Emmanuel College

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1959

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61-71

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'Emmanuel College', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge (1959), pp. 61-71. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=128391 Date accessed: 20 September 2014.


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Emmanuel College

(27) Emmanuel College stands on the E. side of St. Andrew's Street on the site of the Dominican Priory dissolved in 1538. It was founded in 1584 by Sir Walter Mildmay, Chancellor of the Exchequer, who had bought the site and remaining buildings of the Friars the previous year for the use of his new foundation. The College originally had two courts, now known as Front Court and, on the N., the smaller New Court, the range containing the Hall dividing them one from the other; a third court was built in the present century. The main entrance is now through the W. range of Front Court; originally it was from the N., from Emmanuel Lane into the smaller court, which was then open on the N., and through either end of the Hall range into the larger court, which had a wall only enclosing it on the E.


Emmanuel College Arms

Emmanuel College Arms

The existing N. range of Front Court, containing the Hall, and the W. range, rebuilt 1769–75, were contrived in surviving monastic buildings; the first was probably the Blackfriars' church, and the blocked W. window is visible in Loggan's view of the College of c. 1688; the second was a buttressed building, also shown by Loggan, and probably the W. claustral range. In 1586 rooms in the N. range were being plastered and the Hall, it seems, was finished; between 1760 and 1764 the Hall was refitted by James Essex, the late 16th-century open timber roof being ceiled in, and the S. front of the range refaced in ashlar. The College Chapel, bounding New Court on the E., and now converted to other uses, and the Kitchen, with a gallery above, on the W., are also mentioned in the accounts for 1586 and the following year, the Chapel presumably then nearing completion.

In 1587 the Founder reserved rooms for the use of his family in a position which indicates the range on the S. side of Front Court, known until rebuilt as the Founder's Range, and which he describes as 'recently constructed'; the name itself may be some further corroboration of this identification. By 1589, the year of the Founder's death, the College as shown in Hamond's map of 1592 was probably complete. Much of the work was done by Ralph Symons, freemason, of Berkhamsted in Hertfordshire; stone from Cambridge Castle and the materials of St. Nicholas' Hostel were reused in the buildings.

The first major addition to the College was the Brick Building, extending southward from the E. end of the Founder's Range, made during the Mastership of William Sandcroft (1628–37). The contracts are dated February 1632–3 and the building was finished in 1634.

During the 17th century increasing dissatisfaction with the original Chapel, which was orientated N. and S. and had never been consecrated, led the second William Sancroft (Master 1662–4) to determine upon the provision of a new Chapel and, at the same time, a new Library. He became Dean of St. Paul's in 1664 and the new Chapel was built by his successor J. Breton (1665– 76), but he remained the principal agent in the undertaking and contributed largely towards the cost. The architect was Christopher Wren whose drawing for the W. elevation of the Chapel range on the E. side of Front Court survives (All Souls, Vol. I, No. 100; Wren Soc., V, 29 and pl. xii); a model in 'wainscot' costing £13 5s. od. was prepared and sent to the College in September 1667. The contract for the building with Simon Wise of Dean (Deene), Northamptonshire, and Nicholas Ashby of Ketton, Rutland, freemasons, was made in February 1667–8 and the following month building was begun.

Wren's drawing shows an ashlar centrepiece with the flanking fronts of brick with stone dressings; in the event the whole was ashlared. Towards the end of November 1672 the walls and roof were reaching completion and internal plastering had begun; the date 1673 above the pediment may indicate the completion of the fabric. In 1676, in the Mastership of T. Holbech (1676–80), fitting-up the interior was started; Edward Pierce and John Oliver, of London, designed the woodwork which was made by Cornelius Austin. The Chapel was consecrated in 1677. The total cost of the buildings was £3,972. The old Chapel was then, in 1678–9, converted into the Library.

By 1719 the Founder's Range was in bad repair and the Society decided to rebuild. It seems that the whole undertaking was done by 'piece-work' controlled directly by the Society. The original N. and S. walls were in part at least retained and the building was ready for occupation in 1722. A large contribution towards the cost was made by Thomas Fane, 6th Earl of Westmorland, and the range has subsequently been known as the Westmorland Building. In 1811 it was badly damaged by fire but was early restored much as it was before.

The original W. front of the College was, as now, some distance back from St. Andrew's Street, and three short wings projected westward from it as far as the wall bounding the street, one from either end of the W. range of the main court and the third, Bungay Building, from the N. end of the kitchen range. They divided the area into two narrow courts, Wolfenden's Court to the S. and Bungay Court to the N., and are shown in Hamond's map of 1592.

By the 18th century much restoration of the older buildings was necessary. In 1752 James Burrough prepared a scheme for rebuilding the buttery and part of Bungay Court, which he was required to do 'in conformity to that called the Founder's Range', but no work was begun until 1769 and then to the designs of Essex and involving rebuilding the whole of the West Range of Front Court, in addition to the buttery and the removal of Wolfenden Court. It is noticeable that the tall W. end of the buttery conforms to the W. end of the Westmorland Building and the two differ in detail from the lower connecting range. Thus Essex was evidently restricted to the same extent that James Burrough was restricted in his design, and he may well have retained Burrough's proposed scheme for the elevations of the buttery-block unaltered; it is clear, however, that he entirely replanned this area. The work was completed in 1775 and from that date the main entrance to the College has been from St. Andrew's Street, through the W. range.

By 1823 more accommodation was required. The N.W. part of the site was chosen for the new building and work on the North Range of New Court was begun in 1824 and finished the following year, James Webster being the contractor; it would seem that it was linked to the E. and W. ranges by short screen-walls in the N.E. and N.W. corners of the Court, thus totally enclosing the latter. In 1828 Bungay Building was demolished and the original Kitchen extended northward and, in modern times, a low addition was built N. of the old Chapel, both works incorporating the existing screen-walls. The W. front of the Kitchen, in the new extended form, was entirely remodelled by Webster to the designs in Tudor style of Arthur Brown.

The Master's Lodge originally occupied two floors above the Combination Room and was subsequently enlarged by taking in rooms on the E. and by the addition of a gallery extending obliquely to the N.E. into the Master's Garden. On completion of the new Chapel range the Gallery over the arcaded walks was appropriated to the Lodge but in 1935 this was relinquished for the use of the College. In 1871 the present Lodge was built to the designs of A. W. Blomfield in place of the old gallery.

