Dean and Chapter of the Minster and removed 1956. (G. Benson, The Bells of the Ancient Churches of York (1885), 4; id., 'York Bellfounders' in YPS Report (1898), 7, 8; YAJ, xxxiv, 114; Terrier.) Bell-frame: oak, for four bells, almost identical with one at St. Martin-cum-Gregory dating from 1681, members numbered and pegged throughout, consisting of two main N.-S. frames and four E.-W. cross-frames, all of same construction and with some ovolo-moulding on top rails of cross-frames, 1646, parts only now preserved in bell chamber. The bells have been rehung in a steel frame. Benefactors' Tables: three, removed in 1955; on W. wall of S. aisle, (1) (Plate 22) large panel with moulded architrave and broken pediment, containing figure of Charity with two children, dated 1725, flanked by tables of Commandments, mid 19th-century; on N. wall of S. aisle, (2) large bolection-moulded panel listing benefactions, 19th-century; on S. wall of S. aisle, (3) table, c. 1804.

Brasses and Indents. Brass: on Yorke table tomb (see Monuments (1) below), at E. end of N. aisle, modern, recording restoration of 1851. Indents: in N. aisle, (1) oblong, in large grey marble slab (for brass to Thomas Mosley, 1624); to S. of E. arch of N. arcade, (2) small, on broken slab (for brass to John Mosley, 1624); to W. of last, (3) large oblong, in decaying slab of yellow sandstone (for brass to Mrs. Elizabeth Mosley, 1640); in centre aisle, (4) for shield and small oblong plate; to W. end of N. aisle, (5) for Evangelists' symbols at corners of large grey marble slab, and for oblong strip, slab reused by Brearey family (see Floor Slabs (13) below, removed in 1956 from S. of (4)); at E. end of S. aisle, (6) for broad fillet on three sides and for figures of man, wife and children and two small shields-of-arms in large slab of blue-grey marble (reused for William Brearey (see Floor Slabs (22) below). Chair: of oak, with shaped arms and enriched panelled back, 17th-century, now in Holy Trinity, Micklegate. Doors: in N. doorway, of planks, perhaps 17th-century; in S. doorway, c. 1850. Font: of limestone, octagonal, with quatrefoils on cardinal faces, moulded bases to bowl and octagonal shaft with moulded and battlemented cap and moulded base, c. 1850. Font-cover: (Plate 28) of oak, 1638, when 'made anew', much restored. Both font and cover now in church of St. Hilda, Tang Hall.

Glass: the important glass was given in 1939 to the Dean and Chapter and placed in the W. aisle of the N. transept of the Minster; other glass was given to the Chapel of Clifton Hospital (YAJ, xxxiv (1939), 113–14). The following summary records the position before 1939, shown in photographs by F. H. Crossley (YPS (1914/15), 144–7; Harrison (1927), 185–9).

N. Aisle, E. window, I. Designed as a memorial to Sir Richard Yorke, Lord Mayor, 1469, 1482 (ob. 1498), his two wives, Joan daughter of Richard Mauleverer and Joan, widow of John Dalton and John Whitfield, both of Hull, his six (or seven) sons and his four daughters. The late 15th-century design incorporated in the bottom range four panels of donors, on a background of leaf sprays, from a 14th-century window, presumably in the same position. Notes of Roger Dodsworth and Henry Johnston (Bodleian MS. Dodsworth 161, f. 36; MS. Top Yorks, c.14, f. 102v) identify the donors as Richard Briggenhall (M.P. for York, 1333–7, d. 1362) and Katherine (Shupton), on oak sprays; John Randeman (Bailiff 1339–40) and Joan (Settrington) on hawthorn; Richard Toller (Bailiff 1316–17, d. c. 1335) and Isabella (d. 1336) with priest officiating, on hops (?); William Grafton (Bailiff 1333–4) and Agnes, on vine.

Above, a two-line inscription, now partly defective, may be restored from Dodsworth and Johnston: 'Orate pro anima Ricardi Yorke militis bis maioris Civitatis Ebor. ac per [... annos maioris stapule Calicie et pro duabus dominabus Johanne ac Johanne] uxoribus suis ac eciam pro omnibus libe[ris et] benefactoribus suis. Qui [obiit.......... die mensis Aprilis Anno domini moccccmo lxxxxo viiio].' Above are kneeling figures of the six (seven in Johnston's sketch) sons; of Sir Richard Yorke in plate armour with arms of Yorke on surcoat; of (lost) his two wives, one with arms of Yorke impaling Mauleverer, and of his four daughters. The lost panel of the two wives is replaced by a small seated Trinity in silver stain (YAJ, xxxvii (1951), 228). The main panels above this inscription, of c. 1498, represent the Trinity, St. George and the dragon (only lower part remains), the Crucifixion (lost but recorded by Gent (p. 170) and confirmed by lead lines), and St. Christopher (Plate 123). In the tracery, angels display shields with arms of Merchants' Staple of Calais, Foster, Stapleton impaling Gascoigne, Yorke, Yorke impaling Mauleverer, Yorke impaling Darcy, Yorke impaling (unidentified 3) and City of York.

The missing parts of the main panels are partly replaced with figures and fragments from the adjacent N. windows, where they were recorded by Dodsworth in 1619 (MS. Dodsworth 161, f. 36). They commemorated [William] Stockton, mercer, (d. 1471; see All Saints', North Street, brasses (1)) and Alice, his first wife, widow of Roger Selby 'spycer' (d. 1425) and Elizabeth, his wife.

S. Aisle, E. Window, II. The three main lights contain 14th-century panels which Browne noted in 1846 as 'mutilated to get them into the Perpendicular window'. In the lower range are three pairs of donors. The inscriptions were lacking in 1670, though the name Richard Orinshead is recorded in 1730 (Gent, 170). The main figures and scenes record the life of St. John the Baptist, whose altar stood beneath: (a) St. Elizabeth holding figure of infant St. John, above Baptism of Christ; (b) St. John the Baptist holding the Lamb, above fragments; (c) Herod's Feast, above the beheading of St. John the Baptist (Plate 31). Tracery contains 15th-century glass including St. George, Coronation of the Virgin (Plate 123), St. Christopher and St. Michael, together with arms of the city of York and of Neville, for Ralf Neville, earl of Westmorland (d. 1425) who held the advowson of a chantry at this altar (SS, cxxv, 130).

S. Aisle, E. window of S. wall, III. Tracery contains some 15th-century glass, including two archbishops and two other figures (Plate 122).

S. Aisle, second window of S. wall, IV. Three panels of 14th-century glass from E. window of sanctuary (J. H. Parker and J. Browne in Archaeological Institute at York, 1846, Procs. (1848), 13). Two have medallions on stems amid oak sprays, one kneeling figure of cleric before altar.

Lectern: (Plate 44), of single desk type, of oak panelling with late Perpendicular blind tracery and shield bearing complicated merchant's mark, late 15th-century, greatly restored, now in Upper Poppleton Church, Yorks., W.R. Lord Mayors' Table: (Plate 22), pedimented panel, with enriched and dentilled cornice surmounted by flame between two urns, bearing arms of York between letters 'A R' (Anna Regina); below, panel inscribed: 'Richd. Thompson Lord Mayor 1708', 'Richd. Thompson Lord Mayor 1721', 'J. Wakefield Lord Mayor 1765', and fitted with rests for sword and mace, now in York Minster, at E. end of nave, on S. side.

Monuments and Floor Slabs. Monuments: In N. Aisle, against E. wall, (1) altar tomb (Plate 19), said to be of Sir Richard Yorke, merchant, Chamberlain of York 1460, Sheriff 1465–6, Lord Mayor 1469 and 1482, M.P. at various dates from 1472 to 1490, knighted 1483, died 1498, (fn. 5) N. and S. ends with shields set in quatrefoils and three similar panels to W., all shields having matrices for brasses, at N.W. angle two long, round-headed panels, on top grey marble slab, perhaps modern, with moulded edges and brass fillet; an inscription records restoration in 1851; the tomb has been shortened on S.; on N. wall, (2) Nathaniel Wilson, 'East countrey merchant', 1726, Catherine Wilson, widow, 1736, in pediment shield-of-arms of Wilson impaling Reynolds (Plate 33). In central aisle, over E. pier of N. arcade, (3) John Scott, 1775; over second pier of N. arcade, (4) Christopher Benson, 1801, Margaret Benson, wife, 1795, five infant children, Christopher Benson, eldest son, 1796, of white marble, signed Stead. Over first pier of S. arcade, (5) Anne, wife of John Haynes, 1747, cartouche, over second pier, (6) Elizabeth Potter, servant, 1766, cartouche. In S. aisle, E. wall, (7) Thomas Bennett, 1773, Elizabeth, wife, 1825 (Plate 35), black slab with pedimental head and moulded cornice, with inscription tablet in form of scroll with sarcophagus behind and weeping willow tree of plaster applied to freestone, signed 'Bennett S.Y.'; on S. wall, (8) Luke Thompson, 1743, Grace, wife, 1776, with arms of Thompson with inescutcheon of Bawtry. Floor Slabs: records of twenty-nine noted in 1951 are in the RCHM archives.

Plate: the fine plate includes two cups similar in shape, with plain bowls, both inscribed 'In usum Ecclesiae Sancti Johannis Evangelistae in Civ: Ebor: A.D. 1824', and with the York mark, one for 1807/8, the other for 1824/5; stand paten with gadrooning round edge, with London letter for 1697 and inscription recording its acquisition in 1699 with names of churchwardens, I. Ibbetson and R. Greenupp (vestry minutes of 1699 record 'a compleat silver salver (or some decent patten) be bought to lye the sacrament bread upon'); flagon with straight tapering sides and flat lid with grid-iron thumb-piece, with York mark for 1790/1, given by Dorothy Bowes, 1791; two pewter flagons, one c. 1725, the other with seven-sided body and shaped panels, engraved throughout on exposed surfaces, c. 1620 on evidence of costume of engraved figures (Plate 37). All now kept at Holy Trinity, Micklegate. Miscellanea: In S. aisle, under third window, piece of cusping set in wall; at N.W. corner, moulded springer of arch, 13th-century, reused as corbel.

(7) Parish Church of St. Martin-cum-Gregory (Plates 126, 128), stands in a large churchyard S. of Micklegate. The church has walls of dressed stone and brick. The masonry is mostly magnesian limestone with a small amount of millstone grit; the roofs are of lead, tiles and pantiles.

The first church, a simple cell 33 ft. by 18 ft. coterminous with the present nave, had walls of random rubble of pre-Conquest character; an 11th-century date is borne out by two cross fragments of this date reused in the W. wall of the tower. The church is mentioned in Domesday Book (1086); it was then held with four houses by Erneis de Burun. Most of the lands of Erneis de Burun had formerly belonged to Gospatrick, a wealthy Saxon landowner. The property became a part of the Trussebut fee and the family became patrons of the church. (EYC, x, 23–30; YAJ, xl (1962), 496–505; VCH, Yorkshire, ii, 150, 192 and 278–80.) Early in the 13th century the N. and S. walls were pierced with arcades which still survive, that on the S. being slightly earlier. An early chancel may also be assumed perhaps dating from c. 1230, when John Trussebut was instituted to the living of 'Sancti Martini ultra Usam in Ebor'. In the second quarter of the 14th century the North Aisle was enlarged to its present width, the 13th-century doorway being reused. The position of the W. wall of this new aisle shows that a tower already existed at the W. end of the nave. The enlargement was connected with the foundation of a chantry at the altar of SS. John the Baptist and Katherine by Richard le Toller (d. c. 1335) in or shortly after 1332 (CPR, 1330–4, 370–1). Part of the original glazing scheme for this chapel remains and in 1670 Henry Johnston recorded a slab with an inscription beginning: 'Ricard Toller yci gist / par le grace de dieu cest chapele (f)isst ...' (Bodleian, MS. Top. Yorks. c.14, f. 102). At about the same time a Lady Chapel was built on the S. side of the chancel; the E. wall with its window survives. This work was probably carried out with the help of Nicholas Fouke, mayor of York 1342, who is commemorated in the original glazing; in 1367 he founded a chantry at the altar of St. Mary (CPR, 1364–7, 383). On the N. side of the chancel a chapel of St. Nicholas was built in c. 1370, above an undercroft which may have been used as a charnel house for bones unearthed in digging the new foundations. The windows retain remains of a contemporary glazing scheme with scenes from the Old Testament. The chapel was built in the lifetime of John de Gysburn, who was mayor in 1369–71 and in 1379; in his will made in 1385, he asks for burial between the high altar and that of St. Nicholas (Wills, vol. 1, f. 15); his chantry was licensed in 1392 (CPR, 1391–6, 145). Late in the 14th century a South Porch with an upper room was built against the W. end of the narrow 13th-century aisle.


Fig. 30. (7) Church of St. Martin-cum-Gregory.

In the second quarter of the 15th century an extensive rebuilding of the Chancel and the North and South Chancel Aisles took place, probably with the support of the patron of the living, John le Scrope, 4th Baron Scrope of Masham, who recovered the family's forfeited estates in 1425, and of William Fythian, the rector presented by Scrope in 1426. The N. aisle is of high quality; in the S. aisle the details are simplified, though the side windows are identical and (as shown by masons' marks) provided by the same shop. This aisle incorporates the E. wall of the earlier chapel. Fythian was buried in the chancel in October 1429 (Wills, vol. ii, f. 569). John de Moreton in his will dated 20 July 1434 desired to be buried in St. Nicholas's choir, beside his wife Margaret already interred there (Wills, vol. ii, f. 605, vol. iii, f. 400). That the work was already complete by this period is borne out by the fact that Nicholas Blackburn, senior, who owned the advowson of one of the chantries in the Lady Chapel, left no bequest to the rebuilding in his will dated 20 February 1431/2.

The West Tower was rebuilt in the 15th century and provided with a spire of timber. The window formerly contained glass with the arms of Gascoigne and Hastings (Bodleian, MS. Dodsworth 161, f. 43; Bodleian, MS. Top. Yorks. c.14, f. 102) probably commemorating Sir Hugh Hastings, high sheriff of Yorkshire in 1480 (ob. 1489), who married Anne, daughter of Sir William Gascoigne of Gawthorpe.

The South Aisle was widened in c. 1450 to incorporate the older porch, which probably remained separate. The shields on the buttresses, now blank, formerly bore the arms of Gascoigne and Vavasour (Gent, 182), probably commemorating Sir Henry Vavasour of Haslewood (ob. 1500) who married Joan, the sister of Anne Gascoigne. A bequest of 26s. 8d. in 1477 (Raine, 237) by John de Benyngton, chaplain, to the edificationem of the church should probably be connected with the new chancel arch and the addition of a clerestory to the nave, the roof of which dates from c. 1500.

In 1548 the church roof was stripped of lead, preparatory to demolition (YCR, iv, 179); it was saved by Alderman John Beane and the parishioners, who, in the same year, re-roofed it with tiles. In 1565 Beane, then Lord Mayor for the second time, gave 100 marks to buy three bells (Drake, 272), which were cast in 1579; one still remains. In 1570 the Rood Screen and two Roods were taken down; the screen was sold to Richard Whittington for £1 13s. 4d. According to the Visitation of 1575, the chancel was very ruinous and like to fall. In 1586, the benefice and parish of St. Gregory (in Barker Lane) were united with St. Martin (VCH, York, 382, 388). During the late 16th or 17th century the W. end of the S. aisle was repaired and the S. door renewed. This may perhaps be connected with the repair of the S. porch recorded in 1594 (Borthwick Inst., Y/MG.19, 9).

A new pulpit and screen were made in 1636 by Henry Harland, joiner, who was paid £31 12s. 0d.; £1 12s. 0d. was spent on Thomas Hodgson painting them; 10 years later the screen was taken down again. In 1648, a porch was demolished (Borthwick Inst., Y/MG.19, ii); the present North Porch was built in 1655 (ibid., 9). In June 1677 (fn. 6) Matthew Rayson was paid £10 for taking down the old spire; the tower was refaced in brick with stone quoins and a Classical balustraded parapet set above a heightening. 'Mr Ettie' (doubtless John Etty) was paid for a model of the battlement, and the searchers of the Carpenters and Bricklayers viewed the new steeple. In 1679 John Hindle and William Smith, masons, repaired two of the clerestory windows. New communion rails were provided in 1678 and a clock for the tower in 1680, and in 1681 work was done on the belfry by the carpenters John and Robert Rayson, under the direction of John Etty.

In 1700 the roof of the S. nave aisle was renewed and in 1715 a new wooden roof was erected on the N. aisle; in 1729 ceilings were inserted in the N. and middle aisles. In 1749–51 a new altar-piece was made by Bernard Dickinson, joiner, who died in November 1751, and in 1753 Matthias Butler, joiner, undertook to make new communion rails for £8 0s. 0d.

Repairs to windows were carried out in 1794 and 1829. The floor at the altar was raised in 1835; in 1836 a new organ was built by Mr. (John) Ward, and installed in the W. tower in a gallery built by Mr. (George) Lockey. Extensive repairs to the W. tower were done in 1844–5, when the Classical balustrade was removed and the top stage largely rebuilt (architects J. B. & W. Atkinson, builder apparently John Shaftoe, stonemason, freeman of York 1839). The vestry and storeroom inserted in the W. end of the N. aisle were formed between 1840 and 1846, and by 1849 the S. doorway had been blocked. Restoration, at a cost of £1,000 was carried out under William Atkinson in 1875; the old pews and the W. gallery with the organ were removed; the nave roof was renovated, the pulpit cleaned, the columns, arcades and walls were scraped, and the bells rehung (Minster Library, Hornby MS. ii). In 1894 the chancel was restored at a cost of over £500, mainly spent on a new roof. In 1896 the W. window in the N. wall of the N. chancel aisle was repaired and the font was scraped and cleaned. Further repairs were done to the stone parapet of the tower in 1899, when the glazing in the windows of the N. aisle was restored.

