Altar-slabs: The only mediaeval altar-slabs to survive in the city are in the churches of St. Benet and St.
Andrew, Cherry Hinton; the first is fragmentary, the second reset on a modern base.
Bells: The two earliest bells are at All Saints' and St. Andrew's, Cherry Hinton; the first, probably of
the 14th century, is plain; the second, of the first half of the same century, is inscribed 'Ave Maria' in
Lombardic letters and has a stamp of a queen's head. The most notable survival are the four mid 15th-century bells in an old bell-frame in St. Botolph's church, all by John Danyell of London, inscribed, and
three with stamps of the Royal arms (France modern and England quarterly). At St. Edward's, St. Andrew,
Cherry Hinton, and St. Mary and St. Nicholas, Trumpington, are 15th-century bells, the first and last
from a foundry at Bury St. Edmunds. The foregoing nine mediaeval bells include dedications to Christ,
the Trinity, St. Mary, St. Anne, St. Margaret, St. Mary Magdalene, St. Andrew, and St. Apollinaris.
The 16th-century bells are at Peterhouse, by Peeter Vanden Ghein of Malines, 1548, at St. Edward's
church, from the Bury foundry, 1576, and St. Benet's 1588; thus the oldest College retains the oldest
college bell. Bells of the 17th century survive in great number in Cambridge, beginning with the bell of
1604 with Lombardic lettering at All Saints' by Tobias Norris of the Stamford foundry, who also made
those at Little St. Mary's, 1608, and St. Benet's, 1610; contemporary with him was Richard Holdfield of
Cambridge with bells of 1610 at St. John's (?), and Trinity Colleges, and two of 1612 at Chesterton.
Other early 17th-century bells by named founders are those by Richard Bowler of Colchester, 1603, at
St. Peter's church, John Warrin of Cambridge, 1607, at Great St. Mary's, John Draper of Thetford, 1618,
at St. Benet's, the 'silver' bell by W. L. (William Land, jun.), 1624, with stamps of the Royal arms, etc.,
at St. John's College, Thomas Norris, successor of Tobias, 1632, at All Saints', and Miles Graye of Colchester, 1637, at Queens'. After the Civil War, in 1659 Christopher Gray of Ampthill, in 1669 Christopher
Graye of Haddenham, and in 166. and 1683 Christopher Graye, probably all the same man, cast bells for
Jesus College at a cost of £6 15s. and the churches of St. Edward (three), St. Andrew, Chesterton, and
St. Michael (three) respectively. Other named founders in this period were Robert Gurney of Bury St.
Edmunds with bells at St. Benet and Holy Sepulchre, 1663, and St. Andrew the Great, 1667, Anthony
Bartlet of Whitechapel at Emmanuel College, 1672, and Christ's College, 1675, and Charles Newman of
Norwich at St. Michael, 1684, and St. Clement, 1691. Thomas Newman of Cambridge and Norwich cast
five bells for Holy Trinity Church in 1705 and one for St. Andrew the Great in 1722. In this last year
and 1723 Richard Phelps of Whitechapel cast seven of the thirteen bells now in Great St. Mary's, but all
have been mutilated by the removal of their canons. From St. Neot's came the bell at St. Clement's, 1780,
and from Downham that at Trinity College, 1795 (recast), both by Thomas Osborn, and that at Great
St. Mary's, 1825, by William Dobson. For the rest, the 18th century includes castings by J. Eayre of St.
Neot's, Pack and Chapman of London, Edward Arnold of Leicester, and I. B. Fitton whose bell of
1792 at Corpus Christi College has a stamp of the Crucifixion. Amongst the bells cast in the first half of
the 19th century are several by firms of bell-founders still in existence, Taylor now of Loughborough and
Mears of London, whose earliest works are respectively at Chesterton, 1825, and Cherry Hinton, 1828.
The Cambridge chimes, composed by Dr. Crotch, the mechanism designed by Dr. Jowett, were put
up in Great St. Mary's church in 1793; they are in the key of D.
Brasses: Cambridge city by the inclusion of Trumpington within its boundaries possesses one of the most
important brasses in the country. For the rest, the brasses described in the Inventory, and they are numerous,
are interesting mainly by virtue of their variety and for the evidence they give of the academical habit.
They range from the turn of the 13th century to the mid 19th century.
The brass of Sir Roger de Trumpington has hitherto been listed, after that of Sir John D'Abernon, as
the second oldest brass of a knight in England, therefore perhaps this is the place to note difficulties and
conjectures attending the ascription and date that may affect that title. The armour shown is appropriate
enough to the date of death of Roger I in 1289, and so the brass has been assigned. But the indent of the
memorial-inscription shows it to have been on a continuous fillet and this is a wholly exceptional treatment before the 14th century. Giles I, son and heir of Roger I, died between 1327 and 1332. Roger II,
whether a son or a younger brother of Giles I is uncertain, died without inheriting, in 1326. The heir
Giles II, son of Roger II, was born in c. 1320, and Roger III his younger brother, born after 1321, inherited
the Trumpington holding from him before 1346. The armour does not however afford firm dating criteria
within twenty years of 1289, though it is earlier than 1327; this and the form of the fillet lead to the conclusion that the brass is of c. 1300 at the earliest. Whether it was a posthumous memorial to Roger I
or prepared by Giles I in his own lifetime would remain in doubt were there not also an architectural
monument of some splendour of c. 1330 in the church. Roger I and Giles I were men of some note,
Roger II was apparently not. With little doubt therefore the brass may be assigned to Roger I, but c. 1300 (fn. 1) ,
the monument to Giles I; the two have been combined misleadingly to suggest a single memorial. The
rough addition of the heraldic labels to the Trumpington arms on the ailettes and sword scabbard suggests
appropriation by a cadet; the amendment is an early one. The gouging out of the field of the shield may
suggest that enamelling was intended; this project may well have been abandoned in view of the area to be
covered and we have now no knowledge of the proficiency of the engravers in patching miscutting or the
composition they used.
The next most ambitious figure brass is that of Eudo de la Zouche, 1414, in St. John's College Chapel,
but it is now badly mutilated and worn. That of John Argentein, 1507–8, in King's College Chapel retains
traces of enamelling; this and the brass of William Towne, 1496–7, in the same building, and others of
1442 at St. Benet's, 1436 and c. 1500 at Little St. Mary's, c. 1530 at Trinity Hall, c. 1535 at Queens' College,
and c. 1540 at Christ's College, as well as Zouche, show academical dress. Walter Hewke had his brass at
Trinity Hall prepared in his lifetime as his will of 1517 attests; he wears a cope with splendidly elaborated
orphreys, though the engraving has not the beauty and accomplishment of that of earlier brasses of the
type, for example, of those at Balsham. At Christ's College is the figure of Thomas Fowler, c. 1520, gentleman usher of the chamber to Edward IV, in armour, with his wife, and at Queens' Robert Whalley, 1591,
in civil dress. The latter is a remarkable example of fine and detailed engraving, assured and of much
decorative quality. The latest figure brass, of Martin Davy, 1839, at Gonville and Caius College, is most
unusual, with the figure represented standing in the Gate of Virtue of the College; it was designed by
W. Shoobridge and engraved by J. W. Archer in 1840, but in a line so fine that it defies reproduction.
For the rest the brasses are mainly inscription-plates, many with shields-of-arms. Of them may be
mentioned that of Thomas Lorkin, 1591, at Great St. Mary's, a pleasingly inconsequential local product,
of Lionel Duckett, 1603, at Jesus College in a stone frame, others of 1557 and 1565 at Trinity Hall and
Trinity College in black-letter, of William Pearce, 1820, at Jesus of separately inlaid Roman capitals, and
of John Smith, 1840, at St. Botolph's with Gothic ornament, by Cox & Son of London.
Both St. Edward's and Great St. Mary's churches contain a great many indents, but the only notable
one is that of John Pykenham, c. 1300, at Jesus College, but presumably from elsewhere, with an inscription
in separate Lombardic letters.
Candelabra, etc.: One of the more remarkable survivals in Cambridge from the Middle Ages is the coloured
and gilded wax candle found about a century ago in Jesus College Chapel and now in the Fitzwilliam
Museum. Only two important pre-1850 light-fittings have been noted: one is the beautiful glass candelabrum in the Chapel at Emmanuel College given by Edward Hulse in 1732 and of about that date, the other
the crystal and ormolu oil-fitting hanging in the Old Combination Room at Trinity College given in
1809 by C. S. Lefevre. Of many candle-sconces, those in the Combination Room at St. John's College
are the most notable; these are of silver and of various dates from 1790, all more or less matching.
Chests: Of importance is the little-known 14th-century front attached to a reconstructed chest in St.
John's College, in Lecture Room 5, formerly in the Treasury; it is elaborately carved with tracerypanelling and sitting swans. The notable iron-bound chest at Sidney Sussex College is of much decorative
richness, with an intricate system of hasps and locking bars, though now badly oxidised; it has small
original applied panels of Ss but long antedates the foundation of the College. The chest (5) at King's
College Chapel, similar in form to that last described, of the early 16th century and that in the Guildhall,
dated documentarily 1531, are both of interest, being containers of great strength and durability. King's
College Chapel contains no less than nine chests of different dates since c. 1500 and a 17th-century travelling
trunk. Many other chests remaining in the city are listed in the index.
Churchyard and wayside crosses: Remains of mediaeval crosses stand in the churchyards at Cherry Hinton,
Chesterton and Trumpington and of a fourth re-erected inside Trumpington church. Only the last is of
note; it was set up at the roadside as a monument to John and Agnes Stockton late in the 15th century (see
also Monuments, below).
