De Grey Street
De Grey Street was 'newly set out' in 1847 (YG
26/6/1847); it does not appear in the 1846 Directory.
(99) Houses, Nos. 5–11, 25–28, were built c. 1849.
They are of two storeys with basements and attics. The
doorcases have pilaster jambs with sunk panels, and
simple entablatures with modillioned cornices. Demolished.
(100) Nos. 39–51 (odd) and 92–102 (even) Lowther
Street are 13 two-storey houses of one build erected in
the 1840s (Plate 103).
(101) The Woolpack, p.h., is a three-storey house
built c. 1845. The front elevation is of two bays with a
simple entrance and a large three-light sash window
beneath an arch of gauged brick to the ground floor.
Fishergate (Monuments 102–105)
Fishergate is a continuation of Piccadilly southwards
outside the walls. The site of the Augustinian Priory of
St. Andrew (5), which stood on the W. side of Fishergate, is now covered by factory premises. Redevelopment on a large scale began c. 1830; modern houses were
being advertised for sale in 1831 (YG 19/2/1831).
(102) House, No. 29, until 1972 the nunnery of the
Sisters of St. Vincent, was built in the late 18th century.
It was acquired by the Sisters in the late 19th century and
in 1902 a large wing was added to the S. for a day
nursery; this is now disused.
The house (Plate 94) is of two storeys with a five-bay front,
the middle three bays projecting slightly under a pediment.
At the first floor is a stuccoed band and at the eaves a timber
cornice with dentils. The central doorway is flanked by reeded
columns carrying an entablature over a semicircular fanlight.
The windows have cemented surrounds, not original, and in
the pediment is an oval dummy window. To the N. a single-storey projection with a blind window was built probably
as a screen wall only; a balancing projection to the S. has been
removed but original openings in the S. wall indicate that the
wing of 1902 replaced an earlier structure.
The house is built on a simple plan with front and back
rooms each side of a central hall, the back part of the hall
containing the staircase. This has an open string and iron
balusters of square section, alternately straight and undulating,
carrying a shallow, veneered handrail. Inside the staircase
window is mounted a second casement glazed with a collection
of coloured quarries, flashed and patterned, of c. 1830, probably
by one of the Barnett family of York glaziers, and made up at
some later date to fit its present position.
(103) No. 33 is a two-storey detached house with an
asymmetrical four-bay main elevation built in the first
quarter of the 19th century. The windows and the fanlight over the entrance have triangular heads and
glazing bars forming geometrical patterns (Plate 101).
(104) Houses, Nos. 16–40 (even), all date from
c. 1830. Nos. 30 and 32 are of three storeys and the
others of two only. Nos. 16–28 have doorways with
reeded columns or flat pilasters. Nos. 18 and 20 form a
pair and Nos. 22–28 a range of four with an open
passageway through the centre. Nos. 34–40 are a range
of four; their upper windows have painted lintels
simulating arches, with markedly bowed soffits.
(105) Fishergate House (Plates 99, 128) was built in
1837 for Thomas Laycock Esq. to the designs of J. B.
and W. Atkinson; it cost £4,500. Drawings preserved
in the office of Messrs. Brierley, Leckenby and Keighley
include a plan dated 1837, not exactly as built, another
plan of the ground floor also dated 1837 marked 'now
erecting', corresponding almost exactly to the existing
house, and a plan for the first floor dated 1840 marked
'erected'. The house forms a solid rectangular block
mostly of two storeys but partly of three, faced with
white brickwork, with two low wings to N.E. and
N.W. enclosing a service courtyard. The elaborate
design of the central light-well is remarkable. The plan
appears to be derived from Sir John Soane's plan for
Tyringham (Stroud, Plate 97).