In 1885 a range designed by W. M. Fawcett, forming the centre part of the Hostel, was built on the E. side of the Paddock beside Parker Street; between 1892 and 1894 the Hostel was extended to the N. and S. by J. L. Pearson who also built a tutor's house, Emmanuel House, adjoining on the N. In 1909–10 lecture rooms were built S.E. of Brick Building to the designs of Leonard Stokes and in 1912–14 the same architect was employed on a new court, North Court, N. of Emmanuel Street; this is connected to New Court by a subway at the N. end of the old Chapel range. In 1929–30 the lecture rooms by Stokes were converted into a new Library by G. Drysdale and in 1930–2 the earlier library, the old Chapel, was reconditioned, the main room being panelled and made into a second Dining Hall, with a new serviceroom added on the N. The Squash Courts, S.E. of the Hostel, were built in 1933.

The College is remarkable for the continuity of use of the Hall Range, which is contrived within a building of the Dominican Priory, previously on the site, although now almost entirely disguised by subsequent alterations and additions. The Chapel Range is a building of considerable interest, being an early work of Christopher Wren, inspired to some extent by the Chapel and arcaded walks at Peterhouse begun by Dr. Matthew Wren. The Westmorland Building is perhaps one of the few successful buildings designed and carried through in effect by a Committee. The main W. front of the College by James Essex is effective in massing and urbane in detail and proportion but perhaps lacking in unity; the last may be due to restrictions imposed upon the architect. The screen in the old Chapel, the late 16th-century roof of the Hall, the plasterwork in the Chapel and the panelling there and in the Hall are notable. 'The Return of the Prodigal' by J. Amigoni in the Chapel reredos is a good example of Italian rococo painting.

Architectural Description—Front Court (132 ft. by 109 ft.) is approached beneath a portico in the W. range and bounded on the E. by the Chapel and flanking arcaded walks, on the N. by the Hall range and on the S. by the Westmorland Building.

The West Range (Plate 122) was rebuilt between 1769 and 1775 to the designs of James Essex. The walls are of ashlar and the roofs are slate-covered. It is of two storeys and flanked by three-storey blocks, the N. block being Essex's rebuilding in pavilion-like form of the western end of the N. range and the S. block the end of the Westmorland Building. In the centre is an Ionic tetrastyle portico with plain three-quarter attached columns on plain low pedestals, an entablature with dentil-cornice and a pediment containing the shield-of-arms of the College in a roundel; the entrance-arch in the centre has a semicircular head with moulded archivolt and imposts, and is fitted with an original wrought-iron gate with grille above (Plate 57); similarly framed recesses in the two outer bays of the portico contain double-hung sash-windows. The four ground-floor windows on each side have moulded architraves and plain sills and contain double-hung sashes. At first-floor level is a plain plat-band and this and the tall first-floor windows, similar in treatment to those below, continue through the portico; the dentil-cornice at the wall-head and the capping of the parapet-wall abut the architrave and cornice respectively of the portico.

The taller flanking blocks are slightly recessed and have moulded plinths, rusticated quoins, and moulded plat-bands at first and second-floor levels continuing the horizontal members of the lower range, cornices and parapet-walls; the three windows on each floor are generally similar to those already described but more elaborately moulded and with the addition of key-stones and of mouldings to the sills. The N. return of the N. block is similar but with only two windows on each floor.

The E. front of the W. range (Plate 126), facing the Court, is of ashlar; it has a plain plinth, plat-band at first-floor level, a small cornice and parapet-wall; on the ground floor is an open arcaded walk of eleven arches and, on the first floor, a double-hung sash-window with square head and moulded architrave centrally over each arch; the arches are semicircular, with moulded archivolts and imposts. The middle three bays project slightly. The back wall has a central archway to the vestibule from the street and wall-arcading consisting of semicircular-headed recesses in repetition of the open arcading and all with similar surrounds; in four of the recesses, as shown on the plan, are doorways with square heads; a fifth doorway of similar form and two lunettes in the arch-heads are modern. The walk is divided into three lengths by pilasters against the front and back walls supporting cross-beams. In the N. and S. ends are square-headed doorways with moulded architraves and both contemporary with the arcaded walk. The vestibule from the street has a plaster barrel-vault.

The Interior of the range has been to some extent remodelled; it contains the Porter's Lodge to the S. of the vestibule and a staircase to a set of rooms to the N. On the first floor most of the rooms contain their contemporary doors and windowshutters; the doors are in six fielded panels. The N.E. room, over the arcaded walk, has doorways with moulded architraves and, added to each, a shaped frieze with frieze-panel containing a vase and swags in low relief and an enriched cornice; the fireplace-surround is of similar character, with vases, swags and medallions. The room adjoining on the S.W. has an original fireplace with flat stone surround in a moulded wood frame with fluted side-pilasters, a fluted frieze with oval medallions and centre panel containing a vase in low relief and an enriched cornice; in each recess beside the chimneybreast is a built-in bookcase in two heights, the lower with panelled doors, the upper with glazed doors containing a geometrical pattern of glazing-bars, and with an entablature with the cornice pedimented over a central frieze-panel; the E. cupboard has enrichments in the frieze and frieze-panel. All the enrichments in the late 18th-century style in the two rooms just described are of doubtful antiquity. Another room further S. retains an original fireplace-surround.

The East Range of the Front Court (Plate 124) is of one and two storeys; it contains in the centre the Chapel approached by a porch with three arched openings; the porch is continued by open arcaded walks to N. and S. which link the Chapel-block with the N. and S. ranges of the Court; porch and walks were called from the first the Cloister. On the first floor the Gallery above the Cloister occupies the full length of the range, passing across the W. end of the Chapel. The walls are of Ketton stone ashlar and the roofs are slate-covered. The building was designed by Wren and begun in 1668; work was discontinued between 1673 and 1676, then resumed and the Chapel consecrated in 1677 by Peter Gunning, Bishop of Ely. It seems that the Chapel fabric was completed first, and from laying the foundations until suspension of work in 1673 expenses amounted to £2,975. Internal structural work on the Cloister and the Gallery above was begun or resumed in 1676, and the two lobbies at either end of the Ante-chapel were added last. In 1934 the Gallery was restored and the timber floor replaced with one of reinforced concrete.