In 1903 the doorways for the rood-loft were uncovered, and at about the same time the three N. clerestory windows were restored. The church was closed for banns and marriages in 1947 and was united with Holy Trinity, Micklegate in 1953; it has now (1971) been restored for use as Diocesan Youth Office and for secular meetings.

The church is valuable as one of the surviving early foundations, probably of pre-Conquest date. The eastern extension of the 15th century is a fine example of mediaeval architecture, of excellent quality. There is notable 14th-century glass, and the glass painted by Peckitt in the 18th century is of historical value. Of the fittings, the 17th-century pulpit and the 18th-century breadshelves and reredos are the most interesting. (G. Benson: Notes on the Church and Parish of St. Martincum-Gregory in Micklegate within the City of York, 2 parts, 1901–6; YPS Report for 1904 (1905); The Inscribed Memorials in the Church and Churchyard of St. Martincum-Gregory in Micklegate, York (1910); AASRP, xxxi (1911–12), 303–18, 613–28. D. D. Haw, Saint Martincum-Gregory Church on Micklegate Hill, York (1948). T. W. French, 'The Advowson of St. Martin's Church ...' in YAJ, xl (1962), 496–505).

Architectural description—The E. wall of the Chancel (37 ft. by 18 ft.) to a height of about 14 ft. is of large ashlar of the 15th century; above is early 19th-century brick with the gable stepped back slightly. A chamfered plinth, some 6 ft. above ground level, is stopped against the S. buttress but continues behind the N. buttress along the E. wall of the N. aisle. The buttresses have five weathered offsets. Internally the wall is masked by the reredos. The 15th-century N. wall is of ashlar above the arcade. The slightly segmental arches of two chamfered orders spring from semi-octagonal responds and an octagonal pier, all with moulded caps and bases. The S. wall is similar but at the W. end a chamfered setback appears to mark the insertion of the 15th-century arcade into an earlier structure.

The E. wall of the North Chancel Aisle (38 ft. by 18½ ft.) is built of large limestone ashlar for about 9½ ft., with early 19th-century brickwork above. At the N. end is a buttress with three weathered offsets and a very decayed gargoyle. The early 15th-century E. window (Plate 16) has five cinquefoil-headed lights with two tiers of trefoil-headed grid-iron tracery. The head is two-centred and the mouldings continue down the jambs. The N. wall (Plates 13, 128), of four bays of large ashlar, incorporates 14th-century work low down in the E. bay. The moulded plinth is now visible only at the W. end. There is a moulded string course at window-sill level, now much worn and not carried around the buttresses. The five buttresses each have three weathered offsets crowned by decayed gargoyles. The projecting parapet is carried on a hollow cornice with five or six carved bosses in each bay. Above the cornice are three courses of stonework and three courses of 17th-century brickwork, capped by a moulded stone coping. In each bay is a three-light window similar in detail to that in the E. wall. Internally, the N. and S. walls have a projecting stone cornice at eaves level; it is hollowmoulded with a series of heads and flowers carved in the hollow and stops about 8 in. short of the E. wall. The W. arch into the N. nave aisle, of the 15th century with two chamfered orders to the two-centred head, is carried on semi-octagonal responds with moulded caps and bases, the latter masked by a stone step. The S. respond is bonded with the W. respond of the chancel arcade, forming a single build.

In the E. bay of the N. wall the partly buried window of a charnel vault is of mid to late 14th-century date, with two trefoiled ogee-headed cusped lights in a chamfered square head with moulded label externally.

The E. wall of the South Chancel Aisle (37 ft. by 16 ft.) is built of coursed ashlar, mostly of c. 1340. At eaves level there are two brick courses; above this the gable is set back and rebuilt in thin brick of the late 17th century. At the S. end is a 15th-century buttress with four weathered offsets and a moulded plinth which stops against the E. wall. The window has three ogee trefoiled lights and reticulated quatre-foiled tracery in a chamfered two-centred head with a moulded label. The S. wall (Plate 126) is built of squared limestone blocks with a moulded plinth. The buttresses have four moulded weathered offsets and differ in design from those on the N. side. Above the topmost weathering is a projecting chamfered stone cornice, carrying a parapet with moulded coping. In each bay is a 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights (Plate 16). To the W. the 15th-century archway (Plate 125) to the S. nave aisle has two chamfered orders. The springing level of this arch is higher than that of the chancel arcade, to which it is not bonded.

The E. wall of the Nave (33 ft. by 18 ft.), of ashlar, is carried by a 15th-century chancel arch with two hollow chamfered orders in a two-centred head; the orders die into the side walls at springing level. The early 13th-century N. arcade (Plates 12, 125) springs from plain responds and a circular pier, mostly of gritstone, with a moulded base on a square plinth and a moulded capital with nail-head ornament. The two-centred arches are of two chamfered orders. Above the arches the wall is of random rubble; at the E. end the wall is pierced with a rectangular opening (Plate 18), running slantwise from S.E. to N.W.; this led down from the aisle to the rood-loft at a level just below the springing of the chancel arch. Higher again, the wall is of ashlar with a shallow relieving arch over each bay of the arcade. Above this the wall is thickened out on a chamfered offset forming a continuous sill to the three late 15th-century clerestory windows; each of these has three cinquefoil-headed lights in a square frame. The S. wall is similar in character and layout to the foregoing. The top moulding of the responds is continued across the piers and returned round the N. and S. walls. The outer order of the arches ends in broach stops above the central cap and the responds. The jambs of the E. and W. piers below the respond moulding are chamfered, ending in mutilated bulbous stops above mutilated plinths. At the E. end there is an opening to the rood-loft, as in the N. wall; a worm-eaten wooden frame, with two iron pins on which to hang a door, has recently been removed from the opening. The W. wall is built of random rubble with a distinctive change to more regular coursed rubble about clearstorey level. The two-centred, 15th-century tower arch is of two chamfered orders, the inner carried on moulded semi-octagonal capitals and the outer terminating in broach stops at the same level. The capitals are carried on semi-octagonal shafts which run into the floor of the tower; the floor is raised three steps above the level of the nave. On each side of the head of the arch a cut in the rough stonework indicates the position of the earlier roofline.

The mid 14th-century N. wall of the North Aisle (35 ft. by 18½ ft.) is built of large, squared masonry with a chamfered plinth and a chamfered string immediately below the windowsills. In the E. part of the wall are two windows of c. 1335, each of three trefoiled lights and reticulated quatre-foiled tracery in a two-centred head. To the W. of these windows is the reset doorway of the early 13th century: it has a two-centred head and splayed jambs; externally the moulded label is enriched with nail-head ornament. On the S. the set-back to the N. wall of the tower marks the end of the surviving section of the early nave. The W. wall, built c. 1845, contains two doorways giving access to the vestry and storeroom formed in the W. end of the aisle.

The Vestry (10 to 11½ ft. by 13 ft.) has plastered walls with a N.W. angle fireplace; the window, which is the W. window of the 14th-century aisle, is identical with those in the N. aisle wall. The Storeroom (12 ft. by 5½ ft.) is lit by a mid 18th-century window, with ovolo-moulded glazing bars, reset in the brick partition wall to the vestry. The S. wall of the South Aisle (31 to 32 ft. by 16 ft.) (Plate 126), of mid to late 15th century, is built of large ashlar externally; internally it is of coursed rubble with two base courses of much larger stones. A moulded plinth runs round the buttresses and ends against the W. buttress of the S. chancel aisle. The aisle is divided by three buttresses, each with three moulded and weathered offsets; under the middle weathering of the two E. buttresses are defaced panels formerly carved with shields-of-arms; above the topmost weathering is a very worn gargoyle of a bat-like creature. The chamfered cornice, parapet and moulded coping are continued from the S. chancel aisle. The two E. bays have each a mid 15th-century window of three cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery (Plate 16). The W. bay, representing the late 14th-century porch, has been considerably altered; in the lower half, rebuilt in the 16th century, is a blocked round-headed doorway with chamfered head and worn jambs. The upper part contains a mid to late 14th-century two-light window with two trefoiled ogee-headed lights in a chamfered square head with moulded label; internally the opening has been reduced by an inserted segmental head and splayed jambs of brick. The greater part of the W. wall, constructed of large rubble blocks, is not bonded into the W. buttress of the S. wall. The upper part of the wall and gable have been rebuilt in late 17th-century brickwork with a brick string, two courses deep, at eaves level.

The West Tower (15 ft. square) (Plate 10) is mainly mediaeval. In 1677 it was externally refaced in brick and considerably altered internally. The quoins and battlemented parapet date from 1844. The external brickwork is carried out in a variety of English Garden Wall bond, with bricks 2 in. to 2¼ in. thick. The tower is of three stages: the external face of the N. wall, to be seen in the storeroom, has no plinth and is built of large, squared rubble, mostly plastered; at about eaves level the rubble gives place to brick. The W. wall has squared stone quoins and stands on a chamfered stone plinth, above which there is one course of large blocks. The 15th-century W. window has three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The N.W. angle has been built up to form a very narrow stone newel stair, entered by a low doorway and lit by two rectangular slits in the W. wall. The second stage houses the mechanism for the clock; the walls of large, squared rubble blocks have occasional brick patchings. The doorway to the stair has stone dressings with a chamfered head cut from a single stone. Centrally and near each end of the N. wall are rectangular slit windows, blocked externally by the brick refacing; there are similar blocked windows in the E. wall, beneath the present nave roof level, and in the S. wall. In the W. wall is a two-light window. In each of the four walls of the third stage is a 19th-century stone window of two cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the walls are of brick, with a scattering of rubble. A battlemented stone parapet projects on a chamfered course and has moulded merlons and embrasures. The slate-covered roof, gabled from E. to W., has a stone ridge and a large central stone cap. The North Porch is built of squared stone and has a chamfered two-centred outer archway.

Roofs: the S. chancel aisle has a 15th-century roof, slightly cambered and divided into twenty compartments by four tie-beams and three longitudinal beams, all moulded, and originally with bosses at the intersections. The S. wall-plate is supported on two later wall posts on moulded stone corbels; the posts are moulded, with ogee bar stops. The nave roof is of c. 1500, divided into twenty compartments by six moulded and cambered tie-beams, and three moulded longitudinal beams with bosses at the intersections. On the central beam the bosses have heraldic shields (from E. to W.): (a) argent a cross gules; (b) argent a bordure azure; (c) per pale azure and argent; (d) argent a bend sinister azure, all recently repainted. The N. nave aisle had a new wooden roof in 1715, underdrawn with a ceiling in 1729; the present flat and plastered ceiling may represent this. The roof of the S. nave aisle dates from 1700 and has four cased tie-beams carrying principal rafters. It is ceiled at collar level and externally is roofed continuously with the S. chancel aisle.

Pre-Conquest Stones: In vestry in W. wall (1) small gravecover, 4 ft. by 1 ft. 1 in., now plastered over; in storeroom, in N. wall of tower (2) two pieces of tapered cross-shaft, now plastered over; in tower, in W. wall, set in course above plinth, two fragments each displaying one decorated face (3) cross-shaft (Plate 26), fragment 31 in. by 16 in., tapering to 15 in. by 11 in. with scroll in relief and showing 'pecked' dressing of typical Saxon character, probably 11th-century (cf. fragment at Haile, Cumberland, CWAAS, Extra Series xi (1899), 182). (4) cross-shaft, fragment 18 in. by 15 in. by 12 in. from base of shaft, displaying crudely drawn upright human figure in shallow relief, probably 11th-century; the crude drawing and shallow relief compare with those of crosses from the Chapter House, Durham (Haverfield and Greenwell, 79–91).

Fittings—Bells: three; (1) with bands of decoration, upper band inscribed 'Gloria in altissimis Deo 1697', lower with stamp 'SS Ebor' (for Samuel Smith), damaged; (2) (Plate 21) inscribed 'Iohn + Beane + alderman + gave + theis+ three+ bells', and, below, 'Robert + mot + made + me + mccccc + lxxix' with very worn shield, apparently bearing a crown between three bells; (3) sanctus bell, uninscribed, perhaps 16th-century. The other two bells of 1579 were sold in 1792 and 1904 (AASRP, xxvii, 631). Bell-frame (Plate 21), of oak, with members of E.-W. cross-frames numbered I, II, III, IIII, V, on third frame carpenter's mark and on upper rail of fifth frame circular scratching, 1681, with some reused timbers. Benefactors' Table: on N. wall of N. nave aisle, board (Plate 22) with moulded surrounds and shaped top with finials, late 18th-century. Brackets: in N. Chancel aisle, five of stone, two flanking E. window and three between windows of N. wall, with enriched mouldings; in S. chancel aisle, N. of E. window, of stone, moulded; all probably 15th-century. Breadshelves: on W. wall of N. aisle, of oak (Plate 23), 18th-century.

Chandelier: hanging in chancel, of brass (Plate 24), c. 1715 (Haw, 14), globe inscribed 'Hoc Candelabrum Dedit Robertus Fairfax Armiger Ecclesiae Parochiali Sti Martini Micklegate Eborac'. Chairs: in chancel, two with high backs, not a pair, one 19th-century, the other incorporating 17th-century carving. Coffin Lid: built into outer face of N. nave aisle, fragment, probably late 13th-century. Communion Rails: of oak (Plate 127), centre opening part projecting in semicircle, made by Matthew Butler, joiner, in 1753 at a cost of £8 (AASRP, xxxi, pt. ii (1912), 620). Communion Tables: in Sanctuary, (1) with bulbous turned legs, late 17th-century; in S. aisle, (2) with turned legs, moulded rails and modern deal top, 18th-century. Doors: in doorways to N. aisle, Vestry and Storeroom, all early 19th-century. Font: in W. tower, of stone, with octagonal bowl, stem and base, 15th-century. Font-cover of oak (Plate 28), late 17th or early 18th-century.

Glass. E. window of N. aisle, I: fragmentary panel, probably a 'Noli me tangere' scene in a border with a merchant's mark above 'R' (perhaps from W. window of N. aisle) and fragmentary panel of Christ and St. Thomas both of c. 1335; canopy and many quarries of same date together with inserted fragments of 15th and 16th centuries including a shield of arms with a bend azure, possibly for Scrope of Masham; in the lower panels were formerly donors, probably the family of John de Gysburn (Gent, 182). Windows in N. chancel aisle, II-IV, contained remains of a glazing scheme of the third quarter of 14th century, perhaps from the original Gysburn chapel. These panels are stored in the workshop of the York Glaziers Trust. Window II has three Old Testament scenes, possibly Creation of Eve, Sacrifice of Isaac and Worship of Golden Calf. Scratched on quarry: 'William Nichols, Plumb and Glazier, Novm. 3 1810'. Window III had, possibly Expulsion from Paradise and Creation, and many later fragments, including a figure possibly of St. Jude. Scratched on quarries; 'William Wilson 1771'; 'Thomas Peacock Dr. 4th 1844'; 'William (Hill vued ?) this window November 19th 1844'. Window IV had Tree of Knowledge in Paradise and many later fragments. Scratched on quarries: 'Richd. Stead Glazor October 20th 1780'; 'Richd. Stead'; 'William Lonsdale Novembr. 30 1745 in time of Reb'; 'Richd. Richard'; 'Thos. Simpson April 16 1742'. 'These windows bigun to be Repared 8br ye 28th 1747 By Wm. Lonsdale & John Durham'; broken '... foot (t)hese Windows 1830'/1884 'Edwin Lynell cleaned this Window July 9th 1855', (See also under Inscriptions and Scratchings). The westernmost window in N. chancel aisle, V (Plate 115), has in main lights late 18th-century glass from Peckitt workshop including in central light a narrow urn on a plinth, a memorial to William Peckitt, 'glass painter and stainer' (ob. 1795) 'designed and erected' by his widow in 1796; in tracery four 15th-century figures, possibly St. Eadmund, archbishop, St. Nicholas, St. Egbert and St. Albert. The eastern window in N. aisle of nave, VI (Plates 29, 115), has in central light female figure symbolising Resurrection, pointing upwards and holding scroll with Job xix, 25, signed 'Peckitt, Ebor, 1792', in E. light St. Catherine, in W. light St. John the Baptist (Plate 31), both of c. 1335 with borders showing many repeats of a merchant's mark above 'R' presumably for Richard Toller. (fn. 7) N. window of N. nave Aisle, VII, fragments and quarries, including parts of a Resurrection scene, borders with presumed Toller mark and monogram 'RR' perhaps Richard Roundell of Hutton Wansley (ob. 1718); scratched on quarry: 'John Cussons Glazed this window In 1844'. E. window of S. chancel aisle, VIII, retains much glazing of c. 1340 (Plates 29, 114). N. light has Blessed Virgin, inserted shield-of-arms, perhaps Staveley impaling Plesyngton, and start of a Lombardic inscription '+Priet pur Nicho[las Fouke]'. Central light, probably a Crucifixion, had disappeared by 1730 and was replaced in 1846 by St. Martin of c. 1335 from W. window of N. Aisle (Plate 116). S. light has male figure, probably St. John. The canopies display an elaborate merchant's mark, probably of Nicholas Fouke. The border of central light has groups of three leopards alternating with three fleurs-de-lis, in allusion to Edward III's assumption of the French arms in 1340. The donors, inserted at the base of the side lights may represent Edmund Grey Earl of Kent and Katherine (Percy) his wife; the female figure wears a cloak with arms, probably for Grey, formerly impaling argent a lion. The S. windows have collected fragments of old glass and include two Flemish 15th-century panels of Betrayal of Christ and of David and Goliath (Plate 30). In third S. window, scratched on quarries: 'John Pick Plumber & Glazier York 1844'; 'John Cussins Plumber & Glazier 1844'; 'T. Harper Plumber & Glazier Sheriff Hutton near York'; 'John Hewso[n]'; 'John (Cussins) Glazie[r] Re[par]ed this Window in 1844'; 'John Thompson. York', etc.