The E. front is divided into three unequal bays by brick
pilasters with simple stone capitals. The central porch has
Ionic columns in antis. The fenestration was originally all in
two storeys although the staff rooms inside to the N. were
arranged in three storeys. The windows have been altered to
correspond with the internal arrangement. The S. side has the
lower storey masked by a modern addition, only one round-headed window being visible; on the first floor three flat-headed windows are flanked by round-headed recesses. The
W. elevation is divided by pilasters matching those to the E.,
with the central part projecting. Some additional windows
have been put in the ground floor. On the S. side three round-headed windows in a central projection light the staircase. The
roof rises from widely projecting eaves to a central flat
surrounded by a stone balustrade with a chimney-stack at each
corner, and enclosing a lantern light. The service wings, which
include stables and coach-house, are built of red brick; the
coach-house has two segmental-arched openings, now
blocked, and the windows in the range opposite are set in
corresponding segmental-arched recesses.
The entrance hall has arched recesses in the side walls, some
containing doorways, and a ceiling decorated with raised
mouldings and rosettes (Plate 128). The inner hall has in the
centre an oval opening in the ceiling to admit top light from
the lantern above (Plate 128); to N. and S. are vaulted spaces
with niches in the W. wall. The principal rooms on the
ground floor are sub-divided by modern partitions and only
one fireplace remains, having a mantelshelf carried on shaped
and carved brackets. The staircase to the N. has thin cantilevered treads and iron balustrading; it rises in two flights with
a segmental landing, opening between columns with scrolled
and foliated capitals to a further small landing lit by round-headed windows (Plate 128).
On the first floor there is an arcaded gallery (Plate 129)
around the central light-well, which is surrounded by modern
iron balustrading. Eight bedrooms and dressing-rooms have
moulded plaster cornices but fireplace surrounds have all been
The service quarters in the N.E. part of the main block are
in three storeys served by a back staircase rising round an open
well and having close strings, square balusters and turned
newels. The two wings enclosing the courtyard have been
much altered internally in conversion to offices.
(106) Houses, Nos. 4, 5, are a two-storey pair built
c. 1840. The window openings have segmental arches.
Fulford Road (Monuments 107–116)
Unless otherwise described Monuments 107–116 are of
(107) Fulford Conservative Club, built c. 1810, is
a detached house with symmetrical front elevation. The
doorway has fluted pilasters and an open pediment.
(108) Nos. 196, 198, are a pair of three-storey
terrace houses built in the second quarter of the 19th
century. The window openings have cambered arches.
(109) Fulford Grange, off the Fulford Road and
200 yds. S. of (105), is a house mainly of c. 1830–40 but
which incorporates a building of the late 18th century.
It has been added to in modern times and divided into
three parts, known as The Grange, No. 37 Grange
Garth, and The Croft.
The front part of the house, to the E., is of two storeys built
in white brick. The E. façade, of five bays, has a central doorway with an Ionic porch; to the S. is a semicircular projecting
bay. The staircase in the middle of this part has an iron balustrade (Plate 131) and many of the openings have symmetrically
moulded architraves butting against square blocks at the
angles (Plate iii), typical of the period. The middle part of the
building, with its principal elevation to the S., is of three
storeys, built in red brick of the late 18th century. It may have
formed the service wing of an earlier house; it has been much
altered but retains some late 18th-century fittings. On the S.
front is an entrance doorway with a good 18th-century
timber pilastered door-case with fluted architrave (Plate 107),
probably not in its original position. Further W. is a lower
extension contemporary with the E. part of the house, with a
modern addition behind.
(110) No. 2, was built c. 1835 as a lodge to The
Grange (109). It is of one storey and built in white brick
with ashlar dressings (Plate 101).
(111) No. 32, is a cottage with Gothic details built
c. 1840 on part of the Grange estate. The door and
window openings have two-centred arched heads and
the glazing bars are in the form of tracery (Plate 101).
(112) Lilac House has been formed from a narrow
range of three cottages, of which two are perhaps
(113) New Walk Orchard, cottage at 60394978, is
a two-storey building incorporating a small earlier
building, probably of the late 18th century, of one
storey with brick walls and a low-pitched single-slope
St. Oswald's Road
(114) No. 3, is a two-bay detached house built
c. 1840–50. The shorter side faces the road and additions
have been made to the W. and E. The windows have
rusticated arched stone lintels.
