Pamphill

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1975

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'Pamphill', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in Dorset, Volume 5: East (1975), pp. 44-53. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=128266 Date accessed: 26 October 2014.


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15 PAMPHILL (9701)

O.S. 6 ins., ST 90 SE, ST 90 NE, SY 99 NE, SU 00 SW, SW 09 NW)

Pamphill, a parish of some 6,200 acres, is bounded on the E. by the R. Allen and on the S. by the R. Stour. Except for a low-lying area of London Clay and Reading Beds in the S.E., and a smaller area of Reading Beds further N., the land is Chalk; it rises gently from 50 ft. above O.D. in the S.E. to 279 ft. at Badbury Rings (Shapwick (34)), close to the N.W. boundary.

Until 1894 Pamphill was part of Wimborne Minster. It is difficult to reconstruct the early pattern of settlement because much of the land lay within the Wimborne group of Royal Manors at the time of the Domesday survey. It is probable, however, that there were at least four early settlements: Bradford and Barnsley in the N. and E., on the Allen, Old Barford in the S.W., on the Stour, and Kingston near the middle of the area, on or near the site now occupied by Kingston Lacy (4) and close to the junction of the Chalk and the Reading Beds. Later settlement developed in the S.E. area of Reading Beds and London Clay, probably because it was close to Wimborne Minster. The hamlets of Pamphill, Cowgrove and Chilbridge were in existence early in the 14th century if not before; they, and perhaps also Tadden, started as open 'greens' in the former woodland. Lodge Farm (11) in the W. of the parish represents settlement on the Chalk at a later period, possibly after enclosure, which appears to have begun early (A. L. Clegg, History of Wimborne Minster (1960)).

The principal monument in the parish is Kingston Lacy (4), a mansion designed by Sir Roger Pratt and built c. 1663, but much altered by Barry, c. 1835. The parish contains a large number of 16th and 17th-century timber-framed cottages.

Ecclesiastical

(1) The Chapel of St. Margaret and St. Anthony (00410036), on the E. boundary of the parish, has walls of squared Heathstone rubble with ashlar dressings; the tiled roof has stone-slate verges. The chapel dates from early in the 13th century and originally served a leper hospital (Hutchins III, 247), now represented by a group of almshouses (41–44). The chapel has recently been restored and some mediaeval features noted previously have been obliterated; they include 13th-century wall-paintings of minor importance (Tristram, Eng. Mediaeval Wall Painting, II (13th cent.), 204).


Pamphill, Key Map Showing the Position of Monuments in the S.E. of the Parish

Pamphill, Key Map Showing the Position of Monuments in the S.E. of the Parish


Pamphill, the Chapel of St. Margaret & St. Anthony

Pamphill, the Chapel of St. Margaret & St. Anthony

Architectural Description—The E. wall of the undivided Chancel and Nave has a round-headed 19th-century window; the gable is of brickwork. The N.E. corner retains the lower part of an original pilaster buttress. In the eastern part of the N. wall is a restored square-headed 15th-century window of two cinquefoil-headed lights; the embrasure is spanned by an oak beam. The adjacent 13th-century doorway has a two-centred head of two chamfered orders and continuous jambs with shaped stops; the rear-arch is segmental. Further W. is a later N. doorway, perhaps of the 16th century, with a chamfered two-centred head, continuous jambs and broach stops; the rear-arch is two-centred. A window similar to that of the 15th century described above has recently been formed in the wall between the two doorways. The S. wall has, near the E. end, a window dating from the second half of the 13th century; it is of Purbeck stone and has two trefoil-headed lights and wide internal splays spanned by a chamfered oak lintel. Further W., an original lancet light with a chamfered Heathstone surround and wide internal splays with an oak lintel has recently been replaced by a modern two-light window as on the N. Near the W. end of the S. wall a former doorway, partly blocked, is used as a window; it has a chamfered two-centred head and continuous jambs of Heathstone ashlar and is possibly of the 13th century. The quoin of the S.W. corner marks the position of the former W. wall, now gone and replaced by a timber-frame partition between the chapel and the adjacent cottage (41).

The Roof, probably of the 16th century, has 20 arch-braced collared rafters springing from chamfered wall-plates.

Fittings—Chest: Of oak, with moulded uprights and fielded panels, 18th century. Communion Table: Of oak, with stout turned legs and fluted top rails, 17th century. Glass: Reset in E. window, roundel with rose, 15th century. Paintings: (now hidden)—In chancel, on N. and S. walls, lozenge pattern (Plate 24) in red with leaf centres, 13th century; in nave, on N. wall, traces of figure subject; on S. wall, faint traces of three figures, an illegible inscription in black-letter, and some 'ashlar' ruling; probably 14th and 15th century.

Secular

(2) Fitche's Bridge (00660255), across the R. Allen, is of brick and has a single segmental arch. It appears to be of the mid 19th century.

(3) Gillingham's Almshouses and School (99270046), of one storey with brick walls and tiled and stone-slated roofs, were built in 1698. In the S. front (Plate 60) the gabled pavilion at the centre corresponds with the school and each wing contains two, formerly four, almshouses. The school-room doorway has a moulded stone architrave and an entablature with a segmental broken pediment. A stone tablet above the doorway records the 'pious and charitable gift of Roger Gillingham of the Middle Temple . . . Ao. Do. 1698'. In its original form each almshouse comprised a single room.