Inscriptions and Scratchings: in N. chancel aisle, in third N. window, on various glass quarries, 'I hope this may be a plase for true protestants to resort to & never to be ruled by Papists God Bless King George ye 2d & Billy off Cumberland Whome God long preserve'; 'Our Noble Duke Great Georges Son who Beat ye Rebels near Collodon the 16th Day of Aprill 1746'. For masons' marks see Fig. 8, p. lv.

Monuments and Floor Slabs. Monuments: In N. chancel aisle, on E. wall, (1) Jane, widow of Thomas Boulby of Whitby, 1803, Adam, son, 1819, white marble slab with moulded top and base, on dark veined marble, with shield-of-arms of Boulby, by Taylor; (2) Rev. Robert Benson, M.A., Vicar of Heckington, Lincolnshire, 1822, white marble slab with moulded top, carrying gadrooned casket, all on black ground with shaped base, with impaling arms of Benson, by Stead, York; on N. wall, (3) William Gage, 1819, Margaret, wife, white marble slab with patera at each lower corner, probably originally carrying a casket, against black marble, by C. Fisher, York; (4) Sir William Stephenson Clark, Lord Mayor 1839, 1851. In S. chancel aisle, on E. wall, (5) Thomas Carter, Alderman and Lord Mayor, 1686, Sarah, wife, daughter of John Pierson of Lowthorp, 1708, nine children, erected by daughter Frances, wife of Richard Colvile of Newton, Isle of Ely (Plate 32), with arms, now nearly illegible; (6) Jarrard, second son of Walter Strickland of Sizergh, Westmorland, 1791, Mary, wife, second daughter of Walter Bagenall of Bagenall, Co. Carlow, 1744, Cecilia and Mary, 1821, daughters, rectangular white marble slab with moulded top and draped urn, against a black ground with arched head and shaped base, by Taylor; on S. wall, (7) Joseph Volans, 1826, Elizabeth, wife, 1834, Harriet, daughter, 1850; (8) Alicia, daughter of Henry Iveson of Black Bank and Alicia his wife, 1729. In Nave, on S. wall, (9) Susanna, widow of Henry Wray, M.A., Rector of Newton Kyme, daughter of George Lloyd of Hulme Hall, Lancashire, 1830, rectangular white marble slab with scrolled pedimental-like enrichment at top and two feet at base, with lozenge-of-arms of Wray impaling Lloyd of Co. Waterford, all against shaped black marble, signed 'Fisher, Sculptr'. In N. nave aisle, on N. wall, (10) Mary, widow of William Peckitt, Glass Painter and Stainer, 1826, Mary Rowntree, grand-daughter, 1846, square white marble slab with stylised acanthus leaves of plaster in each corner, against square black marble, both set lozenge-wise, by Plows; on W. wall, (11) William Garforth, 1828, white marble slab, framed in draperies, against shaped black marble, by Bennett, York. In S. nave aisle, on S. wall, (12) Frances, widow of Doctor Walker, physician at Newark, 1788; (13) John Atkinson, Captain, 68th Regiment, 1808, white marble slab with shaped top and moulded and reeded base, against shaped black marble, signed 'Fishers, York'; (14) Ann Collett, 1829, Elizabeth Fletcher, sister, 1833, Sarah Collett, 1838, Humphrey Fletcher, 1838, white marble slab against shaped grey-mottled marble, by Fisher, York; (15) Andrew Perrott, Alderman, Lord Mayor, 1701, cartouche (Plate 32); (16) Dame Martha, widow of Andrew Perrott, 1721, cartouche (Plate 32); on W. wall, (17) Lucinda, widow of Rev. Robert Benson, M.A., 1830, white marble slab with fluted side pieces and pediment, and urn (now missing), all against shaped black marble, signed 'Stead'; (18) Samuel Dawson, 'late Merchant, Son and Grandson of two worthy Gentlemen who were (in their turns) Lord Mayors of this ancient city; which honour he himself modestly declined', 1731, erected by widow, Sarah, daughter of Robert Watson of Whitby (Plate 33), with arms of Dawson quartering Hutton with an inescutcheon of Watson. In churchyard, N. of chancel, (19) Thomas Hurworth, 1830, Elizabeth, wife, 1839, Cha[rles] John Armstrong, grandson, 1841, slab with shaped head, by Shaftoe. S. of nave, (20) Grace Cave, 1779, Thomas, 1779, five grandchildren, William Cave, 1812, slab with shaped head; (21) Henry Cave, artist, 1836, Elizabeth, widow of William Cave and mother of Henry, 1843, table-top on brick base with shaped head. Floor Slabs: in chancel, (1) [Hannah wife of Charles] Perrott, Alderman, daughter of E[dward] Trotter of Skelton Castle, Cleveland, and Ma[ry], daughter of Sir John Lowther [of] Lowther, [Westmor]land, Baronet, [1713], and infant children, with arms of Perrott impaling Trotter; (2) [Richard Perrott], 1670, Dorothea, mother, 1680, John, son of Dorothea, 1691, Alderman Perrott; (3) Thomas Bawtry, Lord Mayor, 1673; (4) [Samuel] Coyne, Fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, Rector, 1690; (5) Mary, wife of Samuel Dawson, Alderman, 1692, Thomas Dawson, Mayor, 1703; (6) Thomas Perrott, Rector, Prebendary of Ripon, 1728; (7) Sir Gilbert [Metcalfe, Lord Mayor 1695], Alderman, 1698; (8) Mary Garforth, 1725, Isabella, daughter, 1726, Ann, daughter, 1731, William, husband, 1746, Isabel Dring, niece, 1754, Rev. Edmund Garforth, nephew and heir, 1761, Elizabeth, wife of Edmund, 1799, William, 1828; (9) Thomas Carter, Lord Mayor [1681], 1686, Mrs. John Peirson, eldest daughter of John Peirson of Raysthorpe, niece of Sarah, wife and widow of Thomas Carter, Alderman, 1746; (10) Susanna, wife of William Beilby of 'Miclethwait Graing', 1664, A. Iveson, 1729 (Plate 36), below first inscription worn arms of Beilby impaling Sunderland; (11) Ann, daughter of William Peckitt, 1765; (12) James Mayson [1733], Elizabeth, [1745], George Wright [1746], Ann Malton, 1754, Elizabeth Wright, 1770, Thomas Mayson, 1772, John Malton, 177[3]; (13) I.A., 1808; (14) Henry Augustus, fourth son of William and Mary Sarah Hargrove, 1830; (15) Davies Toplady, 1785, Dorothy, 1796, William Gimber, 1823, Elizabeth, 1828. In N. chancel aisle, (16) Thomas Garland, 1777, Ann, 179[2], Frances, 1809, Eleanor, 1814, Elizabeth, 1824, Jane Kidd, 18[39]; (17) Jane Heath, 1778, John, 1784; (18) Christopher Yates; (19) Mary, wife of John Swann, 1756, John, 1766, Elizabeth, wife of Thomas, son of John Swann, and daughter of Mr. Marm Prickett of Kilham, 1771; (20) Mary, widow of William Peckitt, Glass Painter and Stainer, 1826, Mary Rowntree, grand-daughter, 1846, reused stone (Plate 36) with original marginal inscription in black letter '+ hic iacet d(omi)n(u)s henricus Cattall quondam capell(anu)s hui(us) Cantarie Qui obiit viio die Febr An(no) d(omi)ni mo iiiimo lxo cui(us) a(n)i(m)e p(ro)picietur de(us) Ame(n)' (in his will of 1460 (Wills, vol. ii, f. 439), Henry Cattall asks to be buried 'in choro sancti Nicolai'); (21) Philemon Marsh, Rector, 1788; (22) A.B./J.B., probably early 19th-century; (23) Robert, son of George Benson, Mayor, 1765, Thomas, youngest son, 1794, Mary, widow, 1816 (Plate 36); (this slab is mentioned in accounts rendered in the Court of Exchequer by Benson's widow, 'Paid Mr. Carr for a Marble Stone laid ... £10 and for the Inscription cutting £2. 7. 4. and for laying down at 11s. 6d.—£12. 18. 10' (PRO, E.134/14 Geo. III, Hil.10; cf. E.112/2059/75 and E.134/7 Geo. III, Hil.5)); (24) Thomas Varle[y], 1771, Ann, daughter of Richard and Ann Bealby, 177[4]; (25) Jane Beckley, 1837, Nathaniel, 1843; (26) William Sawrey of Plumpton Hall, Lancs., 1727; (27) Eleanor, wife of John Blower, Rector, daughter of Francis Billingsby of Astby Abbotts, Salop., 1719, John Blower, 1723; (28) Frances, wife of Charles Bathurst of Clints, daughter and heir of Thomas Potter, grand-daughter of Edward Langsdale, M.D., 1724 (Plate 36), with arms of Bathurst with inescutcheon of Potter, impaling Potter; (29) traces of black-letter inscription [John Burton] B.A., Rector, 1475; (30) Susanna, relict of Rev. Henry Wray, 1830; (31) Nathaniel Robinson, 1770; (32) Elizabeth, wife of Henry Henwood, 1820, Henry, 1825, Elizabeth, widow of J. Holroyde of Rochdale and mother of Elizabeth, 1827. In S. chancel aisle, (33) Elizabeth, daughter of William Some[rs] of Bampton in Oxfordshire, 1726; (34) Joshua Earnshaw, Lord Mayor [1692], 1693; (35) William Ramsden, Lord Mayor, 1699; (36) Eleanor [Armst]rong, 1781; (37) Henry Stainton, 1764, Elizabeth, wife, 1794; (38) William Sharp, 1703, Elizabeth and Dorothy, daughters, William, son, 1718; (39) Captain William Rousby, 1761; (40) John Bradley, 1775, Antonia, wife, 1777, Catherine Marshall, sister to Antonia, 1779; (41) William Berry, 1835; (42) John Telford junior, 1770, John Telford senior, 1771, Isabella, daughter of John junior, 1775, [Hannah], widow of John junior, 1803; (43) Francis [R]amsden Hawksworth, 1825, Elizabeth Ann Mary, widow, 1835; (44) members of Iveson family; (45) John Brooke, v.d.m., 1735, Ann, daughter, 1735; (46) Joseph Volans, 1826, Elizabeth, wife, 1834, Harriet, daughter, 1850; (47) Mary Batty, 1795; (48) Elizabeth Ann, daughter of the Rev. John and Mary Richardson, of Cleaves, near Thirsk, 1809, Mary, 1830.

Plate: now kept at Holy Trinity, Micklegate, includes (1) cup inscribed 1636, presented by Henry Barker; (2) cup, copy of last, inscribed 1819, with York mark for 1818, made by Barber & Whitewell of York; (3) deckle-edged paten, originally domestic, with London mark for 1737, made by George Hindmarsh; (4) jug-shaped flagon with no date letter, but apparently 1720–9, and two makers' marks 'R.B.' and 'H.P.' (Humphrey Payne); (5) jug-shaped flagon with Newcastle mark for 1740, made by Stephen Buckles; (6) pair of pewter candlesticks inscribed '1754'; (7) silver-mounted rod inscribed '1678' (YAJ, viii (1884), 327–9, and T. M. Fallow and H. B. McCall, 'Yorkshire Church Plate' in YAS Extra Series III (1912), i, 16–17; G. Benson, Notes on the Church ... (1901), 20). Poor Box: (Plate 23) probably late 19th-century, with 18th-century oak back board, inscribed with quotation from Acts xx, 35. Pulpit (Plate 38): of oak, hexagonal and panelled, made 1636, standing on late Victorian carved wooden base and stone plinth; between panels and sloping top, painted inscription 'Preach the Word in season and out of season'.

Recesses: in S. chancel aisle, at S. end of E. wall, (1) tall recess with moulded sides, incomplete, upper part masked by Strickland monument, at base of which two flat stones have been inserted to roof recess, 15th-century. In N. nave aisle, in N. wall between two windows, at floor level, (2) low tomb recess with flattened two-centred head of two moulded orders, 14th-century. Reredos: (Plate 127) of oak, in three sections, with Ten Commandments flanked by the Lord's Prayer and Apostles' Creed, 1749–51, made by Bernard Dickinson, joiner, apparently at a cost of £33 7s. 6d. (G. Benson in AASRP, xxxi, pt. ii (1912), 620; Borthwick Inst., Y/MG.20). Royal Arms: over tower arch, on E. face, of William and Mary, with Garter, mottoes, supporters, etc. Stoup: in S. nave aisle, reset in rebuilt section at W. end of S. wall, immediately E. of blocked doorway, with bowl semi-octangular outside and circular inside, base tapering to corbel carved as human head, late mediaeval.

Miscellanea: (1) in 19th-century chancel ceiling, circular panel with septfoil decorations, probably reused from ceiling of 1729; (2) in N. nave aisle, against S.E. pier, Roman tombstone, formerly outside W. wall of tower (RCHM, Eburacum, No. 97, 128a); (3) on steps N. of tower arch, very worn stone figure, possibly Roman; (4) next stoup in S. wall, column drum built into wall; (5) hanging on S. wall of tower, four leather fire buckets (Plate 24), each with painted inscription 'St. Martin cum Gregory 1794'; there are said to have been twelve buckets, bearing date 1699 (Hargrove in Yorkshire Herald, 1907); (6) on W. side of churchyard, loose pieces of tracery, apparently the original stone dressings of the N. clerestory windows renewed in 1903.

(8) Parish Church of St. Mary Bishophill Junior (Plate 129), is in the street now called Bishophill Junior. It stands in a churchyard of some size and is built of random rubble comprising gritstone, Roman saxa quadrata, tile, and some magnesian limestone, with limestone dressings. The roofs are covered with tiles and slates.


Fig. 31. (8) Church of St. Mary Bishophill Junior.

The oldest carved cross fragments from this church may be as old as c. 900, and burials of the early 10th century were found N. of the church in 1961 (excavation by Mr. L. P. Wenham). The base of the tower is of the 10th century; the stubs of two walls running E. suggest that the church of this date had a tower-nave with a small narrower E. cell, like Barton-on-Humber (cf. Arch. J., cxviii, 171–2). An architectural fragment of this date, probably part of a sculptured tympanum, was found reused in the belfry. The tower was raised in height in the 11th century, probably before 1066. A small Nave, of the same width as the tower and about 40 ft. long, replaced the earlier E. cell soon after the Conquest. A North Aisle was added in the mid 12th century; the Chancel was added early in the 13th century and extended c. 1300. The North Chapel and the South Aisle were built in the 14th century. In 1411 the W. side of the tower and the timber roof were said to be in great need of repair (YFR, 250); it was at this time that the battlements were added. About this period windows were inserted in the S. wall of the tower and in the N. aisle, and the nave roof and the lower floor of the tower were renewed. By 1481 the church was again in a poor state (YFR, 258).

In the 16th century a doorway was inserted in the N. wall of the N. aisle, and in the late 17th century square-headed windows of secular character were inserted in the S. aisle. A doorway in the S. wall of the chancel was made in the early 19th century, the W. end of the S. aisle was extended to form a vestry, and a brick S. porch was built. The church was restored in 1860 by J. B. and W. Atkinson ('an unintelligent and destructive restoration' Ecclesiologist, N.S., xix (1861), 207), most of the S. aisle wall being rebuilt and the present windows inserted. The Porch and much of the E. end of the chancel were rebuilt, and the S. side of the roof was renewed with Welsh slate.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (28 ft. by 17 ft.), largely rebuilt in the 19th century, retains the E. window of c. 1300, of three uncusped lights with geometrical tracery, masked by a modern reredos, and an original early 13th-century lancet at the W. end of the S. wall. The 14th-century N. arcade of two bays has chamfered arches springing from the end walls and from an octagonal pier with a moulded capital. The partly renewed window near the E. end of the S. wall has two two-centred lights without cusps under a round head. The doorway, now blocked, replaces an earlier doorway recorded in 1840. The inserted trefoil-headed lancet retains some original 14th-century stones. The asymetrical chancel arch of c. 1400 is of two chamfered orders, the inner corbelled, the outer merging into the responds.

The N. wall of the mid 14th-century North Chapel (27 ft. by 11½ ft.) has two segmental-headed three-light windows with trefoiled ogee heads and inverted tracery, largely renewed. The wall is not bonded into the earlier nave aisle. The tiled roof is hipped.