(115) House, No. 10, built c. 1840–50, is similar to
No. 3, with a two-bay front facing the road and a
gabled wing at the rear projecting to the E., but is all of
(116) House, No. 20, also built c. 1840–50, is detached
and double-fronted but with the original central doorway now blocked.
Gillygate (Monuments 117–140)
Gillygate lies along the outside of the City Wall to the
N.W. It takes its name from the church of St. Giles
which stood at the N. end of the street. The church had
disappeared by the 17th century, though the churchyard was then still in use for burials. Houses were being
built in Gillygate in the 12th century.
(117) Houses, Nos. 3, 5, form a symmetrical pair
four storeys high, built in 1797 by Thomas Wolstenholme, carver (1759–1812), whose decoration modelled
in a plastic composition is to be found on fireplaces and
doorways, etc. in many York houses (YGS Report 1969,
37–45). Wolstenholme occupied No. 3 himself and the
property remained in the hands of the Wolstenholme
family until 1887.
The original, very elegant, front elevation has been sadly
mutilated; it was symmetrical with the two front doors
together and central blind windows above. To each side was a
matching tier of elaborate windows shown complete in a
photograph of c. 1880. On the ground floor, where there are
now shop windows, were shallow segmental bays each
of three lights under round arches. The segmental form was
continued to the first floor where square-headed windows
were divided by attached columns with a shallow entablature
above and a balustraded apron below. The second-floor
windows did not project; each was of three round-headed
lights with cornices above. The top storey has semicircular
windows divided into three lights by timber mullions. At the
eaves No. 3 retains the original timber cornice with coupled
brackets. The back has plain hung-sash windows, many of
which have been altered.
Inside, the ground floor has been stripped of its original
fittings. The staircases have open strings with shaped ends to
the treads with leaf decoration; in section the balusters form
The fittings throughout the upper part of the house are
mostly original and enriched with applied decoration. Bay
windows are framed by pilasters enriched with reeding and
garlands, with a frieze above enriched with anthemion
ornament. Principal doorways have side pilasters with floral
trails between bands of reeding and overdoors enriched with
urns and garlands (Plate 110). Decorated segmental panels are
incorporated into these overdoors or used elsewhere as
isolated units over doors (Plate 112). In other places the
architrave is enlarged to form similar panels over doorheads.
Similar segmental panels also appear over fireplaces. Throughout both houses the surviving fireplace surrounds are enriched
with reeding, foliage, urns and garlands (Plate 115), even the
plainest, in the top back bedroom, having enriched shelves and
modelled masks on the frieze. Many of the fireplaces retain the
original iron grates.
Fig. 67. (117) Nos. 3, 5 Gillygate.
(118) No. 9 is a three-storey single-fronted town
house with two windows on both upper floors, built
c. 1800. The ground floor was converted to shop
premises c. 1900. The roof is pantiled.
(119) Houses, Nos. 11, 13, are of the early 19th
century. They are both of three storeys and have
pantiled roofs. No. 13 has been much altered.
(120) Houses, Nos. 19, 21, are of the early 19th
century. They are of three storeys and have a modern
uniform elevational treatment. No. 19 has been much
altered on ground and first floors and has a pantiled
roof. No. 21 is only one bay wide.
(121) Houses, Nos. 23, 25, of two storeys with
stuccoed walls and pantiled roof, were built in the 18th
century as a single dwelling. The building was remodelled c. 1800; bay windows were added, new
entrances with reeded columns and open pediments
to the doorcases were formed (Plate 108), and a second
staircase was put in.
(122) Nos. 59, 61, of two storeys may have been
built as one house but are now two properties with two
shop fronts to the ground floor. No. 59 retains an
original doorway. Early 19th-century.
(123) House, No. 65, of two storeys, has a moulded
door-case with paterae in the angles and a pantiled roof.
(124) Nos. 67, 69, are a pair of two-storey single-fronted houses designed symmetrically with a single
central chimney-stack. The doorcases have reeded
architraves. Early 19th-century.