The W. front is in three parts unified by a continuous arcade of thirteen open arches on the ground floor and as many windows on the first floor. The centre part, a Corinthian portico-composition of three bays surmounted by a broken pediment and cupola, constitutes the frontispiece of the Chapel although separated from it in fact by the width of the Cloister and Gallery; at the outer angles the colossal order is in pilaster form, but the centre bay is flanked by attached columns. The columns carry the slightly advanced central section of the entablature which in turn supports the pedestal of the cupola penetrating the broken pediment. The entablature has a modillion-cornice and, in the central section, a horizontal panel in a moulded frame replacing the architrave and frieze. On the slopes of the pediment, aligned with the pilasters, are small pedestals carrying flaming urns and the upper ends of the pediment finish in rolls enriched with open flowers. The central pedestal, rising from the horizontal cornice is flanked, in the tympanum, by garlands and small oval windows in enriched frames; it has a moulded plinth and a cornice swept up in a segmental pediment on the W. and with the carved date 1673 in the tympanum; the die of the pedestal contains a large painted clock-face. Equally spaced round the drum of the cupola are six attached Corinthian columns, giving it the appearance of a hexagon; in each face is a louvre and a two-light semicircular-headed window. The cupola has a cornice with bold console-brackets and a tall lead-covered dome with pineapple finial surmounted by a wrought-iron weather-vane. The porch on the ground-floor has an elliptical-headed arch in the centre, between the columns of the main Order, and semicircular-headed arches in the flanking bays; the arcading on each side of the rest of the Cloister to N. and S. comprises arches similar to the last; all have moulded archivolts, those of the five centre arches with carved enrichment, moulded imposts and plain plinths. In Wren's design the central arch also was round-headed, but in 1677 Robert Grumbold was paid for taking it down and enlarging it, no doubt to the present form.

At the first-floor level is a chamfered plat-band and the sills of the first-floor windows are continued across as a string, both interrupted only by the columns and pilasters of the centrepiece. The window in each bay, lighting the Gallery, has a square head, a moulded architrave and a fielded panel below between the sill and the plat-band and is fitted with a timber mullioned and transomed frame containing square leaded quarries. The ranges, of five bays, flanking the centrepiece both have a moulded and dentilled stone eaves-cornice level with the necking of the main Order and a roof hipped at each end; their E. sides are similar but of four bays each, the fifth being occupied by the Chapel lobby. In the Cloister, at each end of the porch and demarcating it from the open arcaded walks to N. and S., is a wide elliptical-headed arch with enriched archivolt and moulded imposts (Plate 87).


Emmanuel College, Plan

Emmanuel College, Plan

The Chapel (62 ft. by 29½ ft.) and the Ante-chapel (12¼ ft. wide) (Plate 126) have a tall chamfered plinth and a stone modil lion-cornice, the latter carried round from the W. front. The E. end is pedimented; in the tympanum is a circular window with a moulded surround and on the slopes at either end a pedestal carrying a flaming urn; on the apex is a gable-cross formed of acanthus leaves. The roof is ridged from end to end and pitched to the slope of the pediments. The N. and S. walls each contain four round-headed windows with moulded sills, square moulded architraves and conventional foliage carved in the spandrels; they may have been refaced to some extent in the 19th century. The lobbies flanking the Ante-chapel have plinths lower than those of the chapel, plat-bands, strings and dentil-cornices carried round from the Cloister ranges, and hipped roofs; in the N. and S. walls respectively, on each floor is a window, the lower of two stone mullioned and transomed lights and the upper similar to those of the Gallery. High up in both the N. and S. walls of the Chapel block and symmetrically placed above the roof of each of the Cloister ranges is a pair of small circular lights with moulded surrounds. The main W. doorway has a square head, an enriched architrave and a cornice returned round a keystone; flanking it are oval windows with moulded surrounds. The doorways to the lobbies have square heads and are inserted in the blocking of the arches of the Cloister arcade, which were open before the addition of the lobbies.

The Interior of the Chapel (Plates 123, 125) contains an organ-gallery over the Ante-chapel approached by a stair in the N. lobby; the S. lobby is used as a vestry. The plaster ceiling is divided into three unequal bays by plastered cross-beams with elaborately foliated scroll-work on the soffits and enriched modillion-cornices on the sides continued from the walls. The narrow bays at each end, over the sanctuary and organ-gallery, both have a central concave panel in a wreath of fruit, leaves and flowers and shaped panels at each end containing a riot of foliated scrolls and flowers in high relief (Plate 61). Round the centre bay is a broad cove raising the ceiling to a higher level than in the end bays; the rectangle in the middle has a framing of bay-leaves and contains a large oval panel with shaped panels flanking it at each end; the oval is framed in a wreath of fruit, leaves and flowers in high relief and the end panels contain open books of the Gospels accompanied by the Evangelists' symbols and scroll-work in a border of acanthus leaves. The more restrained foliation surrounding the boss in the central oval is perhaps a mid 18th-century addition. The walls are panelled up to the level of the window-sills; above are large plaster wall-panels with acanthus-enriched framing.