Coffin-lids: Only three coffin-lids need special mention here, two in Jesus College Chapel and one at
Cherry Hinton. In this order, the first, of the early 13th century, is ascribed to Bertha de Lindsey; it shows
a curious duplication in the inscription with that recorded by John Weever (Ancient Funeral Monuments
(1631), 242) at Canterbury ascribed to Bertha, Queen of Ethelbert of Kent, who welcomed St. Augustine,
'Moribus ornata jacet hic regina beata Berta', etc. The second, being carved with a figure of a priest under
a canopy, is included with monumental effigies below. The third, of c. 1200, is unusual in having a sunk
roundel containing a man's head in relief; but most probably the sinking represents later re-use of a slab
originally carved with a variant of the more usual cross with floriated stem.
Communion-tables and rails: Amongst the eight Communion-tables earlier than 1850 noted in the city
three are based upon wide variants of the Classical orders, Tuscan at Trumpington, early 17th-century,
Doric at Christ's College, mid 17th, Ionic with bulbous turned shafts at Corpus Christi College, late
16th-century; plainer 17th-century tables are at Emmanuel and King's Colleges and St. Matthew's
church. Two of the 19th century are of interest: the elaborate table designed by A. W. Pugin, 1847–49,
in Jesus College Chapel, and that 'furnished by Joseph Wentworth', 1845, at Holy Sepulchre;
the latter is of liturgical interest in connection with the dispute concerning the stone altar that it
replaced, see above, p. lxix. Amongst the Communion-rails, those of particularly fine design and
craftsmanship are to be found in the College Chapels at Pembroke, 1665, Emmanuel, late 17th century,
Christ's, 1702–3, St. Catharine's, 1703, and Trinity, 1720; of these, the second and the last continue the
mid 17th-century tradition of pierced scroll-work infilling, whilst the others have turned and twisted
balusters. At Peterhouse the rails of 1731–2 are rather plainer than the foregoing, with turned balusters;
they originally carried stands for candlesticks at the returns. The only rails of any note in the parish churches
are at Chesterton, where is an elaborate late 17th-century fragment, at St. Giles', an early 18th-century
set brought from the English church at Rotterdam, in which the square balusters suggest Continental
workmanship, and at Holy Sepulchre, of 1845, 'furnished by Joseph Wentworth'. In churches and chapels,
though many 17th and 18th-century rails survive, at only Christ's, Peterhouse and Trinity College do they
still form a three-sided enclosure round the altar. (fn. 2)
Cupboards: Amongst many cupboards noted, the one in side-chapel C of King's College Chapel of the
late 15th century is remarkable, not only on account of its comparatively early date but for the robustness
of its construction. Most of the surviving cupboards noted are of the 18th and early 19th century. In the
nature of cupboards are the enclosed dormers (see above, p. xciv), for example, in Monuments (145 and
270) where 17th-century panelling forms the partitions.
Doors: Regrettably none of the Trinity Hall doors contracted for in 1374 by John Mildenhall of Cambridge, carpenter, survives, (fn. 3) nor does any other to represent the earlier period. But the extent of survival
of 15th and 16th-century doors, and in particular the great timber gates to the Colleges, is remarkable.
Amongst them are the gates to the Old Court of King's, at Queens', and Jesus Colleges of the 15th century;
at St. John's, probably by Thomas Loveday c. 1516, Trinity Great Gate and Queen's Gate, Christ's, and
Magdalene of the 16th century; these are all with plain, ridged or linenfold panels, in plain or moulded
framing, and most retain original wrought-iron furniture. The notable later gates are at Sidney Sussex of
1749, now disused, in fifteen fielded panels with Greek key-ornament and original metalwork, and to the
New Court at St. John's of 1830, of deal, in a hundred and six panels each containing cast-iron badges,
paterae, etc. Amongst the subsidiary doors, outstanding though restored is the elaborate example of the
15th century at the E. end of the Screens at Queens' College; others of the turn of the same century are
to the Treasury of Trinity College and in the S. doorway to the nave of Jesus College Chapel, both
retaining original metal furniture. Again, of those of the 16th century the following may be mentioned:
in King's College Chapel the three very elaborate Renaissance doors of 1533–8 in the choir and, reconstructed 1636, in the screen, and six small doors with more or less delicate curvilinear decoration and
original metalwork to the side-chapels off the Ante-chapel; that concealed behind the panelling in the S.
wall of Christ's College Chapel, with linenfold panelling and all its original wrought-iron furniture, that,
now loose, in the organ-chamber of the same building with a memorial inscription to T. Merbure, 1571,
and that to the Muniment Room in the same College with cusped and sub-cusped panelling; and the N.
and S. panelled doors at Great St. Mary's church for one of which most probably John Kale of Cambridge,
joiner, was paid 33s. 4d. in 1513–4. The incidence of survival for the 17th and later centuries is greater,
but worthy of mention are the great N., S. and W. doors to King's College Chapel, the last the work of
Henry Man, who was paid £22 for it in 1614–5, with ironwork for which Rule was paid between £6
and £7; the W. door to Peterhouse Chapel, 1632, with an interesting use of contemporary and Gothic
forms; and the N. door together with its screen in the S. range at Clare College, 1642, which is perhaps
the most elaborate small example of the period in Cambridge, the sumptuous door and door-case to the
Library of St. John's College, 1628, being on a far more monumental scale. For the rest, great numbers of
18th and 19th-century doors survive in the University Buildings, Colleges and houses in Cambridge.
Fireplaces and Overmantels: Only two of the surviving 15th-century fireplace-surrounds are of any note,
both at Queens' College, one much restored in the Hall, the other in the President's Dining-room. Five
more important surrounds of the following century remain, all of some elaboration; they are the early
16th-century two in the Master's Lodge at Christ's College enriched with carved heraldic allusions to the
Foundress and her family, the one of the same period in the Hall at Peterhouse with an Italianate shield in
the carving, that of c. 1540 now in the Public Library (Monument (86)) from John Veysy's house, (fn. 4) and
that of 1560 now in the Master's Lodge at St. John's College; all these are of clunch. Display in the 17th
century lay rather in the overmantel, usually of wood, than in the fireplace-surround, but an exception is
the overall composition of c. 1610 in stone, restored and recoloured, in the Master's Drawing-room at
Trinity College; it shows the remarkable conceit of Ionic terminal pilasters with twisted shafts and blackamoors' heads, and is enriched with strapwork and obelisks. Of the last quarter of the same century, the
only original fireplace surviving in the Pepys Building at Magdalene College is of some originality in
design. The more usual bolection-moulded surrounds of the same period and the early 18th century are
numerous; mostly in stone or wood, examples in marble, of 1676–81, are in the N. range of Nevile's Court
at Trinity College. Outstanding amongst 18th-century fireplaces are the two somewhat similar in the
Library-annexe at Trinity Hall, 1730, and the Fellows' Parlour at Sidney Sussex, and those of extraneous
origin reset in Wanstead House (Monument (279)) from Colen Campbell's great house, Wanstead,
in Essex, built between 1715 and 1721. Out of the common run is the mid 18th-century rococo surround in 'Little Trinity' (Monument (222)), and that of the late 18th century, of Bossi type, in the old
Provost's Lodge at King's College. Outstanding amongst the 19th-century fireplaces are those in the
Octagon at King's College and the Fitzwilliam Museum, both of white marble; the first, by William
Wilkins, 1824–8, has carved capitals of great refinement reminiscent in form of the anta-caps from the
Temple of Apollo Didymaios, Miletus (fn. 5) ; the second, by C. R. Cockerell, 1846, is a designer's tour de force
in the use of robust curved forms. Many others in the Gothic and neo-Classical styles, including a pleasing
synthesis of the two, obviously of great popularity, with reeded surround with bosses or paterae at the
angles and a slight moulded shelf, are noted in the Inventory.
Overmantels are generally integrated with the panelling of panelled rooms and thus most will be
found under that heading below, but some, being discrete features, may be referred to here, among them
the overmantel of 1594 with intarsia panels from the Red Lion Inn, now in the Combination Room at
St. John's College. Many of c. 1600 and the early 17th century with more conventional carved enrichments
survive, for example in the Small Combination Room at Magdalene brought from 25 Magdalene Street,
in the Master's Lodge at St. John's, reputedly from Audley End, in the President's Dining-room at Queens',
and elsewhere; two of 1634 in the Brick Building at Emmanuel have foliate enrichment rendered with a
characteristic spirited stylism that identifies other carved woodwork in the University with the same workshop. (fn. 6) The most original overmantels are contained in one of the most original buildings for its date in
Cambridge, Fellows' Building at Christ's College, one of which is dated 1646; with them may be grouped
those in the Perne Library at Peterhouse, of between 1633 and 1648, and, though of less intricacy, those in
the Central Hotel (Monument (146)). In the 18th-century, the originality in design and the quality of the
overmantel in the Hall of Trinity Hall, 1745, where James Essex sen., joiner, is known to have worked,
may be compared with those of the panelling, formerly the pulpit, in Great St. Mary's church, by tradition
by Essex, to establish the like authorship. The wall-treatment over the fireplace in the first-floor E. room
of Burrough's Building at Peterhouse is an integral part of the sophisticated architectural decoration that
gives this interior distinction.
