King's College

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1959

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98-136

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'King's College', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge (1959), pp. 98-136. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=128395 Date accessed: 26 November 2014.


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King's College


King's College Arms

King's College Arms

(31) King's College (see plan at end of book) stands on the W. side of King's Parade, formerly High Street, on a site extending westward to the river and bounded on the N. by the Schools, the former Old Court of King's College and Clare College and on the S. by St. Catharine's College and Queens' College. The land first acquired for Henry VI's college of St. Nicholas in Cambridge, for a rector and twelve scholars, and conveyed to him in January 1440–1, lay immediately to the W. and N. of the Schools and extended only to the present Trinity Lane and Senate House Passage and S. to some 15 ft. beyond the northernmost wall of the present Chapel. Building here was begun in 1441, the first stone being laid by the king in person on Passion Sunday (April 2). The restricted site necessitated high buildings to provide the accommodation required and, for the first time in a Cambridge college, the ranges contained three full storeys. Work proceeded slowly and only the S. range and the W. return as far as the Gatehouse were finished and the Gatehouse and part of the W. range beyond it half-finished when Henry's newly devised scheme for college buildings on a far larger scale demanded a complete reorientation of effort, with the result that the Court was completed in a makeshift manner, the Gatehouse and W. range remaining unfinished. The surviving buildings of the Old Court of King's College are described above with the Schools (p. 17), the two now communicating and providing accommodation for the Registrary and University offices. Nothing of the original chapel survives above ground; this it seems stood in the area, now open, between the present Chapel and the Old Court.


King's College

King's College
plan from end of book

The growth of the original foundation had been rapid and in 1443 petition was made for a larger site (Rot. Parl. V, 163b–164a). By letters patent of the same year the college was to be renamed the King's College of St. Mary and St. Nicholas at Cambridge and to be under a Provost. In 1445 reference is found to seventy scholars (Cal. Pap. Lett. 1431–47, 479), and the Founder's Statutes of 1453 provide for ten chaplains, sixteen choristers and six clerks. By 1449 much of the present site of the College had been acquired for the enlarged foundation, involving the assimilation and closing of a number of streets, including the important Milne Street, the link between the modern Queens' Lane and Trinity Lane, and Piron Lane running E. and W. approximately in continuation of St. Edward's Passage. The increased scope of the king's intention is summarised in the conclusion to the Acts confirming the property to the College. In reference to his permission given to the Provost and scholars and their successors to build upon the new site, it reads 'there lawfully to remain and dwell for ever, in as good or even better condition, than they, and their predecessors in times gone by, remained and dwelt upon the aforesaid site near the new Schools' (28 H. VI., Prof. Willis' translation).

An indenture dated 12 March 1447–8 and known as 'the will and intent' of King Henry VI (Willis and Clark, I, 368) sets out in detail his intention regarding the plan of the buildings, together with those of his foundation at Eton. The chapel was to form the N. range of a main court 238 ft. x 230 ft. (215 ft. in the clear); the E. and S. ranges were to be occupied by chambers, with a Gatehouse in the middle of the former and the Provost's Lodge in the W. end of the latter. In the W. range were to be the Hall to the S. and the Library to the N. with a smaller court W. of the Hall bounded by the kitchen, bakehouse, brewhouse, etc. W. of the chapel was to be a cemetery surrounded by cloister-walks with a tower projecting westward from the W. walk. The whole work was to be committed to the supervision of William Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester. The king also stipulated that the wages of the workmen should be £50 a year for the master-ofworks, £13 6s. 8d. for the clerk-of-works, £16 13s. 4d. for the chief mason, £12 8s. for the chief carpenter, £6 13s. 4d. for the chief smith.

The Chapel, the only building of the new college to be started by the king and completed nearly in accordance with his 'will', was begun in 1446; the first stone was laid at the high altar by Henry himself on St. James's Day (July 25); but the structure was not completed until 1515. All the fittings were added later and it was not fully ready for use until 1538 when a warrant dated 8 June may well be for the final payment for Henry VIII's works (Letters and Papers H VIII, xiii, pt. ii, 532–3). According to Dr. Caius, Henry VIII finished it after the collapse of the old chapel (1536–7).

(The term 'Chapel' is hereunder used to describe the whole building unless the sense, or qualification, restricts it to the part E. of the screen. The general term 'chapel' with a lower-case initial is adopted without prejudice for each 'side-chapel', the original allocation of use, for chantry, treasury, vestry, library, etc. being often unknown. For purposes of this account the chapels are named alphabetically, as shown in the diagram, p. 124.)

For the period from laying the foundation-stone, 25 July 1446, to the completion of the building nearly seventy years later, only the building-accounts for the third and last building phase from 28 May 1508 to 29 July 1515, and those incomplete, have survived. Daybooks kept by Provost Robert Woodlark and Thomas Clyff, clerk-of-works, supply some information regarding the first and second building phases respectively. The Thefdale (Thevesdale) quarry was granted to the College in 1447; material was available from the Huddleston quarry by 1446–7, and probably earlier, and from King's Cliffe by June 1460. Before 1452 a clunch quarry at Cherry Hinton had been acquired. Building proceeded more or less regularly, except between 1455 and 1459, until the deposition of Henry VI, and at the lowest estimate the work then complete is indicated by the extent of walling in the white magnesian limestone. How much more was complete by 1461 is obscured to a great extent by the incursion in 1460 of the Northamptonshire stone, which closely matches the later stonework, and by later refacing, but the progress of the work is indicated within broad limits in the accompanying diagrams, p. 100. In the E. wall the line is a little above the springing of the arch of the E. window; in the W. wall it is only 9 ft. high to the N. and 6½ ft. high to the S. of the W. doorway.

The building of the chapels was erratic and their completion delayed for the most part until the 16th century, but, on stylistic evidence, chapels A and B were probably structurally complete before 1461; a lock was repaired and a key bought for 'one of the new chapels' in September 1460. Similarities of detail with the foregoing indicate that chapels C and D also were built, except for the vaults. These details are distinct from those in the other chapels and indicate not only a difference in date but a difference in intention; it would appear that the two-storey N.E. vestry with two rooms on each floor envisaged in Henry's 'will' was early modified and that these four 'chapels' at ground level were provided instead, without, at that immediate stage, any intention of building adjacent chapels (E. and F). Proof of this may perhaps be seen in the apparently arbitrary succession of tracery-forms in the chapel windows; if the four N.E. chapels are regarded as an entity, the forms are seen to be symmetrical over all. The material used in chapels E, J to L, N and O suggests that their outer walls may have been standing, together with part of the outer walls of M (see below) and P, by 1461; they may have been built later in the century, of material left unused on the site, but this is less likely on account of the restriction of the magnesian limestone generally to the lower courses.


King's College Chapel

King's College Chapel
building progress

During this first building phase the general supervisors were, successively, John Langton, Chancellor of the University, subsequently Bishop of St. David's, William Millington, Provost, for only a short time in 1447, Nicholas Close, subsequently Bishop of Carlisle and then Lichfield, apparently until his death in 1452, and Robert Woodlark, Provost, appointed in December of that year. In 1444 the Founder issued letters patent directing Reginald Ely to impress workmen and provide materials for the Old Court of King's College, where he is known to have been employed the previous year, naming him master-mason of Our College Royal. (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1441–46, Hen. VI, 269). He retained this position until work on the Chapel was stopped in 1461, and was so named in a pardon granted by the Founder in February of that year (Cal. Pat. Rolls, 1452–61, 647). Thereafter until his death in 1471 he is not referred to again in connection with the work. The same pardon names John Brown, probably warden of the masons. Thomas Sturgeon was master-carpenter, being named in impressment commissions in 1443 and 1459. According to a Memoriale of Robert Woodlark (Provost 1452– 79), during the period the clerks-of-works were William Rosky, Thomas Dekyn and John Canterbury.

Henry, probably in 1459, foresaw that the College buildings might not be finished in his time and drafted an amendment to the Statutes of 1453 to make financial provision for carrying them on in the event of his death, but it was never incorporated into the official text.

Little work on the Chapel appears to have been done during the early years of the reign of Edward IV, efforts being directed, it seems, to paying off creditors; but the unfinished fabric was protected, while payments in 1469, for door furniture 'pro nova capella ecclesie and, in 1470, for repair of hangings 'pro capella magistri Prepositi in nova ecclesia' seem to support the assumption above that chapels A and B were structurally complete. Receipt of donations in 1476 'pro fabrica nove ecclesie' may perhaps be taken to imply recommencement of work, and in 1477 stone from Peterborough and Clipsham was bought followed by very substantial purchases of materials between 1480 and 1483. The latter included stone from Weldon, Hasilborough and elsewhere and timber from Ashdon Hales, Thaxted, Bardfield, Weybridge, Sapley, and Stansted and Canfield Parks.

In 1476–7 ironwork for the great E. and N.E. windows was bought and, in 1480 and 1481, for the next N. window westward and for the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixth great windows on the S. side. One of the chapels was glazed in 1477, and allusion has already been made to the possibility that the outer walls of several of the chapels were built in this period.

Richard III continued the work and in August 1484 empowered John Sturgeon to press workmen of all trades and provide materials so that the building should go on 'with all possible despatch'. During his reign and before December 1484 glass was bought for the E. window, the N.E. window and the S.E. half-window; the scaffolding to the E. window was complete by 6th August and shortly afterwards William Neve, the king's glazier, and John Byrchold, the king's Serjeant plumber visited the College, presumably in an advisory capacity. In June 1485 the master-carpenter was paid for the scaffolding to a sixth window; but the ironwork for the S. windows had been bought four years before, so that the sixth great window on the N. may be that concerned. Further support for this identification is given by the structural evidence, described later, for rather slower progress at this stage on the N. side of the Chapel than on the S.

After the death of Richard, work continued in only a desultory way and was not fully resumed until March 1508–9 by Henry VII shortly before his death, though activity had already been stimulated by his payments of some £1,500 during the previous year (The King's Book of Payments, 21 H. VII–1 H. VIII, P.R.O. E36/214).

During this second building phase, in 1476 John Wolrych, who was working as an ordinary mason on the Old Court in or about 1443, was master-mason and John Bell warden of the masons; Simon Clerk succeeded Wolrych as master-mason in 1477. Martin Prentice, who is first named in connection with work on the Chapel in 1459, became master-carpenter in 1480; his name is no longer recorded in the College muniments after 1486. From 1479 Walter Field, Provost, was the supervisor in succession to Woodlark. Thomas Clyff was clerk-of-works. In 1480 the smiths working on the windows were Simon Kendal and Andrew Hacon; in the same year the master-carpenter and John Sturgeon were arranging conveyance of timber to the site both for scaffolding and great oaks for structural work.

The extent of the work completed by the end of the second phase of building is broadly indicated on the exterior by the change from plain to elaborated buttresses, that is, up to and including the sixth buttress on the N. and the seventh on the S. Similarly the great windows as far as the two buttresses enumerated are of simpler moulding than those further W. The main vault was not begun; two only of the chapels were probably complete, with perhaps ten others less their vaults; the E. stair-towers were unfinished. Above the present vault-level, evidence remains to show that the upper part of the walls was completed in one build as far as the W. side of the fifth buttress on both the N. and S. sides of the Chapel, beginning on the N., as far as the fourth bay inclusive, then on the S., and concluding with the fifth bay, although with some changes of intention as the work progressed both horizontally and vertically; at an early stage the through-stones, presumably for the vault originally proposed, were omitted; finally the relieving-arch over the fifth N. window was completed in makeshift manner. It seems therefore that in c. 1485 the work may have stopped on a diagonal line from wall-head to plinth, on the N., from the fifth buttress, including the sixth great window and much of the sixth buttress, on the S., from the fifth buttress, including the sixth and seventh windows, the sixth buttress, much of the seventh and some of the eighth.

Early in 1480 parchment was bought for Martin Prentice on which to draw the roof ('in quo proposuit tractare tectum Ecclesie') and oaks were bought from the Abbot of Walden the same year. The existing roof above the vault as far as the fifth pair of buttresses is earlier than the rest westward; further, the arch believed to extend through the N. wall of chapel M (the fourth on the S.) and the patching of stonework differing from the rest in the outer wall of the same may represent a temporary entrance to the Chapel; the College accounts (Vol. IV) seem to refer to stonework of the S. door in June 1480. In this context the minor detail of the purchase of a key for the third S. chapel at this time is significant. Thus it is possible that the five eastern bays were roofed and in temporary use before Henry VII's resumption of work in 1508, perhaps in time for the Whitsun service in the Chapel attended by Edward in 1482, though the windows were then still unglazed, or more certainly for the Garter service attended by Henry VII in 1506. It is perhaps significant that the brick side-walls above the vault, which would have been visible from the floor of the Chapel before the vault was built, are plastered and whitened in the five eastern bays only.

From the surviving accounts of 1508–9 it emerges that about 150 men were at work on the Chapel. The master-mason was John Wastell, at an annual salary of £13 6s. 8d., and the 'comptroller' William Swayne, at the same salary, until succeeded by John Lee in 1509 who acted as joint master-mason; expenses were paid by Richard Hatton, Provost. The proportion of masons, eighty-nine, to carpenters, two, indicates the work then in hand; the accompanying graph shows subsequent fluctuations and clearly depicts the progress of work until completion of the fabric in 1515. Again further materials were obtained from the sources drawn upon between 1480–83. On 24 March 1508–9 Henry VII gave the College £5,000; the deed of conveyance says specifically that it was to be used entirely for building and finishing the Chapel 'after like form and intent as it was ordered and devised by his uncle [Henry VI]', without discontinuing or ceasing the work so far as the money would allow and, if not completed during his life, that additional funds were to be had from his executors. The construction of the walls built after 1508 upon the foundations and plinths laid down in the Founder's lifetime is token of how closely the condition was observed.


King's College Chapel

King's College Chapel
employment of craftsmen

Richard Russel was master-carpenter from 1509 to 1515; to him may be attributed the seven W. bays of the timber roof completed, almost exactly to the pattern set by Prentice, presumably during 1512, plumbers' work on the lead covering being begun in April and finished in December of that year.


King's College Chapel

King's College Chapel
with traces of destroyed buildings visible in 'crop-marks', 1955

Stone carvers were employed between October 1512 and August 1513, but not more than five at one time. Thomas Stockton, the king's joiner, was master-carver at the Chapel from 1509 to 1515, salary £18 5s. od. a year, and although his work was probably advisory rather than practical, the fact may explain the closeness to wood-carving technique of the heraldic decoration in the Ante-chapel.

On 8 February 1511–2 the king's executors granted the College a further £5,000 on condition that without delay the Chapel was vaulted according to the 'form of a plat' approved by them, double desks were made for the choir, and the windows were glazed with figure-subjects, arms and badges as they should direct. A number of contracts for completing the Chapel resulted and the originals of them are preserved in the College.

The first of these contracts, drawn up in 1512 between Robert Hacomblen, Provost, and Thomas Larke, surveyor of the king's works, for the College, and John Wastell, master-mason, and Henry Semerk, a warden of the masons, together with an agreement between the last two, are for the main vault, of Weldon stone, and in the sum of £100 for each bay or 'severy'; the time stipulated is three years from the commencement of the work. Another contract between the College and Wastell, dated in January 1512–3, is for twenty-one finials for the buttresses to match generally one already built, and for the N.W. turret, again all in Weldon stone. A third contract was made in March 1512–3 with Wastell for the other three towers to match the first, already finished; of the two eastern turrets the upper parts only must be meant, for the magnesian limestone clearly shows that they had been carried to a considerable height during the first building phase, while changes in the masonry show a further heightening in the second phase. This incidentally indicates the height to which the western turrets were standing by 1512 for the contract price is the same, £100 for each of the four. A fourth contract with Wastell, of August 1513, is for vaulting the two porches, seven chapels, another nine chapels 'behind the quire', and all the battlements of the porches and chapels.

