Miscellaneous Secular Buildings
(12) The Yorkshire Museum (Plate 83) was built in
1827–9 for the Yorkshire Philosophical Society to the
designs of William Wilkins R.A. with interior details by
R. H. Sharp and J. P. Pritchett (VCH, York, 535;
J. Mayhill, Annals of Yorkshire, 1 (1878), 332). It covers
the site of parts of the E. and S. buildings round the
cloister of St. Mary's Abbey. The Tempest Anderson
Hall was added on the N.W. side of the Museum in
1912, covering the remains of the vestibule to the
Chapter House which are preserved in situ in a basement
The Museum is in the Greek Doric style with a portico of
four fluted columns in the middle of the S.W. front. The
entablature returns along the front and sides and there are
pilasters at the corners. The plan comprises a central space
designed as a lecture room with balconies on three sides, and
four ranges of display galleries. On the S.W. side the gallery is
raised to the first floor over the entrance hall, curator's room,
and library; on the other three sides the galleries are on the
ground floor with small balconies forming an upper level. All
the galleries and the central space are top lit, the roof to the
latter being supported by six Corinthian columns, and beams
enriched with guilloche on the soffit. Basements extend under
the whole building, which is faced throughout with ashlar.
Fig. 39. (12) The Yorkshire Museum. The Observatory.
An early drawing of the museum, unsigned and undated, is
shown in Plate 82 (YM, mh f. 82v). It differs in plan from the
actual building in the partitions in the front range and in the
columns in the original lecture room.
Mediaeval sculpture in the Museum is described on pp. xliv–
xlvii and 22–24.
Curator's House, immediately S.E. of the Museum, was
designed by J. B. and W. Atkinson in 1844, the original
drawings being preserved by Messrs. Brierley, Leckenby and
Keighley (Fig. 40). It is in Tudor style and has been little
altered. The walls are of magnesian limestone mostly reused
from St. Mary's Abbey.
Observatory, in the Museum Gardens, was built in 1832–3
to house the instruments offered to the YPS by Dr. Pearson,
rector of South Kilworth, Leics., at the British Association
meeting of 1831 (E. W. Taylor in YPS Annual Report 1970,
29–32). It is of stone with a lead-covered roof, and octagonal
on plan. A basement contains two massive stone mountings
for telescopes at ground-floor level for which there were two
straight openings in the roof. In the middle of the ground floor
a small stairway leads up to a central platform with telescope-mounting within a smaller octagonal upper storey surmounted
by a revolving pyramidal lead-covered roof with one opening
side. This roof was also given by Dr. Pearson; it was said to
have been designed by the engineer John Smeaton and had
served to roof a summer-house in Dr. Pearson's garden.
(13) City Art Gallery. The origins of the art
gallery go back to the Fine Art and Industrial Exhibition
of 1866, held on a site in Bootham Park. This was very
successful, and a proposal to hold a second was approved
in 1876. A site was acquired within St. Mary's Abbey
precinct near the King's Manor, known as Bearpark's
Garden. E. Taylor of York, who had designed the 1866
Exhibition building, was appointed architect and
W. Atkinson hon. consulting architect. Work began in
January 1878, and the building was opened the following year. In addition to the building which still exists
there was a further wooden structure behind, to the
N.W., which contained a great hall 200 ft. by 90 ft.,
with galleries around three sides. This part was declared
unsafe and closed in 1909, but not demolished until 1941.
The School of Art occupied some rooms in 1890, and
the whole building was acquired by York Corporation
in 1891. The permanent building was damaged in
World War II, and restored and reopened in stages
between 1948 and 1952. (VCH, York, 537; John
Ingamells, 'The Evolution of York City Art Gallery'
in York Times, 1, no. 1, Summer 1961; Report on 2nd
Yorkshire Fine Arts and Industrial Exhibition (1879).)