Fonts and Font-covers: The fonts in Cambridge are of interest for their range of date rather than for intrinsic
quality. The earliest, of the 12th century, in St. Peter's church has unusual carving of mermen with looped
double tails that gives the effect of a scallop design characteristic of the period. The late 14th-century font at
St. Mary the Less has restrained panel enrichment with a heraldic theme, whilst the fonts of the succeeding
century at St. Clement's, St. Edward's and Trumpington, though of greater elaboration, were more or
less recut in the 19th century. From the art-historical aspect perhaps the Great St. Mary's font is the most
notable, being of traditional form but dated 1632 and with Carolean decoration. Of the 19th-century fonts
those in Holy Sepulchre, Christ Church and St. Paul's may be mentioned. For obvious reasons fonts were
not set up in College Chapels but a mid 18th-century font of fine quality and much elegance has in modern
times been introduced into side-chapel I in King's College Chapel. The font at St. Botolph's is a plain
bowl but encased in a remarkable painted timber structure of 1637 with columns supporting an elaborate
canopy. Covers of the 17th century survive at St. Mary the Great and St. Mary the Less, of the 18th
century at King's College Chapel, and of the 19th century at Holy Sepulchre, Christ Church and St.
Paul's, that of 1843 at Holy Sepulchre of a Gothic revival design of much intricacy.
Glass: Unlike Oxford, which provides perhaps a more complete and consecutive series of glass-paintings
than any other place in the country, Cambridge presents a very tenuous sequence, with heroic representation only of the 16th century, though the heraldic glass surviving from the 13th to the 19th century, and
in great quantity from the last, is of note. Glass of the 13th century is restricted to the heraldic fragment
associated with Crouchback in Trumpington church and of the 14th century to the much patched figures
of St. Peter and St. Paul, the Trumpington shield-of-arms and grisaille fragments in the same church, to
the arms of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, in the Hall at Corpus Christi College and of John of Gaunt
in the Combination Room at Emmanuel College and fragments of unknown source in King's College
Chapel. The 15th-century glass includes a carefully drawn figure of Richard of York in the Hall at
Trinity, the few remaining figures of a series of Apostles and prophets in the sidechapels at King's
College Chapel, representing another treatment of the typological symbolism of the great windows,
roundels and Royal arms at Queens' College, and, extending into the next century, the interesting series
of royal figures in the Chapel at Christ's College, the latter being depicted kneeling in oratories drawn
in perspective and reminiscent of Continental representations of the Emperor Maximilian. Remarkable in
their different ways, ecclesiastical and secular, are the examples of original glazing in the stone screens
between the Antechapel and side-chapels in King's College Chapel, for example Window 49 of c. 1520
with the Annunciation and saints beautifully delineated but seldom seen in the dim light, and of c. 1500 in
the Library at Jesus College with Bishop Alcock's rebus and small quarries inscribed with the subject
matter of the books of the three principal faculties in the adjoining classes.
The King's College Chapel glass chiefly of the years 1515 to 1531 is one of the most remarkable survivals
of its age; the glazing scheme of biblical and legendary types and antitypes filling an area of some 1200 sq.
yds. remains virtually intact. A surviving contract of 1526 specifies 'good, clean, sure and perfyte glass
and orient colours and imagery of the story of the old law and of new law after the form, manner, goodness, curiosity, and cleanliness, in every point, of the glass windows of the king's new Chapel at Westminster; and also accordingly and after such manner as one Barnard Flower, glazier, late deceased by
indenture stood bound to do'. (fn. 7) The scenes are fully described and their sources given in the body of the
Inventory, so that only general observations are called for here. The typological iconography follows a
pictorial method then already familiar, for instance from the Biblia Pauperum, of wide dissemination in
its pre-1515 editions, where the types and antitypes are side by side and with the 'messengers' above and
below. For the legendary scenes clearly the Speculum Humanae Salvationis was a source, (fn. 8) but most of the
scenes are biblical. In regard to the presentation it is clear also that the glaziers plagiarised popular engravings: passages in the designs have been identified almost line for line with the Nailing to the Cross
in Albrecht Dürer's Small Passion (fn. 9) (Window 13, upper left), and St. Michael fighting the dragon in
Dürer's Apocalypse (fn. 10) (Window 9c); with Dirick Vellert's engraving of the Martyrdom of St. John the
Evangelist (fn. 11) (Window 13, upper left) and with much of his ornament and life-drawing; whilst the parallels
with other works of art again suggest common sources for the designs, for instance the figure of St. Peter
from the Christ taken in the Garden of Window 10b with the similar composition in a French tapestry of
1511 of the same scene in the Cathedral at Aix-en-Provence. (fn. 12) Whether Raphael's great series of ten
cartoons commissioned by Leo X and finished by the end of 1516 were a direct source (Windows
21d and 22b), for they were probably sent immediately to Brussels, (fn. 13) which brought them near to the
homelands of the King's glaziers, or at second hand through the set of nine tapestries woven from them
for Henry VIII probably before 1528, must remain uncertain. (fn. 14) Be that as it may, the varied derivation
here shown (e.g. of the Nailing to the Cross) suggests intelligent selection and compilation rather, it would
seem, than the employment of an original artist, even an eclectic one, in production of the King's cartoons.
Regarding the glaziers, (fn. 15) it is premonitory that Henry VI as early as 1449 brought over from Flanders
John Utynam to make glass of all colours for Eton and King's Colleges. (fn. 16) Barnard Flower was an
'almain', probably a German, Galyon Hone was 'born in the parts of Holland under the obedience of the
Emperor'; they were members of the colony of foreign glass artists at Southwark, close to the City but
outside its jurisdiction and so not subject to the craft regulations of the London Guild of Glaziers; yet both
were king's glaziers! Here too lived James Nicholson, and Francis Williamson; Richard Bond did not,
and so may have been English. The earliest record of Flower working in England is in 1496, and in 1506
a payment to him for glazing in King's College Chapel (fn. 17) has been related, on stylistic grounds alone, to
the heraldic glass in the tracery-lights. It may be noted that Flower's letters patent of denization (6 May
1514) have a clause by which he remained liable for customs and duties payable by a foreigner on goods
exported or imported by him; during the period 1513 to 1516 he was glazing the Savoy Hospital with
Rhenish glass that was brought to the site from St. Katharine's Pool by the Tower.
Analytical consideration of the style of the great windows is outside the scope of this preface but it
may be said that even the earliest by Barnard Flower are Renaissance in detail; the extent of evolution
they illustrate into the full Renaissance in grouping, colour and detail is demonstrated, for example, by
Window 2 and Window 20 (Plates 173, 174). In the first the figures are isolated within their groups, small
in scale, vertical and hieratic in treatment, deriving from the mediaeval concept. In the second the figures
are integrated into a total design, involved and rounded, wholly inspired by the new humanism. Further
the Harrowing of Hell (Plate 165) shows the widened range of colours upon the new palette.
Additional to these great windows, the late 15th and early 16th-century glass in Cambridge has been
enriched by gifts from collectors in more modern times, amongst them the interesting 'Holy Hunt' and
the two donors with saints in King's College Chapel (Windows 40, 41), and the fine Rhenish glass in the
Chapel of Corpus Christi College. The most notable window of the first half of the 17th century is that
in Peterhouse Chapel probably by Bernard Van Linge, whose work is prominent in Oxford; a portrait
of Henrietta Maria ascribed to Richard Greenbury is in the Combination Room at St. John's College, but
for the rest the century is represented mainly by heraldic glass. Queen Anne's portrait is in the Hall of
Trinity College and other works of the 18th century, all in the same College, include heraldic glass by
Henry Gyles (1640–1709) of York in the Library and Hall and by his pupil William Price (d. 1722) of
London also in the last; sufficiently remarkable is the representational scene of the University presenting
Newton to George III by William Peckitt of York from a design by Cipriani in the N. window of the
same Library. Figure subjects of the 19th century designed by A. W. Pugin are in the Chapels at Jesus and
Magdalene Colleges, the first in a 13th-century style to accord with the chancel in which they are set, the
second curiously mannered in style. Notable glass, on a small scale, by T. Willement and William Wailes
is in the church of Holy Sepulchre, and of poorer quality and design by W. H. Constable of Cambridge
in Holy Trinity and probably Great St. Andrew's; the angel of c. 1840 in the S. aisle of this last church may
be mentioned, being a free copy of one of the 'messengers' in the great windows at King's College Chapel.
Fine displays of heraldic glass may be seen in the Halls of Corpus Christi, King's, Trinity, and Queens'
Colleges, of miscellaneous dates from the Middle Ages onwards. Selection is invidious, but outstandingly
decorative armorial panels are those of c. 1600 in the Hall of Emmanuel College showing Mildmay
alliances and another of much the same age in the Essex Room at Queens' College of Robert Devereux
with sixteen quarters. An example of delicate brushwork and colouring is the Stuart Royal arms at
St. Michael's. Much of the 19th-century heraldic glass is the work of S. C. Yarrington of Norwich,
J. P. Hedgeland, who was employed upon the restoration of the glass in King's College Chapel, and
T. Willement. The fine glass of 1840 of this kind in the windows of the Squire Law Library at the
Schools is the work of the last.
Images: The rarity of mediaeval images is such that reference should be made to the late 15th-century
standing figure of a bishop from Holy Trinity church, now in the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology,
which was found when the niche in the N. transept was opened out in 1878. It is of clunch and, though
mutilated and worn, retains much polychromy. The second noteworthy image, of St. Andrew crucified,
now in the church of Our Lady of the Assumption and the English Martyrs, was designed by A. W. Pugin
for St. Andrew's church, Union Road, now destroyed, his first building after his conversion to Roman
Catholicism; it is an interesting composition of mediaeval derivation, in wood.