Pamphill, Kingston Lacy

Pamphill, Kingston Lacy

(4) Kingston Lacy (97850126), a large classical house surrounded by a well-timbered park in the southern part of the parish, was built at the Restoration by Sir Ralph Bankes to replace his father's residence in Corfe Castle (Dorset II, 63–4), destroyed during the Civil War; it still is the seat of the Bankes family. Designed by Sir Roger Pratt and built between 1663 and 1665, the house was originally of two principal storeys with a basement and dormer-windowed attics. It had brick walls (Hutchins, 1st ed., II, 88) with Chilmark stone dressings; the roof was probably partly tiled and partly leaded. A drawing of the N. front (Plate 58), supposed to be by Pratt and formerly preserved in the house, is now lost. Some details of the original construction are known from Pratt's notebooks (Gunther, The Architecture of Sir Roger Pratt, 1928). At the end of the 18th and early in the 19th century the collections of paintings and sculpture in the house were considerably augmented by Henry Bankes and his son William John Bankes. In 1835 the latter commissioned Charles Barry to make extensive alterations, in the execution of which Pratt's work was largely obliterated. For a description and view of the house before Barry's alterations, see J. P. Neale, Seats of Noblemen and Gentlemen, VI (1823), s.v. Kingston Hall. Barry lowered the ground-level on the N. of the house to increase the apparent height of Pratt's basement and he transferred the main entrance from the principal to the lower storey; on the S. side he raised the ground-level on a terrace which conceals the basement windows seen in Neale's view. On all four fronts Barry masked the original brickwork with ashlar. In the roofs Barry restored Pratt's central lantern, which had been removed at an unknown date (Neale does not show it) and he covered the inclined parts of the roof with lead; he also altered the shape of the dormer windows. Inside, Barry provided an entrance hall in the lower storey and a grand staircase to connect the entrance hall with the first-floor state rooms; little remains of the original decoration.

The architectural importance of Kingston Lacy, as an example of Sir Roger Pratt's work, is unfortunately much diminished by Barry's alterations. The exterior is almost entirely of the 19th century. Inside, some 18th-century decorations remain, but nearly all of the 17th-century fittings have gone.

Architectural Description (Plates 58–9)—The N. front is symmetrical and of nine bays with the three middle bays set forward and emphasised by a pediment. The present elevation differs from Pratt's original drawing in that: (i) the former main doorway has been enlarged and deprived of its segmental hood and has become a first-floor window; (ii) the basement windows have been enlarged; (iii) a rusticated ashlar basement has been added; (iv) the brickwork has been cased in ashlar; (v) a new main doorway sheltered by a Roman-Doric port-cochère has been provided on the lower level; (vi) the 17th-century casement windows have been changed, mostly to hung sashes.

The seven-bay E. elevation appears to be largely of Barry's design. In the two lower storeys the three centre bays have round-headed mezzanine openings set in a Roman-Doric pavilion with rusticated three-quarter columns and an entablature decorated with fleurs-de-lis; the central doorway is approached by double flights of steps with stone balustrades and urns.

The rising ground causes the nine-bay S. elevation to be two-storeyed, the principal floor being at the level of the S. terrace. The central window in the lower storey, with a rounded pediment on console brackets and with an eared architrave, closely resembles the surround of the main N. doorway shown on Pratt's elevation, and is probably original. In the attic, presumably replacing dormer windows, Barry has created a third storey of three bays, with round-headed windows flanked by pilasters and capped by a balustrade with fleur-de-lis finials; the flanking dormers with rounded pediments are also by Barry.

The W. elevation retains, in the two principal storeys, mullioned and transomed casement windows as shown on Pratt's drawing of the N. front, and perhaps original. As on the other façades, however, the brickwork has been replaced by ashlar; the attic storey has round-headed 19th-century dormer windows and a shield-of-arms above an inscription of 1836.

The lead-covered roofs retain the characteristic 17th-century steep pitch; the flat central part of the roof is surrounded by a wooden balustrade as indicated on Pratt's drawing. The tall chimneys which rise above the corners of the house were added by Barry, but the stouter chimneystacks within the roof balustrade are as shown by Pratt. The hexagonal central lantern and cupola is a restoration by Barry of a feature shown on Pratt's drawing.

Inside, the main N. doorway opens into the 19th-century entrance hall under the northern part of the saloon; it has coupled Roman-Doric three-quarter columns set against the walls. Steps on the S. of the vestibule lead to a vaulted corridor and lobby, from the E. end of which rises the N. flight of Barry's staircase. The steps and balustrades are of Italian marble; the Roman-Doric pilasters and the vaulting are of plaster. Niches on the mezzanine landing contain 19th-century bronze statues of King Charles I, of Sir John Bankes (1589–1644), and of Lady Bankes, famous for the defence of Corfe Castle against the Parliamentarians. On the first floor, doorways with highly enriched surrounds give access to the principal rooms; on the second floor the walls of the staircase are embellished with large paintings by Snyders, and pendant swags of fruit and flowers, one signed Pegrassi, Verona, 1846; the coffered plaster ceiling has a guilloche of round panels enclosing a painting of c. 1540, traditionally from the Grimani Palace in Venice and ascribed variously to Giorgione, Correggio, Giovanni da Udine, Francesco Vecellio and Francesco Menzocchi.

A staircase from the second to the attic storey incorporates panels of richly carved woodwork, probably from the original main stair (Plate 35); the magnificent acanthus scroll-work appears to come from the former balustrade.