In this last contract it is stipulated that the nine chapels are to have vaulting of a 'more coarse work', and it will be seen on the plan that the vaults of seven of the chapels near the Ante-chapel are elaborate while nine further E., behind the 'quire', are very much plainer. The two chapels to the N.E., A and B, are not mentioned, a further indication that they were already complete. The vaults enumerated were to be finished by midsummer 1514 at a cost of £25 for each of those over the porches and £20 and £12 each respectively for the elaborate and plainer vaults.

It may be inferred from the conclusion of payments in 1515 that the fabric of the Chapel was finished in that year. For the history of the fittings, which in the main are later, see p. 113 and subsequently under the separate heads. For masons' marks found in the Chapel, see p. 114.

Repairs to the building since 1515 to the present time have not been extensive, except to the stonework of the windows, the battlements and pinnacles and in the exposed S.W. quarter. Between 1757 and 1765 the mullions and tracery of the windows were repaired and extensively renewed by Tomson, stonemason; the process of patching the external stonework of the sidechapel windows has continued to the present time and it is now nearly all renewed. The pinnacles and battlements are almost wholly rebuilt as a result of work done upon them between 1754 and 1757, in 1811, under the direction of Wilkins, and in 1875–6. Between 1860 and 1863 iron ties were inserted above the main vault and the timber roof was repaired and leadwork renewed under the supervision of Sir G. G. Scott; the almost complete renewal of the timber referred to in the 'Builder' (XIX (1861), 263) is not evident. The N. and S. porches were much decayed by the middle of the 18th century and in 1752–3 and again in 1785–7 some £275 in all was spent on their repair and extensive renewal of the carvings. In 1875 the W. porch was restored by Scott.

Until shortly before the building of Wilkins' screen in the 19th century to close the E. side of the main court, the S.E. window of the Chapel stopped at the present transom-level and, below, were the tuskings for the walls of the N.E. turret and N.W. staircase and the crease for the roof of the E. range of the court; they are shown clearly in Loggan's engravings of the Chapel. This, with some three-quarters of the length of the E. wall up to about plinth-level, in part perhaps higher, was as far as the E. range of chambers was ever carried. The 'will' also directs that the W. range of the court should adjoin the Chapel wall on the S.W.; a difference in the ashlar facing in this area suggests that here too the wall was for a time left rough, thus that an adjoining range was still projected on recommencement of work in 1508; but the project must have been abandoned before the wall reached the great window, c. 1512, for the string at sill-level appears to be original.

Dynastic troubles and, subsequently, lack of funds prevented completion of Henry's great scheme of building and at different times in the 16th century makeshift arrangements had to be made to increase the accommodation in the old Court and other adjacent houses. In the following century, although in 1602–3 Ralph Simons was paid for drawing a plan of the College, no permanent additions were made other than Brick Building, S.E. of the Chapel, completed in 1693, which stood until the 19th century, latterly as part of the old Provost's Lodge. But the plan of the Founder was not forgotten, and early in the 18th century definite steps were taken to attempt to realise it. Dr. John Adams, Provost 1712–20, was active in accumulating a building-fund, and in 1713 Nicholas Hawksmoor prepared plans and models for completing the College. The scheme was drafted in consultation with Sir Christopher Wren; it was to follow Henry's proposals with considerable fidelity in regard to the large court S. of the Chapel and the provision of a cloister approached through a vestibule at the W. end of the Chapel, with a bell-tower off the W. cloister-alley. For some reason not certainly known the scheme was abandoned, but Hawksmoor's drawings are preserved in the College and models of the ranges of chambers proposed for the E. and W. sides of the court survive (Plate 37) and are now in the Chapel (see p. 127).

In 1724 James Gibbs was paid for a new design; this was to consist again of a court 240 ft. by 282 ft. S. of the Chapel with detached ranges on the E., W. and S. sides leaving open spaces of 22 ft. at each angle. The Fellows' Building on the W. containing chambers was the only range built; it is known generally as Gibbs' Building. The foundation-stone was laid in 1724, Christopher Cass, citizen and mason of London, being the contractor, and although the structure was ready for the timber-work by early in 1729, wainscoting was not begun until 1731. The cost of the work from 1724 to the end of October 1749 was £11,539; the last payment of the architect's fees was made in 1759. Completion of the range had considerably exceeded the building-fund, necessitating loans, the interest payable amounting to £1,300, and thereafter Gibbs' scheme was abandoned.

Nothing materialised from Robert Adam's scheme of 1784 for the completion of the court nor from the Gothic designs prepared by James Wyatt in 1795 (drawings in the College), but by 1822 sufficient funds had accumulated to proceed with finishing the work and a competition was opened to architects. In 1823 William Wilkins was adjudged the winner, W. S. Inman second, E. Lapidge third, and the winning design was then submitted to a critical committee consisting of Wilkins, Jeffry Wyatt and John Nash. After ordering some minor amendments, the College agreed that Wilkins be appointed the architect. The same year the ground was cleared and a contract made for the work with Messrs. Stannard of Norwich at an estimated cost of £73,000. At the same time it was agreed that when the contract was completed a further work to Gothicise Gibbs' Building should be put in hand, as proposed by Wilkins.

Between 1824 and 1828 the court was completed in the Tudor style by Wilkins but with substantial modifications of his original plan. The present Hall was then built, with a Combination Room and chambers adjoining, on the S. side of the court, opposite the Chapel, and a Kitchen S. of the Hall. The E. side of the court, to King's Parade, was enclosed by a screen-wall, designed originally as one wall of a covered walk, with a central Gateway and Porters' Lodges, and the Hall range was linked by a building containing the Library on the upper floor with the Provost's Lodge further W. The old Provost's Lodge at the E. end of the Chapel was demolished in 1828 and in 1829 the Old Court of King's College was sold to the University (see Monument (17), the Schools). The cost of the new buildings exceeded £100,000 and, in the event, Gibbs' Building was never Gothicised. The first dinner in the new Hall was on 27th February 1828.

Later alterations and additions to the College buildings include a short range between Wilkins' Hall range and King's Lane fronting to Trumpington Street designed by Sir G. G. Scott and approved by the College in 1871, and a range of 1884 adjoining the S. side of the Hall and extending to King's Lane designed by W. M. Fawcett and containing chambers on the ground floor and a lecture-room above; these two ranges flank Chetwynd Court. In 1877 Scott, G. E. Street and William Burgess each submitted designs for a range on the E. side of the Great Court, but it was never built (Arch. and Building News, cxxxiv, 344–5). In 1889–93 an L-shaped block of chambers by G. F. Bodley was added between the Provost's Lodge and the river and in 1908–9 a new range by Sir Aston Webb with a low gate-tower opposite the end of Queens' Lane, this forming the S. range of Webb's Court. In 1927 the Provost's Lodge was connected to Bodley's buildings by a small block of chambers and a N. range added to the second, both designed by Kennedy and Nightingale who, in the same year, designed the new Provost's Lodge on the W. of Webb's Court thus enabling an extension of the Library to be made into the former Lodge. The Kitchen was completely modernised in 1946 and the two lanterns over the Hall were rebuilt to a new design in 1951. A S. extension to Bodley's building was under construction in September 1954. Garden Hostel, W. of the river, was begun in 1949 and finished the following year.

In the College grounds, the Bridge over the river was built to the designs of William Wilkins in 1819 by Francis Braidwood at a cost of £3,771. A bridge in the position indicated by the Founder, some 45 yards N. of the present bridge, was completed it seems before 1472–3; this was rebuilt more than once and the last time in 1627 by George Thompson. In 1818 it was condemned by Rennie and the different position for Wilkins' bridge was suggested by the Rev. Charles Simeon.

The stone and bronze Fountain in the centre of the Great Court was set up in 1879; it was designed by H. A. Armstead, R.A.

The Chapel, begun in 1446 by Henry VI, continued by Edward IV, Richard III and Henry VII, and completed under Henry VIII in 1515, is amongst our most important possessions. It is of great architectural interest, being one of the four most sumptuous buildings of Royal foundation of the period. The fittings are outstanding by virtue of their quality and condition and their portrayal of the changes from the Gothic to the Renaissance style during the period they span. The series of twenty-five great windows inserted between 1517 and 1531 is the most remarkable of that age surviving in Europe. The screen installed by Henry VIII between 1533 and 1536 is of the highest quality and interest, being the earliest timber structure of major size in the country entirely in the Renaissance style.

Among the other buildings of the College, the astylar Fellows' Building begun in 1724 is one of the most notable of Gibbs' works. William Wilkins' Hall range and his screen-wall to King's Parade, of 1824 to 1828, are solutions of a difficult architectural problem, the first appropriately impressive, the second decorative, harmonious and sufficiently slight in relation to the Chapel.

Architectural Description (see plan at end of book and Plate 148)—The Great Court (269 ft. by 282 ft.) is bounded on the N. by the Chapel, on the E. by the Gatehouse and screen-wall, on the S. by a range containing the Hall, Combination Room and sets of chambers, generally known as Wilkins' Building, and on the W. by the Fellows' Building, generally known as Gibbs' Building.

The Chapel and Ante-chapel (289 ft. by 76½ ft.) (Plates 149, 150, 151, 152) are without structural demarcation one from another and comprise a rectangular building some 94 ft. high to the parapet, in twelve bays and with octagonal turrets at the four corners. Contrived between the buttresses along the N. and S. sides are ranges of low side-chapels, vestries and a library, terminating in N. and S. porches between the westernmost pairs of buttresses, the E. and W. bays being without lateral buildings. Internally, the timber screen in the seventh bay divides the Chapel from the Ante-chapel.

The building materials consist of ashlar of white magnesian limestone from Thevesdale, near Tadcaster, and Huddleston and freestone from King's Cliffe for the walling completed during the reign of the Founder, an oolite from Clipsham and the Peterborough district for later work and, finally, Weldon stone. The main vaulting and the side-chapel vaults are of the last, but the porches exceptionally are vaulted with stone from Hampole in Yorkshire. The roofs are lead-covered.

The Chapel (Plate 152) has a continuous moulded plinth, which, on account of the rise of ground towards the E., is conspicuously stepped on the N. and tapered and stepped where screened on the S. to present an orderly, uninterrupted line to the Court. The main parapet, which is obtusely gabled over the E. and W. walls, is embattled, with gabled merlons, and the whole fretted throughout with piercings, trefoiled at head and foot, within six-sided panels; on the parapet-string are carved grotesque masks and foliated paterae.

The octagonal turrets at the four corners of the building are in six stages, with pilaster-like projections at the corners rising from pedestal-bases superimposed on the main plinth in such a manner that the effect is given of interpenetration of the plinthmouldings through the pedestals. The topmost stage of each turret, which is sub-divided into two heights, rises free above the main parapet and the corner projections continue through it as pinnacled standards, the faces of the octagon between the standards being filled with pierced stone latticework in the form of open quatrefoils in diagonal squares, described in Wastell's contract as 'cross-quarters'; the pinnacles of the standards and the embattled parapets linking them form a corona round a crowning octagonal turret; this last has a domical ogee crocketed cap of ashlar raised on a high drum pierced with quatre-foiled circles. Carved in high relief on the faces of the cap are the crowned badges, a Tudor rose and a portcullis alternately.

In the N.E. face of the N.E. turret are six and in the E. face of the S.E. turret five loop-lights with two-centred openings in square heads, some with moulded labels; the majority are set in lofty internal recesses of lancet form with deep splays and four-centred and two-centred heads. At a level between the third and fourth loops the rate of rise of the S.E. stair is increased by about a third. The E. wall has a cross at the apex of the parapet and, in the gable, a small cinque-foiled single-light window. The E. window is in two tiers of nine trefoiled and sub-cusped lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a moulded label; wider mullions divide the lights into three groups of three, which are sub-arcuated in the tracery. Inside, these wider mullions are buttressed, the transom is crested and, on the splays, semi-octagonal shafts with moulded caps and bases support at mid-height niches with gabled, crocketed and embattled canopies; the wall-face round the window is enriched with stone panelling consisting of paired panels in two heights at the sides and double paired panels over the head divided into four lengths by quatre-foiled circles. The internal string below the window is carved with demi-angels, those at each end holding shields-of-arms, of two patrons of the Lancastrian dynasty, St. Edmund the Martyr on the N. and St. Edward the Confessor on the S., and those between, scrolls.

The N. and S. walls are each divided into twelve bays by eleven widely projecting buttresses in four weathered stages, the uppermost stage sub-divided into two, finishing above the main parapet in tall pinnacles with ogee gablets on each face, called in the building-contract 'rysant gablettes', and crocketed spires. The raking strings continued across the sides of the S. buttresses from the lowest weathering are omitted on the N. buttresses; these last, at the second and third weatherings, and the S. buttresses, at the third, have horizontal strings. The weathering of the lowest stage is coped and ends in a crocketed gablet. The kneelers to the gablets are mostly carved with demi-angels; on the N. the kneelers on the five E. buttresses are much weathered, except one recently renewed, on the sixth foliated, the remainder with demi-angels holding shields and scrolls; on the S., those on the E. and W. buttresses are early 19th and late 18th-century restorations respectively, on the second, third, fourth, eighth, ninth and tenth are much weathered; on the fifth, one is a demi-figure of a woman, on the sixth of a king, on the seventh one is a bird, the other a demi-figure of a man. Except for these carvings, the six more easterly buttresses on the N. and the seven on the S. are plain; but the rest westward are further much enriched with carved badges on the ends in the three lower stages and with heraldic beasts in the round seated on the weathered offsets above the second and third stages. The beasts hold shields; they were designed to hold staves also, presumably for banners, but none survives.

The badges are, on the N. from the seventh to the eleventh buttress, and on the S. from the eighth to the eleventh, below the gable of the first stage and below the weathering of the third stage, crowned Tudor roses and portcullises alternately, and below the weathering of the second stage similar badges in reversed order, with many restored. The beasts are disposed and turned in a manner deriving from the heraldic arrangement of the Royal beasts supporting the Royal arms; they pair across the bays, except on the odd seventh buttress on the N. where the two beasts face opposite ways and may be taken to pair. They are, on the N., over the second stage, reading horizontally, a lion (facing W.) pairing with the dragon over for Henry VIII, dragon (facing W.)—greyhound (E.) for Henry VII, lion (W.)—antelope (E.) for Henry VI; over the third stage, a dragon (E.), lion (W.)—antelope (E.), dragon (W.)—greyhound (E.); on the S., similarly but reading from W. to E. (i.e. dexter to sinister) a lion (E.)— antelope (W.), dragon (E.)—greyhound (W.); above, dragon (E.)—greyhound (W.), lion (E.)—antelope (W.), all much weathered. The original of one of the dragons, probably the last but one listed above, is preserved in chapel L.

The chapels and porches contained between the buttresses are of one storey only and above them rise the great windows lighting the body of the Chapel and Ante-chapel, twelve on each side, and almost filling the widths between the buttresses and between the end buttresses and corner towers. Immediately above the windows is a moulded horizontal string stopping against the buttresses and between this and the parapet-string, in each bay, are three quatre-foiled piercings in square chamfered surrounds lighting the wall-passages alongside the main vault.

The great windows are each of two tiers of five cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label, the latter being returned round the buttresses as a string, as described above. The tracery of the two eastern windows on both sides differs slightly from that of the others (Plate 153), and both the easternmost windows, with the E. window, are known to have been glazed in 1484, probably with clear glass. The section of the mouldings of the mullions in the seventh to the twelfth windows on the N. and the eighth to the twelfth on the S., inclusive, is more complex than in the more easterly windows, indicating the change to the later work. Other variations in the mouldings are shown in the accompanying diagram. The lower half of the S.E. window is an extension made in 1828.