Fittings—The whole cost of the 17th-century woodwork was met by William Sancroft (Master 1662–4, Dean of York 1664, Dean of St. Paul's 1664, and Archbishop of Canterbury 1678). The original fitted woodwork was designed by Pierce and Oliver, of London, and made by Cornelius Austin, and all included below is original unless otherwise described. Bell: in cupola—one, by Anthony Bartlet, with his stamp of three bells in a wreath, 1672. Chairs (Plate 44): set of four, two in the Gallery, of walnut, with scrolled arms and legs, elaborately carved front stretcher, tall backs with carved uprights in framing with turned side-posts and carved cresting, two late 17th-century, two 19th-century copies, all acquired in 1949 from Apethorpe, the Northamptonshire seat of the Founder. Candelabrum (Plate 55): hung from the middle of the ceiling, of cut-glass with central baluster composed of elliptical and spherical bowls and dishes and two tiers of branches, eighteen in all; given in 1732 by Edward Hulse, M.D. Clock: behind pediment, over the Gallery, wrought-iron frame with turned finials, possibly late 17th-century, works renewed by C. Frodsham & Co., 1873. Coffin-stool: of oak, with turned legs, plain stretchers, moulded top, mid 17th-century. Communion Rails: of oak, in two sections, with central opening, but probably rearranged; each section in two bays divided and flanked by pedestals with panelled dies enriched with carved foliage scrolls, in each bay elaborate pierced carving of scrolled acanthus foliage and flowers, with moulded and enriched plinth and capping, late 17th-century, restored and with modern work. Communion Table: on landing outside vestibule of the Gallery, of oak, with turned legs, enriched top-rails on three sides, fourth plain, plain stretchers, early 17th-century. Doors: In W. doorway, of oak, in two leaves, each of two large and three small bolection-moulded panels in the height arranged alternately, retaining original ironwork, bolt with fretted plate. In N. and S. doorways of Ante-chapel, of oak, each of two bolection-moulded panels. In N. vestry, at head of stairs and in doorway to Cloister, two, similar to those to Ante-chapel but of deal; a third, under the stairs, has a moulded architrave with key-block flanked by volutes. Gallery (Organ): see Panelling.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In Cloister—in N. bay, on E. wall, (1) of Robert Towerson Cory, S.T.P., 1835, Master, white marble tablet with segmental head; on N. wall, (2) of Michael Smith, S.T.P., 1773, round white marble tablet on grey, all in frame with pedimented entablature, side-pilasters and worn painted shield-of-arms of Smith; (3) of William Bennet, S.T.P., 1820, white marble convex tablet on black marble backing with cornice and urn, by Shout, London; (4) of Henry Hubbard, S.T.B., 1778, Registrary of the University, similar to (2) but with blank shield; on W. wall, (5) of James Mead, LL.B., 1772, white marble oval tablet, renewed in 1882, with small blank shield-of-arms, erected by Richard his brother, a larger shield has been removed from below. In middle bay, on N. wall, (6) of Edward Valentine Blomfield, 1816, oval white marble tablet on black; on S. wall, (7) of William Augustus Pemberton, S.T.B., 1816, Registrary of the University, oval white marble tablet on black; on W. wall, (8) of Francis Oldershaw, M.B., 1740, white marble cartouche on pedestal-corbel, with blank shield-of-arms above; (9) of Richard Farmer, S.T.P., 1797, Master, white marble rectangular tablet. In S. bay, on E. wall, (10) of James du Sautoy, 1815, white marble shaped tablet on black marble, by Tomson; on W. wall, (11) of Henry Skaiffe, B.A., 1711, painted stone cartouche with skull and bat's wings below and cherub-heads and cartouche above containing the arms of Skaiffe. Floor-slabs: At E. end, (1) of Robert Towerson Cory, D.D., 1835, Master; (2) of Richard Farmer, 1797, Master, small white marble paving square. At W. end, (3) of Lawrence Chaderton, S.T.D., 1640, first Master, died aged 103, black marble. In Ante-chapel, (4) of Edward Valentine Blomfield, 1816, black marble; (5) of J. G., 1751, grey marble square; (6) of John Whitaker, S.T.B., 1710, black marble, with achievement-of-arms of Whitaker in oval panel.

Organ-case: on W. gallery, with small separate group of pipes in gallery-front, screening the console, with central triangular cluster of pipes linked by panels of graduated pipes to flanking towers, the main group with tall central tower of pipes linked to smaller flanking towers supported on cherub-heads, all the towers with deep moulded cappings and, with the linking members, with elaborately carved and pierced pelmets and aprons, c. 1730, organ renewed 1907; a substantial sum was given by Burch Hothersall, Fellow-Commoner, M.A., 1682, towards provision of an organ. Painting: Framed in reredos, the 'Return of the Prodigal Son' (Plate 117) painted on canvas, 2.24 m. square, by Jacopo Amigoni (1675–1752), given to the College in 1734 by Christopher Neville, of Lincolnshire, admitted Fellow-Commoner in 1728; the Bursar's books contain an entry for carriage from London; a payment of £19 to Essex the same half-year suggests he framed the picture. Panelling, Screen and Gallery: E., N. and S. walls and E. face of Ante-chapel screen flanking the entrance, all panelled to sill-level; panelling with moulded plinth and moulded dado-rail with large bolection-moulded and fielded panels above and fielded panels below; styles project as shallow Corinthian pilasters supporting a deep entablature with enriched members, necking of pilasters continued as moulded string, the panels so enclosed between the capitals of the order containing carved swags in high relief; the panels E. of the communion rails and on the W. returns are of differing widths from the rest. The entrance archway in the centre of the screen, with circular head, moulded archivolt and imposts, cherub-head on the key-block and elaborately carved spandrels on both E. and W. faces, is flanked by Corinthian pilasters; the main cornice above breaks forward as a balcony. The canopied stalls (Plate 34) on each side of the archway are both integral with the panelling; the canopies, formed by forward projections of the main entablature, have panelled soffits and are carried on elliptical arches with carved spandrels which spring from twisted columns with Corinthian caps standing on the shaped arm-rests of the stalls. The gallery-front above the Ante-chapel screen and flanking the organ is divided into bays by panelled pilaster-strips; it has a moulded plinth and enriched capping and in each bay a large bolection-moulded and fielded panel. Ante-chapel —panelled throughout with large moulded panels above and below a moulded dado-rail with angle-pilasters and side-pilasters to the E. and W. entrances supporting a continuous plain entablature and with panelled jambs and soffits to the doorways. Paving: In Chapel and Ante-chapel—black and white marble squares set diagonally, black marble altarsteps, by James Flory, mason, of London, 1676. Reredos (Plate 112): of oak, with pedestal base, flanking Corinthian three-quarter columns and pedimented entablature with 'Sursum Corda' painted on the frieze and a cartouche in the tympanum, pediment surmounted by urn and acanthus finials ending in posies, all members enriched and gilt, 1687, given by Archbishop Sancroft; it contains the painting described above, with a modern inscription below. Seating: fixed benches and desks in two tiers down each side of Chapel, with short W. returns; back benches attached to panelling, front benches to desk fronts and with the main supports in the form of volutes with lion's-paw feet and decorated with birds, plain intermediate supports; desks with moulded panelled fronts and ends with scrolled supports to the kneeling-rails; the third row of rails are modern. Movable benches—six, of oak, with turned legs, plain stretchers and moulded plank tops, 17th or early 18th-century. Stairs: In N. lobby—of deal, with close strings, moulded grip-handrail, square panelled newels with ball finials and turned balusters; against wall, moulded grip-handrail stopping against extra newel at the stair-head; under landing, a round-headed timber arch springing from moulded corbels and with plain key-block. Weather-vane: of wrought-iron, with shaped vane and cardinal compass-points, perhaps 18th-century.