The building faces S.E. towards Exhibition Square. The
front, of yellow sandstone, is of two nearly equal storeys. At
either end is a pavilion, in the French manner, though of very
slight projection. At ground-floor level the pavilions have
round-arched doorways flanked by coupled Corinthian
columns, between decorated panels; the whole of the centre
part is screened by a vaulted loggia of quattrocento character
of five bays with a similar return bay at each end; the spandrels
between the arches contain portrait medallions. On the first
floor each pavilion has a wide central bay divided by pairs of
Corinthian pilasters from two narrower side bays. Between
the pavilions are five bays of the wider type, the three middle
bays being slightly advanced to carry the central pediment.
The wider bays are filled with blind arcading containing, in
the pavilions only, coloured pictorial panels; the narrower
bays contain niches and other ornaments. Each of the pavilions
is surmounted by a decorative attic.
The gallery contains an important collection of topographical prints and drawings referred to in the Sectional
Preface (p. xlix). There are also two important stained glass
panels by William Peckitt (1731–95) (Plate opp. p. xlix): (1) a
Self Portrait of c. 1770 bequeathed to the gallery in 1952 by his
direct descendant Miss M. M. Rowntree; (2) Justice in a
Triumphal Car beneath the Arms of the City, 1753, presented
in that year by Peckitt to the Corporation of York in return
for his freedom to practice his art within the City; it was first
installed in the Guildhall (now Committee Room 1) but was
transferred to the gallery in 1951. (YAYAS, Annual Report
1953–4, xiv, 99, 104, Fig. 21; the panel was not destroyed as
(14) Cavalry Barracks, Fulford Road, dated 1796,
are of two storeys and have brick walls with ashlar
dressings and roofs covered with Welsh slates. They
comprise three ranges set around three sides of a square.
The buildings were designed by James Johnson and
John Sanders, official architects to the Barrack Department of the War Office, as part of the barrack building
programme initiated by William Pitt in 1792; considerable additions were made in 1861–5 (VCH, York,
The officers' quarters to the E. (Plate 80) have a simple brick
front in 15 bays with a pediment over the central part enclosing
an achievement of Royal Arms modelled in Coade stone
(Plate 81) with the maker's name and date COADE 1796.
The N. and S. buildings have stables below and men's quarters
above, reached by galleries carried on cast-iron columns; a
second tier of columns carries the roofs above. Demolished
Fig. 41. (14) Cavalry Barracks, Fulford Road. Officers' Quarters.
(15) Militia Stores Depot, Lowther Street, is
probably contemporary with the development of
Lowther Street in 1830–8. It consists of three detached
buildings ranged round an open courtyard, all of two
storeys with brick walls and slated roofs with widely
overhanging eaves. The buildings are of plain design.
The central doorway has a timber pilastered door-case
similar to those on contemporary houses; the windows
have hung sashes under segmental or semicircular
arches. Original iron gates and railings enclose the front
of the site. To N., E. and W. there is an enclosing brick
(16) Castle Mills Bridge carrying Tower Street
over the river Foss consisted of a single semicircular
stone arch built c. 1800 by the Foss Navigation Company
to replace an earlier bridge (VCH, York, 519–20). It was
widened in 1836 when it had become 'wholly inadequate
to the traffic upon it' (YG 16/1/1836; 14/5/1836; YCL,
Evelyn Coll. plans 28, 30; Council Minute Book,
vol. 1, p. 49); the work was carried out by Messrs.
Craven (YG 27/8/1836). In 1848 G. T. Andrews reported
that the bridge was in a poor state of repair (YG
20/5/1848). Part of the bridge was repaired in 1851 (YG
17/7/1852) and further repairs were carried out in the
next few years (VCH, York, 520; Sheahan & Whellan,
1, 367). Demolished 1955.
(17) Layerthorpe Bridge. There was a bridge over
the river Foss here in 1309 and one was broken down by
the defenders of the city in the siege of 1644 and restored
twelve years later (VCH, York, 519). The present bridge
was constructed in 1829 by H. Craven & Sons to a
design by Peter Atkinson junior (YCA, B.50, 68, 134;
K.64; and M.17a), the rebuilding necessitating the
removal of Layerthorpe Postern. The single arch,
spanning 35 ft., is now only visible from underneath,
between later concrete additions.