(125) Houses, Nos. 71, 73, built c. 1835, are a three-storey pair forming a symmetrical composition with
paired entrances, with decorated frieze and reeded
jambs, in the centre. The ground-floor windows have
The entrance to each house is to a through passage widened
at the back to accommodate a staircase which has slender
turned balusters and newels. The fireplaces have reeded
(126) House, No. 12, three storeys high and five bays
wide, was built in the first half of the 18th century but
was largely refitted late in the same century. At the
beginning of the 19th century the front was modified
when the windows of the top storey were reduced in
number from five to three. The ground floor is now
occupied by modern shops.
The front is built in red brick with a projecting band of five
courses over the first-floor windows. The central doorway
retains the original moulded timber architrave and dentilled
cornice carried on console brackets. The house is L-shaped on
plan with a central entrance and staircase between two front
rooms, and a back wing containing two rooms.
(127) House, Nos. 16, 18, 20, was built in the early
18th century, two storeys high on an L-shaped plan
with a long seven-bay range facing the street and a rear
wing at the S.W. end. Early in the 19th century a third
storey was added so that the roof is now continuous
with that of No. 12, the N.E. part was enlarged at the
back, and the whole was divided into two dwellings.
Joseph Halfpenny, the York artist, lived here from 1803
till his death in 1811 (YCA, E96, f. 15v; Deeds; J. W.
Knowles, York Artists, 1, p. 199). On the front modern
shops occupy the whole of the bottom storey. The
first floor is of 18th-century brick with seven hung-sash
windows under 19th-century lintels.
Inside, some plaster cornices and rehung doors are the only
18th-century fittings. Two 19th-century staircases have open
strings and slender turned balusters (Plate 127).
Fig. 68. (128) Nos. 26, 28 Gillygate.
(128) Houses, Nos. 26, 28 (Plate 96), were built in
1769 by Robert Clough, bricklayer and master builder
of York, and the first occupants, in 1770, were Francis
Smyth Esq. and Col. Robert Prescott. The houses were
very well finished; notable among the fittings is the
ceiling to the first-floor saloon in No. 28, probably
executed by Robert Clough III, plasterer and son of the
builder, baptised 1736. The front windows have been
reglazed with large plate-glass panes and a shop front
has been inserted in No. 26. The houses are not of equal
size. No. 26 occupies three bays and No. 28 four bays.
The original entrance to No. 28 remains (Plate 107), and
at the side of it is a contemporary extinguisher. At
the back round-headed windows light the staircases of
both houses, and both have a small projecting closet
wing, three storeys high (Plate 93).
Inside, No. 26 has lost many of its ground-floor fittings in
conversion to a shop but the original staircase remains. On the
first floor many of the fittings were replaced in the mid 19th
century but an original fireplace remains. Throughout the
house there are good 18th-century ceiling cornices. In No. 28
one of the front rooms on the ground floor and the saloon
above have ceilings decorated with rococo plasterwork (Plate
119). Over the staircase the ceiling has a roundel with Gothic
cusping (Plate 120). Amongst the fireplaces (Plate 114) are later
insertions by Thomas Wolstenholme; one includes a figure
panel which also appears in overdoors at Bootham Lodge (57)
and Garrow Hill (147). Some of the rooms have enriched
ceiling cornices (Plate 122). The staircase is original and has
turned balusters with large plain umbrella-shaped knops
(Plate 125). See also figs. 8f, 9b.
(129) House, Nos. 38, 40, was built in the late 18th
century, probably c. 1787, this date having appeared on
a pump formerly in the back yard. It has been altered by
the conversion of the ground floor to shops. The house
is of two storeys, rectangular on plan with four rooms
disposed about a central entrance passage widening to a
staircase at the back. Some of the rooms retain original
cornices, simply moulded.
(130) Houses, Nos. 42, 44, are a three-storey pair
with pantiled roof, built in the early 19th century.
(131) Nos. 50, 52 were built as a two-storey house in
the 18th century. A third storey was added later and the
whole has been very much altered.
(132) House, No. 58, is a very small two-storey
building now converted to a shop; it is probably of 18th-century date.