The Gallery (15 ft. by 109 ft.) occupies the whole of the first floor over the Cloister. It is lined from floor to ceiling with late 17th-century bolection-moulded panelling in three heights with a moulded skirting, dado-rail and entablature with a deep frieze containing the top height of panels; it is painted dark brown and grained. Above the N. door, in a finely carved, pierced and undercut surround, probably of limewood, are three shields-of-arms (Plate 53), of (a) Holbech impaling (unidentified 3), (b) See of Canterbury impaling Sancroft, with mitre, (c) Breton, late 17th-century. The S. door has two leaves, each of two bolection-moulded panels; on the architrave above, carved in limewood, is a quarterly shield-of-arms, of Mildmay, Le Rowse, Cornish and Mildmay (ancient). Some of the windows retain their original wrought-iron catches.

The North Range of the Front Court is of one and two storeys with attics under a continuous roof. The N. wall is partly of Ketton stone ashlar with some Barnack stone and with some cement-rendering; areas of clunch visible until 1949 have now been refaced with Ketton stone. The S. wall is of Ketton stone ashlar. The roofs are tile-covered. Little evidence remains of the date of the original building, but from Loggan's view it would seem that the W. end was of the 14th century; the disposition of the buildings there shown allied with the fact that traces of an altar are said to have been found in the E. wall of the Combination Room suggests that it was the Friars' church; this last was originally of the 13th century. It now contains the Hall and Screens at the W. end, the Combination Room to the E. and, beyond, a passage-way between the two Courts with the Treasury, staircases and part of the Master's Lodge adjoining the N. end of the E. range. This conversion was part of the first work undertaken by the Founder and perhaps supervised by Ralph Symons. In 1694 the Hall was wainscoted, painted and reglazed; between 1760 and 1764 it was refitted by James Essex and so remains; he also refaced and added a parapet to the whole of the S. front, refaced part of the N. front while retaining the old eaves, and inserted new dormer windows. An oriel-window was added to the Combination Room in 1876 by A. W. Blomfield.

The S. front, though refaced as noted above, has recently been restored; it has a moulded plinth, a small cornice and parapet wall. At the E. end is a parapeted gable embracing the full width of the old Chapel range extending to the N. The openings on the two floors E. of the Hall have moulded architraves and square heads, the windows being hung with double sashes with thin glazing-bars. The Hall oriel in about the centre is three-sided, with four treble-transomed square-headed lights on the face and two on each canted side; it is the full height of the front and the main cornice and parapet-wall are returned round the head. W. of the oriel are three-light doubletransomed windows lighting the Hall; they have square heads and 18th-century moulded architraves. At the W. end the doorway to the screens-passage and the window above are similar to those E. of the Hall. The nine mid 18th-century dormer-windows have timber pedimented cornices and are fitted with casements containing leaded quarries.


Emmanuel College, 16th-Century Roof over Hall

Emmanuel College, 16th-Century Roof over Hall

The N. front has the E. bay covered by a late 19th-century porch continued up above the general eaves level and with a hipped roof; the upper part contains a stair; adjoining it on the W. is a single storey annexe of the same date incorporating in the W. wall a mediaeval buttress which is continued up and weathered just below the main eaves. Immediately W. of the buttress some of the mediaeval clunch walling was visible until recently. The oriel of the Combination Room is of 1876 and above it are two restored 18th-century windows similar to those on the S. front. The rest of the walling westward has been refaced. The Hall oriel is similar to that opposite but stopping at eaves level and with a lead guttering. The remaining three windows in the Hall are also similar to those opposite and divided by refaced buttresses; the easternmost buttress was until recently converted into a chimney and continued above the weathering as a stack. In the roof are seven dormer-windows with timber casement-frames and cornices, the middle one pedimented, the remainder with hipped roofs; on the ridge is a chimney-stack rebuilt early in the 19th century in lightcoloured brick.

The Hall (Plate 125) (58¼ ft., excluding the Screens (10 ft. wide), by 26¼ ft.), has an enriched plaster dentil-cornice and ceiling of 1760–4 divided into three unequal bays by plastered beams with guilloche enrichment on the soffits. The long middle bay has an oval panel in the centre containing a foliage boss with acanthus scroll-work radiating from it enclosed in a frame enriched with wave-ornament; the surrounding space is divided into square, rectangular and shaped panels, the square panels containing foliage and the shaped panels bound branches. The short end bays are plainer and have round panels of foliage in the centre of each. This ceiling was inserted by Essex below the late 16th-century timber roof, which survives. The roof is of six bays and covered a Hall 4½ ft. shorter on the W. than the Hall now is. The trusses have straight tie-beams, king-posts and two collars, with subsidiary king-posts between the collars and from the upper collar to the ridge; in the centre of each tie-beam is a moulded pendant and towards each end are hammer-posts with solid curved braces, but the lower parts of the posts have been destroyed and there is no evidence of the form they took. All the timbers are moulded and have deep channelling on the vertical faces; the two purlins on each side and the rafters are stop-chamfered and much of the original boarding survives.

The side walls and oriels are lined to sill level with plain panelling with a moulded capping. The 18th-century panelling on the back wall of the dais is divided into five unequal bays by fluted Corinthian pilasters on pedestals supporting an enriched entablature pedimented over the middle bay and set back in the narrow flanking bays; the outermost bays contain doorways with eared architraves, and panels and palm-branches above. In the middle bay is an eared panel surmounted by palm-branches flanking a shield-of-arms of the College in a wreath of oak-leaves.

The Screen at the W. end has two round-headed doorways with moulded imposts, archivolts and keys, each flanked by plain Corinthian pilasters on pedestals supporting an entablature with segmental pediment; the entablatures are enriched and in each tympanum are branches of bay. The entablatures and necking of the capitals are continued across the face of the screen which is panelled between the doorways and has branches of palm and bay over the panels. In the doorways are elaborate wrought-iron gates ordered for this position in 1760 (Plate 57); they have hooped uprights, pendants, scroll borders and scroll-work in the heads with applied shields painted with the arms of (a) Hubbard, perhaps for Henry Hubbard, B.D., and (b) Charles, 1st Viscount Maynard. The gallery-front is solid over the doorways and, for the rest, balustraded. The central doorway in the W. wall of the Gallery has a moulded architrave and console-brackets supporting a pedimented entablature; the two flanking doorways are plainer, and all three are sham, the main approach being from the stairs on the N. All the woodwork is painted and picked out with gilding.

In the Screens-passage, the W. face of the screen is similar to the reverse except that the semicircular heads of the doorways are glazed, the lintel-rails are carved with the College arms in roundels and the pilasters support only an architrave. The doorway in the N. wall is similar to that in the S. wall; it opens into a vestibule. In the W. wall is a round-headed doorway in the middle containing a Buttery-hatch, with moulded architrave and plain imposts and keystone, flanked by doorways with square heads and all of the 18th century.