The E. and N. walls of the Nave (38½ ft. by 20½ ft.) (Plate 130) are early Norman. A deep respond at the E. end of the N. arcade now contains an archway (in 1843 a 'confessional window near the chancel arch', AASRP, xxviii, i (1905), 424). At the W. end the rubble is exposed and the facing of the respond, with coarse diagonal tooling, is an obvious addition. The 12th-century arcade has round arches of two orders, the inner double-chamfered and the outer chamfered on the S. side only. The small limestone voussoirs have fine diagonal tooling, showing remains of colourwash. The pier is round, with a simple hollow-chamfered cap and a plain round chamfered base of gritstone. The S. arcade has two arches with two-centred heads and deeply cut mouldings of 14th-century character. The E. respond is half-round with a hollow chamfered capital and roll necking and a base of similar, but reversed, profile on a square plinth. The pier is round, with a hollow-chamfered octagonal capital and similar necking and base. The similar W. respond, let into the tower wall, has been largely cut away.

The North Aisle (38 ft. by 8½ ft.) has a tiled roof continuous with that of the nave; the archway at the E. end is of 1860. The N. wall is of the 12th century, retaining some of the original quoins of the N.E. angle. The badly coursed masonry includes large blocks of magnesian limestone. The 16th-century doorway at the E. end has a four-centred head with chamfered reveals and a round rear arch of brick. The eastern window of mid 15th-century character is square-headed with a segmental rear arch; it is of two lights with trefoiled heads and inverted ogee cusping in the tracery. The W. jamb of the rear arch has stones with diagonal tooling and belongs to an original 12th-century window. The western window is square-headed with a segmental rear arch and is of three lancet lights, trefoiled with pierced cusps of soffit type, perhaps of c. 1280. The early 14th-century lancet in the W. wall has an ogee trefoiled head and renewed jambs.

The 14th-century South Aisle (49 ft. by 9½ ft.) now incorporates a later vestry at the W. end. The renewed E. window of c. 1330 (Plate 16) has reticulated tracery and a moulded label. The S. windows, all of 'Decorated' type, are modern. The original doorway between the two W. windows has hollow-chamfered reveals and a four-centred rear arch with square jambs.

The Tower (20 ft. square) (Plate 10) is 73 ft. high, with walls 3 ft. thick. The lowest stage, of roughly coursed saxa quadrata of magnesian limestone, has large gritstone quoins. From about 20 ft. to about 52 ft. above ground level the construction is similar with some herringbone courses defined by bands of limestone and gritstone and quoins of gritstone set alternately. Above a square string the top stage is set in slightly with thinner walls, almost entirely of greyish gritstone; it is crowned by a battlemented parapet and pinnacles of magnesian limestone added in the early 15th century. The E. wall contains the contemporary tower arch, 10 ft. wide and nearly 16 ft. high (Plate 14), of two square orders with a label of square section resting on large imposts of two slightly corbelled courses. The jambs are of two square orders with bases each formed of one large chamfered block of gritstone with bold axing of haphazard broken lines. To S. of the arch a large projecting piece of gritstone represents a wall running to the E. with the inner face set against the label of the arch. On the N. a corresponding wall is probably represented by two courses near the floor level. Above the roof of the nave a steeper roof line can be seen; the next two stages are lit by small oblong lights. In the belfry is a window surrounded by strip work, with a round arch formed by a square-section label on square imposts; below these last are simple pilasters on square bases. Beneath the arch a turned baluster supports a square dosseret on which rest two small round-headed arches; the lower part of the window, which was of exceptional size, has been blocked. The N. wall is similar; there is said to have been a doorway on this side, but the slight evidence indicates that it was later. The similar S. wall was pierced in the 15th century at ground stage for a square-headed window of two lights, now largely a modern reconstruction. In the W. wall at the ground stage is a window inserted in 1908; the wall beneath it is much patched, indicating the former presence of an original doorway. The belfry window has original pilasters, but the head has been renewed in magnesian limestone and now has two two-centred lights inserted after 1846, when the window still preserved the same form as the others. At the restoration of 1908 the tower was found to stand on good foundations of rubble composed of Roman tiles and bricks and broken stone.

The 15th-century Roof of the nave (Plate 17) is of five bays with moulded tie-beams, wall-plates, three longitudinal beams, forming panels, and modern bosses. The moulded E. beam, now hidden from below, is 1 ft. in advance of the wall and probably formed the head of a boarded and painted tympanum against which the Rood was set. The roof of the N. nave aisle, of 17th or 18th-century date, has plain square rafters, purlins and wall-plates, with provision for a dormer removed in 1949. The ceiling of the ground stage of the tower contains a chamfered beam supported at the N. end by a large wall-post on a stone corbel, and with a brace from the post to the beam; this work is of 15th-century character.

Pre-Conquest Stones. Seven carved stones have been found in this church (Plate 26). Nos. 1 and 3 are now in the Yorkshire Museum; the rest are in or built into the church. No. 2 was formerly in the S. wall of the chancel; Nos. 4 and 5 were in the tower walls, inside, at the level of the bells; Nos. 1 and 3 were in the walls. No. 7 (two fragments) is in the E. face of the tower, S. of the ridge of the nave roof. All are of gritstone and, except where otherwise stated, of the 10th or 11th century. (1) Cross-shaft, 27½ in. by 12 in. to 13 in. by 11 in., front with two male moustachioed figures in secular costume facing one another and half turned towards the onlooker; below their feet traces of animal in interlace; on left side a dragon in narrow single-strand interlace; on right side a bold double scroll with large boss-like ends to tendrils; probably early 10th-century. (YMH (1891), 76; YAJ, xx (1908), 176–7; cf. early 10th-century Cross of the Scriptures at Clonmacnoise (F. Henry, Irish Art 800–1020 (1967), pl. 92).) (2) Cross-shaft, 34 in. by 9½ in. to 14½ in. by 7 in. to 8¼ in., front with debased vine scroll; on sides a basket plait; on back a serpent with coiled tail within a basket plait (YAJ, xxiii (1915), 260; cf. also Crathorne (e) YAJ, xix (1907), 305, and T. D. Kendrick, Late Saxon and Viking Art (1949), 65). (3) Hog-back, fragment, 27½ in. by 20 in. by 7 in. to 9¾ in., below a tile-roof pattern a debased scroll with berries above a coarse plait of two straps, 10th-century (YMH (1891), 76 no. 8; YAJ, xx, 170; cf. two hog-backs from Crathorne (YAJ, xix (1907), 305)). (4) Crossarm, 13 in. by 9 in. to 10¼ in. by 6 in. to 6¼ in., plain with pellet border and rounded arrises on all faces; with dowel-hole in base for fixing to the shaft (YAJ, xx (1908), 207). (5) perhaps part of Tympanum, 16 in. high with top partly rounded and originally 32 in. long, decorated with incised circle with six rays, late 10th or 11th-century (ibid.); not now visible. (6) Fragment, 15 in. by 12 in. by 4 in., with worn interlace within a border, on three sides, of two incised lines; possibly architectural, or the upper part of a small headstone. (7) Crossshaft (?), two fragments, about 4½ ft. by 12/3 ft. tapering to 1⅓ft.; the lower with worn remains of close interlace, the upper, tapering, with a large vine scroll, possibly late 9th or early 10th-century.




Fig. 32. (8) St. Mary Bishophill Junior. Bell no. 2. Armorial stamps. Arms of St. Edmund, Ryther and Thornton.

Fittings—Bells: two; with identical technical details but differing widely in inscriptions (1) with stamp of St. John Baptist and Lombardic inscription '+Fac. tibi. Baptista. fit, ut. acceptabilis ista' 14-century; (2) almost certainly cast by John Hoton of York (fl. 1455–73), with inset shields (Fig. 32) of (a) three crowns in pale (St. Edmund), (b) three crescents (Ryther), (c) St. Edmund, (d) a chevron with a chief indented (Thornton), (e) Thornton, and Virgin with another figure (Fig. 33), inscription in black letter spaced between the shields: '+ .Mater Dia me sana Virgo Maria'. Bell-frame of oak, for two bells, late 15th-century, seriously decayed (destroyed 1968, when bells were placed at W. end of N. aisle to await rehanging). Brass and Indents. Brass: on S. wall of chancel between two E. windows, of Mary, wife of William Spence, 1811, inscribed plate set in white marble with reeded frame. Indents: in N. aisle, at W. end, grey marble slab with indents of shield and figure, perhaps a woman; in 1908 there were other indents in S. aisle floor (Hargrove in Yorkshire Herald, 20 September 1908). Chairs: inside altar rails, (1) armchair with fielded panel to back, turned front legs, rails and cross-piece, plain back legs, c. 1700; (2) armchair (Plate 44), of oak, perhaps 17th-century; both given by Frances Eliza Cobb, 1875. Coffin Lids: in N. aisle, reused in head of N.E. window, (1) part only, 13th-century; S. of tower arch, (2) part only, of gritstone, with incised lines, perhaps Saxon; in the Yorkshire Museum, (3) two parts bearing a cross flory (Plate 15), 14th-century, found under floor in 1861 (YMH (1891), 90; nos. 942–3). Communion Table (Plate 44): in N. chapel, as altar, of oak, 17th-century, top modern, brought from St. Sampson's in 1929 (notes kept at Vicarage). Font and Cover: font, under tower arch, round cylinder on octagon, with octagonal stem on modern base, mediaeval. Cover (Plate 28): of oak, late 17th or early 18th-century. In 1909 a font from this church was transferred to Whitwood Mere (Borthwick Inst., Faculty Papers 1909/29). Glass: in chancel, in second S. window, four panels (a) St. Michael, (b) St. Mary the Virgin in Glory, (c) archbishop holding pastoral cross, (d) archbishop with pallium, all late 15th-century.

Monuments and Floor Slabs. Monuments: in chancel, on S. wall, (1) Robert Stockdale, Vicar, 1780, white marble tablet with cornice and brackets on black marble slab, signed 'Stead'; (2) Frances, widow of John Nicolson, Doctor in Physick, 1721. In N. chapel, on N. wall, (3) George Hotham, 1823; (4) John Burgess, 1837, Mary, wife, 1829, white slab on black marble, signed 'Skelton, York'; on W. wall, (5) Maria Dorothy, third daughter of Henry Smales, 1849, white marble slab with shaped head and brackets on grey veined marble, signed 'Skelton'; (6) Ann, wife of Henry Smales, 1835, Francis, infant son, 1834, white marble slab with cornice and pediment on grey veined marble, signed 'Skelton'. In S. aisle, (7) George Steward, comb manufacturer, 1820, Elizabeth, wife, 1833, Edward, son, 1839, Elizabeth, daughter, 1851; (8) Elizabeth, daughter of William and Deborah Stead, 1818, set up by husband, John Thompson of Higher Ardwick, Manchester. Floor Slabs: all of freestone unless otherwise stated. In chancel, (1) Maria, wife of Thomas Procter, druggist, 1698, Francis, son of Thomas and Mary Procter, Jane, wife, 1733; (2) [Mary] Burgess, 1829, John, husband, 1837; (3) William Bulmer, grandson of John Allanson, 1806, John Allanson of Holgate, 1812, Ann, widow of John Bulmer, daughter of John Allanson, 1813; (4) Rev. John Fuller, subchanter of the Cathedral and Vicar, 1747; (5) Ann, wife of [Richard] Dawson, 1758, [Ric]hard Dawson, [1762]; (6) Richard, son of Rev. Richard Forrest, Vicar, 1793, John Allenby, grandfather, 1811, Mary, wife of Rev. Richard Forrest, 1821, Rev. Richard Forrest, 1829. In nave, (7) Catherine, wife of Rev. [William] W[illiamson], Vicar, 1753, George, Elizabeth, and ... children, [1751– 5]; (8) partly covered, [Michae]l Hansby and [Mary] Russell, 1762; (9) Mary Merry, 1829, Phillip Knapton, 1833; (10) Elizabeth, [wife of D]aniell Awtie, 16[9]1, black marble; (11) [Robert Beal], 1763, Ann [Beal, 1775], Thomas [Beal], father, [17]90, Ann [Beal, 1795]; (12) Ann Knowles, 1746, John Taylor, 1774, Ann, wife of John Taylor, 1780; (13) Isabell, wife of Thomas Beal, 1813, Thomas Beal, son, 1829.

Plate: includes (1) cup of 1570, by Robert Beckwith, with (2) paten, as cover; (3) two pewter patens, (4) two pewter flagons, and (5) pewter basin, all inscribed 'St. Mary BishopHill Junr Geo. Beal Jno Lawrence Churchwardens 1774'; and the plate from the demolished church of St. Mary Bishophill Senior, q.v. (Fallow and McCall, 1, 18–19). Pre-Conquest Stones: see entry above, before 'Fittings'. Royal Arms (Plate 41): in S. aisle, on W. wall, in oblong moulded frame, with 'G 3 R' and date '1793'. Stoup: in S. aisle, octagonal stoup on rough square shaft, mediaeval. Miscellanea: in S. aisle, set in E. wall, twin water-holding bases and a moulded capital, probably from Holy Trinity Priory, 13th-century.


Fig. 33. (8) St. Mary Bishophill Junior. Bell no. 2. Stamp with figures of Prophet (?) and Virgin.

(9) Parish Church of St. Mary Bishophill Senior (Plates 131, 132), stands in a churchyard of considerable size in the angle of Bishophill Senior and Carr's Lane; it is built of ashlar, rubble and red brick, the earliest walls being 2¼ ft. thick and having quoins of large millstone grit blocks and many reused Roman saxa quadrata of magnesian limestone. The roofs are of Welsh slate.

Excavation by the Commission has shown that soon after A.D. 350 the site of the church was occupied by a suite of heated rooms on the S. side of an open courtyard (York I (18), Fig. 40; JRS, lv (1955), 204). In the 10th century a quadrilateral enclosure was made facing S. to Bishophill Senior; the N. wall followed the line of the N. wall of the 4th-century suite. Disturbed burials were found, including one on the line of the E. wall, together with contemporary pre-Conquest carved stones. Early in the 11th century a rectangular singlecell church of stone was built alongside the N. wall of the enclosure. It survives to form much of the present Nave. One fragment of a 10th-century cross (no. 19) was incorporated in the footings, and pottery of 11th-century character was found beneath the N. wall.

In c. 1180 an aisle was built N. of the nave and the existing doorway inserted in the S. wall. A change in the masonry of the S. wall of the churchyard shows that the enclosure was enlarged to the E. at this date; an extension to W. is also attested by excavation, and the addition of the N. aisle would have necessitated a further extension in this direction. No evidence of a contemporary chancel was found during the excavation but its existence cannot be excluded. Early in the 13th century the enclosure was again extended to the E. and the present Chancel added, more than doubling the length of the pre-Conquest church. About 1300 the North Aisle was widened and extended one bay E. Early in the 14th century a N. chapel was added; it may be associated with the founding in 1319 of a chantry at the altar of St. Katherine for which Roger Basy had obtained a licence in 1311 (CPR, 1307–13, 343; SS, xci, 68–9). In a severe thunderstorm on 6 April 1378 damage was done to the stone belfry and the timbered porch of the church (J. Raine (ed.), Letters from the Northern Registers, RS, lxi (1873), 419). In the 15th century the North Chancel Aisle was rebuilt, possibly when Basy's chantry was re-endowed in 1403 (CPR, 1401–5, 193). Later in the century two large windows were inserted in the S. wall of the nave, and the roof was renewed; to this period also belonged the former E. window of the chancel. In the 17th century there was an extensive restoration; the chancel walls were raised in red brick and a new roof was made, copied from that of the nave. The N.W. Tower was built over the W. bay of the aisle in 1659, replacing a detached bell-tower in the churchyard seen in Speed's plan of 1610. The windows of the N. chancel aisle were modernised by the Fairfax family, who had inherited rights in the Basy chapel. A brick Porch was added in the late 18th century and a gallery built in 1841 (Borthwick Inst., Faculty Papers, 1841/1). In 1860 the church was restored: the chancel aisle was remodelled and the E. window of the chancel replaced. A ceiling inserted in the nave c. 1810 was removed. In 1876 the church ceased to be parochial and was annexed to St. Mary Bishophill Junior. By 1930 it was completely disused, and it has since fallen into a bad state of disrepair. (YAYAS Procs. (1949–50), 36 ff.).


Fig. 34. (9) Church of St. Mary Bishophill Senior. Architectural development of site as recovered by excavation. For full exten of 13th-century work surviving in 1954 see Fig. 35.

Since the recording of the church in 1951–4 and subsequent dispersal of the fittings, the fabric was demolished in 1963. The arcade, the south doorway, and some details have been re-erected in the Church of the Holy Redeemer, Boroughbridge Road.

Architectural Description—The 13th-century E. end of the combined Chancel and Nave (82 ft. by 19 ft.) has pairs of pilaster buttresses at the angles and a moulded string under the E. window; the N. buttress is only a fragment in part incorporated in the E. wall of the aisle. The 19th-century window, of four lights with geometrical tracery, has vertical lines at each side indicating the outer sides of a group of three lancets, of which traces also remain internally. To N., patching blocks a doorway to a former vestry.


Fig. 35. (9) Church of St. Mary Bishophill Senior.