(18) Monk Bridge carrying the road over the river
Foss at the W. end of Heworth Green was built in 1794
to a design by Peter Atkinson senior (YCA, K. 63; YC
12/6/1794). It has a single round arch of coarse yellow
ashlar with large plain voussoirs, spanning 18–20 ft. An
earlier bridge was broken down in 1644 (Torre, 108) and
its successor was in such a bad state of repair in 1791
that an indictment was brought against the Corporation
by the Crown (YCA, K.63). The Corporation bore the
cost of the new bridge, aided by a contribution of £100
from the Foss Navigation Company on the understanding that the bridge should be 'fully sufficient for the
purposes of the Navigation with a towing path or
paths under the same'. The work was carried out by
Joseph Lister, Christopher Dalton and (?) King (YCA,
K.63; c.75, f. 20v). A second footpath on the E. side of
the bridge was added and the approach to the bridge
improved in 1844 (YCA, Council Minute Book, vol. 3,
1842–50, 103, 108). Between 1924 and 1926 the bridge
was widened and the upper parts rebuilt (YG 18/9/1926),
(19) Yearsley Lock, Foss Navigation (608536). In
1793 an Act of Parliament (33 Geo. III c.99) was passed
'for making and maintaining a navigable communication from the junction of the Foss and Ouse to Stillington Mill', 10 miles N. of York. In August of the same
year J. Moon was appointed to superintend the works
and by November 1794 navigation was opened up to
Monk Bridge. John Rennie reported on the work in
1795 by which time four locks had been built. Two
further locks were subsequently built and the canal
completed to Sheriff Hutton but it was never extended
to Stillington. Of the two locks within the City that at
Castle Mills was rebuilt in 1859, but most of Yearsley
Lock remains; the gates have been removed and a
concrete weir built in place of the upper gates. The lock
has sides built of brick with gritstone dressings and is
18 ft. wide.
The construction of the Foss Navigation made
possible the draining and reclamation of the area of
marsh which represented the fishpond formed by the
damming of the Foss at Castle Mills by William I
c. 1086, to protect the more important of his two
(20) Gasworks at junction of Monkgate and Fossbank stand on part of Piper Lane Close acquired by the
York Gas Light Company from William Oldfield and
Ann Tamar in 1823 (YCA, E.91, f. 175). None of the
original gasworks buildings survives but the entrance
to the site is flanked by a pair of lodges of the second
quarter of the 19th century. The W. lodge was a
house probably for the Manager; the E. lodge was
The lodges are of two storeys with white brick walls and
slated roofs; the principal parts of the street elevations each
consist of one bay flanked by pilasters; between the pilasters
each ground-floor window is or was round-headed and
recessed, and small niches are recessed into the pilasters.
Between the lodges are ashlar gate-piers.
(21) Bootham Park Hospital was one of the first
lunatic asylums to be established in Britain. The main
building (Plate 77) was completed to the designs of John
Carr in 1777 (YAJ, iv (1877), 205). Behind this a small
building containing a kitchen and sitting-room for
female patients was added and in 1795 an 'extensive
wing' was built. This was probably the 'detached wing'
which was burnt down in 1814 with the loss of the lives
of several patients; it was replaced by 1817 when the
present N.E. range was opened for the reception of
female patients (Sheahan and Whellan, i, 609, 610),
making use of fireproof floors. By 1850 two further
buildings had been added to the N.W.: the first contained a wash-house, brew-house, etc. and later was
converted to a recreation hall; the second contained
wards for refractory patients (OS 1852). In 1886 the
first three buildings were joined together to form on
plan a letter I and the main staircase was moved out of
the front block and a new staircase formed in a new
structure immediately behind it. During the next twenty
years the hospital was completely refitted internally
except for the Committee Room, and recessed loggias
in the back of the Female Patients range to N.E. were
enclosed. Further buildings have extended the hospital
to N.W. and the restrictive walls which enclosed the
patients' airing yards have been removed.
Fig. 42. (21) Bootham Park Hospital. Development plan.