The first-floor saloon (Plate 59) rises through the first, second and attic storeys; it has an elliptical plaster ceiling painted with neo-classical motifs; the cornice and frieze have honeysuckle enrichment. The marble chimneypiece has coupled Corinthian pilasters. The large S. doorway has oak doors with shaped and enriched panels and an elaborate door-case, probably foreign and of the 18th century. The drawing-room decorations are of c. 1840. The library ceiling contains a fresco by Guido Reni mounted on canvas; it was brought in 1840 from Palazzo Zani, Bologna. The dining-room walls are decorated with late 19th-century panelling incorporating 17th-century tapestry. In the Spanish Room (Plate 57) the walls are hung with stamped and gilded leather; the highly enriched coffered and gilded ceiling, said to be from the Contarini Palace in Venice, has paintings of c. 1570 from the studio of Paolo Veronese representing Jupiter, Neptune and other deities; the doors are embellished with paintings of the Labours of the Months designed by William John Bankes and signed A.T.V.; the window shutters incorporate 17th-century panels carved with pendant fruit and flower swags, possibly survivals from the original decoration of the house. This room contains important Spanish paintings (Hutchins III, 237) assembled early in the 19th century by Henry Bankes. An oval panel in the bedroom ceiling contains a painting, of the Venetian School of c. 1570, representing Faith.

In the grounds, about ¼ mile S. of the house (Plate 32), an Egyptian granite obelisk of the 2nd century B.C., from Philae (Porter and Moss, Topographical Bibliography, vi, 214), brought to England in 1819, is set on a plinth inscribed to record its erection in 1827. Also in the grounds is an Egyptian red granite anthropoid sarcophagus of the 14th century B.C. (ibid., i2, 81).

(5) The Manor House (98980063), of two storeys with attics, has brick walls and tiled and stone-slated roofs. It was built by Matthew Beethell, steward to Sir Ralph Bankes, probably at the end of the 17th century (Hutchins III, 236), and has additions of the mid 18th and early 19th centuries and later.

The E. front (Plate 60) is symmetrical and of seven bays with the three projecting middle bays crowned by a curvilinear gable with an urn finial. The doorway has a moulded ashlar architrave and a pedimented entablature. The square-headed sashed ground-floor windows are surmounted by blind lunettes outlined with brick arches (cf. (7)); each arch springs from a brick plat-band and has a boldly projecting keystone with foliate decoration. The windows of the upper storey retain transomed two-light casements with wooden surrounds and leaded lights; the flat brick arches of the window-heads have carved keystones, as in the lower storey, those of the central pavilion decorated with masks. The attic gable has a square-headed window with a balustraded apron. The hipped two-light dormer windows flanking the gable appear to be original. Symmetrically placed behind the roof ridge are two chimneystacks with panelled sides and bold cornices.

In the S. elevation of the E. range the ground-floor and first-floor openings are as in the E. front; the western part of the elevation is modern. In the N. elevation, to the W. of the E. range is a mid 18th-century N.W. wing of three bays with low square-headed casement windows in the lower storey (two of them altered) and with three tall sashed windows on the first floor; the first-floor plat-band and the eaves of the wing are at a higher level than those of the E. range. The W. elevation is masked by an early 19th-century single-storeyed service wing.

Inside, the plan is of class T. The principal rooms have moulded cornices, skirtings and other joinery of 17th-century date, and the hall has a panelled dado and a chimneypiece with a panelled overmantel on which a landscape is painted. In the inner hall, moulded archivolts are supported by pilasters and Tuscan three-quarter columns. The oak staircase has square newel-posts with ball finials, close strings, moulded handrails and stout vase-shaped balusters. Some first-floor chambers have 18th-century panelling. Two window panes have scratched inscriptions of 1740 and 1741. The roof has collared tie-beam trusses.

(6) Elm Grove (99420103), house, of two storeys with rendered walls and slate-covered roofs, is of the early 19th century. The E. front is symmetrical and of three bays, with a doorway with reeded pilasters and a flat hood, and with square-headed sashed windows in both storeys. Inside, the plan is of class U.

(7) High Hall (00070280), of two main storeys with service basement and attics, has rendered brick walls with ashlar dressings, and tiled roofs with stone-slate verges. The central block, of 17th-century origin, was somewhat altered in the second half of the 18th century. Additions on the W. and E. are of 1885 and 1909.


High Hall

High Hall

The S. front of the central block, now the garden front, but originally with the main entrance, is symmetrical and of five bays (Plate 29). The corners of the façade have quoins, and stone plat-bands occur just above the level of the window sills. The square-headed doorway has a moulded and eared stone architrave under a pediment supported by scrolled consoles; the sashed windows of the lower main storey are round-headed with blind lunettes (cf. (5)) and have moulded architraves; those of the upper main storey are square-headed. The eaves have moulded cornices. In the N. elevation, a wooden architrave suggests that the central opening in the lower storey was formerly a doorway. The quoins are of rendered brickwork.

Inside, the dining-room has mid 18th-century panelling with bolection-moulded panels in two heights. The fireplace surround has cheek-pieces with foliate scroll-work, a pulvinated oak-leaf frieze and an overmantel with a painting in a carved frame flanked by carved fruit and flower pendants; the space between the mantel-shelf and the picture-frame is filled with rococo scroll-work. The hall fireplace has a carved wood surround of the late 18th century with neo-classical garlands and wreaths. The stairs have open strings, scrolled step spandrels, turned balusters and a moulded handrail ending at the foot in a fist-shaped scroll with foliate enrichment.

Adjacent to the house on the E. is a stable range of one storey with lofts, with brick walls and tiled roofs; it dates probably from the first half of the 18th century. The W. front is approximately symmetrical and of nine bays, the middle bay wider than the others, set slightly forward and pedimented; at the centre is a round-headed doorway with an ashlar surround; the pediment has an oval window. The openings of the lateral bays are square-headed, with gauged brick heads with keystones. A central clock-turret is of the late 19th century.