Inside (Plate 133), the E. respond of the N. arcade incorporates part of the E. jamb of a lancet; outside, a string-course and the roof-line of the 13th-century chancel are visible. The first arch rests on a square respond to E. and upon a monolithic octagonal pier with recut capital and moulded base; it is probably reformed and is of 19th-century character. The three arches to W. (Plates 13, 133) are similar but have smaller voussoirs with diagonal tooling. The second pier from E. has a simple capital and a moulded base of millstone grit; the third pier is similar but has no base. The fourth pier is of c. 1300 to the E. and retains part of the earlier respond of the nave arcade to the W. The bays to W. have round arches with two square orders on the S. side, but only one order to the N.; the voussoirs are small, with fine diagonal tooling. On the W. side of the fourth pier is a corbel with scalloped capital of the late 12th century. The fifth pier has a square chamfered abacus, plain hollow-chamfered cap with round necking, round shaft, and moulded base; the sixth pier is similar, with a chamfered plinth. The S. wall (Plate 133) is of two main builds: Saxon for the three western bays and early 13th-century in the E. part. The Saxon wall is of millstone grit and magnesian limestone blocks; the later wall is of yellowish blocks of limestone. At the E. end is a narrow lancet, not originally glazed, the rear arch showing coarse diagonal tooling. A mid 13th-century round-headed window of two two-centred lights and a segmental rear arch and modern spandrel cuts the external string. Two windows of c. 1330 each have two trefoiled lights with curvilinear tracery under two-centred heads; between them is a round-headed doorway of large voussoirs with a segmental rear arch and probably of the 17th century. Above the narrow lancet further W. is a 17th-century square-headed light splayed internally. To E. of this opening the chancel walls have been heightened in 17th-century brick; to W. a fragment of the 13th-century roof-line of the nave can be seen, with a 15th-century heightening. Westward the wall is set back and a base-course shows the original length of the Saxon nave. Above, the wall is rough and built of reused stone and contains two large 15th-century three-light windows with vertical tracery under square heads with moulded labels. The wall above these has a 15th-century heightening in pale grey limestone ashlar.

The S. doorway (Plate 14) has a round head with a chamfered inner order and a moulded outer order supported on shafts with water-leaf caps and moulded bases of c. 1180; the square-headed rear arch is later. The S.W. quoin of the nave is built of large pieces of gritstone and limestone alternately. In the later heightening of the wall is a small oblong light (c. 1841) to the gallery.

The W. wall of the nave, of reused Roman stone, is built on an earlier wall of magnesian limestone. The gable is of red brick laid in irregular facing bond, with a stone coping.

The E. wall of the North Aisle (67 ft. by 10½ to 11½ ft.) is of magnesian limestone in large blocks. The 15th-century E. window, now blocked, was of three lights, altered in the 17th or 18th century; the head is almost round, with mullions running straight up without tracery. The N. wall is built of good ashlar and is of two periods: to E. of the N. doorway the outer face sets in slightly and has two narrow four-stage buttresses with gabled tops and an elaborate high plinth of the 15th century. The first two windows are modern, replacing 15th-century windows similar to the E. window. The W. section of the wall is thicker and is of three bays, with the tower built over the W. bay. The W. buttresses are of four stages with sloping tops; the two westernmost originally had gabled heads. The third and fourth windows are also modern, but the western window is partly original, with soffit cusps of c. 1300. The W. wall of the aisle is a 17th-century patchwork and includes a coffin lid beneath the plinth and another lid forming the N. jamb of a blocked square-headed window. Above and to S. is another square-headed light. At the S. end of the wall is a modern buttress, not quite in line with the nave arcade. Inside the aisle, the E. wall of the tower, of narrow brick, has a tall two-centred archway of two square orders with the imposts carried across as a string-course. The Tower (10½ ft. by 10½ ft., not square), of red brick in irregular English bond with stone quoins, rises two stages above the aisle. Each face is lit in the lower stage by a plain opening with a flat moulded stone head and, in the upper stage, by windows of two uncusped lights beneath four-centred heads. The tower is crowned with a chamfered string and stone battlements.

The 18th-century Porch (8 ft. by 8½ ft.) is of red brick, well laid in Flemish bond. The doorway has a rubbed-brick round arch with a stone key-block and moulded stone imposts. Above is a gable with a stone coping. Inside there is a flat plastered ceiling with a moulded cornice.

Roofs: the nave roof, of c. 1500, of six bays, has a very shallow pitch with cambered, stop-chamfered tie-beams, and principal rafters, purlins and common rafters all chamfered. The 17th-century chancel roof of four bays is similar to the nave roof, though with rafters of smaller scantling. An outer high-pitched roof above the ancient nave roof was apparently added when the tower was built in 1659.

Pre-Conquest Stones: the following are from the fabric of the church. (1–16) and (21–3) were found in the walls during demolition in 1963 and are now inside the Church of the Holy Redeemer, Boroughbridge Road, (1) set in the E. wall, (2) and (3) in the lectern, (4) and (22) in the pulpit, (5–13, 21) and (23) in the S. wall and (14–16) above the arcade. (17) is in private hands, (18–19) are in the Yorkshire Museum and (20) is in St. Clement's Church, Scarcroft Road. All are of coarse sandstone or fine gritstone and of the 10th to 11th centuries unless otherwise noted. The occurrence of gritstone probably indicates the re-use of Roman building blocks and tombstones.

(1) Cross-shaft (Plate 25) in two joining fragments 2 ft. 4 in. in total height and tapering from 10 in. by 9 in. to 8 in. square. On the front are two figures one above the other. The larger, lower figure is shown full-face wearing a long garment draped in many folds. On the breast is a rectangular object decorated with eight pellets, perhaps a book satchel, and between the hands is an oval object, possibly a chalice. Only the legs remain of the upper figure which was in profile in a halfsitting position with a sheathed sword at the left side. On the back is an animal with head downwards interlaced, perhaps linked to another. On the left side is a sinuous serpent crossed by a two-strand strip with knots in the curves; on the right a broad undulating band with two incised lines similarly crossed by straps probably indicates another serpent. The angles of the shaft are edged with cable moulding. The figures resemble those on crosses at Nunburnholme, Yorks. (YAJ, xxi (1911), 267), and at Edenham, Lincs. (Arch. J. lxxxiii (1926), pl. V, no. 13). Late 10th to early 11th-century. Stone (13) may be the lower portion of this same shaft which could then have been about 6 ft. high.

(2) Cross-shaft fragment 6½ in. by 8¼ in. carved on one face with cable moulding round two sides and formerly visible around a third, enclosing part of a circle formed by two incised lines, probably remains of a two-strand interlace or possibly of the nimbus of a figure. Probably 10th-century.

(3) Cross-shaft fragment or headstone 20 in. by 11½ in. by 6 in. (Plate 25). The lower half is undecorated where it stood in a socket stone or in the ground, and tooling here resembles Roman dressing. On the front is a simple plait within a border of pellets surrounded on the top and sides by a cable moulding. On the left side is a narrower, more complicated, plait, but about 1 in. of the right side has been removed. The stone resembles one from Parliament Street, now in the Yorkshire Museum (YAJ, xx (1908), 162), and stone (18) below.

(4) Cross-shaft base, 17½ in. by 13 in. by 8½ in. Only two faces are visible. On the wider face is a two-strand loop tied in a Stafford knot, through which is plaited a second loop; a similar knot presumably formed the upper half of the panel which is bordered by two incised lines and on the sides by a cable moulding. The left side has two plaited loops with a rectangular ending at the bottom. Probably 10th-century.

(5) Cross-shaft fragment, 10¾ in. by an original width of 13¼ in., with a simple close interlace on one face, so degenerate as to give the impression at first sight of incised cross-hatching. Cf. cross from Gainford (Haverfield and Greenwell, 97–8, No. xxxi).

(6) Coped tombstone, perhaps hog-back, fragment, 16 in. by 10 in. by 5 in., decorated on a chamfered edge with a band of a narrow two-strand interlace with a double cable moulding to one side.

(7) Cross-shaft fragment, 8½ in. by 6 in. to 7 in. The decorated face, probably a lower corner of a larger panel, has a pattern of closely woven two-strand straps with traces of a pellet or cable-moulding border below.

(8) Cross-shaft fragment 15 in. by 14 in. by 10 in. with traces on two faces of a very worn interlace and of a wide plain margin on two sides of the larger face.

(9) Hog-back fragment, 12 in. by 19½ in. to 21 in. On one face is part of an over-all flat in-and-out weave interlace below a very coarse moulding.

(10) Tomb-slab fragment, 18½ in. by 13 in. (Plate 25), but broken on all sides. On one face a cable moulding runs across a panel of animal ornament with entwined sinuous beasts, resembling that on a coped stone from St. Denys's Church, York (YAJ, xx (1908), 162).

(11) Cross-shaft (?) fragment, 10 in. by 9½ in. by 5¾ in., rounded at the top. On the face part of an interlace of two-strand straps is enclosed on three sides by a cable moulding within a plain border ending in a curve. Cf. the Two Dales Cross, Darley Dale, Derbyshire (Arch. J., xciv (1937), pl. XX).

(12) Cross-shaft, fragment 9½ in. by 6½ in. by 9 in. On two faces is an incised key pattern. (Cf. YAJ, xix (1907), 285; xxi (1911), 291.)

(13) Cross-shaft, 23 in. by 10 in. by 8½ in. On the face is a panel of very closely woven two-strand interlace, and similar interlace appears on the right side. The left side is very worn and the back face has apparently been removed. This may be the lower portion of the shaft to which stone (1) belonged.

(14) Fragment, approximately 1 ft. by 8 in., decorated with traces of an interlace on the only visible face.

(15) Cross-shaft, approximately 17 in. by 14 in., decorated on two adjacent faces with a close interlace within a narrow plain border.

(16) Tomb-slab fragment, 10 in. by 13 in., with, on the only visible face, a single two-strand strap woven in and out of rings interlaced to form a chain.

(17) Hog-back fragment, 31 in. by 13 in. to 23½ in. by 11 in. (Plate 26). On the central ridge are two cable mouldings with a simple two-strand interlace on either side. The worn original end probably had a terminal animal as at Barmston or Lythe (YAJ, xxi (1911), 258, 295). Found in a car park in Burton Stone Lane paved with rubble from the demolished church and now in private hands.

(18) Headstone fragment, 13 in. by 15 in. by 6½ in. On three sides are interlace panels within a border, plain on the sides and of pellets on the front; the back is mortar-covered. Traces of diagonal tooling and a raised border on the bottom show that this is a reused Roman stone. Found built into the late Norman footings at the N.W. angle of the nave and now in the Yorkshire Museum.

(19) Cross-shaft or cross-head fragment of magnesian limestone, 4 in. by 2½ in. by 3 in., showing part of a deeply carved interlace. Found in the footings of the 11th-century church and now in the Yorkshire Museum.

(20) Tomb-slab, 47½ in. by 15 in. to 17 in. (Plate 25), having on one face a patriarchal cross with interlace of two-strand straps in the panels between the arms and the border, which in places is a double cable moulding and in places a narrow plait. (YAJ, xx (1908), 207).

(21) Fragment of yellow limestone 14 in. by 6 in. by 6 in. carved with a crucifix in shallow relief 4½ in. high and 3 in. wide. The figure is naked except for drapery at the waist, and the feet are separate. A hollow above the head may be the trace of a Hand of God. Reused in 13th-century footings; probably pre-Conquest.

(22–3) Tombstone fragments, 8½ in. by 10 in. and 13½ in. by 7½ in., each with a foot and part of a leg in relief above a wide plain border. These are probably from Roman tombstones or sarcophagi brought from the cemetery in the Baile Hill— Clementhorpe area.

Fittings—Bells: six; each inscribed 'Pack & Chapman of London fecit 1770' (Plate 21) (York Courant, 12 February 1771), removed 1954 to St. Stephen's Church, Acomb. Benefactors' Tables: two; (1) oblong panel with moulded surround, benefactions of 1778 and 1843; (2) bolection-moulded panel with semicircular head (Plate 22), given by Thomas Todd (d. 1703), lettering of c. 1771, benefactors include Henry Beckwith, £100 towards new bells, 1771 (both now on W. wall in St. Clement's, Scarcroft Road). Brass: in freestone slab near altar step, (1) 'Hic jacent reliquiae G.D., C.D., E.W., P.G. ut supra in marmore scriptum est' (see Monuments (2)). Bread Shelves: oblong oak cabinet (Plate 23), mid 18th-century (now in N. chapel at St. Clement's, Scarcroft Road). Candlesticks: two enamelled candlesticks (Plate 24), 14th-century, found in 1859 under church floor (in Yorkshire Museum (YMH (1891), 237)). Chairs: three; (1) and (2) oak, with turned legs and front rail and enriched panelled backs with shaped tops (now at St. Hilda's Church, Tang Hall); (3) oak (Plate 44), 17th-century (now in N. aisle of St. Clement's, Scarcroft Road). Coffin Lids: above E. window, (1) fragment (Plate 27), 14th-century; in W. wall of tower, in plinth, (2) complete lid without markings, mediaeval; in W. wall of tower and forming N. jamb of blocked window, (3) fragment (Plate 27), 14th-century (found in course of demolition, now built into S. wall of Church of the Holy Redeemer, inside); in lintel of W. window of tower, (4) part of coffin lid inscribed in Lombardic capitals 'priez: pvr: lealme:', early 14th-century (now under E. lancet of Church of the Holy Redeemer); (5) part of lid with incised stepped cross, 12th-century (now in Church of the Holy Redeemer); (6) with floriated cross in relief, with chalice (now on S. wall in Church of the Holy Redeemer). (See also Pre-Conquest Stones, above.)

Collecting Shovels: two; of oak (Plate 23), 18th-century (now in St. Clement's, Scarcroft Road). Communion Table (Plate 44): of oak, with heavy turned legs, upper rails with slightly incised Jacobean enrichment, 17th-century (now in St. Clement's, Scarcroft Road). Door: in blocking of S. door of chancel, of planks, possibly 18th-century. Font: fragment found in 1964, with Geometrical panelling, late 13th-century. Gallery: at W. end of nave, pitch pine, front with five panels and moulded rail, 19th-century. Lord Mayors' Tables: on W. wall, two, (1) (Plate 22), inscribed Elias Pawson, 1704, W.m Coates, 1753, John Carr, 1770, second time, 1785; on frame between inscribed panel and City arms a small iron sword-rest, 18th-century; (2) tall panel with cinque-foiled head under battlemented cornice, 'VR' in spandrels and arms of York City at top, inscribed James Meek, 1848, James Meek, 1850, Henry Cooper, 1851, Fred Gains, 1945–6, 1946–7, c. 1850 with added names (both now in St. Clement's, Scarcroft Road).

Monuments and Floor Slabs. Monuments: on E. wall, N. of window, (1) [Hester, daughter of Robert Bushell and widow of Robert] Fairfax, 1735; on S. side of arcade, above E. arch, (2) George Dawson, late of Minster Yard, 1812, Catherine, second wife, 1807, and her two sisters, Elizabeth, wife of Rev. Henry Wood, D.D., 1799, and Philadelphia Gore, 1808, erected by George Dawson, son, large white marble sarcophagus with tapering sides, enriched cornice and pedimental lid, moulded base with fluted corbels, all against black marble, said to be signed 'Fisher sculpt' (J. W. Knowles, MS. Notes in York City Library); above second arch, (3) Mary Sophia, wife of Frederick Hill of Clementhorp, daughter of N. P. Johnson of Burleigh Field, Leicestershire, 1819, and two children, Charles Frederic, 1811, and Frederica, 1813, white marble sarcophagus set on oblong pedestal, against black marble slab, by Melor?, York; in spandrel of second pier from E., (4) inscription, now defaced, to Edward Prest, 1821, and Elizabeth, wife, 1841, oblong white marble slab with cartouche above between palm leaves, with arms of Prest, sculptor's name indecipherable; over third arch, (5) Henry, fourth son of Edward and Elizabeth Prest, 1827, white marble slab on black, by Skelton; in spandrel over fourth pier, (6) Francis, son of Stephen and Martha Beckwith, 1818, and Stephen, M.D., Senior Physician, brother, 1843, oblong white marble slab on projecting oblong pedestal supported on foliated consoles, all against black marble, by Skelton; on S. wall, (7) Thomas Suttell, 1789, white marble oval with border formed by snake with head in mouth, on black marble slab, by Thomas Atkinson; (8) Joseph Harrison, merchant at Newport in Rhode Island, later private secretary to the Marquis of Rockingham, by whom he was appointed Collector of Customs at Boston in New England, Helen, wife, 1794, oval marble slab as (7); (9) Sarah, wife of Peter Atkinson, architect, 1825. In N. aisle, (10) Christopher Brearey of Middlethorpe, 1826, Jane, wife, 1835, oblong white marble slab on black, by Skelton; (11) Rev. Richard Tillard, Vicar of Wirksworth, Derbyshire, 1736, with arms of Tillard with escutcheon of pretence of Yoward. The following (12–17) are in St. Clement's, Scarcroft Road. On W. wall, (12) Catherine, widow of Henry Pawson and only daughter of Robert Fairfax of Steeton, 1767; (13) Alathea, sister of Robert Fairfax of Steeton, 1744, with lozenge-of-arms of Fairfax; (14) Thomas Rodwell, 1787, white marble slab set on another, supported by two plain corbels, by John Fisher (Morrell, Monuments, 84); restored by George Cressey, relative, 1844; (15) Elias Pawson, Lord Mayor 1704, 1715, and Mary, wife, daughter of William Dyneley, 1728, cartouche with impaling arms of Pawson (Plate 32); (16) Rev. John Graham, 48 years rector, 1844, white marble slab with moulded top and base, on grey marble slab with shaped head and base bearing ivy wreath and palms, by Fisher, York; (17) Henry, son of Elias, grandson of Henry Pawson, 1730, white marble slab between recessed panelled Corinthian pilasters and moulded cornice surmounting segmental pediment, supported on enriched corbel, signed 'W. Palmer fecit' (William Palmer of London). In churchyard, among some twenty-five late 18th and 19th-century tombstones etc.: N. of chancel, (18) Hannah and Mary, daughters of Samuel and Mary Lucas, and Henry, son, 1848, signed 'Lucas' (the father); N. of tower, (19) Peter Atkinson, York architect and partner of John Carr, 1805; (20) James, son of Peter and Magdalen Atkinson, 1791; S. of chancel, (21) John Stevenson, 1828, by Waudby, Coney Street; S. of porch, (22) Jonathan Tomlinson, 1828, and wife, Ann, 1825, by Plows; W. of church, (23) James, 1827, Henry, 1828, and Martha Bromley, 1836, by Plows. The last three are in fine-grained limestone with shaped heads and good lettering.