Fig. 43. (21) Bootham Park Hospital. Plan of original block as in 1850. From OS map.
The main block is of three storeys, built of red brick with
stone dressings, and roofed with Westmorland slate. The front
is in eleven bays, the lowest storey of the three central bays
projecting and carrying four engaged Tuscan columns under a
pediment to form a centre-piece (Plate 78). Above this there
was formerly a circular colonnaded turret with a domed roof
(VCH, York, pl. opp. p. 408). The end bays also project
slightly. The central entrance is framed by rusticated Tuscan
columns and pediment; recessed round-headed windows give
emphasis to the first floor. In the end elevations the windows
lighting the ends of the main corridors are of three lights
elaborated with columns and pilasters; those on the second
floor are semicircular; all are placed off-centre in the four-bay
elevation. At the back the end bays project more boldly; the
central pediment is repeated but not the columns below it.
The early 19th-century buildings are more simply designed;
they have brick walls with plain sash windows and roofs
covered with Welsh slates.
All the earlier buildings have been refitted, but in the original
building the Committee Room on the ground floor retains the
original fireplace surround and cornice, and to the walls are
fixed wooden panels in frames enriched with composition (?)
decoration, on which the names of subscribers are recorded.
In the N.E. block of 1817 the floors of the upper wards are
carried on a fireproof construction of arched brickwork
spanning between iron beams.
Fig. 44. (21) Bootham Park Hospital. Fireplace in
(22) County Hospital, Monkgate, was designed by
J. B. and W. Atkinson of York and opened in 1851. The
original architects' drawings, dated 1849, are preserved
in the office of Messrs. Brierley, Leckenby and Keighley,
successors in practice to the Atkinsons. A hospital was
opened in a house in Monkgate in 1740 and moved five
years later into a new building which stood in front of
the present building and which was pulled down in 1851
(VCH, York, 467–8). Additions to the new hospital
include the Watt Wing opened in 1884 and a children's
wing opened in 1899, both designed by Demaine and
Brierley. The same architects probably designed a
Nurses' Home, added in 1905. They also designed the
iron balconies which were added to the E. side of the
original building in 1902 but have since been removed.
The original building, of three storeys in brick with stone
dressings above a basement of massive rusticated stonework,
has a slate roof and forms a rectangular block about 185 ft.
long by 56 ft. wide. The main W. front is designed in fifteen
bays, the centre being marked by a large entrance with rusticated stone arch and tripartite windows above. Inside, the two
main staircases have stone steps and balustrades with scrolled
iron standards fixed into the ends of the steps, by William
Walker. In the forecourt are lamp standards also by William
Walker bearing his nameplate.
(23) Ingram's Hospital, Bootham (Plate 79), was
built as almshouses by Sir Arthur Ingram of York who
died in 1640. The land was acquired in February 1629/30
from Thomas Sandwith and the building must have been
nearing completion in the summer of 1632 when
Richard Coundall was paid for seating and stalls for the
chapel, and James Ettie made the stairs (Leeds Public
Library, Separate Estates 9, Temple Newsam MSS.,
TN/YOA 12 and TN/YOB I). It included from the start an
archway from the demolished part of Holy Trinity,
Micklegate (Plate 46). The building was badly damaged
in the siege of York and accounts for the repairs carried
out in 1649 show that at least 5000 bricks were needed,
and almost all the timber-work had to be renewed
including partitions, floors, staircases and the roof.
Accounts for repairs and maintenance during the later
17th and 18th centuries are preserved, and include bills
for retiling part of the roof in 1674 and again in 1789
(TN/YOB I and II). In 1958 drastic alterations were made
to the interior and the back in conversion of the building
to flats, and windows were made in the back elevation
where previously there had been none.
The building is of brick with tiled roofs and comprises a
central four-storey tower flanked by two-storey ranges each
of which contained five dwellings. Projecting S.W. from the
back of the tower, a single-storey wing contained the chapel.