Inside (Plate 155), on the splays of the first seven great windows from the E., both N. and S., are semi-octagonal, concave-sided shafts supporting niches similar, with one exception described later, to those flanking the E. window but rather simpler and with minor variations from one to another. The stone mouldings of the splays of each window divide at the springing, one cluster forming a continuous rear-arch, the other continued straight to meet a horizontal moulding across the face of the wall immediately above the rear-arch, the spandrels so formed being filled with cusped stone panelling. In the tympanum above formed by the horizontal moulding and the wall-rib of the main vault is a range of seven vertical stone panels, the middle five with cinque-foiled heads. The wallface between the windows is patterned with vertical stone panelling in two main heights; the panels have trefoiled and cinque-foiled ogee heads and frame the vaulting-shafts which spring from corbels at about transom-level. Trefoiling preponderates towards the W., that is, in the later 15th-century work.

The internal moulded string below the first seven great N. and S. windows returns from the E. wall and is similarly carved with demi-angels (Plate 30); these last occur in groups of four, each below the moulded base of one of the attached shafts forming the wall-panels; the first two on the N. are in prayer, the remainder, where not defaced or hidden, for the most part hold scrolls, or a crown (8), a book (9), citherns, a harp, a mitre (16), a pyx carved with a Crucifix, with a scroll inscribed 'D[omi]nationes' (23), a sceptre with a scroll inscribed 'Troni' and wearing a triple crown (24), a scroll inscribed 'Principat[us]' (25); (26) in prayer, but with the hands broken off, has a scroll inscribed 'Potestates'; below the W. splay of the later seventh window the sequence is broken and two angels of less hieratic appearance support a shield of the Tudor Royal arms formerly crowned but now broken and defaced (27). All those on the S. side carry plain scrolls.

The doorways in the third bay, to the N. and S. chapels, are part of the Founder's work; they are generally uniform, with moulded jambs and two-centred heads with crocketed ogee-labels ending in finials and springing from carved stops; the elaborate arch-mouldings are for the most part continuous but one in each doorway springs from jamb-shafts with moulded caps and bases. The segmental-pointed rear-arches are moulded. In the N. doorway, the label-stops are carved with demi-angels holding shields, on the E. of the Royal arms, after 1405 (Plate 147), on the W. of the arms of St. Edmund the Martyr; in the stone-panelled spandrel between the arch and the label is a carved shield-of-arms of the Confessor. In the S. doorway, the stops are carved with seated figures of St. Catherine on the E. and St. Margaret on the W. (Plate 160), perhaps as eponyms of the Founder's mother and wife, and the spandrel with the Assumption of the Virgin (Plate 160), with the faces, and all the hands except those of the attendant angels, destroyed. All the carvings have recently been coloured. The doorways to the E. turret-stairs have plain chamfered jambs and two-centred moulded heads; they are now concealed behind modern panelling.


King's College Chapel

King's College Chapel
Mouldings of Mullions & Jambs of windows, with diagrams to show where each type occurs


King's College Chapel Mouldings, 1446–1515

King's College Chapel Mouldings, 1446–1515

In the eighth to the westernmost bays (Plate 154) the spandrels and tympana above the great windows are identical in treatment with those already described but the moulded window-splays and the vaulting-shafts flanking the same severies are continued down to tall moulded plinths at floor-level; here the treatment of the splays further to the E., with pedestal-shafts to niches, is continued but with the introduction at sill-level of a second niche with spired canopy and of rather richer canopies to the upper niches. The wall-face between the splays and flanking the vaulting-shafts is divided up into three heights of stone panels all, except one, with cinque-foiled heads under crocketed angular ogee gablets; on the field and superimposed over the mouldings of each panel at about the mid-point are stone Tudor badges, crowned portcullises, roses and fleurs-de-lys carved in the round. This extra elaboration of the wall-surfaces and splays demarcating the Ante-chapel coincides in greater part with the work completed after 1508. Closer definition is provided by the niches in the window-splays; the niche-canopy in the W. splay of the seventh window on the N. is similar to those westward and not those eastward of it, while that to the upper niche on the E. splay of the eighth window on the S. equates with those to the E. Further, in regard to the last equation, the wall-panel adjacent to the niche is the exception noted above which, with a trefoiled head, is uniform with the panels immediately to the E.; the panels below it, being nearer the eye, were doubtless altered after 1508 to match the rest of the Antechapel. These variations together with the later structure of the seventh N. window, in conjunction with the change in the external character of the buttresses, indicate the extent to which work on the N. side of the Chapel had eventually lagged behind that on the S.

In the eighth, ninth and tenth bays on both sides of the Chapel the window-mullions are continued down across the inside wall-face below to a moulded plinth incorporating a stone wall-bench, the window-sill being treated as a transomlike member and carved with paterae. The wall-panelling so formed is embraced in the lower part by a four-centred arch where, above the plinth and a dwarf screen-wall, it is further sub-divided and pierced, to serve as an open stone screen between the Ante-chapel and each adjoining chapel (Plate 161). Each screen is itself designed as a unity; the four-centred arch is moulded inside and out and encloses paired lights in the four eastern panels and a doorway with four-centred head in the W. panel, all with tracery above consisting of quatre-foiled circles, that in the E. and W. panels in two-centred sub-arches; the lights in the three centre panels are transomed, the lower with four-centred heads, the upper trefoiled. The main wall-panels above the screens have sub-cusped trefoiled heads below the window-sills and, on the field, the following heraldic devices carved in the round: in the centre three panels, a shield of the Tudor Royal arms under a crown with dragon and greyhound supporters, both standing on mounds on the moulding of the arch enclosing the screen, in the E. panel a crowned portcullis and in the W. a crowned Tudor rose with stalk and leaves.

The N. and S. doorways in the eleventh bay have moulded and shafted jambs outside with moulded caps and bases and moulded two-centred heads; the lower courses are in white magnesian limestone and part of the Founder's work; this was the model set by the Founder and Reginald Ely, to be followed by Wastell, producing features in the main of the 16th century but of an older fashion. Inside, the doorways are unmoulded but flanked by stone panels with cinque-foiled sub-cusped heads with carved foliated cusp-points and all below a moulded string carved with running leaf-ornament. The wall-panelling above contains arms and badges similar to those in the adjoining bays but with the arms and supporters on a larger scale.

In the twelfth bay the wall-face below the windows is panelled, sub-divided and traceried exactly as that in the eighth, ninth and tenth bays but unpierced and with the doorways of the latter replaced by stone panelling.

The W. end (Plate 149) is generally similar to the E. end externally. In the W. face of the five lower stages of the corner-turrets are loop-lights with two-centred openings in square heads and all similar to the uppermost in the eastern turrets. The W. doorway has moulded and shafted jambs with moulded caps and bases supporting a moulded two-centred head of two orders divided by a wide casement-moulding; the latter is carved with crowned Tudor roses, stems and foliage, so forming a continuous band of enrichment, and with the crowned Tudor Royal arms at the apex of the arch. Between the head of the doorway and the continuous string carved with paterae below the W. window are five vertical stone panels with cinque-foiled heads; the centre three contain the Tudor Royal arms, crowned and supported by a dragon and a greyhound; the outer panels contain crowned Tudor roses on elaborately carved bushes. Flanking the doorway are tall canopied niches set against wall-panels similar to those just described. The niches have clustered side-standards ending in pinnacles, panelled pedestals with moulded sills carved on the underside with undercut foliage, now much weathered, and semi-octagonal recesses with vaulted soffits to the canopies (Plate 159). The three-sided canopies are enriched with three tiers of crocketed gablets separated by pinnacled buttresses, also much weathered, and end in crocketed and finialed spires. The doorway-surround was almost entirely renewed by G. G. Scott in 1875 who reproduced the original carved decoration from plaster models cast from the less weathered parts. The internal surround of the doorway is plain and integrated with the stone wall-panelling described below.

The W. window is of nine cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a moulded label. The lights are divided into groups of three by heavier continuous mullions, the side groups being sub-arcuated in the tracery. The transom is embattled and the heads of the lights below are also cinque-foiled. Inside (Plate 154), surrounding the window is a band of narrow stone panelling similar to that on the N. and S. walls with a portcullis in the middle and roses above and below on each side; the lower rose on the S. has in the centre a half-length figure of Elizabeth of York holding a book with a modern painted invocation to the Virgin and all recently coloured (Plate 160). The wall below the window (Plate 161) is entirely faced with stone panelling contrived by continuing the window-mullions downwards, in the manner of those on the N. and S. walls, and stopping them on a stone wall-bench. The W. doorway occupies the width of the three centre panels and in the end panels are doorways to wall-passages to the tower-stairs with hollow-chamfered four-centred heads, carved foliated spandrels and moulded cornices carved with running-leaf ornament. For the rest, the wall-panelling is divided into three heights by a lower enriched horizontal string, again with running-leaf ornament, and an upper cornice-like string carved with paterae; both the lower heights of panels have cinque-foiled sub-cusped heads with foliated cusp-points. The centre height contains, over the W. doorway, the crowned shield of the Tudor Royal arms with dragon and greyhound supporters, all on a large scale, and, in the flanking panels, crowned Tudor roses stalked and leaved and portcullises alternately. The top height contains an arcading of narrow cinque-foiled arches, three to each panel, rising to the sill of the window and incorporating, in the lower part, a continuous band of quatre-foiled squares containing carved paterae and with a cresting of crosses and fleurs-de-lys alternately, each framed in an arch of the arcade.

The Chapel, excluding the side-chapels, is covered by fan-vaulting in twelve bays, 80 ft. high to the apex (Plate 156). The vaulting-shafts consist of clustered mouldings with moulded caps; the E. pair against the wall and the next six pairs, all of simpler moulding than those further W., spring from moulded corbels supported on the W. side of the second, fourth and sixth severies by demi-angels (Plate 30), on the rest by the nodding ogee-arched heads of the panels below. The remaining vaulting-shafts westward rise from pedestalbases at floor-level. From the shafts spring moulded four-centred cross-arches flanked by quarter cones enriched with four tiers of radiating stone panels with cinque-foiled heads and cresting (Plate 157). The cones being of a radius greater than half the spacing of the bays, they abut laterally on a chordal cross-rib, while, the width of the Chapel being twice their radius, they meet on the central longitudinal ridge-rib. In each spandrel the ridge-rib is turned in a circle to frame a large boss of bold projection centred over each bay. The bosses are carved with Tudor roses and portcullises alternately and their sides with cresting to resemble crowns. (For detailed drawings of the vault etc. see F. Mackenzie, Observations on the Construction of the Roof of King's College Chapel (1840)).

Willis and Clark conjecture that the vaulting-shafts were designed originally to take a lierne vault and that with the alteration in the project for the vault the superfluous mouldings stopping at the caps were, in the more easterly vaulting-shafts, cut back. They survive in the more westerly shafts, perhaps because their discontinuity at a great height is less noticeable than would be the mutilation of the pedestal-bases involved in their complete removal.

Above the vault, on either side of the roof, are narrow wallpassages 2 ft. wide extending the length of the building and entered from the stair-turrets; their walls are almost entirely brick-faced and the continuous flat segmental-pointed roofs are of stone slabs. In the 2 ft. inner walls are incorporated the upward continuations of the main piers, square on plan and projecting 2 ft. inward from the inner wall-face, the earlier of ashlar and brick, the later of ashlar. Immediately to the W. of each pier is a stone segmental-headed doorway containing brick and stone steps leading to the roof-space.

In the N. wall-passage, the base-course of the inner wall in the first four bays is of ashlar; from it in the first two bays rise respectively four and three courses of isolated ashlar blocks arranged diagonally, presumably through-stones for the wallribs of a projected vault over the Chapel; in the outer wall the ashlar of the first buttress shows to a height of 3¼ ft. Approximately on a line with the W. side of the fifth N. and S. buttresses, that is, between the fifth and sixth bays, are indications of a break in the progress of building; the brickwork on the inner face of the outer walls of the passages shows a joining; at the same point the bricks change in texture and the paving of the S. passage changes from stone on the E. to a preponderance of brick on the W. The brickwork in the W. face of the fifth piers shows signs of weathering. Furthermore, the materials of the walls facing the roof-space differ, being of plastered brick and stone to the E. and of regular brickwork to the W. The relieving-arches over the sixth to the twelfth windows in the N. and S. walls show clearly above the vault but those over the more easterly windows are seen through breaks in the plaster to be less regular and distinct; all are of brick except the one in the N. wall of the fifth bay which is of random stone.

The Roof of the Chapel, above the main vault (Plate 157), is divided into twenty-four bays by pairs of principals with wall-posts, cambered collar-beams, and curved braces from wall-posts to collars forming four-centred arches; against the piers, the posts and braces continue down to the vault, but in the intermediate trusses, which are some 4 ft. wider, they stop irregularly about 2 ft. below the wall-plate. The rafters are laid flat and supported on two purlins on each side stiffened with small wind-braces. The main timbers are of very heavy scantling. The principals of the first eleven trusses from the E. including the wall-truss, that is, coextensive with the earlier build, are double-chamfered; further, the W. side of the eleventh truss, coinciding with the junction between the two builds, has been exposed to the weather. The more westerly principals have a single stop-chamfer. All the secondary timbers are chamfered. The twelfth to the twenty-fifth truss, the W. wall-truss, are numbered in two series, one to eight and one to six, in boldly incised figures. The roof was restored by Sir. G. G. Scott in 1861–3 when the iron tie-rods were inserted and the lead covering was renewed.


Numbers on Roof-trusses.

Numbers on Roof-trusses.

The Side-chapels etc. (each 20½ ft. by 12 ft.) are contrived between and within the depth of the projection of the ten E. buttresses N. and S. of the Chapel. Their external walls are in the nature of low screen-walls linking the lowest stage of the buttresses into which, above the plinth, they do not appear, on the face, to be bonded; they have the main plinth of the building continued across them, horizontal cornices carved with roses, portcullises, fleur-de-lys and foliated paterae, and pierced parapet-walls. Broad eight-light windows with vertical and curvilinear tracery in four-centred heads fill most of the wall-spaces.


King's College Chapel, Roof over Main Vault

King's College Chapel, Roof over Main Vault

The chapels are described below from E. to W. first on the N. side and then on the S., and lettered in alphabetical order. They depart from the Founder's 'will' in so far as he envisaged only those off the Ante-chapel, each with an altar, and a twostorey vestry, 50 ft. by 22 ft., divided into two rooms on each floor, N. of the Chapel (choir). Possibly the present arrangement and certainly the intermediate change involving the four N.E. chapels (see p. 99) were adopted during the Founder's reign; but which chapels were used for vestries is uncertain, for A has an elaborate E. end suggesting the presence of an altar there from the first and B and J were early used for chantries. Two other chapels also contained known chantries, P and Q. The earlier use of the rest is unknown. Quarries removed in 1875 from window 37 in chapel H were inscribed with the name of Roger Goade (Provost 1570–1610) and in Smithson's plan of the Chapel (R.I.B.A. Drawings AE 5/29), c. 1620, chapel B is named 'vestry' and chapels M—O are named 'library', but this last was instituted by Goade in 1570–1, who paid for the fittings from the proceeds of the sale of copes.

The chapel A (Plate 147) has an E. window of four cinque-foiled lights with curvilinear tracery in a four-centred head with a moulded label and carved paterae on the soffit of the rear-arch; it was repaired in 1817, when the clock-house close by on the E. was removed, having incorporated since 1564 at the latest a doorway inserted in the two middle lights, for Cole remarks that 'at the end of this chapel up a few steps is a way to the clock'. In the N. wall is a window of eight cinque-foiled lights, as already described, with a heavier centre mullion and four-centred sub-arches dividing the lights into two groups of four; the tracery in the head of the E. sub-arch is vertical and in the W. curvilinear, tracery in the spandrel consisting of a quatrefoil and daggers. From moulded vaulting-shafts on segmental bases in the angles of the chapel springs a lierne vault, the wall-ribs forming four-centred wall-arches. The liernes make a star-pattern and at the intersection of the ribs are bosses carved, in the centre, with the Last Judgement (Plate 147), elsewhere, a pelican in her piety, demi-angels at the apices of the wall-ribs, and foliage.