Floor Slabs: (1) Lydia Robinson, 1831; (2) Sarah Pawson, 1724; (3) Ralph Yoward, 1714, Sarah, widow, 1716, Richard, nephew, Receiver General of Archiepiscopal Rents of York, 1748, Elizabeth Morrice, widow, sister of Richard, 1768, Ralph, son of Richard, 1781; (4) William Coates, merchant, Lord Mayor of York 1753, 1758; (5) Edward Prest, 18[21], Elizabeth, widow, 1841, Henry, fourth son, 182[7]; (6) Thomas Suttell (see monument (7)); (7) Elias, son of Elias Pawson, merchant, 1700, Alice, daughter, 1702, Elias, son, 1705, Dyneley, son, Elizabeth, daughter, 1708, Thomas, son, 1710, the said Elias Pawson, 1715, Mary, wife, 1728; (8) Mr. Tho... 178.; (9) Francis Brown, late of Leicester, 18..; (10) Mary Bewla(y), 1752, Henry Bewlay, Common Brewer, 1762; (11) Elizabe(th), widow of John Taylor, butcher, 1759, two children, Elizabeth and Ann; (12) Mary, wife of Robert Fairland, 1749, (Eliz)abeth, daughter, (Ro)bert Fairland, 1753; (13) Elizabeth, wife of George Cressey, 1805, three children: Selina, 1799, Thos. Rodwell, 1811, John, 1813, Susanna, wife of George Cressey, 1819, George Cressey, 1846; (14) Thom(as Thackray), Ann, wife, 1806, Thomas, son, 1847; (15).......... Wm. Porter and grandson of above Thomas and Ann, 1772, Ann, wife of Wil. Porter, merchant, William Porter; (16) ..........William Jackson, junior, 1751, Mary Wharton, daughter of William Jackson, senior, 1751, Elizabeth, daughter of Thos. and Ann Thackray, 1772, Lucia Elizabeth Thackray, 1781; in N. aisle, (17) Margaret, daughter of Tho. and Ann Middleton, 1720; in porch, (18) slab inscribed 'Hic jacet Richardus Cordukes A.M., Rector hujus Ecclesiae', (1796).

Organ: by John Ward, 1846 (Yorkshire Gazette, 23 May and 12 September 1846), moved to St. Mary Bishophill Junior in 1901. Wall Painting: at E. end of N. arcade, on S. side fragment of black-letter inscription in English, set in panel with round pedimental head, 16th-century. Piscina: in S. wall, W. of easternmost lancet, with cinque-foiled head and stop-chamfered reveals, bowl destroyed, early 13th-century. Plate (now at St. Mary Bishophill Junior): includes (1) cup of 1674, inscribed 'Deo et Ecclesiae St. Mariae de Bishophill Senr Ebor. Anno. Dom. 1674. John Place Geo. Smith Church Wardens'; with (2) paten as cover, York letter for 1674 and mark of Robert Williamson; (3) salver on tapered stem, inscribed 'Deo et ecclesiae St. Mariae De Bishopphill Senr. Anno Domino 1706. John Mawman and William Tesh Church wardens', with London letter for 1706–7 and mark of Andrew Raven (Fallow and McCall, 1, 17–18). Pre-Conquest Stones: see above before 'Fittings'.

Miscellanea: the S. side of the churchyard is divided from Carr (formerly Kirk) Lane by a wall largely of brick (17th18th century) and partly of 19th-century masonry. Its base incorporates remains of a much earlier stone wall, part of which may well be that defining the S. side of the Saxon burial ground, the E. and W. sides of which were marked by walls of post-Roman date found in the excavations of 1964. The eastern of these walls apparently joined the wall to the lane at a point where the character of masonry changes, a very large block indicating the external angle. There is an early blocked gateway, 4 ft. wide, towards the lane, some 20 ft. to E. of the modern gateway.

In the excavations of 1964 the following were found: in N. aisle, at the W. end, (1) pewter paten with large knop, probably 16th or 17th-century; from graveyard N. of church, (2) fragments of spreading foot of pewter chalice and segment of flat paten with raised rim; from burial disturbed by destruction of E. enclosure wall of Saxon churchyard and by subsequent burials, (3) bronze strap-end (D. M. Wilson in Med. Arch., ix (1965), 154) probably 10th-century, now in Yorkshire Museum.

(10) Parish Church of St. Paul (Plate 134), stands in a small churchyard on the N. side of Holgate Road. It is built of brick faced with coursed sandstone rubble and ashlar dressings; the roofs are of Bangor slate with Staffordshire ridge-tiles.


Fig. 36. (10) Church of St. Paul, Holgate Road.

This part of the old parish of St. Mary Bishophill Junior developed rapidly as a residential area for railway employees after 1840. A new District church was proposed some time before 1850 and designs were made by J. B. and W. Atkinson. Plans and elevations survive (archives of Messrs. Brierley, Leckenby & Keighley) and bear dates of October and November 1850. The contractors were John Beal and John Bacon. The church was opened on 7 October 1851; it cost about £2,400 (York City Library, YL/Gray, Letters 5(b), 8(b)). The consecration by the Archbishop of York took place on 3 January 1856 (T. Whellan and Co., History and Topography of the City of York; and the North Riding of Yorkshire (1857), 1, 562), when the original perpetual curacy became a rectory.

Alterations were proposed in 1874 (Borthwick Inst., Faculty Papers 1874/2) and in 1890 (Faculty Papers 1890/22), when the architects were Demaine and Brierley (descendants in practice of Messrs. Atkinson). In 1890 the chancel was extended into the nave and the organ was removed from the gallery to the N.E. corner; new screens were put on either side of the chancel and the pulpit was moved further W. In 1906 a Faculty was obtained to replace the three tall lancets in the E. wall with a Geometrical window filled with stained glass. The architect was G. H. Fowler Jones and the glass was made by Heaton, Butler and Payne of London (Faculty Papers 1906/22).

The church is an interesting example of the Gothic Revival in York, as practised by a leading firm of local architects.

Architectural Description—The church is an aisled parallelogram, with a projecting W. bay of full height forming a narthex. The Chancel (26 ft. by 20 ft.) comprises the original structural chancel of a single narrow bay and the E. bay of the nave. The arcades are of boldly moulded two-centred arches, and the chancel arch is similar, resting upon responds with triple shafts.

The arcaded Nave (54½ ft. by 51 ft.) is of four bays and, with the E. bay now forming part of the chancel, is uniformly treated, having paired lancets in the aisle walls. In the arcades, the slender piers of painted cast iron are widely spaced and support deeply moulded two-centred arches of plastered brick. The narthex projects W. one bay beyond the end walls of the aisles. The W. wall carries a bell-cote capped by a gable with foliated cross. There is a large rose-window above the W. doorway, and the latter is flanked by elaborate niches.

The main Roof has collar and king-post trusses with large arched braces resting on moulded corbels some distance below wall-plate level; there are intermediate trusses, with collars only, between the main trusses. The roofs of the aisles also have main and subsidiary trusses, with braced collars carrying queen posts. All the panels are plastered.

Fittings—Galleries, at W. end, supported on beams bolted to the iron arcade piers, the intermediate beams being supported by circular iron columns; the fronts rounded and panelled.


Fig. 37. (11) Church of St. Stephen, Acomb.

(11) Parish Church of St. Stephen, Acomb (Plates 135, 136), stands in a large churchyard set back from the N. side of York Road. The E. end is built of rubble ashlar; the transepts, nave and tower are of brick, ashlar-faced in Tadcaster stone. The roofs are slated.

The earlier church consisted of an aisleless nave and chancel (G. Benson, AASRP, xxxviii, i (1926), 78), perhaps dating from the 12th century, but modified in the 15th century. In 1831–2 the nave was replaced by the present Nave and Transepts designed by G. T. Andrews, perhaps in association with Peter Atkinson, who had made a design approved in 1829; a new Tower with spire replaced the previous bell-cote. In 1850 the chancel was taken down, and in 1851 the old chancel arch was removed and the new Chancel built. A Vestry was built, over the Hale vault, in 1889, and in 1890 the E. window was inserted.

The church is an interesting example of early 19th-century Gothic.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (19¾ ft. by 17½ ft.) is of ashlar, with two-stage buttresses, and has a three-light window in the E. wall and a two-light one in the S. wall, both with geometrical tracery. The chancel arch is of two chamfered orders, the inner resting on corbelled shafts. The Nave (36¼ ft. by 29 ft.) and Transepts (23 ft. by 12½ ft.) form a large single compartment, T-shaped on plan. They are of white magnesian limestone, with uniform buttresses and lancet windows. Extending across the whole of the two western bays of the nave is a gallery supported on iron pillars. The tower arch has a four-centred head with chamfered reveals, and a similar arch above gives access to the gallery. The Tower (10 ft. square) is of two stages, buttressed. It is surmounted by corbelling and a moulded cornice and carries a simple broach spire. The chancel Roof is of scissor-rafter type; the transepts and nave roofs, the latter arched, are ceiled.

Fittings—Bells: three; (1) inscribed 'Jesus be our speed 1660. Recast by John Warner and Sons, London'; (2) 'Venite exultemus Domino. Given by M. A. Hale 1889. R. P. T. Tennant vicar. Cast by John Warner & Sons, London 1886'; (3) inscribed 'Iesvs be ovr speed 1633' (YAJ, xvi, 47). Chairs: within altar rails, two, of Jacobean character with inset panels, Adam and Eve, and Hope (Plate 42); panels and parts of frames, early 17th-century. Gallery: at W. end of Nave, with pitch-pine front, supported by four octagonal iron pillars, 19th-century, before 1850. Glass: in lancet in E. wall of N. transept (from E. window of older church), royal arms of Charles II in Garter and with supporters, scroll-work, initials and mottoes (Plate 41), dated 1663, probably by Edmund Gyles.

Monuments and Floor Slabs. Monuments: In nave, on E. wall, (1) Frances Etridge, 1825, white against grey marble, with round pediment enriched with swag and scrolls between semicircles, and with anthemion above and moulded plinth below, signed Plows of York; (2) Rev. Joseph Pickford, 1804, son of Sir Joseph Radcliffe, Bart., Mary Pickford, 1834, daughter of Sir Archibald Grant of Monymusk, Aberdeen, white marble with moulded cornice against pedimentalheaded black marble, signed Williams of Huddersfield; (3) Thomas Smith, 1810, twice Lord Mayor of York, Ann Smith, wife, 1818, John Smith, fourth son, 1805, Barnard Smith, youngest son, of Murton Hall, 1822, Rev. William Smith, M.A., eldest son, 1823, Henry Smith, fifth son, 1823, and several others including Thomas Smith (junior), second son, Alderman and twice Lord Mayor of York, 1841, freestone, with black marble inscription panels, in the Gothic style and with the arms of Smith (Plate 35) signed M. Taylor York, from chancel of older church; on N. wall, (4) Rebecca, 1761, wife of Samuel Armytage; (5) William Philips, 1827, signed M. Taylor; (6) William Kay, 1798; on S. wall, (7) Jeremiah Barstow, 1821, and Dorothy, wife, daughter of John Kilvington of Acomb, 1803, white marble slab and urn on pedestal, against grey marble pyramid, signed Fisher of York (Plate 33); (8) Elizabeth, wife of Nathaniel Wilson, 1758, and Nath. Wilson, 1765 (Plate 33); (9) Jane, 1837, widow of John Weatherill of Bootham, and John Weatherill, 1820, on pedimental-headed black marble, white marble sarcophagus (lid missing) with claw feet between swags of laurel, on plain base under ascending dove, erected by Anne Hutchinson, signed Davies of Newcastle upon Tyne. In N. transept, on W. wall, (10) Frances, 1841, wife of Richard Hale, Jemima, daughter, 1816, William Lawrence, son, 1830, Elizabeth, daughter, 1832. In Churchyard: E. of church, (11) Samuel Smith, baker in Acomb and York, 1713; N.E. of chancel, (12) Ellen Jones, 1830, signed Fisher; S.E. of chancel, (13) William Burdeux, 1690, mostly indecipherable, flat freestone slab on four plain legs, with incised scroll-work at base, with reference to benefaction; N. of church, (14) Robert Driffield, 1816, with shield-of-arms (Fig. 38); S.W. of tower, (15) Jonathan Ferrand, 1741, jeweller, son of John Ferrand, born in Normandy; W. of church, (16) Thomas Royston of Knapton, 1680, wife, 1712, Matthew, son, 1721. There are some other well-preserved headstones of the period 1774–1822 with simple shaped heads and fine lettering; one to the Clarke family is inscribed 'E.B. 1798' on the back. A headstone to George Hubback, 1810, and flat slabs to members of the Driffield family, 1806–16, and of the Smith family, 1822–52, have inscriptions on brass plates. Floor Slabs: of freestone, (1) Sylvester Richmond, 1793; (2) Anna, 1743, Elizabeth, 1745, children of John and Elizabeth Kilvington, John Kilvington,....

Panelling: in gallery, flanking archway to tower, dado of fielded panelling, and section of similar forming back of seat on N. side, 18th-century. Plate: cup with bell-shaped bowl, conical stem and domed foot, with added inscription 'Acom Church' in lettering of late 17th-century character, York mark, no date letter, stylistically of c. 1570 (Fallow and McCall, ii, 10–11). Royal Arms (Plate 41): in gallery, on wooden panel, William IV.

Miscellanea: in nave, on E. wall, inscribed limestone tablet recording rebuilding of church, 1831. On step to S. doorway to tower, part of black-letter Latin inscription, the winder under tower stair having formed part of a tombstone. In wall near S.E. entrance to churchyard, stone inscribed 'E.B. 1727', possibly the date of the wall.


Fig. 38. (11) Church of St. Stephen Acomb. Shield of arms from headstone of Robert Driffield.

(12) Parish Church of St. Edward the Confessor, Dringhouses (Plates 135, 136), stands in a small churchyard on the S.E. side of the Tadcaster Road. It has walls of limestone quarried at Clifford and roofs of Cumberland slate. A chapel had recently been built at Dringhouses in 1472 by parishioners of Holy Trinity, Micklegate, who had hitherto worshipped at Acomb (YFR, 254); it stood on the site of the present Library in front of the former Manor House. Another chapel, to N.E. of the present church, was built in 1725 (VCH, York, 376); its foundations still remain. Both of these earlier chapels were dedicated to St. Helen. The present Church was built in 1847–9, the architects being Vickers and Hugall of Pontefract; the contractor was Roberts, and the carpenter Mr. Coates of York. The design resembles that of Littlemore Church, Oxfordshire, as the work was done at the expense of Mrs. Trafford Leigh, an adherent of the Oxford Movement. An organ was built in a new recess in 1868, and a chancel screen to the design of C. Hodgson Fowler of Durham was inserted in 1892 (Borthwick Inst., Faculty Papers 1868/7; 1892/22). The Vestry was enlarged in 1902 (Faculty Papers 1902/10). The spire was renewed in fibreglass in 1970.


Fig. 39. (12) Church of St. Edward the Confessor, Dringhouses.

The structure is a pleasing example of scholarly work of the Gothic Revival, and the craftsmanship is good.

Architectural Description—The church consists of a chancel and aisleless nave, a vestry to the S.E., a N. porch and W. bell turret. The Chancel (27 ft. by 18¼ ft.) is built of ashlar with enrichments of ballflower. It is of two bays with buttresses. The E. window is two-centred with three lights and geometrical tracery; the side windows are two-light with two-centred heads and geometrical tracery. Inside, the enrichments, which include a stencilled inscription, are painted and gilded. The Nave (55½ ft. by 25½ ft.) is of four bays, with buttresses and two-light windows with geometrical tracery in two-centred heads. The W. wall has diagonal buttresses and a centre buttress of four stages supporting a clock turret on the gable. The turret, set diagonally, carries a small octagonal spire and is flanked by two-light windows with geometrical tracery. At various points on the internal walls of chancel and nave are inscribed scrolls in relief. The nave roof is supported by a series of corbels, each consisting of a demi-angel supporting an abacus and holding a shield bearing the emblems of the Passion. The floor is of red and grey tiles, by Minton, set diagonally.

The oak Roof of the chancel has three trusses each with principal rafters and a tie-beam supported by braces and carrying tracery; the purlins are moulded. The nave roof has two struts above the beam instead of tracery. The simple Porch (11 ft. by 9¼ ft.) has a roof of scissor type.