Lecterns: One of the outstanding examples of late mediaeval metalwork in the country is the bronze lectern
in King's College Chapel. It is engraved with the name of Robert Hacomblen, Provost 1509–28, and on
stylistic grounds may be judged to have been made in his lifetime. Surmounting it is a statuette of Henry VI
that exquisitely characterises his humility and religious devotion, and something of his tragedy. The early
16th-century brass eagle lectern in Christ's College Chapel is the only one of its kind and date in Cambridge, though that of 1840 in St. John's College Chapel adopts for the bookrest the spreadeagle standing
on a highly elaborate Gothic pedestal. Similar eclecticism controlled the design by Pugin of the lectern in
Jesus College Chapel; the form is that of the King's College Chapel lectern but with great sconces deriving
from Flemish examples. A simpler lectern though worthy of note as one contemporary and integrated
with the Chapel fittings of c. 1730 is that of wrought-iron at Trinity Hall.
Libraries: Many of the Cambridge academic libraries retain old fittings, but none is older than the reign
of Elizabeth I. Bookcases of the 16th century survive at Queens' and Trinity Hall, though those at the
former have been altered and heightened; those at the latter alternate with contemporary benches, and the
whole together with the building containing it comprises one of the least altered of the earlier libraries in
the University. St. John's College Library of 1623–8, both building and fittings, is the next in chronological order to survive almost unaltered. Bookcases of the 17th century, before 1660, also survive, scattered and re-erected though many of them are, at the University Library (1649), Gonville and Caius,
Peterhouse, Clare, Christ's, and King's. Of these the cases at Peterhouse, 1641–8, seem to have been the
prototype of the group with carved and scrolled side-wings, originally for housing the ends of benches
but early reduced to decorative adjuncts, of which the latest, 1690, are at Pembroke College. (fn. 18) The earliest
post-Restoration fittings to survive complete in situ are in the old library at Jesus College; they were
installed by Edmund Boldero, Master 1663–79. This retired room, traditional in character and mellow in
colouring, is the antithesis of the spacious splendour of Wren's Trinity College Library, which stands as
completed shortly before the end of the century. In the latter the bookcases are of the finest quality and
craftsmanship, with enrichments by Grinling Gibbons and Cornelius Austin; the special-purpose reading
tables and stools designed by Wren also survive. The versatility of Cornelius Austin's workshop is shown
by his bookcases in King's College Chapel, which are copies of earlier ones; 19th-century copies of the
same, now in the former Provost's Lodge, further extend this antiquarianism. Notable cases of the 18th
century, originally in the Schools Building and now mostly in the modern University Library, include
those of 1719 by John Austin and of 1734 by James Essex sen. Late 18th-century cases designed presumably
by James Essex, the architect, are in the Library at Sidney Sussex College. The two wholly 19th-century
libraries of note least altered are those at Corpus Christi by William Wilkins, 1823–7, and in the Fitzwilliam
Museum where the fittings are most probably C. R. Cockerell's design. None of the pre 1850 Cambridge
libraries has the wall system with a gallery first installed, in England, in 1610–12 by Sir Thomas Bodley
in the Arts End of the Bodleian, the small Taylor Library at Sidney Sussex being devised on two floors
with a light-well between them. Enclosed or protected cases and classes were often made for the storage
of manuscripts and valuable archives; the more ornamental of these, some being of much richness, are in
the Libraries of Queens', Peterhouse, and Trinity and in the University Library. The fine-quality glazed
cases of the Pepys Library at Magdalene are of extraneous origin. Chained books, whether in their original
places or not is no longer ascertainable, survive in King's College Chapel and St. Benet's church. Studies
of the earlier libraries have been made by Professor Willis and A. W. Clark in their Architectural History
of the University (1886) III, 387–471, and Canon B. H. Streeter, The Chained Library (1931).
Monuments and Commemorative Sculpture: The monuments in Cambridge, even allowing for the chances
of survival, show a lack of consistency in numbers and quality from century to century since the early
Middle Ages that is of some historical interest. They begin here in c. 1000 with the important remains of
a carved cross and graveslabs found under the Castle ramparts (Monument (77)) and now in the Museum
of Archaeology and Ethnology; these are of a type that became comparatively common in Viking times
and may be compared with those found at Peterborough and elsewhere in E. Anglia (fn. 19) ; others have been
found at Hoddom and Whithorn in southern Scotland. (fn. 20) The cross probably stood at the head of a grave.
Small fragments of like stones are built into the church of St. Mary the Less. Thereafter no monuments
of equal importance, or indicative of persons of equal importance, occur until the early 16th century,
except at Trumpington, formerly outside Cambridge, where the fine 14th-century Trumpington family
monuments point the contrast of the nearby town comprising tradespeople of some wealth but not
individual affluence enough to emerge as patricians or in strong family dynasties conspicuously commemorated. The mediaeval Masters of Colleges alone are so distinguished; their memorials are generally
brasses (see above) or chantry-chapels, fragments of two of these last surviving at Little St. Mary's. The
only mediaeval effigy is the late 13th-century fragment of a priest, a sculpture of simple dignity, in Jesus
College Chapel. The important canopied altar-tomb with effigies of Hugh Assheton, 1522, in St. John's
College Chapel, of late high Gothic elaboration is further notable for the use of both Gothic and Roman
lettering in the inscriptions. Again, the remains in the same Chapel of the chantry-chapel built between
1525 and 1533 by Bishop Fisher has Germanic shields in the spandrels. The Assheton monument has
affinities with Bishop Alcock's chantry at Ely, and the master-mason at Ely was paid for his 'avyse' about
the Fisher chapel, but the last is a more delicate sculptural work than the first. Thereafter, Reformation
and counter-Reformation and the Elizabethan settlement are represented solely, though in full epitome,
by the splendid Renaissance monument of Dr. Caius, 1573–5, in his College Chapel, designed by 'Theodore
The 17th century has a number of effigies to show but amongst those of the first half of the century
none is of conspicuous sculptural quality or elegance; some are cut in the round, others in relief. The most
interesting is the figure of Thomas Seckford, 1624, in Trinity College Chapel, on a canopied tomb-chest,
by Edward Woodrofe; though the only full-length effigy of its age of an undergraduate in academic
dress in either Oxford or Cambridge, it is in bad condition. Thomas Legge, 1607, and Stephen Perse, 1615,
in Gonville and Caius College Chapel, and William Becke, 1614, in St. Edward's church are kneeling
figures. All these are in academic dress. Busts include those of Thomas Plaifere, 1609–10, in St. Botolph's
church, William Butler, 1617–8, in Great St. Mary's, John Collins, 1618, in Great St. Andrew's, and
Martin Freeman, 1630, in King's College Chapel; Butler is exceptional in being in alabaster. The foregoing
broadly represent a rising professorial or professional class, meritorious and, within limits, well-to-do.
The post-Restoration monumental sculptures in Cambridge show a complete break with the work of
the earlier part of the century, a use of fine marbles instead of freestone, an ease of pose and a lively
portraiture unequalled during the previous four or five generations. Outstanding are the singularly beautiful
portrait-busts in Christ's College Chapel of Finch and Baines on a monument of 1684 signed by Joseph
Catterns of London, whose work is otherwise unknown. Second only to them is the Tobias Rustat monument, 1693–4, in Jesus College Chapel, which is unsigned. An early signed wall-tablet is that of George
Chare, 1676–7, by I. Latham in Trinity College Chapel.
The apogee of portrait sculpture reached in the 18th century is more notably represented in Cambridge
than in any other place outside London. For the present purposes no distinction need be drawn between
monumental sculpture and commemorative sculpture and the two together here include works by many
of the foremost sculptors of the age. Pre-eminent in its own day and today is the standing figure of Sir
Isaac Newton by Louis François Roubiliac, 1755, in Trinity College Chapel. No less than eleven other
works by Roubiliac are in the Chapel and Library of this College, amongst which, though assessment is
to some extent a matter of personal preference, the portrait-busts of Ray and Willoughby, 1751, are unsurpassed. The Library also contains a terra-cotta by Michael Rysbrack of Newton, 1739, four marble
busts by Peter Scheemakers, of 1758 and 1766, and another by John Bacon, 1790. Rysbrack is best represented by the important commemorative standing figures of George I, 1736–9, in the Schools Building
and the 6th Duke of Somerset, 1756, in the Senate House, which has the incidental interest of showing a
revival of Vandyke costume. Also in the Schools is Joseph Wilton's elegant statue of George II. Works
including portrait-busts by other more or less well-known 18th-century sculptors include the monuments
of John Andrew, 1747, in Trinity Hall Chapel, of fine design and craftsmanship by Robert Taylor, and
Francis Hooper, 1763, in Trinity College Chapel, by N. Read. As well as the desire for sensitive portraiture, these marbles express the concern of the 18th-century educated man for the fine arts; they also
express a general level of affluence amongst the same class, for the sculptures were not cheap.
Though working well into the 19th century, Joseph Nollekens (1737–1823) remains an 18th-century
figure, while the neo-Classicism of John Flaxman (1755–1826) ranges him with the 19th-century sculptors.