Set in the N.E. face of the tower is the late 12th-century archway from Holy Trinity, of two orders with a label, all enriched with nail-head ornament. The ranges to each side have
stone plinths, doorways with four-centred stone heads,
ground-floor windows with stone dressings, a brick band at
first-floor level and upper windows with stucco dressings. At
the back, the projecting chapel wing is finished with a curved
Dutch gable beneath which modern brickwork covers a
window of four lights with plain uncusped tracery in a two-centred head. Each wing has two projecting chimneystacks
and three doorways with four-centred brick arches. The ends
of the two wings are now masked by higher later buildings,
but some remains of a curved Dutch gable can still be seen at
Fig. 45. (23) Ingram's Hospital, Bootham.
Inside, the partitions between the rooms are timber-framed
with brick filling between the studs housed into grooves cut
in the sides of the studs. The original fireplaces had brick
arches but these were covered in the late 18th or early 19th
century by stone surrounds within which were placed iron
ranges with ovens all enriched with a variety of raised patterns
of panels with foliage, thistles, etc. The staircases were reconstructed probably in the 19th century. The roof is carried on
collar-beam trusses with purlins clasped between collars and
principals and receiving additional support from intermediate
collars and brackets fixed to the underside of rafters.
Fig. 46. (23) Ingram's Hospital, Bootham. Timber construction.
(24) The Retreat (Plate 82) was established at the
end of the 18th century by the Society of Friends as a
mental hospital, following the death of a Friend in the
York County Asylum (Bootham Hospital) in 1791 and
the unsatisfactory condition of the County Asylum at
that time. William Tuke with the assistance of his son
Henry and his friend Lindley Murray raised money for
the purchase of the site which was acquired in 1793.
Subscriptions were called for from Friends in all parts of
England and, in spite of considerable financial difficulties,
the first buildings were opened in 1796, comprising a
central three-storey block with a recessed two-storey
W. wing. The following year a corresponding E. wing
was erected. The designer was John Bevans of London,
and construction was supervised by Peter Atkinson, of
York. In the next thirty years a new block was attached
to each of the four corners and a third storey was added
to the original E. and W. wings. Improvements recorded
in the annual report for 1843 included warming the
building by hot water, drying apparatus, additional
warm bathing, and the lighting of apartments, galleries
and passages with gas. Further improvements were made
in the years that followed. In 1850 there were 114
patients, the highest number up to that time. Further
buildings were added in the later 19th century and in the
present century. An extensive programme of modernisation was carried out c. 1960. (S. Tuke, Description of the
Retreat (1813); H. C. Hunt, A Retired Habitation (1932);
The buildings are of plain brickwork with slated roofs. The
entrance retains its original pedimented door-case but most of
the windows have been refitted with modern sashes. The
original sashes of which only a few now remain were of iron
with iron glazing bars; in order to give security without the
appearance of bars one sash filled the whole height of the
window but was only glazed in the lower part, and a second,
moving, sash had glazing bars which, in the closed position,
came exactly behind those of the first (Plate 81). The interior
has been entirely refitted.
(25) St. Mary's Hospital and The Grange Welfare
Centre occupy buildings begun in 1848 as the York
Union Workhouse for the accommodation of 300
paupers (VCH, York, 280; YG 20/11/1847; 22/1/1848).
A competition was held for the design and that chosen
was by J. B. and W. Atkinson. The work was carried
out by Thomas Linfoot and cost less than £6,000; as a
contemporary newspaper report described it, 'Externally
it is perfectly plain, as buildings of this class should
be...' (YG 2/6/1849). The workhouse comprised three
parallel ranges of buildings lying N. and S. on a square
site within confining boundary walls. The E. block, now
The Grange, housed the administrative offices; it was of
nine bays but has been lengthened to eleven. The central
block was the longest and has been little altered externally except for additions to the ground floor. Most
of the W. range has been replaced and most of the
boundary walls have been pulled down.
The buildings are of three storeys with brick walls and slated
roofs, and are designed in a simple utilitarian style. The E.
range has round-headed openings to the ground floor on the
main E. front. The middle range has central projections to E.
and W. behind which a central octagonal hall contains a
staircase winding round a circular well; other symmetrically
disposed projections to the E. contain lavatories.