The chapel B has a N. window, vault (Plate 158) and vaulting-shafts similar to those in chapel A but with the W. light of the window blocked by the flue from an original fireplace and the vault-bosses carved with, in the centre, a man's head with curled hair and beard encircling the face, elsewhere, a human head with foliage, a human head in a rope ring, roses and foliage (Plate 158). In the E. and W. walls are doorways with chamfered jambs, rebated outwards, moulded two-centred heads and moulded triangular rear-arches. It was the chantry-chapel of William Towne, died 1496–7. The fireplace has a rectangular opening with continuously moulded head and jambs.

The two foregoing chapels were the first structurally completed, probably before 1461.

The chapel C has a N. window similar to those in chapels A and B, but with the patterns of tracery in the sub-arches reversed. The quadripartite vault has moulded wall-ribs and moulded diagonal and intermediate ribs meeting on the ridgeribs and springing from angle vaulting-shafts. The bosses at the intersections are carved with Tudor roses, demi-angels with scrolls on the wall-ribs, birds in foliage, and foliage. The doorway in the W. wall is similar to those in chapel B and rebated westward.

The chapel D has a N. window and vault similar to those in chapel C.; the centre boss is carved with a Tudor rose, those at the apex of the E. and W. wall-ribs with demi-angels, the remainder with foliage.

The vaulting-shafts in the two foregoing chapels are similar to those in the first two chapels and of the same date; the wallribs are probably of this date also, but the vaults are two of those of 'more coarse work' contracted for by John Wastell in August 1513. The wall-ribs appear to have small voussoirs where bosses would have occurred if lierne vaults uniform with those in A or B had been completed; the change of material and workmanship demarcating the inserted vault occurs at one course above the springing. Thus it is evident that these two chapels were completed only so far contemporaneously with chapels A and B; the implication of their similarity is explained in the historical introduction.


King's College Chapel

King's College Chapel
mouldings of vaulting-shafts in the side-chapels

The chapel E differs from chapels C and D in that the vaulting-shafts are of simpler section and with fewer mouldings; vault and wall-ribs are contemporary. The doorway in the S. end of the E. wall is constricted; it is two-centred with continuously moulded head and jambs and a triangular rear-arch.

The chapels F to I have N. windows generally similar to those further E. but with identical curvilinear tracery in each sub-arch. They are covered with identical Weldon stone fanvaults with the ribbing of the four cones springing from angle vaulting-shafts. The cones have four tiers of radiating cinque-foiled stone panelling, the upper three with cresting, and abut on a longitudinal chordal ridge-rib and meet on a central cross-rib; in the centre of the arched panelled spandrel is a large boss carved with a Tudor rose. This is the more expensive pattern of vaulting which Wastell contracted for in 1513. The mouldings of the vaulting-shafts were originally similar to those in chapel E but were then modified to fit the fan-vault by hacking back the superfluous mouldings, indicating that the intention had been to vault all the chapels, except A—D, uniformly. A further indication of this is the misfit of the wall-arches formed by the fan-vaults with the window-heads in the external walls. The doorways in the E. walls of chapels F and G are similar to that in chapel E and constricted, perhaps to leave space for an altar. Chapel H was furnished as a memorial to the Founder, Henry VI, in 1930–2, and chapel I as a memorial to Provost Benjamin Whichcote, died 1683, in 1928. The central vault-spandrel of chapel G has modern colour and gilding.

On the S., chapel J has in the S. wall a window similar to that in the N. wall of the chapel opposite but with identical vertical tracery in both the sub-arches; the two E. lights and the tracery above them are of 1827. The vault and the vaulting-shafts conforming to it are similar to those in chapel E but with variations in the subjects of the carved bosses. It was the chantry-chapel of John Argentein, Provost 1501–7; in 1920–1 it was converted into a 1914–18 war memorial to members of the College and named All Souls Memorial Chapel.

The chapels K to O have S. windows similar to the foregoing but with varying association of the vertical and curvilinear tracery in the heads of the sub-arches (Plate 153). All the vaults and vaulting-shafts (Plate 158) are similar to those in chapel J with small variations in the carving of the bosses but in chapels M to O, comprising the library, the junction between the 15th and 16th-century work, at a course above the springing, is roughly contrived, suggesting intended utilitarian use for these chapels rather than ceremonial from 1513. The doorways in the first three dividing walls have chamfered jambs, moulded two-centred heads and moulded triangular rear-arches. The recess in the N. wall of chapel M has narrowchamfered jambs and a two-centred segmental head said, authoritatively, to continue through the wall and to show on the N. face. The doorway in the fourth dividing wall has chamfered jambs and four-centred head and may be a late 16th-century or 17th-century modification of an earlier opening; it is constricted at the N. end of the wall; the doorways in the next two dividing walls, similarly placed, have moulded jambs, two-centred moulded heads and triangular rear-arches. The three doorways corresponding to the above in the N. chapels are progressively higher westward; the same arrangement seems to have been followed on the S. but the modified easternmost of the three is now the tallest.

The chapels P to R have windows (Plate 153), vaults and vaulting-shafts similar to those in the chapels opposite, and with the modification of the vaulting-shafts; the vault of the first (Plate 159) retains original colouring in the central spandrel. Chapel P was the chantry-chapel of Dr. Robert Brassie, Provost 1556–8 (will dated 27 July 1558), and chapel Q that of Dr. Robert Hacomblen, Provost 1509–28 (will dated 21 October 1528).

Regarding the choice of tracery-design for the sub-arches of the chapel windows, in the earlier work, on the N., in A—D it is symmetrical over all and E follows D, but on the S., any system is not apparent; the 16th-century windows exhibit a preference for curvilinear. The sequence, with C representing curvilinear and V vertical tracery, in the order followed above, is: N. side, C (E. end), VC, VC, CV, CV, CV, the remainder CC; S. side, VV, CC, VC, CC, CC, VV, the remainder CC.

The North and South Porches (14 ft. by 12 ft.) (Plate 146) are generally similar. They occupy the space between the westernmost pair of buttresses on the N. and S. and are part of the original scheme, the lower courses of the walls being of the white limestone of the first building phase; the courses above are of Weldon and Clipsham stone and a part of the work begun in 1508; the vaults are of magnesian limestone from Hampole and were contracted for by Wastell in 1513, at £25 each, to be completed by Midsummer 1514; provision is made for the 'battlements' in the same contract, but both porches were extensively restored in the 18th century. They have plinths continued from the main walls and fretted horizontal parapet-walls with gablets. On both porches the parapetstrings are carved with small portcullises, three feathers issuing from a coronet, Tudor roses, fleurs-de-lys and foliated paterae; the parapet-walls, or 'battlements', are at a slightly higher level than those of the side-chapels and of rather greater elaboration, with pierced quatre-foiled diagonal squares framing carved paterae and the gablets surmounted by small moulded pedestalbases. In each porch the outer entrance has moulded and shafted jambs and a moulded two-centred arch; the crocketed ogee label ending in a finial springs from small shafts flanking the jambs and encloses a Tudor rose in the tympanum; the whole is set against a rectangular wall-recess with the spandrels elaborately carved with tracery-panelling containing slipped Tudor roses below and the crowned shield of the Tudor Royal arms supported by a dragon and a greyhound twice in multifoiled roundels above. Flanking the entrance are tall three-sided niches with pedestals, side-standards and elaborate three-sided gabled, pinnacled and spired canopies rising nearly to the parapet-string. On the N. porch the plinth mouldings and the bases of the pedestals of the niches are at different levels on the two sides of the entrance-archway.

Inside, the fan-vault has four quarter-cones each enriched with two tiers of cinque-foiled and crested panelling springing from vaulting-shafts in the angles rising from moulded bases; the cones meet on the longitudinal ridge-ribs, but not on the cross-rib, and their radiating ribs are continued across the arched spandrel. In the centre is a large boss carved as a Tudor rose and surrounded by smaller Tudor roses.

Against the main buttresses flanking the porches are lead rainwater-pipes with moulded heads decorated with fleurs-delys, lions, and roses and dated 1715. The sundial painted on the S. face of the tenth S. buttress, with the modern initials and date 'J. C. 1578', perpetuates an ancient feature.

Fittings—The terms of the advance of money by Henry VII's executors to the College in February 1511– 12 already stipulated that the stalls and the glazing should proceed without delay, the latter with images, stories, arms, badges and other devices. On the completion of the fabric in 1515, the new glazing seems to have been begun; a memorandum preserved in the College, dated 30 November 1515, authorises the payment of £100 by way of imprest to Barnard Flower, the king's glazier, by Thomas Lark, the surveyor, the 'form and condition' of the work being such as Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester, one of Henry's executors, should devise and command. Flower died between 25 July and 14 August 1517 and the following contracts suggest that at that time four great windows were complete though possibly not in place. On the 30 April and 3 May 1526 two contracts were entered into to glaze twenty-two great windows; the first was with Galyon Hone, king's glazier, Richard Bond, Thomas Reve, and James Nicholson, glaziers, for the E. and W. windows and sixteen others, after such manner as Flower, deceased, by indenture stood bound to do, and to install all the glass that stood ready; the second was with Francis Williamson and Symond Symondes, glaziers, for four great windows, two on the N. and two on the S. The work was to be completed by May 1531. No evidence exists to show that it was not finished within the time, the earlier history of the W. window being unknown. Subsequent repairs are noted below after the description of these windows.


King's College

King's College
Miscellaneous Selection of Masons' Marks in the Chapel and on the Gatehouse to the Old Court

A petition addressed by the College to Henry VIII to complete the Chapel lists the works outstanding and the approximate cost, and is presumably after the date of Flower's indenture of c. 1515, for no estimate for the glazing is included. It shows that the high altar and sixteen other altars of stone, the entire paving, the woodwork, including doors, stalls and rood-loft, the metal fittings, painting and gilding the main vault, and the imagery were still required, at a roughly estimated cost of £2,893. The roof-loft mentioned therein is of wood, but the unfinished condition of the stone face of the S. wall of the Chapel described by Willis and Clark, within the width of the screen but now nearly obscured by organ-pipes, suggests earlier preparation to build a stone screen.

The accounts of the work done in Henry VIII's reign are incomplete. On internal evidence, the present screen (Plate 151) was set up between June 1533 and May 1536. It is as wide as, and in the exact position of, that intended by the Founder. The upper part has been more or less altered; the extent of the change on the W. is not clear but the semicircular-headed arcading has certainly been reset and may be of a later date; on the E. the gallery-front is all later. Further, the structural upright timbers on the E. have been cut down at random levels. In this connection it may be noted that in 1564 a glazed closet was built on the loft for Elizabeth I. The screen door was provided in 1636 by Woodroffe, the carver, but it appears that he reused at least some original material.

Where the organ of 1606 was placed is not certainly known; Smithson in c. 1620 (see below) shows one on the floor of the Chapel. The present organ (Plate 151) on the screen loft was built by René Harris in 1688, but it has since been reconstructed and enlarged at least three times. The case may incorporate fragments of the previous organ-cases of 1606 and 1676–7. The choir-organ (Plate 21) on the E. face of the screen is probably that for which £200 was paid in 1661; it is now part of the main organ.

All the stalls and the canopies of the W. return stalls, except perhaps the cresting of the latter, are closely contemporary with and in the style of the screen, but the warrant of 8 June 1538, perhaps the final payment for Henry VIII's works (Letters and Papers H. VIII, xiii, pt. ii, 532–3), and the entire omission of Queen Anne's initials from all but the return-stalls may indicate a date. except for these last, between 1536 and 1538. All the woodwork above the level of the stalls against the N. and S. walls is a subsequent addition. In 1633 Thomas Weaver gave the panelling comprising the armorial carvings and their pilaster settings after having sent down his carver, William Fells, in 1629 to view the Chapel and advise. The canopies were made between 1675 and 1678, in imitation of the 16th-century woodwork, by Cornelius Austin at a cost of £305, largely defrayed by Thomas Crouch and Barnabas Oley. In 1678–9 Austin added the panelling flanking the N. and S. doorways further E.

The arrangements and fittings of the E. end have been repeatedly changed. The high altar destroyed in the reign of Elizabeth I may have been that with statues carved by 'Magistro Antonio', which was delivered in 1544–5. Smithson's plan of c. 1620 (R.I.B.A. Drawings AE 5/29) shows a large rectangular organ central in the Chapel between the doors to chapels B and K and the communion-table placed lengthways between the stalls; immediately behind the organ is a screen, on the line of the second N. and S. buttresses, and the two E. bays beyond it are named 'the place where they burie in'. In 1633 and 1634 Woodroffe built a screen across the E. end, on a line with the first N. and S. buttresses, which formed a reredos, the communion-table being set against it and railed about; thus a Laudian superseded a Puritan arrangement. In 1662–3 Cornelius Austin panelled some of the void E. bay. An entirely new arrangement designed by Essex, with stonework by Jeffs and Bentley and woodwork by Cotton and Humfrey, was begun in 1770–1 and finished in 1775–6 at a cost of £1,652; the picture in the reredos was to have been by Romney, for which drawings exist in the Fitzwilliam Museum, but in the event the 'Deposition' (see Paintings below) was placed there. Before 1770 Robert and James Adam and Sir James Burrough had also submitted designs for a new altar-piece. An elaborate scheme was devised by William Burgess in 1874 at an estimated cost of £8,000 (R.I.B.A. Dwgs. W13, Report on King's College Chapel). Another draft is by J. Pearson, 1889.

The existing altar is of 1902, by Thomas Garner; the reredos, communion-rails and adjacent panelling are of 1911 by Detmar Blow and Fernand Billerey. They replace Essex's work; parts of the latter are now fixed on the W. wall of the Hall screens-passage.