A number of their works are in Cambridge, most notable perhaps being Nollekens' standing figure of
William Pitt, 1812, in the Senate House; his is the monument of the Rev. Thomas Jones, 1807, in Trinity
College Chapel and also the accomplished head of Lord Mansfield at Trinity Hall. Flaxman has works of
1794, 1804 and 1825, at Cherry Hinton, Trinity College and Jesus College respectively. The great output
of Sir Francis Chantrey (1781–1841) is represented by four works in Cambridge, all including portraitheads. (fn. 21)
The general distribution of wealth in the 19th century amongst the middle and upper classes has left
its evidence in the great number of monuments in the churches and college chapels; though mostly small
and often insignificant, the majority are signed. Exceptions from the nondescript are E. H. Bailey's
characterful seated figure of James Wood, 1839, in St. John's College Chapel and his bust of P. P. Dobree,
1825, in Trinity College Chapel. In this last is also the very beautiful portrait-head of John Wordsworth,
1840, by H. Weekes. Here may also be included the remarkable commemorative statue of Lord Byron
by the Dane, Thorvaldsen, in Trinity College Library, which was originally offered to Westminster Abbey,
and, though scarcely commemorative, the personification of 'Academic Glory' by the Italian, Baratta,
in the Fitzwilliam Museum. Amongst the cheaper and plainer monuments, the size of the output of the
Tomson firm of local monumental masons is remarkable (see Monument (8) in St. Botolph's).
The churchyard monuments include nothing of architectural note other than the fine gadrooned table-tomb of Sarah Newton, 1724–5, at St. Benet's, which derives from the tomb of similar form of John
Churchill, Marquess of Blandford, 1702–3, in King's College Chapel. Of interest are the signed monuments by Wiles at Cherry Hinton and elsewhere. Most of the churchyards retain decorative 17th and 18th-century headstones of a vernacular kind, carved with emblems of mortality.
Simple analysis of the surviving monuments erected between 1550 and 1850 is of interest in relation
to the economic aspects of the times as suggested above. In the following tables 'costly monuments'
defines standing or wall monuments of extra elaboration or including portrait sculpture, set up we may
assume by well-to-do individuals or families; those provided by institutions come mainly within the next
category. 'Ordinary monuments' define the cheaper works.
|Parish Churches etc.||—||7||9||4||4||2||26|
|Parish Churches etc.||2||3||16||19||53||120||213|
The total figures show the number of monuments increasing with the increase in national wealth and
its wider distribution amongst less aristocratic families, in particular amongst the classes of townsfolk, as
the great numbers of inexpensive monuments in the parish churches show. Two other features also emerge:
the relative decrease of individual affluence amongst laymen, reflected in the decrease of costly monuments in parish churches, and the continuance within the college enclave of rich men, reflected in the constant, and, in the 19th century, the increased, provision of costly monuments in College chapels. The
fact that the reader will find little remarkable in the figure of ordinary monuments being four-and-a-half
times that of costly monuments is its own social-economic commentary.
The floor-slabs are also listed. The numbers, even allowing for the incidence of destruction, seem to
illustrate the increased occurrence of intramural burials in the first half of the 18th century and a
diminution in parish churches in the first half of the 19th century before the passing of the Burials Acts,
though notably not in the proprietary College chapels.
|Parish Churches etc.||—||18||72||66||54||210|
The above table is prepared from the initial interment recorded on the slabs. It would be misleading
to read into these numbers evidence of executors' economies beyond those implied in the analysis of
monuments above, for, apart from their special use, some slabs by virtue of size, workmanship and rarity
of material might well be included among costly monuments. Furthermore, many persons are commemorated by both floor-slabs and monuments.
Organs and Organ-cases: Most of the organs in Cambridge are modern; others, though constructed in the
late 17th and 18th centuries, have been extensively enlarged or modernised. The choir-organ at King's
College was built in 1661 and the main organ in 1688, the two have since been combined and enlarged,
the organ at Christ's in 1705, Pembroke in 1707, Trinity in c. 1708, and Peterhouse in 1765. The organ of
1847 at Jesus College incorporates two 17th-century stops by Bernard Smith, one being from Durham
Cathedral (1683–5). Smith, organ-maker to the crown, who died in March 1707–8, made the organs at
Christ's, Emmanuel (now modern), Pembroke, and Trinity Colleges, that at the last being completed
by his son-in-law Christopher Schrider, and at Great St. Mary's church, 1698. His rival, Renatus Harris,
built the main organ in King's College Chapel.
Outstanding amongst earlier cases is that of the choir-organ at King's College Chapel of 1661, a
Restoration work of elaboration and high quality. The case of the main organ beside the foregoing is also
of note though altered; it is of 1688 but probably incorporates fragments of earlier Chapel organ-cases. The
interesting Smithson plan of King's College Chapel in c. 1620 (fn. 22) shows a large organ standing on the floor
centrally in the third bay from the E. end of the Chapel. The 18th-century organ-cases at Christ's 1702–3
by John Austin, Pembroke 1707, Trinity c. 1710, now much enlarged, Emmanuel c. 1730, Peterhouse 1765,
and Great St. Mary's are all rich and noble structures of fine workmanship. Outstanding amongst the
19th-century examples is the beautiful case of Gothic inspiration, with choirs of angels painted on the
doors, designed by A. W. Pugin for Jesus College Chapel.
Paintings: These are here divided into wall-paintings and easel-paintings. Few of the former survive in
Cambridge and of these the only one of importance though much damaged is the late 15th-century Doom
in Chesterton church. Loose fragments of mediaeval paintings of some interest are in the Fitzwilliam
Museum (from Chesterton church) and St. John's College Chapel, of the 14th and 15th century respectively. In the N. range of Old Court at Corpus Christi College an interesting mediaeval painting of the
Crucifixion was uncovered in 1954, but shortly afterwards again concealed. In the same range is a fragment
of late 16th-century coloured naturalistic decoration of foliage and birds; traces of scroll-work of the same
period occur in the Master's Lodge at Christ's College. Of c. 1600 is the jeu d' esprit in the S. range of Second
Court at St. John's College, with a stag with viol, pipes and drum, a camel and a monkey in a landscape
setting. Polychromatic architectural arcading of 1619 survives in Walnut Tree Court at Queens' College;
similar arcading discovered recently at Peterhouse has been destroyed. In this context may be mentioned
the very remarkable 16th-century paper with repetitive wood-block design with which part of the Master's
Lodge at Christ's College was decorated. Early 16th-century colouring survives on some of the vaults in
the side-chapels of King's College Chapel, and, incorporating stars, sacred monograms, etc., on timber
roofs at Jesus College and Trinity College. The most notable later wall-painting is the early 18th-century
armorial in a trompe l'œil setting in the Hall at Magdalene College. Attention should also be drawn to the
17th-century 'shadow' painting round the Samuel Collins monument in King's College Chapel (Monument 8); examples of this mode of dramatising wall-monuments are becoming increasingly rare as illinformed redecoration of churches continues.
The easel paintings include several notable original works as well as 18th and 19th-century copies of
famous pictures; two others are of iconographical note. The Inventory lists those easel paintings in the city
that are, or have been, fixtures in Cambridge buildings, or are in churches and chapels. The two important
late mediaeval paintings are the triptych reset in a late 19th-century reredos in Queens' College Chapel
and the Virgin and Child in side-chapel H in King's College Chapel; the first is a work, probably Cologne,
of high quality, the second, of the Westphalian school, of rather lower quality, with the interesting though
not unique feature of a mandorla of roses incorporating the Five Wounds. The principal later original
works are the mid 16th-century Deposition, bold in design and colour, by Girolamo Siciolante (il Sermoneta) in King's College Chapel, the two early Italian rococo paintings, the Return of the Prodigal by
Jacopo Amigoni (1675–1752) at Emmanuel and the Presepio by Giovanni Battista Pittoni (1687–1767) at
Sidney Sussex, the Annunciation by Giovanni Battista Cipriani (1727–85) at Clare, and St. Michael Binding
Satan by Benjamin West (1738–1820) at Trinity College. Of these, the Pittoni, a painting of much grace,
vivacious in colouring, may be an early work, and the Amigoni, elegant and softly luminous, may well
have been painted in England whither Amigoni came in 1729 and was living when the picture was given
to the College in 1734. The Cipriani seems to have been much restored. The Entombment, after Baroccio,
at Pembroke College belonged to Sir Joshua Reynolds.
Interesting iconographically are the paintings of Charles I with the Crown of Thorns, debased royal
crown and shipwreck in St. Michael's church, a 17th-century commemorative picture of which other
examples exist, (fn. 23) and the 17th-century picture formerly at Peterhouse, now in Cherry Hinton church, of
St. Simon Stock receiving the scapula from the Virgin. Painted commemorative bell-ringing boards are
represented by an unusually decorative example at Great St. Mary's.
Pall: The fine early 16th-century embroidered pall associated with the Anniversary services for Henry
VII in Great St. Mary's church and now in the Fitzwilliam Museum is a very rare survival in this country.
The carrier was paid for bringing it to Cambridge in 1505 (Grace Book B (Cambridge 1903), pt. 1,
203) (fn. 24) .