(26) Wandesford House, formerly Wandesford
Hospital, No. 37 Bootham, was opened for occupation
by 'ten poor maiden gentlewomen' in 1743. Mary
Wandesford, a spinster of York, left an endowment in
her will dated 1725 and the site was purchased from
William Wilberforce of Hull in 1739 (E. Brunskill,
YGS, Occasional Paper, vii (1960), 30). Accounts for the
building survive and record payment to John Terry,
carpenter, and for bricklayers' work to Robert Kibblewhite, Thomas Dunn and Richard Nelstrop (Borthwick
Inst.). In the 19th century additional staircases were
constructed to give access from each living-room to the
bedroom above, and in 1968 further modernisation was
carried out; at the same time the central entrance,
previously a plain brick doorway, was given a timber
door-case with broken pediment.
The building is of two storeys with brick walls and tiled
roofs. The front is designed in seven bays with the central
three bays projecting under a pediment. The treatment of the
walling is unusual, each bay having a round-arched recess
within which the windows of both storeys are set, and a deep
impost band is carried from arch to arch and across the recesses
(Plate 79). At the wall-head is a heavy timber cornice and within
the pediment is a plain niche containing a bust of the foundress.
Two lead rainwater heads and down-pipes are original.
On the side and back elevations there are no arched recesses
but the impost band from the front is continued below the sills
of the upper windows. At the eaves plain oversailing courses of
brickwork replace the timber cornice of the front. The windows have flat arches of gauged brick and there are two more
lead rainwater heads, one dated 1739.
Fig. 47. (26) Wandesford House, Bootham.
The interior is very simple. The original two staircases each
rise in a single flight with closed string, square newels, turned
oak balusters with half-balusters against the newels, and a
heavy moulded and swept handrail (Plate 124).
(27) Grey Coat School, No. 33 Monkgate, now a
Schools Clinic. The Grey Coat School was a charity
school for girls opened in 1705 at No. 60 Marygate
(Monument 252) in conjunction with the Blue Coat
School for boys which formerly occupied St. Anthony's
Hall, Peaseholme Green. In 1784 the girls' school was
moved to new premises in Monkgate part of which
survives as the back wing of No. 33, the front part
having been rebuilt soon after 1850.
The surviving building is a two-storey brick range with
slated roof; the principal elevation to the N.E. is in six bays
with tall ground-floor windows set in shallow round-arched
recesses. The OS map of 1852 shows that the range was
originally of seven bays but the end bay to the S.E. is now
enclosed within the later building. The ground floor contained
a spinning-room and a sewing-room and above was a large
lodging-room reached by a flight of stone steps (Hargrove, ii,
569–70); the existing stone staircase is not the original one.
(28) St. John's College, Lord Mayor's Walk,
occupies two buildings erected between 1840 and 1850
to which many later additions have been made. To the
S.E. stands the building opened in 1845 as the York and
Ripon Diocesan Training College for schoolmasters;
for the previous four years the College had been
accommodated at premises in Monkgate previously
occupied by the Manchester College, and subsequently
by the York and Ripon Diocesan Training College for
schoolmistresses until the removal of that college to
Ripon in 1861. To the N.W. is a building erected by the
Diocesan Boards of Education and opened in 1846 as the
Yeoman School, described as a 'middle-class' boarding
school providing a practising school for the college. It
was amalgamated with Archbishop Holgate's school in
1858 (VCH, York, 452, 458).
Both buildings are of two storeys and have walls of brick
with stone dressings and are designed in Tudor style (Plate 80).
The original Training College building is H-shaped on plan
with two long parallel wings joined by a main range in the
middle of which is the entrance and centrepiece, elaborated
with gables and octagonal turrets. The rest of the building is
plain, with stone mullioned windows with four-centred heads
to the lights.
The School building consists of a long main range with
short cross-wings, of unequal length, at the ends. The front
(S.W.) end of the N.W. cross-wing is masked by an addition
of the later 19th century which contains the principal entrance.