(133) No. 62, is a house of the late 19th century but
it has a small two-storey wing at the back of late 18th-century date, much altered.
(134) No. 64 was built at the end of the 17th or the
beginning of the 18th century as a small two-storey
house which probably had two rooms on each floor
and a small projection at the back for a staircase. In the
late 18th century the depth of the house was increased
by the addition of rooms at the back under a second
span roof parallel to the original. Later the two roofs
were incorporated into one and the central valley
eliminated. The front has been stuccoed and completely
modernised but retains a rainwater head dated 1770.
The wooden frame of a staircase window remains in the
original back projection.
(135) No. 66 was built probably in the third quarter
of the 18th century as a two-storey house with front and
back rooms on one side of a through passage. A third
storey was added in the early 19th century together with
a back wing, and the door-case to the entrance, with
reeded pilasters, is also of this date.
(136) House, Nos. 68, 68a, was built in the late 18th
century; it is of two storeys and was originally four
bays wide but the front has been completely altered
with shop fronts below and new windows above. The
original plan was L-shaped but the re-entrant angle has
been filled in, and the interior much altered.
(137) House, No. 70, was built c. 1770, of two storeys
with a four-bay elevation to the front (Plate 96). It is
generally similar to (136) above, but has not been so
drastically altered. The original L-shaped plan provided
two front rooms flanking the entrance passage and one
small room and the staircase projecting at the back
(138) House, No. 82, was built in the late 18th
century. It is of three storeys, two bays wide, and with a
projecting wing at the back. The ground floor has been
converted to a shop.
(139) Nos. 84, 86, a pair of small houses of three
storeys and attics, were built before 1823 by which time
No. 84 was occupied by John Ware, yeoman, who
remained there as John Ware, gent., until 1832 or later
(Directories; title deeds of No. 84, York Town Clerk's
Office, File 2604/3).
The front elevation of the pair was originally symmetrical.
At the centre of the composition and covering the dividing
line between the houses there is a blind recess to each of the
upper floors; these and the upper floor windows have segmental arches. No. 84 has a pantiled roof.
(140) House, Nos. 88, 90, was built c. 1735. John
Carr, yeoman, purchased the property in 1733 and his
will dated 1738 refers to his 'newly erected dwelling
house'. The house was drastically remodelled c. 1795. A
kitchen was added at the back in 1829 and further
alterations took place in the second quarter of the 19th
century when part was converted to a shop and the
entrance was refitted to match the new shop front.
The house has two storeys, cellars and attics and the original
plan comprised a single room on each side of the entrance hall
which contained the staircase. The staircase is of the late 18th
century with close string, turned balusters and square newels.
Haxby Road (Monuments 141–143)
Monuments 141–143 are of two storeys.
(141) The Punch Bowl Hotel and Houses, Nos.
2–12 (even), were called Clarence Place in 1850 (OS)
and some or all of them were built by 1838 (Directory).
The Punch Bowl Hotel is possibly a remodelling of two of
the houses in Clarence Place on the 1852 OS map but has been
altered out of recognition. Nos. 2 and 4 form a pair, but No. 2
i now incorporated into the hotel. The doorways together
form a unified composition with three fluted pilasters with
Ionic capitals and a frieze with paterae and incised fret ornament. No. 2 has a segmental bow window with similar frieze
to the ground floor. Nos. 6, 8, 10 have bay windows with
canted sides which are probably additions. No. 12 is a double-fronted terraced house of three and a half bays, with the main
doorway in the middle and a smaller service door at the N.E.
end. There are bay windows with canted sides on the ground
(142) No. 44 is a double-fronted house of the early
19th century but all the openings have been modernised.
It was called Stray Cottage on the 1852 OS map.
(143) Asylum Cottage is a small double-fronted
house of the early 19th century. The central doorway
has pilasters with sunk panels and the window openings
plastered arches simulating rusticated ashlar.
Heslington Road (Monuments 144–147)
(144) Nos. 11–45, 49–51a (odd) and 1 Apollo Street,
are small two-storey houses built in pairs and threes to
form an irregular line of terrace development, dating
from c. 1845. Nos. 11–27 form a straight range of houses.