Panelling: Much panelling dating from the early 16th century to 1850 and in great variety of design and
quality survives in Cambridge. The 16th-century panelling is listed here in some detail, being sufficiently
rare; amongst the massive quantity of later panelling only the most interesting examples and more or less
completely panelled rooms of note can be mentioned. The earliest is the early 16th-century panelling with
traces of original colouring in side-chapel Q in King's College Chapel. Great areas of linenfold panelling
of 1528–39 remain in situ in the Hall of St. John's College, and of about the same age must be the unusual
panels reset in the Junior Common Room at Clare College. Of much historical and artistic interest is the
fully documented panelling of 1531–2 now in the President's study at Queens' College; the names of the
carvers and colourist are known (see p. 171). (fn. 25) Here the traditional linenfold has a frieze of panels carved
with 'antique' heads in Italianate wreaths, Renaissance features that, judging by the carvers' names, may
have had a direct Continental source. (fn. 26) It just antedates the great Renaissance screen in King's College
Chapel but is inferior to it in craftsmanship. Fine quality carving is again evident in the linenfold with
interesting frieze-panels of 1567 in the Master's Lodge at St. John's College. Great areas of simpler panelling
of the late 16th century to c. 1600, with stylised carving in the frieze-panels and fluted or enriched pilasters
at intervals, survive, notably in the former Gallery, now the Combination Room etc., at St. John's College,
the Gallery in the President's Lodge at Queens' College, and the Conference Chamber at Jesus College.
Panelling of this type but on a grander scale and of greater elaboration is that of 1605 recently cleaned and
splendidly coloured in the Hall of Trinity College. Of c. 1600 is the panelled room in the S. range of the
Entrance Court of Christ's College with projecting doorcases and panelled doors, but the woodwork is
said to have come from elsewhere.
Projecting doorcases of architecturally inventive design are features of the 17th-century panelled rooms
of note in Cambridge. Remarkable, in a remarkable building, are those of 1642–5 in the Fellows' Building
at Christ's College, the ones in the first-floor room off staircase A forming part of perhaps the most important panelling of its age in Cambridge; with the latter the panelling etc. in the Perne Library at Peterhouse has close affinities and is probably by the same craftsmen. Other examples of such doorcases are in
two rooms in the N. range of Old Court at Peterhouse, the N. range of First Court of Pembroke, c. 1630,
Brick Building at Emmanuel, 1633–4, the S. range of Old Court at Corpus Christi, 1667, in the Walnut
Tree Court range, c. 1635, and the main W. range, c. 1685, of St. Catharine's, and others in the W. range
of Third Court of St. John's, 1673. Thus the earliest closely dated indigenous examples of projecting doorcases integrated into the general scheme of panelling are of 1633–4, the latest of 1685; they show an evolution from a provincial Mannerism (e.g. Plate 94) to a provincial Classicism (e.g. Plate 201). The earlier are
found in conjunction with small-sized panels in simple moulded framing, the later with bolection-moulded
Much bolection-moulded panelling of the late 17th to the early 18th century remains in Cambridge,
but, before listing the finer examples, attention should be drawn to the unusual panelling, an early work
of Cornelius Austin, in Pembroke College Chapel contracted for in 1664; it has plain surfaces with only
slight recessions and is enriched with highly individual carvings. Interesting panelling of 1673, provincial
in character, showing incipient bolection moulding, lines many of the rooms in the W. range of Third
Court at St. John's College. Fully developed and of the finest quality are the panelling, and fittings to
match, with which many of the Cambridge buildings were equipped or refitted towards the turn of
the century by Cornelius Austin and John Austin. Cornelius' major work is the woodwork in Trinity
College Library, 1685–93, with enrichments in limewood by Grinling Gibbons, but recognition should
be made of the fact that one of the carvings in the heraldic series amongst the latter is by Austin and no
whit inferior to the rest. Fine bolection-moulded panelling in Dr. Babington's rooms completed in
1682 in the S. range of Nevile's Court adjoining Trinity Library are also by him, as well may be the similar
panelling in Sir Thomas Sclater's rooms opposite completed in 1679. But his tour de force is the panelling
of 1688–9 in the Combination Room of Clare College. This, apart from excellence of craftsmanship
and proportion, has a refinement in the projection and recession of the planes that would seem too fine for
such purpose; yet the breaks tell entirely adequately in the total scheme. Another of his works is the fine
panelling of 1678–9 immediately E. of the stalls in King's College Chapel; and his addition of the canopies
to the stalls in 1675–8 is a further instance of his ability to respond to an antiquarian taste (see also Bookcases, above). For the woodwork of 1676–8 in Emmanuel Chapel he had designs from Edward Pierce and
John Oliver, who both worked with Wren on the City churches and elsewhere.
For the fine wainscoting finished in 1703 in St. Catharine's College Chapel John Austin and the carver
Thomas Woodward had the designs of Taylor, probably Edward Taylor, of London, though the
agreement required it to be a copy of that in Christ's College Chapel. Together, with their wainscoting,
reredoses, screens, stalls, etc., these two interiors are as homogeneous and consistently high in quality of
craftsmanship as any in Cambridge. Some fine-quality panelling of 1690 with delicate carving of much
skill survives in the Old Library at Pembroke. Large areas of bolection-moulded panelling provided by
Cornelius and John Austin respectively are in the Gallery at Emmanuel College and the Combination
Room at Queens' College, and in the Lecture Room at Christ's College.
Panelling of the 18th century survives in great quantity; it is for the most part in living-rooms and of
mainly functional rather than decorative purpose but grander examples occur, notably of the fourth and
fifth decades of the century when the craftsman mainly concerned was James Essex, sen. (d. 1749). The
finest of his works are the fittings of the Senate House, c. 1725; outstanding also are the enriched, almost
florid, Classical wainscoting etc. of 1732–4 in the Hall at Queens' College, and nearly as fine, though
plainer, those of 1743 in the Hall of Trinity Hall, both by Essex to the designs of James Burrough. The
last was probably responsible also for the design of the wainscoting of between 1747 and 1750 in the Hall
of Sidney Sussex College. Rather earlier again, c. 1735, is the very fine panelling in the Chapel of Trinity
College with its elaborately carved and undercut enrichments, possibly by the John Woodward who also
did the carving at Queens'. On a lesser scale but still of architectural design as a whole are the wainscoting
etc. of 1757 in the Combination Room of Magdalene College, by known craftsmen and at a known cost
(see p. 143). Wainscoting of some quality fitted almost throughout a building as a general amenity and
still surviving largely intact in situ is to be found in Gibbs' Building at King's College, 1731, and in the
E. and W. ranges of Caius Court of Gonville and Caius College, 1729.
Of the later 18th-century wainscoting etc. only that of c. 1765 in Clare College Chapel and the fragment in flamboyant Gothic style surviving from James Essex's refitting of the E. end of King's College,
and now in the Hall screens-passage, call for mention here, whilst the little early 19th-century panelling
existing is largely derivative in design. Broadly, the popularity of panelling, for insulation and decoration,
seems to have lasted from the mid 16th century to the mid 18th century, though the incidence of survival
may to some extent invalidate the earlier date.
Piscinae: Piscinae of the 13th, 14th, 15th and early 16th century survive in Cambridge. Of these the most
interesting are the earliest, at Jesus and St. John's Colleges, of the early to mid 13th century; they are two
of a group of double piscinae, possibly all by the same mason or school of masons, in which the archmouldings are intersected. They have been called old-fashioned, (fn. 27) on account presumably of the semicircular arch form, but the decorative carving and mouldings are entirely contemporary and the effect
essayed of transparency is highly sophisticated. The other examples are at Histon and Longstanton St.
Michael, Cambs., Barnston, Essex, and Leighton Bromswold and St. Ives, Hunts. Other notable piscinae
are at Cherry Hinton, mid 13th-century, Trumpington, late 13th-century, both double, and at St. Michaels,
1326, the last being in continuation of sedilia of some elaboration now all coloured or recoloured.
Plasterwork: The earliest plasterwork in Cambridge with any form of patterning is that of the late 15th
century on the filling of the timber-framing in the S. range of Magdalene College First Court (p. 144).
The following century is not notably represented, but the remarkable ceiling of 1600 some 50 yards long
in the former Gallery at St. John's College begins the important series of early and later 17th-century
ceilings. Of the early period, c. 1600, is the elaborate ceiling in the Regent House (Monument (17)), which
is unusual in following the profile of the timbers of the earlier timber roof, and c. 1610 that with pendants
in the Master's Drawing-room at Trinity College. The later 17th-century ceilings show great profusion of
scrolled foliation often interspersed with running animals, the earliest being that of 1664–5 in the New
Chapel of Pembroke College, followed by that of 1673 in the Chapel at Emmanuel College. Of the same
type are those in Sir Thomas Sclater's part of the N. range of Nevile's Court at Trinity, 1679, in the staircase-pavilion of Trinity Library, 1687, in No. 5 Market Hill, 1688, and in the Old Library at Pembroke,
1690; identity of detail or documentary evidence together link these with Henry Doogood, who for the
work at Trinity Library had the partnership of John Grove; both were London plasterers of note. Little of
the interesting plasterwork by David Fyfield, another London plasterer, survives in the Hall at Clare
Rich though much of the 18th-century plasterwork is in Cambridge, in general it shows an increasing
architectural integration, evolving, that is, from a decorative adjunct to a building into an element in an
architectural unity. Exemplars of the disparate concepts are the richly decorative heraldic ceiling heightened
with colour in the Chapel at Trinity Hall, of 1730, and the fine plasterwork in the Chapel and Ante-chapel
at Clare College, c. 1765. A similar disparity, though less extreme, is evident between the splendid ceiling
of 1725 by Artari, Bagutti and Mansfield in the Senate House and the Hall ceilings at Sidney Sussex, 1747–
50, or Emmanuel, 1760–4, or even the ceiling of the Old Combination Room of 1771–4 at Trinity College.