The Hall oriel-windows contain a quantity of 16th, early 17th and 19th-century heraldic glass. In the N. oriel—in two central heights of N. lights, in upper range, shields-of-arms of (a) Henry Kilegrewe, (b) Robert Johnson, Archdeacon of Leicester, (c) Francis Ashe, (d) See of Canterbury impaling Sancroft; in lower range, (e) Thomas Fane, 6th Earl of Westmorland, (f) Francis Walsingham, (g) Henry Hastings, (h) Wolstan Dixie, all 19th-century and in painted surrounds of fruits and flowers. In the S. oriel—in two centre heights of S. lights, in upper range, shields-of-arms of (a) Edward Leedes, (b) Edmund Castle quartering Barker, Hodsdon, Barnett (?), (c) See of Ardagh impaling William Bedel, (d) Edmund English, 19th-century; in lower range, four shields of Mildmay alliances (Plate 131), all with Mildmay, Le Rowse, Cornish and Mildmay (ancient) quarterly, impaling (e) Ratclyffe quartering Fitzwalter, Burnel, Botetourt, Lucy, Multon of Egremont, Mortimer, Coulchiefe, (f) Gunson quartering Trussel (?), Waters (?), (g) Walgrave quartering Montchesney, Vanney, Solers (?), Moyne, Fray, (unidentified 4), Limesey, (unidentified 5), (unidentified 6), (h) Walsingham quartering Walsingham, Nortofte, Bame, Dryland, Dryland, Writle, Boys or Copland, Ramsey, late 16th or early 17th-century, repaired and patched. The Buttery, W. of the Hall, is contained in the three-storey block at the N. end of the W. range and built by James Essex between 1769–75. On the roof is hung the Hall bell by Edward Arnold of Leicester, 1790.

The Combination Room (21½ ft. by 26 ft.), adjoining the E. end of the Hall, is lined with mid 18th-century fielded panelling in two heights with moulded skirting, dado-rail and cornice; the doors are in six panels and have moulded architraves. The fireplace-surround and the overmantel are modern. All the woodwork is painted ivory-colour. Reset in the oriel-window is a late 14th-century shield-of-arms of John of Gaunt, with Castile and Leon quarterly impaling Old France and England quarterly with a label ermine, bequeathed to the College in 1941. The lobby to the S.E. contains panelling similar to that in the Combination Room.

On the first floor, the Lecture Room over the Combination Room contains panelling similar to that below. The fireplace has marble slips with wood side-pilasters enriched with swags, a frieze similarly enriched and a dentil-cornice, all of late 18th-century character. The adjoining corridor is lined with reused panelling of c. 1600; it is in five heights with frieze-panels at the head and painted. The panelling and fireplace in the landing over the Treasury are of early 18th-century character, but comparatively modern. The Lecture Room next to the E. is lined with panelling largely of c. 1600; the rest is of the mid 18th century and modern. In 1949 the panelling on the W. wall was temporarily removed revealing two blocked fireplaces; the northernmost, with chamfered jambs and depressed four-centred head, is of the 16th century; the southernmost, with stop-chamfered jambs and wide depressed four-centred head, is of the late 16th or early 17th century. Over the S. jamb of the S. fireplace is the upper part of the N. chamfered jamb and part of the springing of the two-centred head presumably of a window, now blocked, and perhaps of the 13th century. The panelling has been reinstated and the last feature is now hidden.

The grass plot in the Front Court is bounded at the corners by late 17th or 18th-century scrolled kerbstones.

The South Range of the Front Court, called the Westmorland Building, incorporating the Founder's Range, is of three storeys. The N. front (Plate 127) is of ashlar, the S. front of red brick with stone dressing and the roofs are slate-covered. It was built probably shortly before 1587 and largely rebuilt in the early part of the 18th century, partial demolition being begun in 1719; by 1722 the new building, containing sets of chambers, was finished. The S. wall of the original Founder's building was retained and incorporated in the new work, forming the internal longitudinal wall; possibly the old N. wall was also to some extent retained. The arms of Thomas Fane, Earl of Westmorland, the eponymous benefactor, were set up over the central doorway in 1732. In 1811 the building was severely damaged by fire and, with the exception of the staircases, nothing internally is of earlier date; calcination of the walling shows in places on the exterior.

The N. front, to the Court, has a moulded plinth, plat-bands at first and second-floor levels, a small cornice and parapetwall. It is in fifteen bays with an extra bay at either end of the third floor where it overtops the E. and W. ranges. Three bays near the centre, in the position shown on plan, are flanked by colossal Ionic pilasters to form a principal feature; the pilasters have entablature blocks surmounted by pedestals in the parapet with panelled dies and supporting urns; the flanking parapet is ramped up to the height of the pedestals and the parapet across the feature is balustraded; the balustrade is divided into three lengths by pedestal-blocks. The door-surround (Plate 108) has an eared architrave with keystone and attached Ionic columns at either side with swags suspended from the volutes; the entablature is elaborated with a pulvinated frieze and modillioncornice; on the blocking-course is an elaborate achievement-of-arms of Fane with griffin and bull supporters and flanked by urns sprouting flowers. The centre doorway is approached up three semicircular steps and the doorways to the third and last bays are approached by flights of square steps; the latter doorways have square-heads and moulded architraves. In each of the remaining bays and in each bay of the upper floors is a square-headed window with moulded sill and architrave and plain keystone containing early 19th-century double-hung sashes.

The S. side has a stone-capped plinth and parapet-wall and stone plat-bands and cornice. On each floor is a range of eleven windows, except on the ground floor where a modern doorway replaces the window in the second bay from the W. The windows have ovolo-moulded stone reveals and contain early 19th-century sashes. The reveals are moulded to a section used in late Elizabethan work, which suggests that they may be material reused from the original Founder's Range; the head of the third ground-floor window from the E. retains the stub of a mullion.

The Interior of the Westmorland Building contains fittings for the most part of the early 19th century. Many of the rooms have fireplaces with simple reeded surrounds; the doors and window-shutters are panelled. In the north-easternmost room on the first floor, over the doorway to the Gallery is a carved achievement-of-arms with supporters, with the arms painted, of Bourchier quartering Fitzwarren, Thomas of Woodstock, and Lovaine, all impaling Fane quartering Neville, Spencer, and Mildmay, for Rachael, daughter of Francis Fane, 1st Earl of Westmorland, and widow of Henry Bourchier, Earl of Bath. The three early 18th-century staircases have turned balusters, close moulded strings, moulded handrails and square newels with renewed turned pendants; against the walls are dadoes of fielded panelling.