Altar: In chapel H, of ashlar, with base and Sussex marble chamfered slab, built of material removed from Wilkins' Hall range when the Combination Room window was altered in 1930, slab cut from the uninscribed floor-slab in the same chapel perhaps of Provost Goade (1570–1610). Altar-frontal: In chapel H, red Spanish velvet scalloped super-frontal, 18th-century, from a church in Mexico. Bell: loose in chapel D, inscribed 'Cum moveo ad moneo 1616', small. Bookcases: In chapel M —three, against E. wall, (1) small wall-case, with bolection-moulded panelled ends, glazed door in twelve panes, and entablature with pulvinated frieze, late 17th-century; in N. recess, (2) tall wall-case with moulded base, four glazed doors, each of sixteen panes, and enriched cornice with centre panel, c. 1700; against W. wall, (3) wall-case with three shelves on low platform, with panelled plinth, and front in two bays divided and flanked by pilaster-strips originally with bands, the last now missing; the pilaster-strips support an entablature with dentilcornice and a frieze-panel over each bay painted with the initials N.H. and over each panel a carved cartouche painted with the arms and the crest respectively of Hobart; panelled ends flanked at the foot by small projecting scrolls, the latter all that remains of large carved side-wings; mounted with two lock-plates for chain-rods, missing, which threaded through the pilasters; paid for from a bequest by Nicholas Hobart, died 1657. In chapel N—three, against E. wall, (4), against W. wall, (5), both similar to (3) but without painted initials or heraldry, probably those made by Cornelius Austin in 1677–8, (5) retains original hasps and locks, the rod and chains being modern reproductions; against N. wall, (6) deal wall-case in eight sections, lower part and centre two sections projecting, with cornice incorporating panel with the painted inscription 'Biblio: Bryantiana 1804'. In chapel O—three, (7) and (8) arranged as (4) and (5) in chapel N and similar to (3) but with the painted initials, arms and crest of Crouch, 1680, by Austin, from a bequest by Thomas Crouch; against N. wall, (9) similar to (6). Brasses and Indent. Brasses: In chapel B, (1) (Plate 5) of William Towne, Doctor of Divinity, 1496–7, Fellow, figure of man in academic dress holding damaged scroll with black-letter inscription, rectangular inscription-plate below with the call to pray and the supplication for his soul obliterated; slab broken. In chapel J, (2) (Plate 5) of John Argentein, D.D., M.D., 1507–8, Provost, figure of man in academic dress with black-letter inscription on scroll from the mouth, rectangular inscription-plate below, marginal inscription-fillet with Evangelists' symbols at the corners retaining traces of red enamel, those at the foot, of St. Matthew and St. Mark, missing, and four shields of a lead alloy, one missing, the others with the arms of Argentein; indents for Crucifixion and scroll. In chapel P, (3) (Plate 5) of Robert Brassie, S.T.P., 1558, Provost, figure of man in surplice, almuce and stole, with remains of white metal inlay, rectangular plate below with black-letter inscription; indents for scroll from mouth and two shields. In chapel Q, (4) of [Robert Hacomblen, 1528, Provost], figure of man in surplice and almuce with black-letter inscription on scroll from the mouth, marginal inscription-fillet with Evangelists' symbols at the four corners of the slab, and a shield charged with the Five Wounds retaining traces of red enamel, mostly recut; T.J. P. Carter records it defaced in 1867; indents for a second shield and rectangular inscription-plate. In Ante-chapel—on S. wall, (5) of John Stokys [Fellow], 1559, diagonal square plate with inscription and four shields-of-arms, of the University, the College, Eton College and Stokes, put up by Matthew Stokes, esquire bedell and Fellow, his brother. Indent: In chapel G, upper part of slab only, of two shields and part of figure.

Chairs: In chapel A—pair, with turned front legs and supports to the arms, panelled backs, first half of 17th-century, the second broken and repaired, panel in back missing. In chapel B—with turned front legs and arm-supports, shaped arms, and panelled back with side brackets and scrolled top-rail, 17th-century, with modern leather seat. Chests: nine; in chapel G—four, (1) of oak, small, of plain hutch type, 17th-century; (2) and (3) of oak and deal, incorporating reused bench-ends for the ends, two with broken carved poppy-heads, two with the poppy-heads missing, ends early 16th-century, construction later; (4) small, of oak, with arcaded front of trefoil-headed panels, late 15th-century. In chapel L—(5) of deal, iron-bound, with curved lid, five hasps and four iron ring-handles, 16th-century (Plate 46). In chapel M—(6) of oak, small, of hutch type with panelled front carved with arabesques and panelled lid, early 17th-century. In chapel N—(7) of oak heavily nail-studded, rectangular and iron-bound, the straps with foiled ends, with three rectangular lock-plates, ring handles on the ends, 16th-century; (8) of oak, rectangular and iron-bound, the lid in two parts, the larger with two double-hasped locks, the smaller with two hasped locks, 16th or 17th-century; (9) of oak, rectangular, on moulded base standing on shaped bracket-feet, with three lock-plates, late 17th or early 18th-century. (See also Trunk.) Communion-table: In chapel P—of oak, with turned legs, plain stretcher-rails and top-rail supported at the ends on small renewed shaped brackets, early to mid 17th-century. Cupboard: In chapel C—of oak, robustly framed, with small cornice and two nail-studded plain plank doors each hung on three heavy strap-hinges, with four elaborate locks, late 15th-century (Plate 192).

Doors: fifteen. In Chapel—in N. doorway in third bay, (1) of oak, below tympanum in three heights and four widths of deeply moulded panels, the rails and styles with sunk fields and projecting roundels at their intersections carved in low relief with the initials H R linked by cords and two with crowns; the head-rail and styles cut through and the six middle panels hinged to form a wicket; the tympanum carved in high relief with a shaped and scrolled shield of the Tudor Royal arms supported by a lion and a dragon and surmounted by a crown and with a cherub-head below and rose-branches on the background; plain chamfered panelling to back; with some original wrought-iron furniture, including box-lock with fretted enrichment and baluster-shaped hasps and old rimlock (Plate 192); tympanum contemporary with and very similar in workmanship to the screen, 1533–8, door possibly later. In S. wall, (2) opposite (1) and similar to it in character but divided below the tympanum into two leaves with only two panels in the height, shallower mouldings, plain flat roundels and framed back; the Royal arms supported by a dragon and a greyhound collared and leashed; tympanum 1533–8, doors 17th-century. In Ante-chapel—in doorway to N. porch, (3) of oak, with two-centred head, cornice at springing-level and, below, four moulded panels in the width and three in the height, the styles and rails with sunk fields and roundels at the intersections, the whole divided into two leaves, the check consisting of an applied moulded half-post, and with the lower part of the W. leaf hinged as a wicket; plain chamfered panelling to back; original wrought-iron 'cock's-head' hinges, bar and lock, ring handle with escutcheon, handle with traceried escutcheon to wicket, and wood and iron box-lock, early 17th-century. In doorway to S. porch— (4) very similar to (3) and of the same date, but without the check. W. door—(5) of oak, with two-centred head, the whole in two leaves with check in the form of a column with moulded cap and pedestal base, a cornice at the springing-level with the initials H. R. crowned and linked by cords in the centre and, below, each leaf of three panels in the width, four in the height, and generally similar to (3); the tympanum (Plate 191) carved in low relief with palm-trees, lilies and roses, two cherub-heads and a sun in the apex inscribed 'Jahveh' in Hebrew characters; plain chamfered panelling to back; Henry Man was paid just over £22 for the door in 1614–15, excluding between £6 and £7 to Rule for the ironwork. Between Antechapel and chapels—to chapel H, (6) of oak, with four-centred head, of six linenfold panels, the topmost with cusped heads, the rails carved with running foliage, rectangular wrought-iron lock-plate (Plate 192) with pierced plate, early 16th-century, head largely renewed; to chapel I, (7) generally similar to (6) and of the same date, with original head; to chapel P, (8) of oak, with four-centred head, of seven moulded panels, with wrought-iron lock-plate with feathered edge, flush boarded back, mid 16th-century; to chapel Q, (9) of oak (Plate 192), with four-centred head, of six moulded panels, the topmost with cusped four-centred heads, quatre-foiled spandrel, rails carved with curvilinear tracery-panelling, flush boarded back, old lock-plate (Plate 192), probably provided by Robert Hacomblen, Provost 1509–28; to chapel R, (10) similar to (8) and of the same date, but lacking lock-plate. In chapels—between chapels A and B, (11) of oak planks, with two-centred head, front divided into four vertical panels by nail-studded ribs planted on, 16th-century, after c. 1515; between chapels C and D, E and F, F and G, (12–14) of rough nail-studded oak planks, with two-centred heads, 16th-century; between chapels O and P, (15) of oak, with two-centred head, in four fielded panels, plain framing to back, late 17th or 18th-century. Font (Plate 8): In chapel 1—of freestone, shaped bowl with carved mouldings and acanthus foliage on the underside springing from an enriched baluster-stem, with spiral fluting on stepped base, mid 18th-century, modern base. Cover: of oak, with four carved scrolls rising to an acanthus finial, contemporary with the font. Both from Temple Guiting church, Gloucestershire, and given to the College in 1950.

Gates: To S. porch—of wrought-iron, in two leaves with semicircular heads and rectangular latticework below with waved spikes, believed to be 18th-century and to have come from the Cathedral Close, Exeter; given to the College 1930.

Glass: The windows are described in the numerical order shown in the diagrams below and on page 124; nos. 1–26 refer to the great windows lighting the body of the Chapel, nos. 27–51 to the small windows in the side-chapels. Windows 2–12, 15–20 inclusive, 24 and 25 each portray pairs of types and antitypes, the types, for the most part from the Old Testament, occupying the two left and two right lights above the transom, and the antitypes, for the most part from the New Testament, the corresponding lights below the transom. In the middle light are two 'messengers' above the transom and two below, one above another; these are angels and prophets carrying scrolls with inscriptions normally referring to the flanking scenes. Window 1 contains four scenes from the legendary lives of the Virgin and her parents similarly arranged and separated by 'messengers'. Window 13, the E. window, consisting of nine transomed lights, contains six scenes of the trial and Crucifixion of Christ, each scene occupying three lights bounded by the transom. Window 14, which until the 19th century extended only down to the line of the transom, contains a type and antitype, separated by 'messengers', below the transom; these were all moved down from above in 1841; in 1845 the vacated upper space was filled with a single Old Testament scene in new glass. Windows 21 to 23 each contain four scenes from the Acts of the Apostles separated by 'messengers'. In window 26, the W. window, the glass is of 1879.

Thus the iconography of the great windows is in the main typological and follows generally the chronology of the New Testament, beginning with the N.W. window and proceeding by way of the E. end round the building. In the following descriptions this same progression is followed and the positions of the subjects within each window is indicated by (a) for upper left, (b) for lower left, (c) upper right, (d) lower right, and M1 to 4 for the 'messengers', reading from the top. The tracery-lights are so described. In the transcriptions of the 'messengers' ' scrolls the following conventions are used: square brackets contain letters or words inserted where the original text has been contracted, round brackets contain those inserted where arbitrarily omitted from the original text; the inscriptions have been transcribed as they appear including all inaccuracies and misspellings. The references to biblical sources are to the Vulgate. No attempt has been made to elucidate the more obscure incidental inscriptions. (See also Introduction to Fittings.)


King's College Chapel, Diagram of Windows

King's College Chapel, Diagram of Windows

Window 1—(a) High Priest rejecting the offering of Joachim and Anna, the priest in mitre on the left turns away a bearded man and a woman, all in an architectural setting; (c) Angel appearing to Joachim bidding him return from the country to Jerusalem, an angel in the upper right descends towards a bearded man kneeling in the left foreground, shepherds in the right foreground, a landscape beyond, in the heads of the lights the date 1527 repeated, that in the E. light in situ, that in the W. light amongst confused fragments; (b) Joachim and Anna embracing before the Golden Gate of the Temple, with other figures on the right between them and the architectural background; (d) Birth of the Virgin, the infant in the foreground, women to the left and Anna in a curtained bed to the right, with 'Sancta Anna Mater M.' inscribed on the frieze, in architectural setting. These are incidents in the lives of the parents of the Virgin related in the apocryphal Protevangel of James. The inscribed scrolls carried by the 'messengers' (Plates 163, 164) are much damaged; M1, seated angel under canopy, on scroll 'Angel[us] in sp[e]c[ie] iu(v)enis app(ar)u(it); M2, standing white-bearded man with head-dress, 'Post (triduum) ienf(e)rni peperi(t) anna maria(m)'; M3, seated angel, 'Angelus in spe(cie) iuvenis a(ppar)uit eii dice[n]s ut se . . . vi decr(ettus)' (?); M4, standing whitebearded man, 'Post triduum i . . . unii peperit anna mariam benevic jhu ius'. In tracery-lights: Top centre, and similarly in all the great side windows, a shield of the Tudor Royal arms in a Garter; upper row, from the W., (a) portcullis, (b) hawthorn-bush berried, (c) portcullis, (d) rose of Lancaster, (e) fleur-de-lys, (f) portcullis, all crowned; lower row, from the W., (a) slipped rose of Lancaster, (b) fleur-de-lys, (c) hawthornbush flowered, (d) rose of Lancaster, (e) hawthorn-bush flowered, (f) fleur-de-lys, (g) portcullis, (h) slipped Tudor rose, (b—g) each on a shield supported by an angel.

Window 2 (Plates 173, 179)—(a) Presentation of the golden table in the Temple of the Sun, two men on the left present a golden table to a priest, on an altar behind him the image of a naked child, holding a lance and pennant and the emblem of the sun, stands on a pedestal inscribed 'Templu(m) So(lis)' beneath a tester inscribed ' (Al)ma Redemptoris Mate(r)'. The scene is derived from the Speculum Humanae Salvationis. Below, two half-figures holding scrolls inscribed 'hester iii' and 'yepte' (Jephthah) 'obt(ulit) filia[m] sua[m] d[omi]no', for comparable types; (b) Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, in the middle distance the Virgin mounting the altar-steps is received by the priest before the altar, with figures in the foreground to right and Joachim and Anna to left. Below are two half-figures with scrolls, one illegible, the other inscribed 'P[ri]mo libro Regum iiii', referring to another type of the Presentation; (c) Marriage of Tobias with Sara (Tobit vii, 15), on the left Raguel gives his daughter to be wife to Tobias on the right attended by the angel Raphael, in a room drawn in perspective with the back wall inscribed 'Benedictum sit' 'sit n(omen) Domin(i)'. Only one of the scrolls held by the half-figures below survives, 'Regina ysa[rum]', (persarum) '(co)nte[m]plabat(ur)' referring to the Queen of Persia in the hanging garden, a type of the contemplative life of the Virgin derived from the Speculum; (d) Marriage of Mary and Joseph, in the centre a bishop taking the hand of the Virgin on the left, accompanied by her parents, and of Joseph on the right who holds a rod sprouting green leaves, all in an architectural setting, a curtain in the background with the words 'Beata es'; derived from the Speculum. The scrolls borne by the two half-figures below are illegible. (b) and (d) have flamboyant canopies in the heads of the lights. M1 (Plate 162), flying angel in arched frame, with scroll 'Hic sara desponsat[ur] thobie m(inori)'; M2, standing man with cap, 'Mensa aurea oblata e[st] i[n] te[m]plo'; M3, angel in arched frame, 'Maria d[omi]no oblata e[st] i[n] te[m]plo'; M4, standing man with cap, 'Hic v[ir]go Maria despo(nsatu)r Josep[h]' on the scroll and '(F)elix namque es sac (va virgo)' on his girdle. Between M1 and 2 is a band of ornament including a small shield supported by cherubs and inscribed with the initials I.D.R., and below M2 is a half-figure of the Child Christ holding an orb with 'Ego sum alpha et o(mega)' inscribed across the background. The inscription of the half-figure below M4 is illegible. In tracery-lights: arms and badges generally similar to those in window 1 but differently placed and with the initials H E twice and a Yorkist rose en soleil on (b), (g) and (e) respectively of the lower row of lights.

Window 3—(a) Temptation of Eve, on the left Eve with the apple, on the right the serpent in the form of a woman, upper half of light filled with the tree; (b) Annunciation, Gabriel and attendant angels on the left, the Dove descending upon the Virgin, all in an architectural setting and with the tester over the Virgin inscribed 'Ecce ancilla domini fiat'; (c) Burning Bush, on the right Moses taking off his shoes, in the upper left God shown in the bush, in the middle distance sheep and a dog and, beyond, Moses with his rod departing; (d) Nativity, on the left Mary and Joseph with angels adore the Child to the right, in an architectural setting with the angel appearing to the shepherds seen beyond through an opening. M1, angel under canopy (same cartoon as M1, window I), '(Pr)ecepit deus (nobis) ne ne (comede)rem[us] et ne (tan)gerem[us] ill(ud)', (Genesis iii, 3); M2, standing man with head-dress (same cartoon as M2, window 1), '(Ap)paruit (ei) d[ominu]s in flamma ignis de medio r(ubi), (Exodus iii, 2); M3 (Plate 162), angel under canopy (same cartoon as M3, window 1), 'En (et tu) bethleem terra Juda no[n] eris m(i)nima in(ter) prin(cipes)', (Matthew ii, 6); M4, standing man (same cartoon as M4, window 1), 'Nat[us] e[st] ihesus in bethleem Jude regnante h(e)rode. Ma.', (Matthew ii, 1). In tracery-lights: arms and badges generally similar to those in window I but differently placed.