The enriched ribwork forming geometrical patterning all over the fine ceiling of 1754–8 in the East Room
of the Schools derives from late 16th and early 17th-century plasterwork design. On a different plane of
achievement, sculptural, rather than plastic in the restricted sense, naturalistic rather than repetitive, is
William Collins' beautiful relief of 1756 at Magdalene College, of the Maries at the Sepulchre, from the
Plasterwork used as an integral part of an architectural scheme, to the extent that its loss would visually
destroy the whole, occurs in the 19th century in the vaulted ceilings of the Seeley and Squire Law Libraries
in Cockerell's Building of the Schools, where it completes the highly individual interiors of a very remarkable building. Plasterwork of a more familiar Victorian baroque splendour occurs in the Fitzwilliam
Museum. Largely derivative are the ceilings over the staircases in the New Court of 1823–7 at Corpus
Christi College and in some of the rooms of the New Court of 1826–31 at St. John's College; both are
Tudor-Gothic in style, the first copied from the vault of the ground stage of the tower of Great St. Mary's
Plate: Plate belonging to the University and Colleges has already been published in some detail. (fn. 28) The
Inventory includes that belonging to the city and in churches and Nonconformist chapels. No example of
mediaeval plate survives. Apart from the City maces, none of the post-mediaeval silverwork is of outstanding importance. Six good Elizabethan cups survive, at All Saints' and St. Edward's, both of 1568,
Cherry Hinton, Holy Trinity and Great St. Andrew's, the three of 1569, and St. Benet's, undated, all with
their cover-patens except the second. The 17th-century cups number seven, the 18th five, the 19th twelve,
many with cover-patens. Of interest are the small cup and cover-paten of 1704 at St. Edward's for
Communion of the sick. Amongst the three 17th-century, six 18th-century and four 19th-century flagons,
those of 1659 at St. Benet's and that of 1711 at St. Edward's may be mentioned particularly; they and
the St. Edward's small cup and cover are examples of plain, fine-quality silverware. Of the sixteen alms-dishes, four date from the 17th century, seven from the 18th and five from the 19th, two from the last being
of silver-plate. Amongst secular pieces converted to ecclesiastical use are the three porringers, 1698,1705 and
1711, in Emmanuel Congregational Church. At Great St. Andrew's are two plates and at Great St. Mary's
a spoon, all of the mid 19th century. Amongst the base-metal pieces are two German repousse alms-dishes
of the 16th century, at St. Benet's and Cherry Hinton, 17th-century candlesticks at St. Edward's, and
plates of the 17th and 18th centuries at Trumpington and Great St. Mary's respectively.
The Corporation plate includes a fine great mace of 1710, which is unusual in retaining its original rest.
A set of four other maces date from the reign of George I and a fifth, an interesting small base-metal mace,
from that of Charles I. The remaining pieces are of domestic type. At the Weights and Measures Office is
a splendid Elizabethan bronze Bushel Measure amongst an extensive series of weight and measure standards.
Pulpits: Nothing comparable with the particular type of easily moved pulpit developed for the Oxford
college chapels occurs, or at least has survived, in Cambridge. The nearest approach to it, antedating the
Oxford development, is the 16th-century oak pulpit in St. Edward's church, which came from King's
College Chapel; but this is heavily restored. From Emmanuel College came the pulpit of 1677 at Trumpington; it is of some originality in ornament, but on a modern base. Most notable are the remains of the
Great St. Mary's pulpit of c. 1736 now dismembered to form panelling, and the finely inlaid and veneered
pulpit and sounding board of 1741 in Little St. Mary's. The senior James Essex's reputed authorship of the
former is confirmed beyond reasonable doubt by similarities with the documented fittings in the Hall
at Trinity Hall.
Reredoses: The reredoses in the College Chapels are as a whole notable examples of architectural design
and craftsmanship of the post-Restoration period. Excepting at Trinity, they present variations upon
the theme of a Classical columniated and pedimented tabernacle-framing to a painting, a relief or, on
occasion, a large plain panel with enriched surround. Normally they are at most a column's width in depth
but at Trinity the projection is greater and the reredos approximates to a baldacchino, though not freestanding: the Trinity reredos is a most notable and elaborately enriched work probably of 1706. The
'tabernacle' reredos first occurs here in 1665 in Pembroke College Chapel. At Emmanuel College the scroll-work and finials of the reredos of 1687 alone betray a pre 18th-century date; it is an addition subsequent
to the rest of the woodwork in the Chapel. No less than five 18th-century reredoses of this type survive:
at Christ's and St. Catharine's, 1702–3, by John Austin, Trinity Hall, 1730, Peterhouse, 1731, and Clare,
1769. Parts of a sixth of 1756, including Collins' beautiful plaster relief, survive at Magdalene but no longer
in the Chapel. That now adapted to form part of the dais panelling in the Hall of Selwyn College is an
exotic, having come in modern times from the English church at Rotterdam, though again of the
type, and of the early 18th century. Most of the reredoses listed here are contemporary with the
wainscoting in the respective chapels, see therefore Panelling for further details (see also Paintings above).
Screens: Apart from the notable stone doorway surviving from an early 14th-century screen in St. Michael's
church, much restored 15th-century timber chancel screens in St. Botolph's and at Cherry Hinton, and
fragments of others of the same age in St. Mary the Less and at Trumpington, the majority of Cambridge
screens are in the Chapels and Halls of the Colleges. The Chapel screens divide the Chapel from the Antechapel; they are all post-mediaeval, mostly architecturally Classical in design, often highly enriched with
carving, and with at least two canopied stalls against the E. face for the head of the College and his deputy.
They are generally rather later than such screens at Oxford.
One of our great possessions is the screen in King's College Chapel, the oldest surviving Renaissance
work on a grand scale in this country and a monument of superb craftsmanship. The inclusion amongst
the carvings of the royal cyphers of Henry VIII and Queen Anne closely date the work to the years 1533
to 1536. It is a part of the fitting of the Chapel completed under Henry VIII, but no accounts for it survive, and the craftsmen responsible are not known. Even the country of origin is not certain, though in
default of conclusive evidence to the contrary its fabrication in England should be premised, bearing
in mind the character and high standard of craftsmanship of much work undertaken here more or less contemporaneously, for example, the glass of the Southwark school, the armour of the Greenwich shops, or the
royal effigies at Westminster. Stylistically it is Italianate, while recent critical analysis of the artistic influences
of the period has suggested a derivation through France. (fn. 29) It would be fully explanatory of the accomplishment
of the work in a new idiom to assign it to foreigners working in England, just as the similarly exotic, or Renaissance, characteristics of the different craft-works exemplified above are to be attributed on documentary
evidence to such authorship. Apart from technical accomplishment, the carvings will be seen to be highly
original and idiosyncratic in design, suggesting an experienced master whose work should be readily
recognisable elsewhere; it has not been recognised in England. Apart from the generally exotic character
of the carving, an unfamiliarity with English practice may perhaps be read into, for example, the leashed
greyhound in the Royal arms, whereas the Tudor greyhound was properly not leashed. In the context of
the date of the screen, it is of interest to find from the Kitchen accounts of King's College for the year
1534–5 (fn. 30) that joiners, carvers and carpenters were entertained in Hall on several occasions. (fn. 31) The surmise
must be that they were setting up the screen. Further, in the context of the authorship, it may be noted that
'Philippus sculptor' and 'five other strangers' are entered in the Kitchen Accounts in company with the
Cambridge carpenters William Buxton and John Kale. (fn. 32)
At the opposite extreme of craftsmanship from the foregoing, but of some interest as a rare survival
of a chapel screen of the simplest vernacular joinery is that of c. 1585 in the old Chapel, now the Dining-room, at Emmanuel College. Inigo Jones' Winchester Cathedral screen is a museum exhibit and without
historical connection with Cambridge, but, being incorporated in the Museum building, the opportunity
has been taken to include it in the Inventory (see Monument (76)). Fine post-Restoration 17th-century
screens remain in the Chapels at Pembroke and Emmanuel, of the early to mid 18th century at Christ's,
St. Catharine's and Trinity, of the late 18th century at Clare; these are all part of a general fitting or refitting of the buildings concerned (see also Panelling and Reredoses, above). Entirely Gothic in inspiration
is A. W. Pugin's beautiful screen of 1847–9 in Jesus College Chapel; appropriately, it is placed at the
entrance to the former nuns' choir; the whole is of very fine craftsmanship with spirited and, within the
Gothic repertory, original carvings.
The Hall screens have generally two doorways to the screens-passage, but Queens' has in addition a
central serving-hatch. Magdalene, Sidney Sussex and Trinity Hall have only one doorway and the first
two incorporate stairs to the gallery above. Only one late mediaeval hall screen survives, at St. John's
College, and that much restored. The most remarkable Hall screen of all in Cambridge is that in Trinity
College; it is of 1604–5; the whole of the surface is enriched with carving, including the arcaded front to
the gallery above, which is fitted with removable shutters. For the rest, the late 17th-century and 18th-century Hall screens are more correctly Classical in design and mostly of fine craftsmanship; they include
those at Clare 1688–9, subsequently enriched, Jesus 1703, now reset against the end wall, Queens' 1732–4,
with fine iron gates, Trinity Hall c. 1745. Sidney Sussex 1747–50, a structure exceptional in depth, and
Emmanuel 1760–4, also with fine gates. The Magdalene screen is unusual but of heterogeneous elements
and different dates, though 18th-century in conception. William Wilkins' Hall screen at King's College is
of miscellaneous materials but of a coherent Tudor-Gothic design and of one date, c. 1825 (see also Panelling,
Sedilia: In Jesus College Chapel, in the chancel of the former nuns' church, are sedilia of the first half of
the 13th century in continuation of a wall-arcade; rather later, towards the middle of the century, are
those at Cherry Hinton. These are the earliest sedilia to survive in the city. The 14th century is represented
by those at St. Benet's, Great St. Mary's, and Little St. Mary's, all either much mutilated or restored, and
at St. Michael's where they are fine and elaborate examples of their period, 1326, well-preserved and combined with a piscina. Those of the 15th century at Chesterton are worthy of notice, being of some elaboration but provincially unconventional in design.