The garden has a high brick wall on which is scratched the date 1762. A cast lead water-tank is perhaps of late 17th or early 18th-century date.

(8) Cottages (00260320), two adjacent, of two storeys with brick walls and thatched roofs, are of the early 19th century. The range appears to have been divided at one time into three tenements.

(9) Barnsley Farm (99680372), house, of two storeys with brick walls and a tiled roof, is of the early 19th century; it has now been divided into two dwellings.

(10) Bradford Farm (97840536), house, of two storeys with attics, has walls of banded brick and flint, and a tiled roof with stone-slate verges. Of early 18th-century origin, the house was greatly extended in the 19th century. The S. front is asymmetrical, with 19th-century bow windows in the lower storey, casement windows above, and with traces of several blocked openings. Inside, the ground-floor rooms of the original range have large, deeply chamfered beams.

(11) Lodge Farm (97430215), cottage, of two storeys with rubble walls and with a tiled and stone-slated roof, may be of late mediaeval origin although it has been suggested that the walls originated as those of a barn, and that two 15th-century windows with traceried heads were brought from elsewhere, perhaps in the 17th century (Dorset Procs., XXXIX (1918), p. xxvii).

Inside, a ground-floor room has stop-chamfered beams resting on stone corbels, and a first-floor room has a beam with hollow-chamfered and triple ovolo mouldings. Two 15th-century stone windows in the upper storey, blocked externally, have each two trefoil-headed lights with quatrefoil spandrel lights in vertical tracery under two-centred heads. A doorway has a timber frame with a four-centred head. The roof has an arch-braced collar truss rising from ogee-moulded and hollow-chamfered wall-plates with run-out stops; the purlins have curved wind-braces.

(12) Old Barford (96359996), house, of one storey with an attic, with walls partly of brick and partly timber-framed and formerly with thatched roofs, is now derelict. The timber-framed building has a class-I plan and appears to be of the 17th century. In the 18th century a brick range with a class-T plan was built beside it, probably using the original structure as a service wing.

(13) Vicarage (99300110), of two storeys with brick walls and a slate-covered roof, is of c. 1825. The S. front is symmetrical and of three bays, with a central doorway and with square-headed sashed windows. The plan is of class T.


Pamphill. (14) Keeper's Lodge.

Pamphill. (14) Keeper's Lodge.

Tadden

(14) Keeper's Lodge (98400131), of one storey with an attic, has timber-framed walls with brick nogging and a thatched roof. The central part of the range comprising two heated rooms is probably of the early 17th century. Extensions to E. and W., the former with another fireplace, are respectively of the late 17th and early 18th centuries; the E. extensions have recently been demolished. Inside, the parlour in the W. part of the original range has chamfered beams with ogee stops; the adjacent room has deeply chamfered beams. A dormer window has timber mullions with hollow-chamfered and ovolo mouldings. The E. staircase, now gone, had stout turned balusters, vaseshaped in profile.

(15) Cottage (98720140), of one storey with an attic, has cob walls and a thatched roof and is of mid 18th-century origin. The building formerly comprised two tenements.

(16) Cottage (98740134), of one storey with an attic, has timber-framed walls with brick nogging, and a thatched roof. It dates perhaps from late in the 16th century and has a class-S plan.

(17) Cottage (98720135), with general characteristics as in (16) but with a class-I plan, is of the early 17th century. A dairy added on the E. is probably of the 18th century. The original ground-floor rooms have chamfered beams with run-out stops.

Chilbridge

(18) Cottage (99090158), of one storey with an attic, has brick walls and a thatched roof and is of the late 18th century.

(19) Cottage (99080153), of one storey with an attic, has cob walls and a thatched roof and is of the mid 18th century.

(20) Cottage (99200135), of one storey with an attic, has walls of rubble and of cob, and a thatched roof. It is of 17th-century origin, but was largely rebuilt in the 18th century. The ground-floor rooms retain an original stop-chamfered beam and large ceiling joists.

(21) Cottage (99180132), of two storeys with brick walls and a thatched roof, is of the early 19th century.

(22) House (99210128), of two storeys with cob walls and a thatched roof, is of the late 18th century. The ground-floor rooms have chamfered beams.

(23) Cottage (99250119), of two storeys with cob walls and a thatched roof, is of the late 18th century. The plan is of class S.

(24) Cottage (99280122), of one storey with an attic, has cob walls and a thatched roof and is of the early 18th century; the walls have been partly rebuilt in brickwork. The ground-floor rooms have chamfered beams.

(25) Cottage (99340127), of two storeys with cob walls and a thatched roof, has recently been demolished; it was of the late 18th century.

(26) Cottage (99400132), of one storey with an attic, has timber-framed walls with brick nogging, and a thatched roof. Of early 17th-century origin, the walls were partly rebuilt in brickwork, probably in the 18th or 19th century. An original window of five narrow lights remains on the N.W. side. The ground-floor rooms have stop-chamfered beams.

(27) Cottage (99450153), of one storey with an attic, has timber-framed walls with wattle-and-daub infilling, and a thatched roof; it is of the early 17th century and retains many original features.


In the N. elevation is a four-light dormer window with canted side lights and with the projecting sill resting on a carved oak bracket; the oak mullions and window-head have ovolo mouldings. Inside, the ground-floor rooms have chamfered beams with ogee stops. The fireplace has a cambered and chamfered bressummer with shaped stops. The doorway in the partition is square-headed, with a chamfered oak frame; the corresponding partition in the upper storey has a similar doorway. The attic ceilings have beams similar to those of the lower storey.