Window 4—(a) Circumcision of Isaac by Abraham, a crowded scene with Abraham in the left foreground in an architectural setting, in the head of the W. light a shield containing the initials H R; (b) Circumcision of Christ, by a leech with spectacles, centre, with surrounding group of onlookers, all in an architectural setting; (c) Visit to Solomon of the Queen of Sheba, in the upper left Solomon enthroned, his feet on the rim of a glass tank nearly full of water, the queen and attendants kneeling before him on the right and offering gifts from the lower right; (d) Adoration of the Magi, Jesus, Mary and Joseph on the right, the wise men on the left with the star above, mounted soldiers in the distant landscape. M1, angel under canopy, '(V)ocovit(que) Abraham n(ome)n fil(ii) sui (Is)aac et', remainder of inscription 'circumcidit eu[m] oct(avo die), 2', over M2 (Genesis xxi, 3, 4); M2, standing white-bearded man, 'Dedit regi centu[m](et) viginti tule(nt)a auri et aromatu multa. 3 regum', (III Kings x, 10): M3, angel under canopy, 'Conplet(i) su[nt] dies octo ut aranderetur puer. Luce 2', (Luke ii, 21); M4, standing whitebearded man with head-dress under ogee-arched canopy, 'Et procide[n]tes adoraveru[n]t eu[m] (et) ap[er]tis thesauris suis (obtu)leru[n]t ei munera. Mat. 2' (Matthew ii, 11). In tracery-lights: arms and badges generally similar to those in window I but differently placed and with the initials H K and H E, both on shields held by angels, in (e) and (f) respectively of the lower row of lights; (c) and (g) in the same row, both of green trees, are modern.

Window 5—(a) Presentation of Samuel to Eli in the setting of the interior of the temple (I Kings i, 24), Hannah in the centre offering the child to the priest on the left, the altar-cloth inscribed 'Ricah', women on the right, in the head of the left light the figure of Moses with the Tables of the Law inscribed 'Son. ubi. Ai. tio. Ps.'; the floor-tiles are inscribed with the initials B, U, P, Q and M; (b) Presentation of Christ in the Temple (Plate 167) and the Purification of the Virgin, on the right Simeon holding the Child, several figures on the left, one holding a cage of turtle-doves, all in an architectural setting decorated with small figures including Adam and Eve and another holding a scroll inscribed 'lobner domoigmova', in the heads of the lights a tympanum containing horsemen; (c) Flight of Jacob from Esau, Jacob in the right foreground with collar inscribed perhaps 'N.mviop', armed with bow and quiver inscribed perhaps 'Soll Amoros', taking leave of Isaac seated and wearing a turban, in the middle distance Jacob blessed by Isaac, in the landscape beyond Jacob at the well of Haran, all in an architectural setting with frieze of fighting horsemen; (d) Flight into Egypt, Joseph on the right leads the ass carrying the Virgin and Child, in the background a cornfield with reapers and soldiers. M1, angel much mutilated, 'S[an]ctifica mihi (om)ne p[ri]mogenitu[m] q[uo]d aperu[it] (vulvam)', (Exodus xiii, 2); M2, standing bearded man with hat, in arched frame, damaged, 'Ecc(e) esau frater tuus min(at)ur ut occ(id)at te. Gen.', (Genesis xxvii, 42); M3, angel in vestments under canopy, '(Adduxe)ru[n]t illum [i]n her[u]sale[m] ut sistere(nt) (eum) d[omi]no sic ut scriptu[m] es[t] (in) d[omi]ni le(ge)', (Luke ii, 22–3); M4, standing man with head-dress under ogee-arched canopy, 'Surge et accipite pueru(m et) matre[m] ei[u]s et fuge i[n] egyptu[m] et esto ibi usq[ue]', (Matthew ii, 13); to the right of the head are the initials I.S. In tracery lights: arms and badges generally similar to those in window 1 but differently placed and with the initials H E in (b) and (f) of the lower row; (g) of the same row is modern, probably also (c) and (e), all green trees.

Window 6—(a) Golden Calf, on a red pillar on the right, being worshipped by the Israelites, Moses on the left breaking the Tables of the Law which are inscribed in Flemish 'Dvs elste lief heb[b]en' and 'Godt bove alen', in left foreground hem of garment of kneeling woman inscribed 'ncompollepel g.mconoesigro. . . . . . . lowerencius s.ll iohr ower omni lavoselo', a distant landscape beyond; (b) Idols of Egypt falling, in the setting of a temple are two falling idols flanked, on the left by the Virgin crowned and carrying the Child, on the right by the kneeling figure of a man with a shoulder-band inscribed 'Roboam autem genuit osias aosi. n. . . awip'; at the base of the E. light are the figures 15017, presumably for the date 1517. The scene may derive from the Pseudo-Epiphanian Lives of the Prophets, the story of the prophecy of Jeremiah and the image of the Virgin and Child in the temple of the Egyptians told in the Historia Scholastica; (c) Massacre of the seed royal by Athaliah (IV Kings xi, 1), she and a ruler stand in the upper centre with the massacre below and a large building in the landscape beyond; (d) Massacre of the Innocents, Herod, mounted, on the left, the massacre in the foreground and, beyond, distant houses being raided by soldiers. M1, standing bearded man with hat under canopy, inscription illegible; M2, demi-angel in arched frame, 'Ir(atusque valde projecit de) man(u) (tabulas et) co[n]fregit eas', (Exodus xxxii, 19); M3, angel under canopy, '(Dominus ascendet super nubem) leve[m] et in(gredietur) Egy(ptum et commovebuntur simulacra egypti a facie eius). Es.', (Isaiah xix, 1); M4, demi-figure of whitebearded man with fur hat and red cloak in arched frame, '(Et missis satellitibus) occ(idit omnes pueros qui erant in bethleem.) Mat. 20', (Matthew ii, 16). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those of window 1 but with a York rose en soleil, the initials H E twice and H K.

Window 7—(a) Naaman washing in Jordan, he stands naked in the river in right foreground attended by a servant on the bank to the left with 'Clinato' inscribed on his sword-scabbard, men and horses in the middle distance, the horse-trappings inscribed with a series of capital letters, and a wooded landscape beyond; (b) Baptism of Christ, with half-length figure of God the Father at the top, the Dove descending towards Christ standing in the foreground, with St. John the Baptist on the right, three angels holding His clothes and a lamb and a fourth angel in the middle distance; (c) Esau tempted to sell his birthright, Jacob seated at a table on the right with his pottage, Esau with his dogs on the left, the small figure of a woman beyond, all in an architectural setting, on the hood of a fireplace in the background the following inscription 'An . . . nra notra melior est qua'; on Esau's collar is inscribed 'Roman' and on his quiver '.rw..iac', on the edge of Jacob's dress twelve letters illegible; (d) Temptation of Christ, in the right foreground the devil as an old man tempting Christ to turn stones into bread, in the landscape beyond on the right they stand on the pinnacle of the Temple, on the left on a high mountain. Glaziers' scratchings in head of E. light. M1, angel under canopy, 'Ait Jacop iura argo mihi. i(ura)vit (ei) esau et vendidit (primogenita)', (Genesis xxv, 33); M2, standing white-bearded man in arched frame, 'Naaman leprosus sepcies (lavit) et mu[n]da(tus) est', (IV Kings v, 14); M3, angel under canopy (same cartoon as M3, window 4), 'Bap(ti)sat(us) aute[m] ih[esu]s co[n]festim asse[n]dit de (a)q[ua] et ap[er]ti su[n]t ei celi et vidit spiritu[m] (dei descendentem sicut columbam)', (Matthew iii, 16); M4, standing white-bearded man with tricorn hat in ogee-arched frame (same cartoon as M4, window 4), 'Et accedens te[n]tator dixit ei: si filius dei (es) dic ut (lap)ides isti pan(es fiant)', (Matthew iv, 3); M4 stands on a pavement inscribed with the initials P. O. S. R (or K). M. N. (Plates 163, 164). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window but with a York rose en soleil, the initials H.E. twice and H.R.

Window 8 (Plate 175)—(a) Elisha restores the Shunammite's son, Elisha on the right bends over the child, watched by the mother and two other figures, all before a gabled house with landscape beyond; (b) Raising of Lazarus, with Christ amongst a group of figures facing Lazarus in the lower right, against an architectural background with a wooded hill beyond; (c) Triumph of David, on the left David with the head of Goliath on his sword welcomed by a crowd including women with musical instruments, against an architectural background with small hilly landscape beyond; (d) Entry into Jerusalem, Christ riding on an ass on the right attended by people with palm-branches, at the top a man in a tree cutting down branches to strew on the way. M1, seated white-bearded man with hat under canopy (same cartoon as MI, window 6), 'Assum[e]ns a[u]t[e]m David caput philistiaei attulit illud in Jerusalem', (I Kings xvii, 54); M2, demi-angel in arched frame (same cartoon as M2, window 6), 'Tolle filium tuum venit illa et corruit ad pedes eius et adoravit super terram tulit [que] filium suum et egressa est. Regum', (IV Kings iv, 36–7); M3, angel with chasuble and stole in arched frame (same cartoon as M3, window 6), 'Ecce rex tuus venit ma[n]suet[us] sede[n]s sup[er] asina[m], (John xii, 15); M4, demi-figure of bearded man with large hat in architectural setting (same cartoon as M4, window 6), 'Lazare veni foras et prodiit qui fuerat mortu[us]. Jo[ann]is II', (John xi, 43–4). Tracerylights: generally similar to those in window 1 but with a York rose en soleil, the initials H.E. and H.K. (reversed), and one with a green tree flanked by H. and E.

Window 9—(a) Manna rained from Heaven, crowded scene of people collecting the wafer-like discs of falling manna, Aaron with his rod and Moses with the Tables of the Law inscribed O. X. V. on the left, landscape with trees beyond, in the right foreground a woman with collar inscribed 'ymi fr.bh.ino eso'; (b) The Last Supper, Christ on the left and the Disciples seated round a table in an architectural setting, Christ with St. John below His right arm, head and hands only visible, gives a sop to a red-haired Judas on the right; (c) Fall of the rebel angels, God the Father enthroned in the top left, angels praising Him on the right, St. Michael at His feet (Plate 166) thrusting down the rebel angels who are transformed into demons as they descend into the flames, one with armband inscribed 'Vee' (Revelations xii, 7); (d) Agony in the Garden, Christ on the right kneeling before a rock on which stands a chalice, an angel above and the Apostles asleep in the foreground. M1, seated white-bearded man with hat under canopy (same cartoon as M1, window 6), 'Si ceciderint in terra(m) a semetipsis non resur(gent). Buruch 6', (Baruch (Epistle of Jeremiah) vi, 26); M2, demi-angel in architectural setting (same cartoon as M2, window 6), 'Pane[m] de celo p(ra)estiti eis. Sapiencie 16', (Wisdom xvi, 20); M3, standing bearded man with hat and purse under canopy, 'desiderio desideravi hoc pascha comedere vobiscu[m] anteq[uam] patiar. luce 22', (Luke xxii, 15); M4, demi-angel, 'Pater si vis transfer. luce 22', (Luke xxii, 42). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those of window I but with the initials H.R. twice and H.E. and a York rose en soleil.

Window 10—(a) Cain killing Abel, in the left foreground Cain with a jawbone, Abel kneeling on the right with collar inscribed '(m)e eva me eva me eva', behind, their sacrifices, the fire from Abel's altar rising to God at the top, from Cain's descending; (b) Betrayal, Christ kissed by Judas, soldiers on the right and behind and, in the foreground, Simon Peter with a sword attacking Malchus on whose sleeve is written 'Nalc..n cawavic', the shoulder-band of a soldier is inscribed in capitals 'Ariseemavedigm mosesab'; (c) Shimei cursing David, Shimei on the left and David on the right in a group of figures with soldiers behind, in the distance a landscape with a castle and figures; (d) Christ mocked, in the foreground the seated Christ blindfolded and mocked by Jews to right and behind, all in an architectural setting with Annas and others looking down from a gallery. M1, angel under canopy, 'Egredere egredere vir sanguinu[m] et (vir) belial. 2 reg[um] 16', (II Kings xvi, 7); M2, demi-figure of bearded man with hat in arched frame (same cartoon as M4, window 6), 'Co[n]surrexit caina adversus fre[trem]. genesi 40', (Genesis iv, 8); M3, standing white-bearded man with hat and cloak in architectural setting, 'Dixit ave rabbi et osculatus est eum', (Matthew xxvi, 49); M4, angel in scroll-work setting, 'Velaverunt eum et percutiebant faciem eius. Lu', (Luke xxii, 64). Tracery-lights generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H.R. twice.

Window II—(a) Jeremiah imprisoned, he is being thrust by the princes into the house of Jonathan the scribe, represented by a tower on the left, all against an architectural background; (b) Christ before Annas, Christ on the left chained and escorted by soldiers before the high priest enthroned, the base of the throne inscribed 'Sic respo[n]des po[n]tifice[m]', a pedimented arch in the background, a greyhound in the foreground (Plate 181); (c) Noah drunken and mocked by Ham, in the upper part Noah on the right and Ham stand before a vine, in the foreground Shem or Japheth turning away covers his father's nakedness; (d) Christ before Herod (Plate 168), Christ on the right surrounded by soldiers, Herod on the left with chain and sceptre seated beneath a pedimental canopy. M1, angel with chasuble and stole under canopy (same cartoon as M3, window 6), 'Bibens(que) noe vin[um] in ebriatus est et nudatus. Genesis', (Genesis ix, 21); M2, demi-figure of man with hat and cloak in arched frame, 'Irati pri[n]c(i)pes co[n]tra iheremia[m] cesu[m] eu[m] miseru[n]t in iarcerem. Ihe 37', (Jeremiah xxxvii, 14); M3, nimbed angel in landscape setting (same cartoon as M1, window 4), 'Ioannes. ca.xviii. Si malo locutus sum testimo(nium pe)rhibe (de) malo', (John xviii, 23); M4, standing white-bearded man in high boots (same cartoon as M2, window 4), 'Ve qui dicunt malum bonu[m] et bonu[m] malum. Ysaie v', (Isaiah v, 20). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H. R. twice and a white rose of York en soleil.

Window 12—(a) Job tormented, on the left Job sits naked among the ashes scourged by devils and mocked by his wife standing on the right, another devil in the air above and a tower and landscape beyond; (b) Christ Scourged, Christ bound to a pillar on the right, a man with a flail on the left, the pillar supporting an entablature surmounted by a feature of two mounted figures; (c) Solomon crowned, on the left the daughters of Zion stand before Solomon, with a sceptre, seated on the right and with the crown held above his head; (d) Christ crowned with thorns, Christ on the left, mocking soldiers on the right, all in an architectural setting with Pilate above appealing to the people. M1, angel under canopy, 'Prodi(t)e et videte fil(i)æ Sion regem Salomo[ne]m. cant.', (Song of Solomon iii, 11); M2, standing white-bearded man with hat in architectural setting, 'D[omi]n[u]s dedit d[omi]n[u]s ostulit Sit nomen d[omi]ni benedictu[m]', (Job i, 21); M3, standing man with head-dress and purse under canopy, 'Tunc ergo apprehe[n]dit Pilatus Jesu[m] et flagellavit (eum). S. Joane[m] c 19', (John xix, 1); M4, demi-angel, damaged, 'Et milites plecte[n]tes corona[m] de spinis imposueru[n]t capit[i] ei[us]', (John xix, 2). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window 1 but with a York rose en soleil and the initials H.E. twice.