Staircases: As at Oxford, the earlier staircases in the colleges are generally featureless, being either circular
vices of stone or timber or in straight flights between timber-framed walls. Examples of the first are in
the 15th-century ranges at Peterhouse, of the second notably in Cloister Court at Jesus College. Somewhat unusual is the mediaeval open stair in Little St. Mary's church leading to the gallery to Peterhouse.
In Abbey House is a staircase in the main of the late 16th century. The series of fine oak, or oak and pine,
staircases with ornamental features begins with that of the late 16th century leading to the Perne Library
in Peterhouse. Of the succeeding century are those, inter alia, to the Library at St. John's, 1628, with a
much elaborated newel, in the S. range of Clare, 1640–2, staircase E., probably by Francis Wright, being
unique in Cambridge in having infilling with pierced arabesque design in place of balusters, in the Fellows'
Building at Christ's, 1642–5, in Cloister Court at Queens', late 17th century, and in Bishop's Hostel at
Trinity, 1671. Small, but most original, is the earlier staircase of c. 1635 in the Walnut Tree Court range
of St. Catharine's.
Later 17th and 18th-century staircases survive in great number, those of the early 18th century generally
with twisted, or alternately twisted and turned, balusters. Outstanding amongst many of fine craftsmanship
and design are those in the Master's Lodges at Peterhouse, 1702, Trinity, 1705, and Clare, c. 1710. Less
spectacular but of good quality is that probably by Francis Percy in the Hall range of Clare, 1687; others
worthy of note are in the S. range of St. Catharine's, c. 1680, Gibbs' Building at King's, c. 1730, in Great
St. Mary's, 1735–6, Burrough's Building at Peterhouse, c. 1740, Essex Building at Queens', c. 1760, and
Ramsden Building at St. Catharine's, c. 1770, etc. The double staircase of 1714 in the Hall of Magdalene
is without a pre-1850 parallel in Cambridge. In Fitzwilliam House, originally a private domestic dwelling,
is a staircase of 1727 that, though not of the finest craftsmanship, is effective visually and well exemplifies
the type found in many Cambridge Colleges and houses until late in the century when superseded by the
type with plain slender balusters and simple ramped handrail that is exemplified by the staircase in Newnham Cottage, c. 1805.
The staircases with iron balustrades are generally plain and late in date, but two exceptions are the fine
Trinity Library staircase installed in 1691–2 and that from Colen Campbell's Wanstead House in Essex
now reset with considerable alteration in Wanstead House in Hills Road; both these are of wrought-iron.
Examples of the late staircases where the apparently effortless effect of functional simplicity results
from the most careful contrivance and restraint in ornament are in The Grove, 1814, and No. 30 Thompson's
Lane, c. 1820. Rather heavier cast-iron examples with derivative ornament are in the former Provost's
Lodge and S. range of King's College and the New Court of Corpus Christi College, all of c. 1825 and
designed by William Wilkins.
Stalls and Seating: Cambridge is not rich in stalls and stall-work earlier than those in King's College Chapel.
The late 15th-century stalls at St. Michael's are said to be from Trinity College Chapel: the presumption
is therefore that they came from the former King's Hall Chapel, where between 1482 and 1484 John Say,
carver, of Norwich, contracted to make the stalls. Important fragments of stall-work of c. 1500 are preserved at Jesus College both incorporated in the mid 19th-century woodwork in the Chapel and detached
in the Master's Lodge; their carved enrichment is largely allusive, to Bishop Alcock. The interesting stalls
reset, and extended, in the 19th-century Chapel at St. John's College were the subject of a contract with
Thomas Loveday, carpenter, of Sudbury, in 1516 and were to be like those in Jesus College; they too
incorporate heraldic allusions, to the Tudors.
By far the most important stalls, stylistically unique in this country, are those in King's College Chapel.
They comprise the finest work of three different ages: the stalls proper go with the great screen and the
remarks above (see Screens) apply to them, but, excepting those actually integral with the screen, they
would appear to have been made between the time of the fall of Queen Anne and 1538; the splendid
heraldic panels at the back are of 1633, possibly by William Fells, and the canopies of 1675–8 by Cornelius
Austin. Their effective homogeneity is a tribute to the later craftsmen, who were evidently not inhibited
by the necessary limitations. The iconography of the 16th-century carvings on the Provost's stall, on the
ends of the desks, and of the misericordes, if it has a theme, is obscure in the extreme and awaits identification.
Only fragments of the elaborately panelled late 16th-century stalls by Robert Gardiner, carpenter, of
Haverhill, survive at Corpus Christi College, whilst those of greater interest in Peterhouse Chapel, though
of c. 1630, seem to have been to some extent subsequently reconstituted. Later 17th-century stalls of note
are in the Chapels at Pembroke and Emmanuel Colleges; of the 18th century at Christ's, St. Catharine's,
Trinity and Clare Colleges; these are all part of the general fitting or refitting of the buildings concerned
and of fine quality (see Panelling and Reredoses, above).
Outstanding amongst the 19th-century stalls and stall-work are those of Gothic inspiration by A. W.
Pugin in Jesus College Chapel.
Amongst the benches, pews and desks of great variety in date and style in Cambridge perhaps the
rarest survival is the extensive series of pews of the mid 15th century at Chesterton carved with human
and beasts' figures; remnants of another series of c. 1500 are at Cherry Hinton. Two early 16th-century
benches and desks with traces of colouring survive in King's College Chapel, and two bench-ends of c. 1500
reused in the Chapel at Jesus College carved with figures of Doctors of Divinity are worthy of notice.
Amongst later fittings the more unusual are the early to mid 17th-century movable benches in Great
St. Mary's church and others of c. 1730 of more architectural design in the Senate House.
Few chairs have been noted, but amongst them, two, the Chancellor's and Vice-Chancellor's chairs in
the Senate House, are very fine examples of cabinet-work, one English of the mid 18th century, the other
French of the early 19th century. Of interest, historically and structurally, is the 16th-century turned chair
in Pembroke College Chapel and, stylistically, those two of the mid 19th century supplied by Joseph
Wentworth to Holy Sepulchre church.
Statues: The sculptured figures included here are those in a strictly architectural context. Monumental and
commemorative figures are treated above under Monuments and Commemorative Sculpture. Figures contextually ecclesiastical will be found above under Images.
The architectural statues in Cambridge are of much interest, though only few are of note artistically.
The earliest group is at Trinity College and includes the figures of Edward III on King Edward's Tower,
Henry VIII, James I, Queen Anne and Prince Charles on Great Gate, and Elizabeth I on Queen's Gate.
The Elizabeth was brought from London in 1597; Edward is of c. 1600, probably by Paris Andrew; thus,
though restored, these are the oldest statues of the type in situ in Cambridge. For Henry and two of the
Stuarts William Cure jun. was paid in 1614–5; James I is contemporary with them and possibly by the
same sculptor but in collaboration with John Smythe. All the Stuarts are very badly weathered. The next
group chronologically is at St. John's College: the Evangelist on the main Gatehouse, the work of George
Woodroff, 1662, is a benignly complacent figure; the Countess of Shrewsbury in Second Court, a baroque
figure of much competence by Thomas Burman, 1671, has an almost exact replica by Burman's son,
Belthasar, commemorating the Countess of Bath at Tawstock in Devonshire; the Lady Margaret, set up
in First Court in 1674, came from London and is patently by one of the foremost sculptors of the age.
Returning to Trinity College, on the Library are four much-weathered figures, standing dramatically on
the skyline to complete Wren's essentially Roman design, for which Gabriel Cibber was paid in 1681.
Within the Library is Grinling Gibbons' marble of the Duke of Somerset sculptured shortly after 1690
to which might be applied the epithet wooden did not Gibbons' own virtuosity in wood belie the term.
In this context attention should also be drawn to the notable figures of yales and eagles on the gate-piers S. of Third Court of St. John's College, the first carved by Francis Woodward c. 1710, the second by
Nicholas Bigée and John Woodward a year or so later.
Miscellanea: The summary of fittings in Cambridge would not be complete without reference to the iron
brazier bought in 1702–3 for the Hall of Trinity College, a most rare survival even from so comparatively
late a date and, almost equally rare, the wrought-iron balcony-balustrading of 1688 on 5 Market Hill
(Monument (150)); little pre 18th-century external ironwork in England has withstood the weather.
Many of the 18th-century wrought-iron gates in Cambridge, mostly in the College grounds, are noteworthy. Some of the earliest and finest are at Clare, of 1714 and by Warren, in particular those to the Butt
Close causeway. Others, rather later, are at the main entrance to Jesus College, by the Old Bridge at St.
John's, and those from Horseheath Hall and Enfield Vicarage now at Trinity College. The fine wrought-iron railings of 1759 at St. Catharine's College, in Queens' Lane, were removed in 1956. The railings of
c. 1730 by the Senate House are some of the earliest made of cast-iron in England. A notable late mediaeval
timber carving is the corbel, now in Emmanuel College, from the oriel-window of a house formerly on
the E. side of Trumpington Street. (fn. 33)