(28) House (99440158), of two storeys with brick walls and a tiled roof, is of the late 18th or early 19th century. Adjacent on the E. are the remains of a late 17th-century timber-framed cottage, now much altered.

(29) Cottage (99230101), of one storey with attics, has the S. front in brick and the other walls of cob; the roof is thatched. The building dates from c. 1840.

(30) Cottages (99250103), two adjacent, of one storey with attics and with timber-framed walls and thatched roofs, are of the first half of the 17th century.

(31) Cottages (99310102), pair, of two storeys with cob walls and thatched roofs, are of the late 18th or early 19th century.

(32) Cottage (99440095), of one storey with an attic, has timber-framed walls and a thatched roof; it is of early 17th century origin, but has been somewhat altered. Inside, the plan is of class S. The ground-floor rooms have original chamfered beams, but the open fireplace is modern.

(33) Cottage (99470099), of two storeys with cob walls and a thatched roof, is of the first half of the 19th century. The E. front is symmetrical and of three bays, with sashed windows in both storeys, those of the lower storey in projecting bays. Inside, the plan is of class T.

(34) Cottage (99490099), of one storey with an attic, has cob walls and a thatched roof. The middle part of the range, with a N. front of two bays with a central doorway, is of the early 18th century. The E. extension is of the late 18th century and a further extension on the W., in brick, is of the 19th century.

Stone

(35) Cottage (99770082), of one storey with an attic, has brick walls and a thatched roof; it dates from late in the 18th century. The N. front is symmetrical and of two bays, with a central doorway and with segmental-headed casement windows; a plat-band marks the level of the attic floor. Inside, the plan is of class T. The ground-floor rooms have stop-chamfered beams.

(36) Cottage (99990077), of one storey with an attic, has timber-framed walls and a thatched roof, and is of the late 16th or early 17th century. In the 18th or 19th century the framework was nogged with brick and flint, and in parts was replaced by brickwork on which timber beams are simulated in black paint. The dormer windows project, as in (27). Inside, the plan is of class S, and there are traces of a former staircase beside the chimneybreast. The ground-floor rooms have stop-chamfered beams.

(37) Cottages (99970074), two adjacent, of one storey with attics, have timber-framed walls and thatched roofs; they are of late 16th or early 17th-century origin, but the brick nogging is dated 1697 in a panel over the N. doorway of the W. tenement. Inside, the W. tenement has stop-chamfered beams and an open fireplace.

(38) Bickham Farm (00060119), house of two storeys, and barn and sheds adjacent on the S., have brick walls and thatched roofs and date from the first half of the 19th century.

(39) Cottage (00110072), of one storey with an attic, has brick walls and a thatched roof and is of the early 19th century.

(40) Stone Farm (00220067), cottage, of two storeys with cob walls and a thatched roof, was built in 1780. The S. front is of three bays, with an approximately central doorway and with casement windows asymmetrically disposed; the date is inscribed on a stone over the doorway. Inside, the plan is of class T.

Monuments (41–44), St. Margaret's Hospital

St. Margaret's Hospital, a group of single-storeyed almshouses, stands close to the Chapel of St. Margaret (1) and probably occupies the site of a mediaeval leper hospital (Hutchins III, 247). Unless otherwise described the cottage walls are of cob and the roofs are thatched.

(41) Cottage (00400036), adjoining (1) on the W., has walls of rubble, brick and timber framework, and a tiled roof with stone-slate verges; it is of 16th-century origin, but has been much altered. (Plan, p. 45.)

(42) Cottages (00380038), range of three, are of 18th-century origin. The E. tenement was partly rebuilt in brick in the 19th century.

(43) Cottage (00390037), is of 18th-century origin.

(44) Cottage, adjacent to (43) on the S.E., has timber-framed walls and is of the early 17th century. A panel of original wattle-and-daub remains in the N.E. wall, but the other panels of the timber framework now have brick nogging. Inside, the plan was originally of class S, but the building is now divided into two tenements and a later chimneybreast has been built against the gabled S. wall.

Little Pamphill and Pamphill Green

(45) Farr's House (99880031), of two storeys with attics, with brick walls and tiled roofs, is of the early 19th century. In the symmetrical five-bay S. front the ground-floor rooms have french windows with square-headed fanlights and traceried glazing-bars. A former courtyard on the N. was roofed in the latter part of the 19th century to form a hall with an arch-braced roof.

(46) Cottage (99600014), of two storeys with rendered walls and a thatched roof, is of the late 18th century.

(47) Cottage (99460015), now of two storeys with brick walls and a thatched roof, but originally single-storeyed with an attic and with timber-framed walls, is of 17th-century origin; some timber framework remains in the gabled E. wall. Adjacent on the W. is an 18th-century cottage of two storeys with brick walls and a thatched roof. Inside, each cottage has a class-S plan, the fireplaces being set back-to-back.

(48) Cottage (99410021), of one storey with an attic, with brick walls and a thatched roof, is of the late 18th century and originally had a class-S plan. In the 19th century it was extended on the E.

(49) Cottage (99460023), of one storey with an attic, with cob walls and a thatched roof and with a class-I plan, is of the early 18th century.

(50) Cottage (99480023), of one storey with an attic, with brick and cob walls and with a thatched roof, dates from c. 1800.

(51) Cottages (99540022), range of three, of one storey with attics, have walls of brick and of cob, and thatched roofs. The whole range is of the second half of the 18th century, but the E. cottage is somewhat later than the other two. In plan, the E. cottage is of class T; the western pair have class-S plans.