The main range has had modern windows inserted between
the original three-light windows on the ground floor; the
upper floor is lit by single-light windows.
(29) St. Peter's School buildings (Plate 84) were
erected in 1838 for a Proprietary School started by a
company formed by leading York citizens; the architect
was John Harper (Colvin, 266). In 1844 the Dean and
Chapter bought the buildings to accommodate St.
Peter's, the school attached to the Minster since its
foundation probably in the eighth century, which at
that time was accommodated in a building in the
Minster Yard. The two schools were thus amalgamated
and the original buildings now form only the nucleus
of a much larger complex (A. Raine, History of St.
Peter's School (1926)).
The central block which contains the main entrance and the
Assembly Hall is of two storeys with an elaborate turretted
elevation to the N.E. faced with stone. To each side is a low
wing with three traceried, square-headed windows lighting a
classroom and with a passage behind, and beyond is a two-storey pavilion with octagonal corner turrets flanking a lofty
mullioned and transomed window lighting a classroom on
each floor. The other elevations are of brick with stone
dressings but are largely masked by additions; the N.W. end
was enlarged to S.W. soon after 1850, the chapel, designed by
Messrs. J. B. and W. Atkinson, was added in 1861 and other
additions are dated 1905.
In the N.W. pavilion the original staircase remains with iron
balustrade incorporating a simple fleur-de-lis design. The
staircase in the S.E. pavilion has been removed.
At right angles to the school buildings and projecting N.E.,
stands the schoolhouse. This was originally joined to the school
building by a curved screen wall, now removed. The schoolhouse is an irregular building of two storeys in brick with
stone dressings, having small octagonal turrets at the prominent
angles and mullioned bay windows to the principal elevations.
Inside, the staircase is of the same design as that in the school
building. Further N.E. stands the porter's lodge, a plainer
building, of one storey with brick walls and stone mullioned
(30) Pikeing Well, New Walk (Fig. 48), is a stone
structure designed by John Carr. It was commissioned
by the City Corporation in 1752 (VCH, York, 208) to
form a decorative well-head feature. It is a simple
rectangular structure with a round-headed doorway in
the side facing the river; the coping on this side is made
up with reused stones including three 12th-century
capitals placed as finials.
(31) Arcade from the Theatre Royal. At the front
of No. 73 Fulford Road are the remains of an arcade
of 1834–5 which originally formed part of the Piazza
erected 'in the Elizabethan style' in front of the Theatre
Royal to plans by John Harper, architect (YCA, M17/A;
Hudson, 168v). In 1879 the Theatre was again altered
(Ben Johnson, Practical Guide (1886), 101) and the
arches moved to their present position.
The arcade, built in magnesian limestone, has been much
mutilated. Four complete bays remain, the arches four-centred,
of a single chamfered order; three are glazed and closed in with
wood to form workshops.
(32) Burton Stone, at the junction of Clifton and
Burton Stone Lane, is a large square base for a cross. In
addition to the central hole for the cross-shaft there are
four cup-like depressions. It is probably the Clifton
Stone mentioned in 1575 (YCA, E126). Mother
Shipton's Stone, which formerly stood at the corner of
Rawcliffe Lane, may have been part of the cross (T. P.
Cooper, Miscellaneous Notes, 24, MS. in YCL).
Fig. 48. (30) Pikeing Well, New Walk.
(33) Fulford Cross, an octagonal stone shaft raised
up on three steps, stands on the W. side of Fulford Road
opposite Imphal Barracks (608501). It is no doubt the
cross ordered to be set up by an award of 1484 between
the City and St. Mary's Abbey (Drake, 597).
(34) Whitestone Cross, on the Haxby road now at
60735367 but moved from its original position, is a
large irregular stone tapering from 6½ ft. to 3½ ft. wide
by 5½ ft. long. It shows no sinking for housing an upright stone. It is said to be the stone referred to as 'the
Whitestone Cross above Astell Brigg' in 1374 and the
'stone cross that is written upon, above Astyl Brigg' in
the award of 1484 referred to under (33) above (Raine,