The Brick Building (Plate 127) extending S.S.E. from the S.E. corner of the Westmorland Building is of three storeys with attics. The walls are of brick with stone and clunch dressings; the rendering of the W. face is an addition. The roofs are tiled. The contracts for the work made with John Westley, bricklayer, and Henry Man, carpenter, both of Cambridge, are preserved; they are dated 1632–3 and include detailed specifications which seem to have been followed without much modification. The last payment made to the contractors was in April 1634. The original appearance of the building is shown in Loggan. Subsequently the N. shaped gable and all the shaped gablets have been removed, the chimney-stacks rebuilt and the 'freestone soyles' and the 'whitestone (clunch) jalmes and munions' of the windows renewed in Ketton stone; the original 'whitestone' heads of the doors survive.

The E. front is symmetrical, with a plinth, continuous stone entablatures above the heads of the ground and first-floor windows and a small stone eaves-cornice. The wall-openings are arranged in ten bays, the third bay from either end projecting slightly and containing, on the ground floor, a much weathered doorway with moulded stone jambs, chamfered imposts and semicircular clunch arch with moulded archivolt, keystone and carved spandrels; the spandrels contain strapwork and shields, now too worn to be identified. In each of the remaining bays, on each floor, is an ovolo-moulded three-light stone-mullioned window. In the roof are ten 19th-century flat-topped dormer-windows.

The S. end has stone quoins and a shaped gable; on the first floor is a three-light window and on the second floor a two-light window, both surmounted by a slight entablature with pulvinated frieze; the two-light window in the gable-end has a small cornice. The W. front is generally similar to the E. front except that three-light windows take the place of the doorways. The two plain rectangular brick chimney-stacks replace the grouped shafts shown by Loggan.

The Interior contains four sets of rooms on each floor; they have exposed chamfered ceiling-beams. The S. set on the ground floor has been entirely modernised and is now a Reading Room. On the first floor the main room S. of the N. stair contains a dado of early 17th-century panelling in two heights, now painted. The room N. of the S. stair is lined with original panelling in five heights with a panelled frieze enriched with arabesques and a dentil-cornice. The fireplace (Plate 48) has similarly enriched side-pilasters and shelf and an overmantel in two bays divided and flanked by pilasters on panelled pedestals supporting an entablature with carved brackets and all containing stylised foliage decoration; each bay of the overmantel contains a rectangular panel enclosing a geometrical pattern of smaller panels. The three slightly projecting door-cases are original and have enriched and bracketed entablatures; one retains a contemporary six-panelled door hung on original wrought-iron hinges. The small N.W. room has the S. and E. walls and part of the W. wall below the window lined with similar panelling to that in the room just described and with a door in the panelling hung on original 'cock's-head' hinges. The main room S. of the S. stair is lined with panelling similar again, with a dentil-cornice. The fireplace (Plate 48) has an original overmantel in two bays divided and flanked by coupled Doric columns on panelled pedestals supporting an entablature with a frieze enriched with arabesques and a dentil-cornice; in each bay is a rectangular panel framed by L-shaped panels and with carved scroll-work below. The four projecting doorcases have been restored, but two retain original six-panelled doors. The two small rooms adjoining on the S. are panelled as before; this set is known as the Harvard Room. The two staircases are largely original; both turn round a small encased rectangular well; they have close strings, moulded grip-handrails against the wall and square newels. The doors to the sets are of the late 17th or 18th century, except the two on the first floor of the S. stair which are of the mid 17th century, and with panelled faces backed with boarding; the earlier pair have strap-hinges, one with fleurs-de-lis terminals. On the ground floor are moulded plank-doors to the coal lockers below the stairs.

The New Court (101 ft. by 84½ ft.) is enclosed by the Hall range on the S., the old Chapel range on the E., the Kitchen on the W. and a range containing sets on the N. Entrance to the College was originally through this Court, when the N. side was open. The East Range is of one lofty storey, comprising the original Chapel, with attics; at the N. end is a low addition incorporating a 19th-century screen-wall. The E. wall and the gabled N. end were rendered in 1838 and so remain; the W. wall has a facing of coursed stone rubble on a clunch core; the roofs are tiled. The College accounts seem to imply that it was nearing completion or perhaps completed in 1587; no structural evidence of any earlier walling remains visible. The range is therefore to all appearances part of the Founder's work. The orientation of the Chapel, N. and S., has been attributed to his Puritan sympathies; it was never consecrated and, on the completion of the new Chapel, was converted into the Library; this it remained until the new Library was fitted up in 1928–9. After extensive restoration between 1930–2 it was converted to the present use of an additional Dining-Hall and the attics were made into lecture-rooms.

The W. face has a rubble plinth, original quoins at the N. end and a modern timber parapet; in the centre of the wall is a vertical area of 19th-century brick patching. The Dining-Hall (27½ ft. by 60 ft.), formerly the Chapel, is lit from both sides by ranges of four three-light and double-transomed windows with ovolo-moulded reveals, mullions and transoms and all of late Elizabethan character but entirely restored; this fenestration is shown by Loggan. In the N. wall is a four-light transomed window completely restored in the 19th century; it was previously double-transomed but the lower range of lights was destroyed in 1932. A window in this position was put in by Robert Grumbold in 1679 in replacement of an earlier window taken down by one John Squire. In the gable is a 19th-century window with timber frame of three transomed lights; immediately to the W. of it is a blocked doorway previously from a N. annexe destroyed before c. 1823.

The Interior of the Dining-Hall has been largely modernised. Some of the modern panels on the E. and W. walls have been hinged to allow the clunch core of the original walls to be seen. The original timber-framed screen at the S. end was uncovered and restored in 1930–2. It stands from floor to ceiling in two heights against a modern wall entirely blocking it on the S. except behind the central doorway; the framing of this last has been entirely restored. The four windows flanking the doorway have ovolo-moulded framing. All the main timbers of the lower height have sunk channelling on the N. faces similar to that on the vertical faces of the original roof-trusses of the Hall; none of the timbers of the upper height is moulded or channelled. In the upper height are three windows of three mullioned lights with the sill of the middle window, once lowered, now returned to the original position; they originally opened into a room, or pew, above the ante-chapel which was probably part of the Master's Lodge. The attics are lit from both sides by ranges of four modern dormer-windows. The roof retains five partly exposed tie-beam trusses with collars and queen-posts; the ties are in the floor. Hanging on the S. wall of the S. attic-room is a solid wood sill from an orielwindow of c. 1500 carved with a crowned head of God the Father with angels on either side (Plate 35); it is said to have been removed from the hostel, God's House, in King's Parade by Richard Farmer, Master 1775–97, (see p. cxxviii).