(52) Cottages (99510028), two adjacent, of one storey with attics, have cob walls and thatched roofs. The E. cottage, with a class-I plan, is of the 18th century; that on the W. has a class-S plan and was built somewhat later.

(53) Cottage (99420035), of two storeys with cob, brick and tile-hung walls and with a thatched roof, is of the late 18th century. It originally comprised two tenements, each with a class-S plan with back-to-back fireplaces, and it was converted to a single dwelling by cutting through the party-wall on the E. of the chimneybreast.

(54) Cottage (99420037), single storeyed with an attic, has cob walls and a thatched roof. It was built early in the 18th century with a class-S plan; this was subsequently modified to class T by the construction of a second chimney-stack. The main room has a chamfered beam with ogee stops.

(55) Cottage (99110081), of two storeys with brick walls and a thatched roof, is of the early 19th century.

(56) Cottages (98700075), two adjacent, are of one storey with attics. The E. cottage has timber-framed walls and a thatched roof and is of the early 17th century; the walls retain much original wattle-and-daub infilling. Inside, the E. cottage has a class-S plan and the ground-floor rooms have beams stop-chamfered in correspondence with the partition. The W. cottage is of the 19th century, with brick walls and a thatched roof.

(57) Cottage (98540082), of one storey with an attic, has timber-framed walls and a thatched roof; it dates from the first half of the 17th century and has a class-I plan. One ground floor room has two chamfered beams with shaped stops.

(58) Cottage (98470083), of one storey with an attic, has walls partly timber-framed and partly of brick, and a tiled roof; it is of 17th-century origin, but it was extensively rebuilt in the 19th century.

Cowgrove

(59) Cottage (98280017), of one storey with an attic, has cob walls and a thatched roof. It is of the mid 18th century and has a class-S plan.

(60) Cottage (98450009), of one storey with an attic, has cob walls and a thatched roof; it is of the 17th century and the plan is of class J. Stop-chamfered beams are exposed in the three ground-floor rooms.

(61) Cottage (98489998), of two storeys with brick walls and a thatched roof, is of the early 19th century. The E. front is of two bays with a central doorway. The plan is of class T.

(62) Poplar Farm (98600009), house, of two storeys with brick walls and tiled roofs, is of the late 18th century. Barns on the W. and N.W., with brick and weather-boarded walls and with thatched roofs, are of the late 18th or early 19th century.

(63) Cottage (98630003), of one storey with an attic, with timber-framed walls and a thatched roof, is of the 17th century. Inside, stop-chamfered beams are exposed.

(64) Holly Farm (98840015), cottage, of one storey with an attic, has timber-framed walls and a thatched roof (Plate 31). Junctions in the framework show that the building was erected at two periods, both in the 17th century; the resulting plan is of class J. Stop-chamfered ceiling beams are exposed.

(65) Cottage (98890005), of one storey with attics, has timber-framed walls and a thatched roof; it is of 17th-century origin. The plan shows a through-passage passing between two heated rooms; the fireplaces back on to the passage and combine in one chimney-stack at attic level.

(66) Walnut Farm (99000009), cottage, of two storeys with timber-framed walls and a thatched roof, is of early 17th-century origin; it was extended on the W. in the 18th century.

(67) Lower Farm (99050005), cottage, of one storey with an attic, has timber-framed walls and a thatched roof and is of the 17th century. Inside, some chamfered ceiling beams are exposed. A large Barn some 20 yds. S.E. of the cottage has timber-framed walls, partly weather-boarded and partly with brick nogging, and a thatched roof; it too is of 17th-century origin.

(68) Court Cottage (99080005), of two storeys with an attic, has rendered timber-framed walls and a thatched roof; it is of the early 17th century. The gabled N. elevation has a first-floor window of five square-headed lights with ovolo-moulded oak heads and mullions, slightly projecting and supported on shaped brackets.

Roman And Prehistoric

The Roman road from Badbury to Hamworthy crosses the parish from N.W. to S.E.; N. of Badbury Rings it forms an impressive intersection with the Roman road from Salisbury to Dorchester (Plate 40). Roman pottery has been found in three places: in Wimborne cemetery (005005), where three urns probably indicate a burial or burials (J.B.A.A., n.s. XXV (1919), 264); on Chilbridge Farm, in c. 1930 (notes with sherds in D.C.M.); and S.W. of Lodge Farm (97230198), (Dorset Procs., 66 (1944), 29). A hoard of about twenty silver coins, including issues of Gallienus and Postumus, was found in a pot, c. 1736, probably near Kingston Lacy (Hutchins III, 236); coins are also said to have been found in the park near Abbot Street (985008) (Warne, Ancient Dorset, 181). A pit containing 'Western' Neolithic pottery, flint artifacts, flakes and cores was found at 99789918 during excavations on the Roman site at Lake Gates (P.P.S., XXX (1964), 352–60).

(69) Roman Pits, Ditches and Occupation Debris (around 998991), indicating mid 1st-century military activity and suggesting the presence of a large fort or supply-base, have been found at Lake Gates, S.W. of Wimborne. Limited excavations carried out almost annually since 1959 provide evidence of early Roman occupation at a number of points, some of them in the neighbouring parishes of Corfe Mullen and Poole. (fn. 1) The site, on either side of a dismantled railway, occupies a low gravel terrace (65 ft. above O.D.) on the S. side of the Stour valley, overlooked by high ground on the south. The Roman road from Badbury Rings to Hamworthy passes along the W. side of the site and curves N.W. to cross the broad floodplain of the river (Dorset II, 530). A 1st-century kiln some ½ mile to S.W. is likely to be associated (Corfe Mullen (24), Dorset II, 600).