Some pairs have central passageways or carriageways
to the rear and some have modern shop fronts or added
bay windows. Nos. 29 and 31 have pantiled roofs.
(145) Belle Vue House, a villa decorated in Gothic
style, was built in the 19th century before 1838 (Plate
104). It was the home of William Abbey Plows,
sculptor and stone and marble merchant who had works
at Foss Bridge in Walmgate. Plows bought the site in
1833 and it is probable that the house was built for him
shortly after that date and that the carved stone decoration came from his own workshop. Plows sold the house
in 1852 and it changed hands several times thereafter
before it was acquired in 1879 for The Retreat to form a
part of the villa system of treatment of patients in
separate houses. The upper part of the house was
pulled down in 1935 and the S. wing has been removed
but the lower parts of the walls of the main part have
been retained to enclose a swimming pool. The upper
storey was castellated (YC 25/7/1839) and appears faintly
on N. Whittock's view of the City of c. 1858; photographs of the house before alteration are preserved at
The Retreat. A lodge, similar in style to the main house,
was demolished in 1971 (Directories; Deeds and Annual
Reports, York Retreat).
The main part of the house consisted of a rectangular block
with octagonal turrets terminating the front elevation which is
built in white brick with stone dressings. In the middle of this
front is a porch with rectangular stone piers carrying stone
lintels carved with triple ogee arches cusped and enriched with
ivy trails. The piers have capitals carved with figure subjects.
The arched decoration is repeated over the windows, and a
string course is enriched with dog-tooth ornament.
Plows offered the house for sale in 1846 when it was described as having a basement providing dry cellarage; on the
ground floor, breakfast room, dining room, drawing room
opening into a vinery, and two kitchens; a stone staircase with
bronzed iron balustrade of the vine pattern and a secondary
servants' staircase; upstairs, four principal bedrooms, two dressing rooms and three servants' bedrooms. The dressing rooms
were supplied with soft water, and a water closet and a bath
were provided. The grounds were formally decorated with
urns and figure sculpture; the only garden ornaments now
remaining are three carved stone capitals 'removed from
Carlton Palace [Carlton House, London] on the demolition of
that splendid building' (YC, 25/7/1839; YG, 15/9/1846;
(146) Cottage, No. 103, was built in the last decade
before 1850; it is marked on the OS map of 1852 as The
Herdsman's Cottage. It is a small single-storey dwelling
in plain brick with hung-sash windows, all much
(147) Garrow Hill, Thief Lane, now a hostel for
nurses of The Retreat, was built as a large private house
in the early 19th century; it is probably the house
occupied by Henry Bland, banker and partner in the
firm of Messrs. Swann, Clough & Co., from 1828
(Directory) till his death in 1835 (YG 14/2/1835). In 1836
Thomas Barstow was living there, having moved from
Blossom Street, and the house remained in his family till
1927. The house has been somewhat altered externally
with the addition of a large bay window on the E. side
and the alteration of some of the windows to take
modern casements in place of the original hung-sashes.
Internally some of the rooms have been sub-divided but
many of the original high quality fittings remain.
The house is of two storeys with walls of white brick and
low-pitched roofs covered with slates. The main part of the
house is a large rectangular block built round a central hall,
lit from a lantern projecting above the main roofs (Plate 129).
The entrance on the N. front has an added porch with stone
Tuscan columns and entablature. The eaves on this side are of
very slight projection. On the S. side and to the E., where there
are two gables, the roofs have a wide overhang supported by
paired brackets. To the W. two projecting wings enclosed a
courtyard. The N. wing contained the kitchen and is little
altered; the courtyard has been partly roofed over to form a
dining hall and the S. wing, which formerly comprised storerooms only, has been drastically altered. The staircase in the
entrance hall has elaborate iron balusters (Plate 130). A number
of doorcases are original and of unusual design; panels in the
overdoors can be identified as being from the moulds of
Thomas Wolstenholme (Plates 111, 113).