On conversion of the old Chapel into the Library in 1678–9, the new wainscoting and bookcases were made by Cornelius Austin; more cases were added between 1705 and 1707 by John Austin to house Archbishop Sancroft's library. When the modern Library was made the greater part of the earlier cases was given to Harvard College, to be used in Lowell House, and parts of the later cases were incorporated in the fittings of the main upper room in the new Library. The reused material includes the ends in two bolection-moulded panels of four cases and their cornices carved with acanthus foliage. The crestings from the ends of eight of the old cases were retained and are now on the side wall-cases of the same room; six have the carved and painted shield-of-arms of the See of Canterbury impaling Sancroft surmounted by a mitre, and two have each two separate shields-of-arms, of the See of Canterbury and of Sancroft surmounted respectively by a mitre and a helmet with the crest of a snake. Reset in the vestibule to the upper library is an early 17th-century rectangular clunch panel with gadrooned frame, foliations at the angles and a roundel above in similar framing containing the arms and the motto of Mildmay; in the main panel are elegiac verses in elliptical Latin listing the virtuous and charitable duties of the house; brought from Apethorpe where it was set over the fireplace in the Hall.

The West Range of the New Court is of two storeys; the greater part of the E. wall is of coursed rubble with 19th-century brick heightening and parapet; the 19th-century N. extension is of brick. The W. and N. walls are rendered and the roofs are slate-covered. The range contains the Kitchen, with offices to N. and S., and the staff dining-room on the first floor. It has been so extensively modernised as to destroy almost all datable early features; but the fabric is in all probability the Founder's work. Willis and Clark say that it was erected partly upon the walls of the Friars' building; any evidence for this is lacking, and it seems unlikely since the claustral buildings were S. of the Church. The N. extension was made in 1828 to the designs of Arthur Brown by James Webster, contractor, and the whole of the W. front of the range remodelled at the same time to match it; subsequently a single-storey addition has been made W. of the Kitchen. On the E. face the junction between the early and the 19th-century buildings is marked by the quoins of the first and a straight joint. The older work has a plinth and, on the ground floor, a range of five three-light windows with four-centred openings in square heads and of late 16th-century style but all completely restored. The archway at the S. end, with chamfered jambs and four-centred head with a restored label, is of the late 16th century. On the first floor are six 19th-century square-headed two-light windows hung with sashes. Incorporated in the early 19th-century N. extension is the screen-wall built only a short while before and containing a doorway below with four-centred head and labels on each face; above is a two-light window as before.

The W. face was remodelled early in the 19th century in the Tudor style. It is in four bays, the second and northernmost projecting and gabled and with small octagonal turrets at the foot and apex of the gables; the intermediate bays have embattled parapets. Much of the ground floor is concealed but a late 16th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head survives at the S. end; for the rest, the windows are of the 19th century and of two and three lights with square heads, moulded labels and containing sashes. The N. end of the range, to Emmanuel Street, is in similar style; it is symmetrical, with an embattled parapet and ranges of three windows on the two floors. The Interior has in the N. and W. walls of the Kitchen (20 ft. by 37½ ft.) two large fireplace openings with brick segmental arches, that in the W. wall flanked by smaller openings; reset on the S. wall is some 16th-century panelling. The S. staircase is of the early 19th century with turned balusters and newels. On the first floor two rooms contain early 19th-century marble reeded surrounds to the fireplaces.

The North Range of the New Court is of three storeys and contains six sets of chambers on each floor. The walls are rendered and the roofs are slate-covered. The contract for the building was made with James Webster in 1823 but work was not begun until the following year. It is in Tudor style and symmetrically designed in plan and in elevation. The S. front, to the Court, has a plinth and embattled parapet; the parapet is stepped up in the centre to enclose a roundel of the College arms. The ground-floor openings shown on the plan comprise three doorways with four-centred heads and labels and six two-light windows with square heads and moulded labels containing sashes. The nine windows on each of the upper floors are similar to those below. The N. front has similar one and two-light windows and their arrangement on the ground floor is repeated on the upper floors; the continuous parapet is embattled. The four modern chimney-stacks at the ridge are of red and yellow brick. The arrangement of the Interior remains unaltered and most of the fittings are of the early 19th century.

Reset in the S. window of the stair-hall in the Master's Lodge are fragments of glass that belonged to the Rev. William Cole and, after his death, were acquired by Richard Farmer, Master 1775–97; they include two merchant's marks, one with the initials I.S., on shields in roundels with damaged inscriptions apparently from the Apostles' Creed, 16th-century, two floral roundels, 18th-century, three shields-of-arms, 17th and 18th-century, and a made-up shield including two quarters, of France and England, 15th-century; the trade-mark illustrated in A. W. Franks, Ornamental Glazing Quarries (1849) pl. 108, has not been found.

The rectangular Bathing Pool (70 ft. by 33 ft.) in the N.E. corner of the Fellows' Garden is in the position of a pool of rather different shape shown in Loggan's view of the College. A Bath-house, now demolished, was built sometime between 1688 and 1746 and the pool may have been remodelled at the same time. It is now lined with brick with a moulded stone edging of 18th-century character. A repair in 1855 is said to be recorded on a stone at the bottom of the pool. At the W. end of the pool is a small modern shelter with a thatched roof.

The Paddock, the ground E. of the Chapel and Brick Building, is bounded on the S.E. by a clunch wall, probably mediaeval; some much-weathered clunch remains visible on the N.W. face but most of both sides has been refaced at different times in brick. The surviving length of walling running E. and W. between the Paddock and the Fellows' Garden is of brick and probably of the 17th century; it contains towards the E. end a gateway with 18th-century brick dressings and fitted with a wrought-iron gate of the same date. At the E. end, after short turns to N. and to E., it is continued northward in late 18th-century white brick. The wall running N. and S. between the drive to the Master's Lodge and the Fellows' Garden is of stone rubble of uncertain date incorporating much reused material and with a later brick heightening; it is shown on Hamond's map of 1592.



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