Window 13, the E. window—(lower left) 'Ecce Homo', Christ in the centre shown to the people by Pilate and flanked by soldiers, in architectural setting, quarry in the middle light with scratching 'Edward Haylock'; (lower centre) Pilate washing his hands seated upper centre in magnificent architectural setting (Plate 171), Christ before him with back to the spectator, flanked by soldiers, quarries in the middle light with scratchings 'Edwrd. Haylock 1752' and 'Thos. Barker Glazier 1760'; (lower right) Christ bearing the Cross, surrounded by people and Veronica kneeling on left offering Him the kerchief, against architectural background; (upper left) Christ nailed to the Cross laid on the ground diagonally across the lights, in foreground a carpenter with basket of tools (Plate 169), in the background soldiers and horsemen; in head of centre light re-used quarry with initials H.R.; (upper centre) Crucifixion, Christ between the two thieves, on the right the Virgin and St. John, in the centre Mary Magdalene embracing the Cross, with Longinus on the left, mounted, piercing His side with a lance (Plate 170), in the foreground soldiers casting lots, in the right background a centurion with scroll inscribed 'Vere filius dei erat isste', (Matthew xxvii, 54); (upper right) Deposition (Plate 172), two men on ladders leaning against the Cross lower the Body of Christ to the holy women below. In the tracery-lights—upper row, from the N., (a), (g) fleur-de-lys, (b), (j) H.R., (c), (d), (e) Lancastrian rose, (f), (i) portcullis, (h) Tudor rose, all crowned; lower row over main centre light, banner of Royal arms held by a red dragon passant on a green mount; to N., over main third and fourth lights, a Tudor rose between H and K with, below, a crowned portcullis and a crowned Tudor rose; similarly on S. over lights six and seven, a red rose between H and E, with a crowned portcullis and a crowned Tudor rose below; over second and eighth main lights, a slipped red rose and a slipped Tudor rose, both crowned; over the end lights, a crowned red rose and a gold ostrich feather with 'Ich dien' scroll.

Window 14—(upper half) Brazen Serpent after a design by Rubens, being a type of the Crucifixion, with the serpent and Moses and Aaron on the left and the children of Israel on the right, designed and made by J. P. Hedgeland, 1845, at a cost of £473 including fixing; (b) Naomi and her daughters-in-law lamenting over Elimelech, in the foreground his body and three women beside it, on the left a thatched house, a landscape beyond with hill and castle, and, in the middle distance, small figures of Naomi, Ruth and Orpah; (d) The Virgin with the body of Christ, His body in the foreground supported by the Virgin attended by two other holy women and two men, a soldier on the left and two ladders propped against the Cross, landscape background with river and buildings. M3, angel under canopy, 'Q(ui)n et tuam ipsius (an)i[m]am penetrabit gladius. Luce 2 capitu(lo)', (Luke ii, 35); M4, demi-figure of white-bearded man with hat in architectural setting, 'Ne vocetis me noemi. ruth primo capitulo', (Ruth i, 20). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H.E.

Window 15—(a) Joseph about to be cast into the pit, he on the right and his brothers beside the pit in the foreground, with landscape beyond and small figures of two brothers with Joseph's coat in the middle distance; (b) Entombment, in the foreground the Body of Christ being lowered into the tomb by two men and watched by two holy women and a third man, the Crown of Thorns on the ground in front, with landscape beyond; (c) Exodus, a crowd of men and women, Israelites, in the foreground, in the middle distance Moses lifting up his rod over the Red Sea (Plate 177) and, beyond, the host of Pharaoh engulfed; (d) Harrowing of Hell (Plate 165), Christ on the left in cloak and carrying a staff with cross-head and pennon charged with a red cross tramples the devil and the broken gates of hell, while Adam and Eve and the Fathers emerge from the portal and, above, demons issue from the gate-towers and turrets (from the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus). M1, seated bearded man with hat under canopy (same cartoon as M1, window 6), 'mittam[us] eum in cisterna[m] veterem q[uae] est (in) solitudine. (G)enies. 37', (Genesis xxxvii, 22); M2, demi-figure of man with hat and cloak in arched frame (same cartoon as M2, window 11), 'Eduxit ysrahel de egipto p[er] turmas suas. Exod[u]s 120', (Exodus xii, 51); M3, angel with cloak in architectural setting (same cartoon as M1, window 10), 'advenisti desideratu(s) salvator mu[n]d[i]. Augustin(us)', (spurious sermon of Augustine in the Legenda Aurea); M4, demi-angel wearing breastplate (same cartoon as M4, window 9), 'posuit illud in monume[n]to suo novo. Mathe. 270', (Matthew xxvii, 60). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window I but with four small Lancastrian roses in one light, perhaps 19th-century, and the initials H.E. in another.

Window 16 (Plate 176)—(a) Jonah cast forth from the whale, Jonah in tunic and cloak, the whale on the right, a ship beyond and Nineveh (Plate 177) in the distance; (b) Resurrection, Christ in a red cloak, holding a cross-headed staff with pennon, stands on the lid of the empty tomb, surrounded by seated soldiers, a landscape behind; (c) Return of Tobias to his mother, Tobias with his dog (Plate 181), and Raphael as Azarias in the left middle distance, Anna on the right, a landscape above, with Tobias' wife and mounted suite; (d) Christ appearing to His mother, Christ on the left, cloaked and holding a staff as in (b) with pennon charged with a red cross, before the kneeling figure of the Virgin on the right, in an architectural setting, (an incident assumed by St. Ambrose and discussed in the Legenda Aurea). M1, standing man with head-dress in architectural setting (same cartoon as M3, window 12), 'Et jlico cognovit venientem filium suum. Thobiei ca.II', (Tobit xi, 6); M2, demi-angel in arched frame, 'Evomuit Jonam in arida[m]. Jone 20', (Jonah ii, 11); M3, angel with cloak under canopy (same cartoon as M3, window 5), 'Revolvit lapidem et sedebat super eu[m]. Matt. 28', (Matthew xxviii, 2); M4, standing man with head-dress and cloak in architectural setting (same cartoon as M4, window 5), 'Salve s[an]c[t]a parens enixa est puarpera reges qui celu[m] taranque' (for 'terramque') 'regit', (from a hymn to the Virgin). Tracery-lights—generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H. R. twice.

Window 17—(a) Reuben, seeking Joseph, finds the pit empty, Reuben on the right looking into the pit, a rocky landscape beyond with a flock of sheep and shepherds, one playing bagpipes; (b) The Three Marys find the sepulchre empty, they stand round the tomb, two with pots of ointment, in a landscape setting with a river and buildings in the distance; (c) Darius finding Daniel alive in the lions' den, Darius, holding a sceptre, on the right, Daniel on the left surrounded by lions, beyond in a landscape four small figures of men, one with a spear; (d) Christ appearing to St. Mary Magdalene, the Magdalene kneels on the right before Christ on the left who holds a spade, on the ground in front stands a gold box of ointment, all in a garden with paling dividing it from the landscape beyond, in the middle distance the Magdalene looking into the sepulchre. M1, seated white-bearded man with hat and cloak in architectural setting (same cartoon as M3, window 10), ' (V)enit aut[em] rex die septimo (et clamavit voce) ingenti daniele. Dany', (Daniel xiv, (Bel and the Dragon), 39, 40); M2, angel in mutilated setting (same cartoon as M4, window 10), '(Reversus) q[ue] ruben ad cisterna[m] no[n] invenit pueru[m]. Ge. 37', (Genesis xxxvii, 29); M3, angel with cloak under canopy (same cartoon as M1, window 10), 'Et (val)de mane primo die hebd[omadi]s veniunt ad monument(um) exorto sole. Mar. 16', (Mark xvi, 2); M4, demi-figure of man with hat and cloak in arched frame (same cartoon as M2, window II), 'Haec cum dixit conversa est retrorsum et vidit Jesum stantem. Ioh. xx, 14', (John xx, 14). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H.E. and H.R. and H.R. in monogram.

Window 18—(a) Raphael agreeing to accompany Tobias on his journey, the archangel on the right disguised as a young man, but with large green and red wings, Tobias, cap in hand, on the left, all against an architectural background, (Tobit v, 5); (b) Road to Emmaus, Christ on the left dressed as a wayfarer in gown and holding a staff, the two disciples on the right, against a landscape background with a town in the distance, (Luke xxiv, 15); (c) Habakkuk caught up by an angel and carried to feed Daniel in the lions' den, the prophet in the top left carrying a basket and held by an angel, Daniel in the lower right kneeling facing the lions on the left, wooded crags in the background, (Daniel, Bel and the Dragon, 32–8); (d) Supper at Emmaus, Christ on the left seated beside a table breaking bread, with the two disciples, all in an architectural setting with a pendant on the left inscribed in Roman capitals 'IHSTTI', and two putti on the entablature, (Luke xxiv, 30). The 'Messengers" inscriptions appear to have no reference to the flanking subjects: M1, seated angel with cloak in landscape setting (same cartoon as M1, window 4), 'Et (dimiserunt eos) illi q[ui]de[m] iba[n]t gauden(tes) a (conspectu concilii). Act. 5', (Acts v, 40–1); M2, standing bearded man with hat and cloak (same cartoon as M2, window 14), '(Petrus autem dixit) Argentu[m] et aur[um] no[n] est m[ihi] q[uo]d a[u]t[em] habeo hoc tibi do. Act. 3', (Acts iii, 6); M3, angel in long cloak in architectural setting (same cartoon as M3, window 4), 'Qu(omodo utique convenit) vob[is] tentare sp[iritu]m d[omi]ni. Act. v', (Acts v, 9); M4, standing bearded man with head-dress and cloak in architectural setting (same cartoon as M4, window 4), 'Viri judei et q[ui] habitat[is] (ierus)alem univ(er)si (hoc vobis notum sit). Act. 2', (Acts ii, 14). Tracery-lights generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H.R.; the Garter round the Royal Arms is damaged.

Window 19—(a) Return of the prodigal, to the left the son kneeling and embraced by his father, to the right the elder son with a dog (Plate 181) at his feet, against an architectural background (Plate 178) with a scene of killing the fatted calf; (b) Incredulity of St. Thomas, Christ on the right, with cross-headed staff and pennon, guiding the hand of St. Thomas on the left to the wound, Apostles beyond, all in an architectural setting; (c) Jacob and Joseph meeting in Goshen, the two principal figures on the left, crowded figures on the right, against an architectural background; (d) Christ appearing to the Apostles, without Thomas, Christ with staff and pennon as before, standing on the right facing the Apostles, in an architectural setting, the door closed and windows shuttered. The order of the subjects should be (c), (d), (a), (b). M1, seated angel with nimbus in architectural setting, 'Pat[e]r peccavi in celu[m] et cora[m] te et . . ., Luce ca0.', (Luke xv, 18); M2, standing bearded man with head-dress and coat in architectural setting, 'Dixit Jacop ad Joseph iam letus moriar quia vidi facia[m] tuum. Ge. 46 ca0.' (Genesis xlvi, 30); M3, standing bearded man with head-dress, cloak and huntingsword, 'Pax vobis(cum) deinde dixit thome infer digitu[m] tu[um] huc et vide man[us] meas: johu[n] 20 ca0,', (John xx, 26–7); M4, angel in architectural setting, 'Pax vobis (cum) et [c]u[m] hec dixisset ostend(it) eis man[us] et la(tus). Johu[n] 20 ca0.', (John xx, 19–20). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H.R., H.K. twice, H.E., and a York rose en soleil.

Window 20 (Plate 174)—(a) Elijah taken up to heaven, in the head Elijah in a chariot of fire drawn by two horses and throwing down his mantle to Elisha standing below in the left foreground; (b) Ascension, the Apostles gazing upwards, in the head of the left light the feet and skirt of Christ disappearing into a cloud, a hilly landscape beyond with rocks and trees; (c) Moses receiving the Tables of the Law on Sinai, the Almighty in the upper right handing the tables to Moses in the left attended by an angel, people in the foreground below the mount, the tables inscribed 'IHS R IHR PI UBI E NA P LT. N W A'; (d) Descent of the Holy Ghost at Pentecost, the Virgin seated in the midst of the Apostles, with tongues of flame descending upon them from a nimbed dove surrounded by flames, pendants to left and right with illegible inscriptions. M1, angel with breastplate in architectural setting (same cartoon as M3, window 14), 'Videns aute[m] popu(lus) q[uod] mora[m] facer(et) moses. Exode. 320 Cap[i]t0', (Exodus xxxii, 1); M2, demi-figure of bearded man with head-dress in arched frame (same cartoon as M4, window 14), with band on right arm inscribed '7 Hen.', 'Spirit[us] d[omi]ni replevit orbem terraru[m]. Sa.', (Wisdom i, 7); M3, seated bearded man with head-dress in architectural setting, 'Cu[m]q[ue] transisse[n]t helias (dixit) ad heliseu[m]. 40 regu[m] 20 ca.0', (IV Kings ii, 9); M4, angel in trefoiled frame, 'Qui(s) est iste qui venit de edom tinctis vestib(us). (E)saie 63 ca.0', (Isaiah lxiii, 1). Tracerylights: generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H.E. and also two York roses en soleil.

Window 21—(a) St. Peter and St. John heal the lame man at the gate of the Temple called Beautiful, the Apostles on the right, the man seated on steps to the left, all in an architectural setting; (b) St. Peter and the other Apostles going to the Temple, six figures in the foreground, against an architectural background with St. Peter preaching seen through an archway, with one of the congregation asleep, statue of Moses in niche above; (d) Death of Ananias, his body in the foreground at the foot of a flight of steps, the Apostles at the top standing before an archway on the right and a landscape on the left, in the middle distance the body being borne away for burial; the design derives from Raphael's cartoon of the same subject; (c) Apostles arrested in the Temple, a group of them accompanied by soldiers lead from left to right in an architectural setting with, in the middle distance, small figures of Apostles being scourged. M1, figure of St. Luke in cap and gown with bull at feet, in architectural setting, 'Et dimiseru[n]t eos illi quide[m] ibant gaude[n]tes a co[n]spectu [con]cilii. Actuu[m] 50 ca0.', (Acts v, 40–1); M2. angel with cloak (same cartoon as M4, window 20), 'Advenientes aute[m] principes sacerdotu[m] (et) qui cu[m] eo erant co[n]vocaverunt concili(um). Actu[m] 50 Ca0.', (Acts v, 21); M3, St. Luke (same cartoon as M1, window 21), 'Viri iudei et qui habitatis hir[usa]l[e]m universi hoc vobis notu[m] sit. Actu 20 ca0.', (Acts ii, 14); M4, angel, much mutilated, 'Petrus autem (dixit) argentu[m] et auru[m] non est mihi q[uo]d (au)te[m] habeo (hoc tibi do. Act.) 30 ca0.', (Acts iii, 6). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H.E. twice; two of the green trees in the lower lights are perhaps modern.

Window 22 (Plate 180)—(a) Conversion of St. Paul, in left foreground Paul in armour, prostrate, his attendants and horse beside him, a landscape beyond with small figures and buildings, in the heads of the lights the half-length figure of Christ with angels; (c) Paul at Damascus, he stands to the right talking with the Disciples, against an architectural background with him being lowered in a basket from a distant tower; (b) Paul and Barnabas at Lystra, they stand in the middle distance on the left, priests with an ox and a goat for sacrifice to the right, kneeling figure in front, with buildings in the landscape beyond; the design is reminiscent of Raphael's cartoon of the same subject; (d) Paul stoned at Lystra, he stands in the foreground being stoned by Jews and a soldier, against an architectural background with glimpse of landscape beyond. M1, St. Luke (same cartoon as M1, window 21), 'Et subito circu[m] fulsit eu[m] lux de celo et cadens in terra[m] audivit voce[m] dice[n]te[m] Saule qua[re] me p(erseque)ris', (Acts ix, 3, 4); M2, angel in arched frame (same cartoon as M3, window 6), 'Fuit a(utem) saul[us] cu[m] discipulis qui erant (damasci dies aliquot)', (Acts ix, 19); M3, St. Luke (same cartoon as M1, window 21), 'Sup[erve]neru[n]t autem quida[m] ab anti[o]chia et iconio iudei qui cu[m] p[er]suasisse[n]t turbis ac paulu[m]. Act 14', (Acts xiv, 18); M4, angel (same cartoon as M4, window 21), 'Sac(erd)os aut[em] (iovis) qui erat (ante) civitatem illoru[m] tauros te (co)ron(a)s (a)d vestibul(os) Act. 14', (Acts xiv, 12). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H.E. thrice and H.K.; the green trees in the lower lights are modern.