Excavations along the track of the former railway, from 99709904 eastwards, have disclosed evidence of ditches, pits, and of what are held to be the foundations of a timber building and of a timber-lined water tank. Finds include Claudian and later samian ware, one fragment with the stamp (OFLVCC), Claudian coins, terra rubra, terra nigra, a Gallo-Belgic bowl, a bronze body-armour hinge, and several pieces of lorica segmentata. To the N. around 99809918, on either side of the modern Wimborne-Dorchester road, excavations have revealed at least six roughly rectangular rubbish pits (the largest 6 ft. by 7 ft., by 5 ft. deep), also post-holes and a gully, possibly the remains of a building. The fillings of the pits yielded much pottery of the mid-1st century, including locally manufactured Durotrigian bowls, terra rubra, lamps, mortaria and amphorae. Among the samian ware were two pieces with stamps of the potters Aquitanus and Licinus of La Graufesenque. In the pits, and scattered near by, were two coins of Augustus and several of Claudius. Metal objects included a bronze buckle and strap-loop of military type, a bronze statuette of a lion, a bronze animal-headed terminal, an iron crowbar and nails. Fragments of glassware, bone gaming counters, bracelets and shale were also found.

Further evidence of early Roman occupation—pottery, glass, scrap-bronze, a cuirass hook—was revealed in trial trenches cut at two points across a low bank or ridge which extends eastwards from a point N. of Lake Farm (99959919). To the S., in Corfe Mullen, finds of comparable date have come from a sewertrench. Beside the Roman road (99629884) an oven of fired clay was found and, in the vicinity, early pottery including a GalloBelgic platter, amphora handles and a stamp of the samian potter Murranus. To the E. (99739877) what appears to have been a rubbish pit yielded sherds of terra rubra, of white and cream flagons, and of coarse ware.

On the evidence of the finds, especially the samian ware, occupation of the site appears to have lasted from c. A.D. 45 to c. A.D. 60. (J.R.S., LIII (1963), 149, 166; Dorset Procs., 87 (1965), 99–101; 88 (1966), 115; 89 (1967), 143; 90 (1968), 171; 91 (1969), 188–9).

(70) Iron Age and Romano-British Settlement (97800423), on King Down, lies on the summit of a low spur (190 ft. above O.D.) which extends from the higher ground at Badbury Rings, a mile distant, N.E. towards the valley of the R. Allen. The site has been largely flattened by ploughing, and air photographs (RAF CPE/UK 1893: 4075–6) show that much of it was already damaged in this way before 1946. These photographs and others more recent (N.M.R., ST 9704/3/ 157–61), together with the remains on the ground, indicate the existence of the W. half of an irregular enclosure some 250 ft. across, bounded by a low bank and ditch. A low flat-topped mound, 2 ft. high, 115 ft. long and tapering from 65 ft. to 45 ft. in width, projects W. from the enclosure and is contained within its ditch. Air photographs show traces of further enclosures extending down the slope immediately S.E. of the main enclosure.

Occupation debris found near the long mound in 1939 included roofing-tiles, wall-plaster, slag, oyster shells, Nene Valley ware, New Forest ware and other coarse pottery (Dorset Procs., 61 (1939), 43–7; 76 (1954), 98). A worn silver denarius of the Roman Republic, minted by Titus Cloulius c. 110 B.C., was found near by in c. 1957 (information from Mr. D. D. Whitmore). Roofing-tile and pottery finds, extending for some distance S.W. from the mound, were recovered after ploughing in 1965 (Dorset Procs., 88 (1966), 116). Excavations in 1968 and 1969 revealed evidence of occupation from the Iron Age until late in the Roman period. Robbed flint walls appear to have been the remains of several buildings, mostly later than c. A.D. 200. Finds included eight coins, mainly of the 4th century, several small iron tools, decorated samian ware and coarse pottery including New Forest ware (Dorset Procs., 90 (1968), 171; 91 (1969), 189).

(71) Romano-British Settlement (98750390), found in 1965 on the E. side of King Down, lies at about 150 ft. above O.D. towards the N.E. end of a broad flat-topped spur, overlooking the Allen valley. An area of dark soil 50 yds. across contained roofing-tiles, coarse grey and black pottery including a flanged dish and a sherd of New Forest ware, also oyster shells and fragments of shale. The lower stone of a rotary quern was found 300 yds. to E.N.E. (Dorset Procs., 88 (1966), 116).

(72) Enclosures and Ditches (973031–969024), S.E. of High Wood, probably the remains of an Iron Age or Romano-British settlement, lie ¼ mile E. of Badbury Rings. The remains, occupying a S.E. slope between 175 ft. and 250 ft. above O.D., extend for nearly ½ mile from N.E. to S.W. They are levelled by ploughing, but are seen on air photographs (C.U.A.P., XZ 21–2; AUP 44; AHT 70. N.M.R., ST 9702/2/150–6; ST 9702/3/148–9; ST 9602/1). A roughly rectangular enclosure, some 450 ft. by 400 ft., is orientated N.W.–S.E. and has slightly bowed long sides and an entrance in the S.E. side (Plate 55). Immediately to the W. are a series of smaller rectangular enclosures. To the N. are traces of a curving ditch and to the S.W. are traces of further enclosures and ditches, some of them cut by the Roman road from Badbury Rings to Hamworthy.