Fittings—(All of 1847–9 unless otherwise stated.) Doors: to N. porch, (1) of vertical oak planks with scrolled hinges externally; to newel stair, (2) of vertical planks. Font: of Clifford stone, octagonal, with decoration of window form of two trefoiled lights with geometrical tracery on each face. Glass: in chancel, (1) in E. window, Christ between St. Mary and St. John; at foot of N. light Christ tempted in the Garden, of centre light Christ carrying the Cross, of S. light SS. Mary and John walking away, with background of crosses; this glass won a first prize in the Great Exhibition, 1851; (2) in E. window in N. wall, SS. Luke and John, (3) in W. window in N. wall, SS. Mark and Matthew; (4) in window in S. wall, SS. Peter and Paul. In nave, (5) in E. window in N. wall, two scenes of Our Lord with children; (6) in W. Window in N. wall, Parables, (a) Good Shepherd, (b) Sower, (c) Talents, (d) Prodigal son; (7) in third window from E. in S. wall, Christ and a cripple and Christ walking on the water; (8) in lancet in S. wall, set in grisaille, round panel of Virgin and Child, the latter reading a book, perhaps 18th-century; (9) in N. window in W. wall, St. John Baptist and St. Joseph carrying the Child; (10) in S. window in W. wall, Moses and Elias. Excepting (8), all the foregoing made for the original church by William Wailes of Newcastle, whose monogram and the date 1849 are in (3).

Monuments: in vestry, three wall monuments and brass plate recording their removal in 1849 from the old chapel, namely, (1) Rev. Francis William Dealtry, M.A., 1822, Rector of Over Helmsley, with impaling arms of Dealtry; (2) Elizabeth Frances Dealtry, 1793, daughter of Francis Barlow of Middlethorpe, wife of Rev. William Dealtry, Rector of Skirpenbeck and Wigginton, Yorks., large slab of white marble, signed T. Atkinson, York; (3) Samuel Francis Barlow, 1800, son of Francis Barlow who built the second chapel, against pyramidal-shaped grey marble, white marble slab with brown veined marble strips, moulded cornice and fluted base, under draped urn on pedestal between two flaming lamps, signed Wm. Stead, York. In nave, to S. of chancel arch, (4) Edward Trafford Leigh, 1847, buried at Lymm, Cheshire, 18 years Rector of Cheadle, Cheshire, in whose memory the church was dedicated. Plate: includes cup with semicircular bowl, octagonal stem and large jewelled knop, with London mark 'IK' and date-letter of 1848/9; paten with same mark and, on top, lamb and flag in sexfoil; flagon with round body, shaped neck and foot, with same mark. Processional Cross, embodying the original brass altar cross. Pulpit: of stone, octagonal, with decoration of window form as on font on three sides, moulded rail, carved base of naturalistic foliage. Seating: simple benches of oak with panelled backs and ends. Stalls: in chancel, five to N. and four to S., with carved, moulded backs and shaped arms, and desks with shaped ends and carved poppy heads. Miscellanea: in churchyard, to N.E. of church, foundations of 18th-century chapel, section of paving of limestone squares with diagonal insets at angles and some red quarries; the Barlow vault at E. end.

(13) Convent of the Institute of St. Mary called The Bar Convent (R.C.) (Plate 138), stands on the corner of Blossom Street and Nunnery Lane. It is built of red brick with stone dressings and has roofs of Welsh slate.

The founding of the Bar Convent was due to the establishment of an Institute of Religious Women, a body concerned with the education of girls, as the outcome of the work of Mary Ward (1584/5–1644/5). A house of the Institute, endowed in 1678 by Sir Thomas Gascoigne, was temporarily set up at Dolebank near Fountains, but was transferred to the present site in York, where a messuage and garden had been purchased, on 5 November 1686, to provide a home of Religious women and a boarding school for young ladies. Mother Frances Bedingfield, a companion of Mary Ward, became the first Superior and the Bar Convent Grammar School can claim to be one of the oldest girls' schools in England.

A prospect of York by John Haynes, dated 1731, and other early views show that the original 'Nunnery' was accommodated in a two-storey house of late 17th-century type, with a porch. Between this house and the corner of Nunnery Lane was a house, belonging to Mr. Benson in 1731, of early 18th-century character (Plate 162), which was later added to the convent; it was rebuilt as the Poor School in 1844–5.

The present buildings were begun in 1765 to designs by Thomas Atkinson, and a foundation stone was laid on 4 March 1766. The residential parts were ready for occupation early in 1768 but the Chapel was not used until 27 April 1769. The moving spirit behind the building programme was the Superior, Mother Ann Aspinall (d. 1782), who obtained from Rome a small model for the chapel. The fittings of the chapel were not completed until 1775, when a new wing containing rooms for music and drawing was built between the chapel and the old house on Blossom Street. Rebuilding of the street frontage followed between 1786 and 1789, and a total of £1091 6s. 6d. was spent. In 1790–3 a new range, with children's refectory below and dressing room and a long dormitory above, was built to N. of the main court, costing £987 13s. 4½d. Thomas Atkinson was still the architect; John Prince was the main contractor and Richard Hansom supplied the roof and other woodwork. Fittings for the Chapel were provided and payments in 1790 included 'the Glory at the Large Alter in Burnished Gold'.

A building E. of the Chapel was remodelled in 1814– 16 at a cost of £1149 4s. 1d., the principal builder being Thomas Rayson. Richard Hansom, the carpenter, supervised the work and Robert Mountain provided masonry. In 1826 additional land was bought and laid out as a garden, and in the next year a new oratory (since demolished) was built in the burial ground to S.E. In 1834–5 there was a fresh campaign of building under the architects J. B. and W. Atkinson, and this included a range closing the N. side of the main court to S. of the children's refectory, and a large conventual range running N. from the E. end of the Chapel. The latter range cost £2313 9s. 9¼d.; the main builder was Richard Dalton, bricklayer; Richard Hansom was the carpenter, and Michael Taylor, a distinguished sculptor, provided stone from Elland, Harehill and Oulton and chimney pieces made of Illingley and Roche Abbey stone. The building was lit with gas and provided with flushing water closets. Minor works were also done in the Chapel, which was fitted with gas, and in 1837 the Sacristy was enlarged; two marble basins were supplied by Michael Taylor.

The house on the corner of Nunnery Lane was demolished in 1844 and a new Poor School, designed by G. T. Andrews, was built on the site. The total cost, inclusive of the fees to the architect and the clerk of works, was £1472 3s. 11d. The principal builder was John Lakin, bricklayer; Noah Akeroyd, mason, provided the stonework, and John Bacon was the joiner. The work was completed in 1847. In 1844–5 a third storey to contain a dormitory was built over the children's refectory, and in 1846 the sanctuary of the Chapel was enlarged and seats for the bishop, priests and acolytes provided. Lunettes in the nave and the window lighting the S. transept were inserted at this time. The architect throughout this period continued to be G. T. Andrews, who in 1850 added new kitchens adjoining Nunnery Lane, at a cost of £999 4s. 11d. Later works included the formation of a Lady Chapel and its decoration in 1853–5 and the roofing of the central court in railway-station style after 1865. The School Infirmary was destroyed by enemy action in 1942. Further accommodation was added between 1945 and 1957 (VCH, York, 442). The Chapel was altered and redecorated in 1968–9. (H. J. Coleridge, St. Mary's Convent, Micklegate Bar, York (1887); Convent archives.)


Fig. 40. (13) The Bar Convent. Building of 1789–9.

Architectural Description—The main Front Range of 1786–9 is of three storeys and attics, built of red brick with stone dressings; the windows have rubbed brick flat arches, stone sills and 19th-century plate-glass hung sashes (Plate 138), recently (1969) fitted with glazing bars. The pedimented central feature (Plate 137) is set within an arched recess; this design was used by the architect Thomas Atkinson also for the façade of his own office in St. Andrewgate. The ends of the range are cloaked by other buildings, and the four-storey rear face has an annexe of three storeys built against it. The annexe has a pent roof above a modillioned cornice and, projecting above the roof, a square brick clock-tower (Plate 151) rising to the height of the wall of the main range and supporting a wooden cupola. This last has an ogee lead-covered roof and moulded cornice supported on columns. The clock was made by Henry Hindley of York (d. 1771) and cost £60 in 1789, additional expenses were £39 2s. for erection and £3 4s. for the two faces and scaffolding to put them up. In 1790 Robert Dalton supplied three 'Turrett Clock Bells' for £24 15s.

Inside, the main rooms retain their late 18th-century character and have moulded cornices and skirtings but in general have lost the chair rails. The doorways have moulded architraves and doors with six fielded panels; the windows towards the street retain their shutters. The entrance hall has arcading with pilasters on each side with doorways opening into the Great Parlour (so called in 1834) on the S., and the portress's rooms on the N.; N. again is the Little Parlour. The Great Parlour, which contains original portraits of Sir Thomas Gascoigne and four of the Mothers Superior, has round-headed recesses in the E. wall; these flank the fireplace for which £56 7s. 10d. was paid in 1788. It is of white marble with inserts of veined green marble in the entablature and originally had oval wreaths on the pilaster entablatures and a large wreath set above swags and festoons on the key block. The passage in the annexe on the inner side of the main block is open to the Court.


Fig. 41. (13) The Bar Convent.

The Court to the rear of the main range has arcades of round-headed arches on oblong piers to E. and W. Cast-iron columns (not shown on the plan), supporting a glass roof on iron trusses were added after 1865. An ornate floor of Minton tiles and iron benches, chairs and tables, all of mid 19th-century date show the influence of G. T. Andrews. Large benches in iron and wood, with a nasturtium pattern, are by C. B. Dale.


Fig. 42. (13) The Bar Convent.

The North Range, of 1834–5 and by J. B. and W. Atkinson, is built of dark red brick. On the S. side, facing the Court, the ground floor has two windows flanked by two doorways, all under segmental heads and with deep reveals. Above the glass roof to the Court the first floor has four large windows and one blind recess all with slightly segmental heads and stone sills; above a projecting band of four courses of brickwork the second floor has square-headed sash windows cutting into the cornice. In the E. wall there are round-headed windows above the doorway. There is a straight joint between this range and the parallel Refectory range to N. On the ground floor the W. room, formerly a scullery, has been remodelled and the chimney-breast has been rebuilt; there are some remains of a former chimney carried by a moulded corbel on the E. wall and the ceiling in the E. part of the room is lower than in the W. The first-floor passage on the N. has a round-headed archway leading E. to a staircase off the N. angle, rising from first-floor level. The latter, of 1834–5, has a moulded rail, cantilevered stone treads and plain square iron balusters. The second-floor landing has turned wooden balusters with square knops and a heavy newel, of c. 1765–70 and probably reused. The fielded panels of the cupboard doors under the stairs are also 18th-century and reused.

The South Range, of 1778 and earlier, was remodelled in 1834–5 when the N. wall was reconstructed to match the S. elevation of the N. range, giving symmetry to the Court. The S. elevation incorporates some older brickwork of the late 17th or early 18th century towards the E. end. The ground floor is lit by two hung-sash windows of the early 19th century; higher up two arches of 1778, for openings now blocked, remain. Incorporated into the E. end of the range is the staircase to the chapel, originally built in 1766–9; it is lit by a window of c. 1840 with two small round-headed lights on the S., and a big window with semicircular head on the E. On the ground floor, a passage on the S. has been opened into the two adjoining rooms in the range by the insertion of arches. On the first floor, the passage on the S. is terminated by round archways with recessed panels to the reveals; the arches of 1834–5 are supported on volute corbels. The E. room has doors flanking the fireplace, all of 1778, and a door of 1834–5 in the S. wall. The W. room likewise has an 18th-century fireplace and doors. The chapel staircase has a moulded rail, stone treads and square iron balusters, as in the N. range, of 1834–5. Again the timber balustrading to the top landing embodies a heavy rail, a bottom rail or string, a heavy newel, and turned balusters with square knops, of 1766–9, but here in situ.

The Chapel Block, of 1766–9, with major alterations of 1847–53, closes the fourth, E., side of the Court. At ground-floor level a corridor opens to the court, as on the W. At first-floor level a blocked round-headed opening in the middle is flanked by windows under plain brick segmental arches, each of the two windows being of two round-headed lights with Gothic shafts, with moulded caps and bases to mullions and jambs, all of c. 1830–40. The second floor has three segmental-headed windows with sashes. Above the cornice is a hipped roof, and on the roof is a wooden bell-housing with pyramidal lead top. At each corner is a tapered rainwater head with moulded cornice and base on a lead fall pipe with opposed fleurs-de-lis on the junction bands.

The rear, E., elevation (Plate 138) is also symmetrical. The window proportions and eaves cornice are unusual for 1766–9. The plate glass casements and top lights of the ground and first-floor windows may be by G. T. Andrews. The heads of the side lights of the ground-floor Venetian windows are of painted ashlar. The arched and segmental heads of all other windows on this elevation are of plain brick. The simple cornice on shaped modillions is cut into by the small-paned sash windows of the second floor.

The N. side, of buff-red brick, has four-brick bands separating the floors. The windows all have small panes and are a mixture of sash and casement types set irregularly. Widely-spaced brackets support a plain wooden cornice.

On the S. side two floors correspond to three floors elsewhere. Towards the E. end the Lady Chapel projects southward; it was lit by a round-headed two-light window with vesica at the head at first-floor level, but this was replaced in 1969 by a sash window. The ground floor is lit by two Gothic windows, each with four round-headed lights under lozenges as tracery. Above the ashlar heads is a four-brick band. Three lunettes at first-floor level are set under a brick arch, which cuts a four-brick band related to the sash windows originally here. There is a gutter supported on metal brackets to the hipped roof; in this last are two flat-topped dormers and a roof-light towards the E. In annexes against the Lady Chapel are round-headed windows, with stone sills, perhaps by G. T. Andrews, of c. 1850.

The interior retains many cornices, skirtings, doorways and other fittings of the 18th century. The ground floor is divided longitudinally by a central passage, N.E. of which is a large room, the 'Sitting Room of the Lady Abbess' in 1834, with a Venetian window in the E. wall and, in the W. wall, between the doorways a simple round-headed niche at a high level. The second main room on this side of the passage has been sub-divided; the E. half has a good late 18th-century fireplace with moulded dentil cornice, fluted frieze, and blank centre panel. The Library, to S., has been formed out of two rooms, called in 1834 the 'First School' and the 'Drawing School'. In the E. part of the S. wall are two groups both of three recesses, the middle recess of each having a round-arched head. The W. wall has a round-headed niche in the middle flanked by doorways with moulded surrounds and heavy overdoors each with a pedestal to carry a bust centrally placed in a broken pediment. The lobby at the W. end has a blocked doorway at the S. end and a blocked window at the N. end respectively of the W. wall. On the first floor, a passage at the W. end is spanned by a series of round-headed archways with moulded architraves. The square-headed entrance to the chapel from this passage has a surround like the archways.

The Chapel (Plate 139) has complex internal arrangements, but the structure is hidden by a simple hipped roof; this disguised its function before Roman Catholic emancipation. To the E. and defining the Sanctuary, eight freestanding Ionic columns with an entablature comprising an enriched dentil cornice and a frieze decorated with festoons of grape vine between urns and ribboned sprays of flowers (Plate 139) support a large ribbed dome. The dome rises to a cupola with glazed top and a drum enriched with close-set brackets above a band of palmette. A narrow glazed zone at the base of the cupola, possibly an insertion by G. T. Andrews and removed in 1969, formerly separated the tops of the individual radial ribs; these last, eight in number, are round in section and enriched with leaves. Each bay of the vault contains an oval medallion framed by enrichments which alternate from bay to bay: some with curved swags of conventional foliage supporting crossed sprays of foliage and fruit, and the others with intersecting swags supporting palm leaves. The entablature towards the nave (as opposed to the Sanctuary) is simpler and has a heavy dentil cornice; the 19th-century painting on the frieze was obliterated in 1969. The plasterwork, probably by Thomas Atkinson, which is now white and gilt, was painted in 1847 by Mr. Bulmer, perhaps to designs of G. T. Andrews. The N. and S. bays of the rotunda open to small transepts under a curved trabeation supported by heavy foliated corbels and pilasters with a round recessed panel between two shaped panels in their height. They are probably a remodelling of 1847 by G. T. Andrews. In the N. wall of the N. transept, round-headed panelling frames both the square-headed doorways, and the window to the staircase has a round head framing two round-headed lights and a blind spandrel; the E. wall has a square-headed recess between two oblong panels. A trapdoor in the transept floor gives access to a cavity about 8 ft. square. The S. transept extends eastward beneath a small dome and the cupola to form the Lady Chapel; entry to the extension is between responds similar to those at the entry to the transepts. The cupola has a glazed top and elongated brackets and is supported on radial ribs springing from a modillioned cornice. The recess departs from G. T. Andrews's plan of 1845, but it was constructed to his design in 1853 and decorated in 1855. A niche was discovered in the E. wall in 1969 when the decoration was altered.

The Nave has a coved plaster ceiling, with an iron grille in the centre. The three round-headed recesses in both N. and S. walls may be by Thomas Atkinson. Those on the N. are blind, those on the S. contain glazed lunettes probably by G. T. Andrews, of 1847. The W. gallery may have been fitted between 1847 and 1855 by G. T. Andrews, for the W. end had assumed its present shape by 1855 (Sheahan and Whellan, 1, 556). The gallery, which contains the organ, is carried by four round columns of painted timber with caps of Early English type, square abaci, moulded bases, and bands at mid height. The columns support round-headed arches with recessed spandrels under a bold coved cornice. The organ gallery has an elaborate scrolled iron railing. The cornice returns on either side of the organ recess at gallery level.

The Sacristy on the E. has a curved W. wall to accommodate the rotunda of the chapel. A blocked square light in this wall formerly provided indirect light for the High Altar. The doorway at the S. end of the curved W. wall which opens to the Sanctuary has an 18th-century architrave and a door of c. 1845. The doorway in the S. wall is of 1847–55. An S-shaped staircase of 1847–55 by G. T. Andrews, of similar design to his staircase in the Schoolroom block (see below), is entered through a doorway in the S. wall of the Lady Chapel. A staircase E. of the Lady Chapel is not accessible from the Chapel block at this level.

The Chapel Roof is original, but where the cupola has been heightened one of the principals has been trimmed back. The truss above the cupola has a king-post and struts above a collar; all other trusses have tie-beams, queen-posts and struts. The 'garet over the chapel' was underdrawn in 1791 and partitions were put in an attic storey.

Fittings—Altars: in Sanctuary, table incorporating two mahogany scrolled legs with winged cherub heads and pellet enrichment and, on floor in front, a pelican in her piety, of oak, from the 18th-century High Altar shown in a lithograph of 1840, and now reinstated in the same relative positions (Plate 139). In Lady Chapel, table of c. 1855 by a Mr. Hayball, possibly designed by G. T. Andrews. Images: in nave, in niches on N. and S. walls respectively, St. Joseph with infant Jesus, and Virgin of Assumption with crescent moon, clouds and cherubs' heads, two white marble statues bought in Florence in 1823 for £20 each; St. Sebastian; St. Michael; St. Margaret, three 18th-century Baroque alabaster statues (Plate 140), probably Spanish, brought from the Dominican Priory of Bornheim in the Netherlands by Fr. Anthony Plunkett O.P., its last Prior, then in Stourton Lodge Chapel for some time, and placed in the Bar Convent in 1805 when Plunkett was chaplain. At foot of staircase to S.W. of chapel, seated Virgin and Child, of limestone painted buff with some gilding, early 17th-century, Flemish, on 19th-century wooden restored base, from St. Martin's, Coney Street, removed by Mr. John Leadbitter, after whose death it was in the Spital at Hexham from 1867 to 1893, then given to the Convent by M. Elizabeth, John Leadbitter's grand-daughter. Reredos: in modern setting, carved oak figures of the four Latin doctors (Plate 40), N. to S., St. Jerome with lion, St. Gregory as pope holding book, St. Augustine as archbishop holding flaming heart, St. Ambrose as archbishop holding book, 18th-century, now painted white and gilded. Paintings: at top of staircase to S.W. of Chapel, triptych in oils, depicting, l., kneeling man, bald and bearded, with eight sons behind, c., Lamentation, with Virgin pierced by dagger flanked by angels bearing instruments of the Passion, r., kneeling woman with two grown-up daughters behind, perhaps 17th-century; the family of Sir Thomas Gascoigne (c. 1596–1686) has been suggested for donor, but the number of children is incorrect. Panelling: on staircase to S.W. of chapel, eight carved wooden panels (Plate 42), four with enriched round-headed arches, cherubs' heads in spandrels, and fluted pilasters, four with figures in niches and strapwork surrounds, with Netherlandish inscriptions, (1) Resurrection, inscribed 'CHRISTUS IS MIN LEV-. NDT VND SAE EVEN IS MIN GEWIN [illegible]', (2) Crucifixion, inscribed 'CHRISTVS IS IMME VI. SER SUNDE WILN GEOF. FERT Aō 1597', (3) Adoration of the Shepherds (?), inscribed 'EHRE SI GOT IN DER HOGE. FREDE VP ERDE VND DEMN. GHE-EIN WOL (blank) ALLEN', (4) Annunciation, inscribed 'DE ENGEL GABRIEL GENA. NT VAN GODT WERT. TO MARIEN GESANT' and Virtues, (5) Prudence, as double-headed man, inscribed '.. HOFAIOT'; (6) Justice, with sword and scales, inscribed '.. GE. DH. DH'; (7) Fortitude, woman carrying a column, inscription illegible; (8) Charity, woman with child on left arm and another by right side, inscribed 'D .. LE TE', 16th-century. Carved wood panel of Entombment, with dead Christ supported by an angel, probably 18th-century and French. Miscellanea: patriarchal cross, relic, of silver-gilt chased with scroll work and inscribed, with seal of Chapter of St. Omer 1657–62, presented by Rev. Thomas Lawson, S.J., 1792, enclosed in silver shrine of 1860, perhaps from the Bromholm Rood in existence by the 13th century.

The School Rooms in the angle between Blossom Street and Nunnery Lane were built to the designs of G. T. Andrews in 1844–45. The Blossom Street, W., front (Plate 138), is set slightly forward from the adjoining main 18th-century front and has a two-storey giant order supporting a heavy pedimented entablature, with a moulded dentil cornice above a deep frieze of good quality ashlar. The brick podium has a chamfered stone plinth. The windows have rubbed brick flat arches; the plate glass sashes were changed to small panes in 1969. The upper sills extend from pilaster to pilaster, the lower sills form a continuous moulded stone top member to the podium. A curved section of brickwork at the angle is pierced at street level by an inserted doorway of c. 1920. The N. front to Nunnery Lane, though of coarser brick, has the stone plinth and heavy entablature continued from the W. front, but the cornice is without dentils. Windows and doors have segmental heads. The windows are at varying levels since the S. part is of three storeys, the central part fronts a staircase, and the N. part is of two storeys. The E. wall is of similar brick, of three storeys, and the heavy stone entablature continues across it. Inside, on the ground floor a large Dining Room with apsidal N. end has cornices running round cased beams and a circular surround to a gaslight point in the centre of each ceiling bay. A curved door on the N.E. leads to the kitchen. On the first floor is a lofty School Room, also with an apsidal end. The S-shaped staircase has a round handrail and cast-iron balusters and a heavy turned wooden newel; each baluster is decorated with an oval medallion at mid-height with a four-lobed leaf on each side and foliation at head and foot.

The North Range containing the Refectory was built to the designs of Thomas Atkinson in 1790–3 and formed the original N. side of the Court. The Long Dormitory on the second floor was added by G. T. Andrews in 1844. All three storeys are of reddish brick. On the N. side, to W. of a large chimneybreast, the ground floor is lit by an 18th-century four-light Gothic window set high; it has four round-headed lights divided inside by a round shaft with moulded cap and base and sub-divided by lesser round shafts. Three windows on the first floor are grouped within a concrete surround, with a single window adjacent to the chimney-breast. On the second floor two large sash windows with small panes are placed together under a concrete head. A blocked window to the E. has a brick dentil cornice as the sill, showing that the roof has been raised. There is a plain plank cornice.

In the E. end, on the ground floor is a Venetian window with a central arched brick head, but the intermediate jambs and the heads of the side lights are of concrete or painted ashlar; inside, the central opening is flanked by freestanding pillars with moulded caps and bases. The first-floor sash window has a slightly segmental head and retains the original sashes. Immediately above is a statue of the Virgin and Child in a round-headed niche. The second floor has a similar window, but with twelve panes instead of six.

Inside, the Refectory on the ground floor, remodelled in the 19th century, has in the W. wall a simple round-headed entry between two slightly lower shallow niches also with round heads; over the entry is a moulded corbel of c. 1830–40. In the S. wall is a blocked central doorway and a second doorway of c. 1855. Three cased girders have been inserted beneath the ceiling. The 18th-century window in the N. wall contains 19th-century glass in the spandrels, with gold foliated patterns set in blue and red. On the first floor, a room at the E. end has a fireplace and other features of c. 1800.

The Range extending N.E. from the Chapel block, designed by J. B. and W. Atkinson, was built in 1834–5. The top storey was added in the late 19th century, and the two N. bays were rebuilt after damage during the 1939–45 War. It is three storeys high. The E. elevation has six sash windows under slightly segmental arches of ordinary brick and with stone sills on each floor. The 19th-century cornice has reeded wooden brackets set widely apart. The N. elevation is modern. The W. elevation has similar sash windows with flat arches and stone sills on the ground floor, some original round-headed sash windows on the first floor and modern windows above. The S. part of the elevation is now masked by a modern annexe but when the Commission's plan (Fig. 42) was made a curved passage projected at mezzanine level. It had round-headed lights and resembled an oriel window. The cornice is a wooden gutter supported on widely-spaced brackets.

Inside, the Sewing Room on the ground floor has been rebuilt in the style of 1834–5. The Refectory has a fireplace of Illingley stone in the N. wall set in a round-headed recess and flanked by round-headed recesses; it is by Michael Taylor and has a mantelshelf supported by shaped brackets and, above, a horizontal panel set under a moulded cornice. Three round-headed niches with simple moulded architraves are set high up in the W. wall. The passage on the W. is somewhat altered; it was similar to the passage on the first floor. The latter has a series of transverse arches on pilasters separating plaster groined vaults and intermediate barrel vaults; at the N. end is a large round-headed niche. The plasterwork is by David Jennings. The first-floor Library has been largely rebuilt following bomb damage, eliminating a slightly curved apsidal N. end which existed before. The Community Room has round-headed recesses containing original chests of drawers in the E. wall and another fireplace by Michael Taylor. The Staircase has unpierced walls between flights; it has broad stone steps, stone landings, and plaster barrel vaults. Above the landing between the ground and first floors are two shallow domical vaults and in the corresponding position above are groined vaults.

The Range (Plate 138) extending S.E. from the Chapel block (not shown on the plans) and on the site of an earlier building, was drastically remodelled in 1814–16 and its interior retains nothing of interest. It is three storeys high, seven bays long, and one room thick, with a single-storey prolongation of four bays to the E. The N. elevation is stucco-faced. A chimney projects between the third and fourth bays. The ground floor has seven round-headed windows with sills joined to form a continuous band, moulded imposts, and moulded archivolts. The first floor has similar fenestration, but with shorter windows, and the two W. bays are blind. The second floor has square-headed windows; the two W. bays are again blind. The simple wooden cornice is supported on widely spaced modillions. The E. elevation is also stuccofaced and has the first-floor impost moulding and second-floor sill band returned from the N. elevation. The S. elevation is of brick. There is a central three-sided projecting bay rising through all three storeys with three sash windows with stone surrounds in each storey. Various annexes have been put against the W. end of the elevation, and there is a modern range against the other end. A single-storey Range to the E. of the last block has four round-headed openings on the N. side with moulded archivolts and imposts, and roundels with raised mouldings in stucco above the piers. There is a roof light in the slate roof. In the stucco-faced E. end is a single round-headed opening.

(14) Former Albion Chapel (Wesleyan Methodist), Skeldergate (Plate 57, Fig. 43), was designed by the Rev. John Nelson junior and opened for worship by the Rev. Robert Newton on 11 October 1816 (J. Lyth, Glimpses of Early Methodism in York (1885), 228; Hargrove, 11, 172, gives the date as 16 October). It is of plain red brick and cost £2, 250. After the erection of a new chapel in Priory Street, it was sold in 1856–7. The building has been converted to a warehouse for the storage of heavy electrical gear with much loss of original detail. It has a rectangular ground plan and originally had galleries down both sides and across the N.E. end; the galleries were approached by staircases at the entrance. (R. Willis, Nonconformist Chapels of York (YGS, 1964), 23–4; VCH, York, 409.)

The street front (Plate 57), in good quality brick, is symmetrical, with the centre three bays slightly projecting. The pedimental gable has ashlar coping and a central circular window with plain ashlar surround. In the centre projection the ground floor originally had three openings; of these, the main entrance has been removed and blocked with modern brick though the semicircular arch of brick headers remains in situ; to either side are secondary entrances, possibly originally giving access to the gallery staircases; the doors have been removed and the entrances blocked, but the simple doorcases remain and have shallow cornice-hoods supported on simple brackets. Over the three entrances are rectangular stone panels; no inscriptions remain. In both recessed flanking bays are round-headed sash windows, with the tympana or fanlights now filled with boards. On the first floor are five windows with ashlar sills and rounded arches of brick headers. The N.W. side is in stock brick and has three segmental-headed recesses and, at the S. end, a simple doorway. There are or were three round-headed openings to the first floor. The three centre bays of the S.W. elevation project 4½ in.; in the projection are two tall round-headed windows and, to E. and W., blocked openings in each storey. The S.E. side has been altered by the opening of a large doorway, and some stucco-rendering.

All fittings have been removed from the inside, but scars on the side and end walls denote the former positions of the galleries, which had tiered seating. The two windows in the S.W. wall have simple moulded architraves.


Fig. 43. (14) Albion Chapel, Skeldergate, before alteration.

(15) Former Primitive Methodist Chapel, known as Benson's Chapel, Acomb Green, was built c. 1846. It was bought by the Society of Friends in 1912 and converted to form their Meeting House. No original features of interest survive. (H. Richardson, History of Acomb (1963), 29; VCH, York, 406.)

(16) Former Wesleyan Chapel, now Nos. 91, 93 Front Street, Acomb, was built in 1821 and opened on 20 November in that year. It ceased to be used when Trinity Chapel was built in 1879, and the building was sold in 1881. After that date the structure was so greatly altered in conversion into two dwelling-houses that little can be seen of the original, apart from traces of a gallery at first-floor level and a circular plaster ornament on the ceiling where a chandelier was formerly suspended (Allen, 1, 469; H. Richardson, History of Acomb (1963), 29; VCH, York, 412.)

(17) Cholera Burial Ground (59755178) lies between Station Road and a footpath which runs parallel with the City wall. It was originally about 200 ft. by 45 ft., with the main axis lying S.W. to N.E. The ends have since been rounded, and the area now bounded by a low stone kerb includes part of a stone yard which formerly occupied land to the N.E. of the site. (OS 1852.)

A cholera outbreak in York lasted from 3 June to 22 October 1832 (Sheahan and Whellan, 1, 368). Consideration of possible sites for a special burial ground had occurred before the epidemic reached York (House Book B50, 273) and permission to use the present site for the purpose was obtained on 8 June (Yorkshire Gazette, 9 June 1832). As the Archbishop refused to consecrate the land if only leased from the Corporation, it was conveyed to trustees on 21 and 22 January 1833 and consecrated on 23 January (Borthwick Inst., R.4K.180. A, B, and C). Not all the 185 victims of the epidemic were buried here; some burials took place in St. George's old churchyard (Yorkshire Gazette, 23 June 1832: report of 18 June). An attempt to secularise the ground for road widening in 1925 was successfully resisted, for the Chancellor of York Diocese decided against the grant of a faculty for the purpose on 25 January 1927 (AASRP, xxxviii, ii (1927), lxxiii).

There are twenty surviving memorial stones. They are all of sandstone, and the date of death is generally 1832.

(18) Friends' Burial Ground lies in Bishophill. The ground was bought in 1667 and closed in 1855 by an Order in Council of 1854 (YCL, Cooper's MSS., 7.121); it is marked as 'Quakers' Burying Place' on Cossins's plan of York of c. 1727 and mentioned in 1736 (Drake, 269).

All the headstones are to one simple pattern with a rounded top and are of the 19th century, despite the dates upon some of them; those recording deaths in the 18th century bear the inscription 'within these precincts' and were erected after 1818 (Hargrove, ii, 160). The lettering is of uniform style. The stones are arranged in seven rows, with two outliers. Four of the rows are marked by small stones, A, B, C and D. (Record of the names and dates is in RCHM archives.)

(19) St. Clement's Priory, better known as Clementhorpe Nunnery, was a small house of Benedictine nuns founded by Archbishop Thurstan c. 1130 (EYC, 1, 278– 81). It incorporated an earlier parochial church dedicated to St. Clement, which had already given its name to the locality. Though ruins of the priory church (Plate 6) were still standing in the early 18th century (Drake, 247), the last remains of the buildings were swept away in 1873 excepting a small section of the Precinct Wall on the S. side of the street of Clementhorpe (60305108), with traces of the wall further E. in the footings of a brick wall on the same alignment; the remains are of magnesian limestone (for the ruins visible in 1825 see drawings by George Nicholson in York City Art Gallery, box B5, PD410; B7, PD353, ff. 49, 50). (VCH, Yorkshire, iii, 129; York, 360, 377.)

The Yorkshire Museum contains a few worked stones from the site (W. H. Brook, MS. Catalogue, ii, nos. 419–21, 424–5) and a fine though mutilated carved figure of the Virgin and Child seated in a niche (Plate 141), 51½ in. by 23 in. by 9 in., 14th-century. This can be identified with a woodcut reproduced by William Lawton, who gives details of rediscovery (William Lawton, in W. Bowman, Reliquiae Antiquae Eboracenses (1855), 59–61).

Footnotes

1 A cruciform plan is indicated by the relatively narrow central span on the N. side, by the pairs of buttresses flanking the penultimate bay of each choir aisle before 1860 and by the scale and arrangement of the N.E. chapel, which must originally have had a roof running from N. to S. The view of the church from N.E. by W. Monkhouse and F. Bedford (The Churches of York, 1843) shows that the aisle roof changed in height above the second buttress from the E., indicating that a former transept had been absorbed in the chancel aisle.
2 In 1458 there is reference to 'cancello cantariae S. Nicolai et B. Kat. virg'. (TE, ii, clxviii.)
3 See E. A. Gee 'The Painted Glass in All Saints' Church, North Street, York' in Archaeologia cii (1969).
4 See Sectional Preface, p. xxxii.
5 Yorke in his will (TE, iv, 134–7) asked to be buried 'coram imagine Trinitatis, in mea propria tumba ibidem fabricata', indicating that it had already been prepared before 1498. (See Glass; cf. Raine, 250.)
6 The date is established by the Churchwardens' Accounts Book for 1670–1754 (Borthwick Inst., Y/MG.20).
7 This and the mark in E. window of S. Chancel aisle are possibly the earliest surviving merchant's marks in stained glass in England (C. Woodforde, English Stained and Painted Glass (1954), 27).