(73) Enclosures and Ditches, probably Iron Age and Romano-British, in the vicinity of the junction of Roman roads just N. of Badbury Rings, are revealed by crop-marks and soilmarks on air photographs (C.U.A.P., CM 60; N.M.R., ST 9603/4, 5). An elongated enclosure of about 5 acres, its N.E. side formed by the Roman road from Hamworthy to Bath, lies at 96450365. From its N.W. corner a straight length of bank and ditch extends N.W., and within the angle of the ditch and enclosure is a smaller, irregular enclosure. To the S.E. another ditch (96550357–96690325), roughly parallel with the Hamworthy–Bath road and immediately N.E. of it, extends for some 400 yds. A very small rectangular enclosure, about 70 ft. by 40 ft., bounded by ditches and orientated N.E.–S.W., lies alongside the Roman road from Old Sarum to Dorchester, at 96540336.

Monuments (74–91), Round Barrows

Eighteen certain or probable barrows can be detected, nearly all in the N. of the parish. A few survive as earthworks, but the majority are in areas which have been heavily ploughed and now appear only as ringditches on air photographs.

(74) Barrow (96090371), on a gentle N. slope, N. of Badbury Rings, is visible on an air photograph (C.U.A.P., XZ 13).

Three barrows lie in a straight line on a gentle N. slope immediately N.E. of the Roman road from Hamworthy to Bath and almost parallel with it. They have been levelled by ploughing, but appear on air photographs (C.U.A.P., AUP 39; AXO 33). The photographs also show traces of a number of much smaller rings, possibly, but by no means certainly associated with the barrows.

(75) Barrow (96420416).

(76) Barrow (96410424).

(77) Barrow (96410431).

Three ring-ditches, probably the remains of barrows, appear on an air photograph (N.M.R., ST 9806/1). They lie close together in a line beside a modern hedge, N.E. of King Down Farm.

(78) Barrow ? (97340413); diam. about 50 ft.

(79) Barrow ? (97370414); diam. about 65 ft.

(80) Barrow ? (97410415); diam. about 45 ft.

Bradford Barrow Group comprises five barrows in a scatter extending N.W.–S.E., towards the end of a low spur. All but the Bradford Barrow have been heavily ploughed and now appear only as ring-ditches on an air photograph (N.M.R., ST 9806/1). A ridged collared urn, from a possible barrow near Old Lawn Farm, may come from (85) (Arch. J., CXIX (1962), 11, 65 and fig. 3).

(81) Barrow (98090505), with traces of a central grave or pit; diam. about 80 ft.

(82) Barrow (98110496); diam. about 80 ft.

(83) Barrow (98160484), markedly oval in plan; diam. about 80 ft. by 55 ft.

(84) Bradford Barrow (98100466), bowl, is a large conical mound beside a disused chalk-pit; diam. 118 ft., ht. 20 ft., with traces of a surrounding ditch.

(85) Barrow (98330456), with traces of a central pit or grave; diam. about 70 ft.

King Down Group consists of four barrows on the crest of a ridge, about 160 ft. above O.D. All have been damaged by ploughing, and (88) and (89) have been largely flattened. From one of these came two barrel urns, one of 'South Lodge' type (Arch., XLIII (1871), 356–7; Arch. J., CXIX (1962), 54–5).

(86) Bowl (98020341); diam. 65 ft., ht. 6 ft.

(87) Bowl (98030347); diam. 58 ft., ht. 6 ft.

(88) Bowl (98060345); diam. 45 ft., ht. under 1 ft.

(89) Bowl (98080344); diam. 45 ft., ht. under 1 ft.

(90) Barrow (96540139), on the summit of a low knoll N. of Sweetbrier Drove, appears as a ring-ditch on an air photograph (N.M.R., ST 9500/1); diam. about 40 ft.

(91) Barrow ? (99500026), in Little Pamphill, lies near the top of a low spur on the Reading Beds; diam. about 44 ft., ht. 2 ft.

Undated

(92) Enclosure (96420127), S. of Lodge Down, has been flattened by ploughing, but is visible as a soil-mark on an air photograph (N.M.R., ST 9500/1); it lies on the S. side of a low knoll, just over 150 ft. above O.D. In plan it is circular, about 340 ft. in diameter, and defined by a narrow ditch which has been cut on the S. side by Sweetbrier Drove.

(93) Enclosure (98500065), in Abbot Street Copse, lies on a spur of the Reading Beds about 125 ft. above O.D. It is roughly oval in plan, 100 ft. across from E. to W. and 75 ft. from N. to S. It is bounded by a low bank up to 15 ft. across and rarely more than 2 ft. high, with a ditch 12 ft. across and 2 ft. deep outside it. There is no obvious entrance and the interior is featureless. The enclosure lies in the fork between two hollowways, probably later than itself, which meet immediately on the W. The N. hollow-way crosses the ditch of the enclosure and, a short distance to the E., cuts the agger of the Roman road from Hamworthy to Badbury Rings.

(94) Enclosure (99000020), at Cowgrove, immediately E. of the Roman road from Hamworthy to Badbury Rings, lies on a S.W. slope, 100 ft. above O.D., on heavy clay of the Reading Beds. The area is roughly rectangular, measuring 210 ft. from N.W. to S.E. and 180 ft. from N.E. to S.W.; it is levelled into the slope and bounded on the N.W. and S.E. by broad banks 3 ft. high. On the N.E. it is bounded by a scarp 3 ft. high falling towards the interior, and on the S.W. by a modern field-bank and ditch. A large flat-topped mound nearly 100 ft. across and 5 ft. high occupies a central position in the S.W. half of the area. The enclosure lies oblique to the Roman road and is unrelated to it. Sumner suggests that it was a Saxon meeting place (Local Papers (1931), 36–40); locally it is said to be an old clay-pit.

Footnotes

1 We are grateful to the excavator, Mr. N. H. Field, for information in advance of publication.


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