Window 23—(b) Paul's arrival at Samothrace (or his departure from Troas), he stands in the left foreground before a group of kneeling men and women, in the background a large ship anchored out in harbour with a small boat being rowed to it (Plate 178); (a) Paul casting the spirit of divination out of the damsel at Philippi, in the left foreground the girl kneeling before him, a crowd of people behind, her masters in the middle distance dragging Paul to the market-place, group of buildings beyond; (c) Paul before Lysias at Jerusalem, he stands on the right held by a soldier facing the chief captain on the left seated on a throne in an architectural setting; (d) Paul before Nero, St. Paul on the left accompanied by a second figure, Nero on the right, wearing the imperial crown, surrounded by soldiers in an architectural setting. M1, standing man with head-dress and high boots under canopy (same cartoon as M2, window 4), 'Et app(re)henden[tes] pau(lum) (t)r(a)heba[n]t eu[m] ex[tra] te[m]plu[m]. Act. 21', (Acts xxi, 30); M2, angel in arched setting (same cartoon as M3, window 4), 'Precipio t[ibi] in (nomine) jesu X exire (ab) ea. Act 16', (Acts xvi, 18); M3, angel in architectural setting (same cartoon as M1, window 4), '[N]avigan(tes) a[utem] a Troade r[ect]o cursu ve(n)i[mus] samothrac[iam]. Act 16', (Acts xvi, 11); M4, standing bearded man with head-dress in architectural setting (same cartoon as M4, window 4), 'P[er]missu[m] est paulo p[er]mane[re] s(ibi)met cu[m] custod[iente] se milite. Act [28]', (Acts xxviii, 16). Tracerylights: generally similar to those in window I but with the initials H.K. twice, one patched; one of the green trees in the lower lights is modern.

Window 24—(a) Death of Tobit, he lies in a four-poster bed with embroidered canopy attended by his wife, his daughter-in-law and Tobias with the angel Raphael; (b) Death of the Virgin, she lies on a bed to the middle right, St. John on the right places a candle in her hand, grouped round are other Apostles, St. Peter, another with a book, another with a cross; (c) Burial of Jacob, the bier on the right followed by his sons in mourning cloaks and hoods; (d) Funeral of the Virgin, the coffin in the middle distance carried by Apostles, one with a palm branch, another with a cross, two severed hands clinging to the pall (see the Legenda Aurea); the lower lights (b) and (d) are much damaged and patched. M1, angel under mutilated canopy (same cartoon as M1, window I), 'I(n ho)ra mort(is) vo(cav)it filiu[m] s(uum) (sep)te[m] (fili)os. Thob.' (Tobit xiv, 5); M2, standing bearded man with head-dress, much mutilated (same cartoon as M2, window I), ' '(I)osep (cum) (fra)tribus sepelivit iacop. Gene(sis)', (Genesis l, 14); M3, angel under canopy (same cartoon as M3, window I), 'In hora mortis vocavit fylyu[m] cu[m] (a)lys' ('co alys' repetition in later patching) (Tobit xiv, 5); M4, standing bearded man with head-dress, mutilated (same cartoon as M4, window I), 'Josep (cum fra)trib[us] sepelevit jacop', (Genesis l, 14). Tracery-lights (Plate 54); again similar to those in window I.

Window 25—(a) Translation of Enoch, as an old man in a cope he is being carried by angels to God the Father in the upper left, a mutilated landscape beyond, edge of cope inscribed 'Elo.. ..olu..', (Genesis v, 24); (b) Assumption of the Virgin, the Virgin surrounded by angels, some with musical instruments, a landscape below, with canopies in the heads of the lights, (legendary); the face of the Virgin has been destroyed; (c) Solomon and Bathsheba, the young prince, wearing a hat and holding a sceptre, enthroned on the right, his mother seated beside him on his right, with attendants, two children and a dog sitting on the steps of the throne, high up in first light, inscription 'Inco sa', (III Kings ii, 19); (d) Coronation of the Virgin, she kneels full-face in the centre, God the Son on the left crowning her, God the Father on the right blessing her, the Holy Spirit above as a dove in a golden aureole, all under a canopy with curtains held back by angels, in the foreground angels with musical instruments, remains of canopies in the heads of the lights, (legendary); the face of the Father has been damaged, that of the Son destroyed. M1, seated bearded man holding rectangular inscription-panel in arched frame (same cartoon as M3, window 20), inscription erased (it was similar to that of M2 in window 15); M2, angel in arched setting, mutilated (same cartoon as M4, window 20), inscription erased; M3, angel under canopy (same cartoon as M3, window 14), inscription inserted in 1898 by C. E. Kempe 'Assumpta est virgo maria in celu[m], gaudent angeli, letantur archangeli' (Roman Breviary); M4, demi-figure of man with hat in arched frame (same cartoon as M4, window 14), inscription inserted in 1898 'Veni sponsa de libano, veni coronaberis', (Song of Solomon iv, 8). Tracery-lights: generally similar to those in window I.

Window 26, the W. window—Last Judgement, Christ with Apostles and Saints above, Michael and two other angels in the centre below, with the Blessed on the left and the Damned on the right; inserted in 1879 at the expense of F. E. Stacey, formerly Fellow of the College, and made by Clayton and Bell. Tracery-lights: shields-of-arms, badges, initials, all of 1879.

Excepting the tracery-lights in the N. and S. windows which may have been made before 1515, the great windows are of the two periods 1515–17 and 1526–31. By inference from the 1526 contracts four are of the early period; of these only 6(b) is dated 1517, and on stylistic grounds the rest of the window may be the same; window 2 is early and so perhaps are 9 (except (b) and the lower messengers) and 10. The remainder, including the tracery of the E. window and excluding the W. window and the upper half of window 14, are of the later period, excepting perhaps some of the messengers. These last number ninety-four in all drawn from only forty-three cartoons, with repetition in both the early and late windows (see Sir George Scharf in Arch. Journ. (1855) xii, 356, (1856) xiii, 44, and K. Harrison, The Windows of King's College Chapel (1952), 48).

To the present time, accounts show a steady cost of maintenance, with greater or lesser repairs beginning in 1570–1; in 1591–2 and again in 1616–17 the glass of window I was taken out and repaired. Between 1657 and 1659 extensive releading and renewal of saddle-bars were undertaken. It seems that little or no malicious damage was done to the glass during the Civil War. In 1711–12 and 1720–1 £333 was spent on repairs; in 1725 an extensive scheme of reparation was begun and continued for five years, for which Belcher, the successor to Burgess, was paid £523. A further scheme involving all the windows was begun in 1757 and lasted until 1765 at a cost of nearly £1,600, largely on the stonework of the reveals and mullions, but including releading, new ironwork and patching with coloured glass bought for the purpose. J. P. Hedgeland began his work of cleaning, repair and renewal in 1842 apparently on the original half of window 14 and by 1849 windows 8–12 and 15–19 were finished at a cost of £200 each; protests at this 'work of destruction' (The Guardian 7, 21 Nov. 1849) then brought the work to an end. Between 1893 and 1906 the remaining fourteen great windows were restored by C. E. Kempe under the direction of Dr. M. R. James.

During the 1939–45 war all the above glass, except of the tracery, was removed for safety. The opportunity was then taken to clean, repair, relead and photograph it. Replacement was completed by 1951.


King's College Chapel, Diagram of Windows

King's College Chapel, Diagram of Windows

Glass in chapels. In chapel A in window 27, in main lights from N. to S., fragments including (1) the head of a saint, part of the arms of Trumpington, two heads of bishops, one with crozier, part of a seraph; (2) the head of St. John the Evangelist, a roundel with the eagle of St. John, three York roses, fragmentary black-letter inscriptions; (3) the head of a martyr, fragmentary black-letter inscriptions; (4) the head of a bearded man, the legs of St. Christopher; in tracery, some grisaille quarries in situ; 13th-16th century, mostly from 18th-century patching removed from the great windows and chapel windows, leaded by Constable in 1857 and reset by Humphry in the present century. In window 28, in main lights from E. to W., fragments including (1) scrolls with black-letter inscriptions of parts of the Creed, the Old and the New Testaments, the name 'Peter' and '[Beve]rlac doctor' (St. John of Beverley?); (2) the nimbed head of a queen, a crowned Lombardic T, part of St. John with the Lamb, a Flemish roundel of St. John the Divine, and grisaille quarries; (3) a dragon's head, a merchant's mark in a shield; (4) pieces painted with silver stain; (5) a book, a quarry with the initial P; (6) a Dutch oval panel of the Mocking of Christ; (7) the head of a saint, part of a griffin and another heraldic beast, part of the arms argent three cinquefoils sable, an oval with the figure of the Baptist; (8) ruby roundel with green centre; in tracery, grisaille quarries and a portcullis; 14th–16th century, lights (1) and (4) remnants of the glass earlier in chapels A, B and C, which with the glass in windows 30 and 46 suggest that at least ten Apostles and eight Prophets were represented, lights (2) and (3) mostly from patchings from the great windows, as just described, light (5), fragments above the casement, said to have been dug up when the Cavendish Laboratory was built and thus supposedly from the Augustinian Priory, in the casement, quarries given in 1924 by the daughter of W. J. Bolton and originally in the Chapel.

In chapel B—in window 29, in main lights, fragments including (2) a Swiss panel with part of a man in armour and of the arms gules a bend between two lions crowned; (3) part of the arms of Cornwall and of a goat supporter; (5) a leopard's head in a roundel, eagle and bird quarries, a nimbed head and an angel, two monograms M, three quarries with bucks (for Rotherham) in different postures, a nimbed priest's head; (7) a leopard's head, part of a man's face, three quarries with bucks, an oval panel of the Vision of St. John the Divine with the Almighty issuing from clouds; some original grisaille quarries in situ in tracery; 14th–17th century; the ten heraldic badges and shields and the figures in the tracery of c. 1850 and 1928, except the small head of Christ perhaps 14th-century; the buck quarries, originally in the old E. range of the Schools and removed in 1748, were obtained by exchange from Greenford church, Middlesex.

In chapel C—in window 30, in main lights, (3) fragments of the head of Hosea, and his scroll inscribed in blackletter 'O mors ero mors tua spiritu' in part reversed (see also windows 28 and 46); (6) and (7) hanging from saddle-bars, two roundels, of the martydom of Stephen and the conversion of Saul, 18th–century, Continental.

In chapel D—in window 31, quarries with scratchings 'Thos. Stevens, Glazier. 1761' and 'James Mills, Glazier and Plumber, cleaned these windows . . . John Leach Feb. 1806'.

In chapel E—in window 32, quarry with scratching 'John Hennebert (?) Plumber and Glazier, 1767'.

In chapel G—in window 34, in tracery, shield-of-arms (Plate 54) with the initials M.S., for Matthew Stokes, Esquire Bedell 1557–85, died 1591, with the bedell's staff threaded behind the bend and held by a hand superimposed on the shield, late 16th-century.

In chapel H—in window 36, in main lights, (1) a shield of the Royal arms after 1405 in a border argent, 'Jhu' rayed in a green roundel; (2) quarries of Tudor badges including crowned fleur-de-lys, portcullis, crowned R, roundel with fleur-de-lys, crowned shield of Tudor Royal arms, again in a Garter, again on a strapwork cartouche, crowned Yorkist rose, Royal arms with a label surmounted by a coronet, crowned fleur-delys with H.A. below (from Sir Thomas Neve's collection at Dagenham), crown in a hawthorn-bush with initials R.H., part of the badge of Jane Seymour, crowned pomegranate; (3) quarry with looped initials E.R., rose-sprig, portcullis, crowned pomegranate, sheaf of arrows for Catherine of Aragon, Tudor rose, the full badge of Jane Seymour, a sunburst, a sprig of broom, a York rose en soleil; (4) enamelled shield-of-arms of the College impaling Roger Goade (Provost 1569–1610) within a framing of lilies and roses, with a scroll dated 1610 and a second scroll below with a quotation in Greek from Philippians i, 21, a lily, rose and two skulls, Tudor Royal arms in a Garter with crowned lion and dragon supporters and motto, quarry with crown in a hawthorn-bush and initials H.E.; (5) crowned Tudor rose, two quarries with windmills inscribed 'Kyngs' and 'As god will 1557'; (6) quartered arms of Anne of Cleves: Cleves, Julick, Schwarzenberg, Berg, Marck, (unidentified 13), Ravensberg (bought 1950), made-up roundel of demi-woman with royal crown issuing from Tudor rose in Renaissance scroll-work-framing (from Eastwell, Kent); (7) crowned Lancastrian rose, three feathers issuing from a coronet in a crowned wreath (all from Eastwell); (8) arms of Catherine Howard showing the marriage augmentations, restored, (bought 1950), female figure issuing from Tudor rose in made-up surround, (from Eastwell); other than those dated, 15th–16th century, many of the Tudor quarries given in 1924.

In chapel I—in window 38, in main lights, (1) crowned Lancastrian rose, arms of Eton c. 1850; (2) crowned Tudor Royal arms, crowned fleur-de-lys, both in blue scroll-surrounds; (3) crowned Tudor rose, arms of the College; (4) fleur-de-lys, Tudor Royalarms, both crowned, c. 1850; (5) fleur-de-lys c. 1850, quarry with erased boar's head erect (for Benjamin Whichcote, Provost 1644–60) signed and dated John Clarke, 1650, given in 1924 by Miss Bolton; (6–8) heraldry, all c. 1850; other than those dated, 16th-century, restored by Bolton, the six armorials in lights (1–3) removed in 1928 from the Provost's Lodge.

In chapel J—in window 40, in main lights, (1–3) and in tracery-lights over (2) and (3) large figure subject, the Holy Hunt (Plate 9), on the left Gabriel, the huntsman, with four leashed hounds, Misericordia, Veritas, Pax and Justitia in pursuit of the unicorn being received, on the right, by the Virgin seated in the Hortus Occlusus and surrounded by her other types and symbols, the Ark of the Lord, the well of living water, Gideon's fleece etc., in the walls of the Garden are the Porta Aurea and Porta Ezekielis, Flemish or Rhenish, early 16th-century, given in 1920, previously bought by Wilkins and in Lensfield House (see glass in Chapel of Corpus Christi College), the canopy-work and fragments from the same window are preserved in (4); (5) Tudor rose in remains of Renaissance border of demi-figures and leopards' heads (from the hall at Belhus, Essex), grisaille quarries; (6) seated figure of a king holding a sceptre, a quarry with a hawthorn-bush; (7) a king similar to that in (6), both mid 16th-century, a crown in a hawthorn-bush with the initials H.E., (8) figure of God the Father, 15th-century, from La Chénu church, N. of Tours, grisaille quarries; in tracery, a Lancastrian rose and grisaille quarries; quarries probably part of the original glazing, for the rest, other than those dated, 16th-century.

In chapel K—in window 41, the grisaille quarries in all the lights, except (2) and (3), and the tracery with the rose in the last, are probably remnants of the original glazing; in main lights, fragments including (1) two heads, of a saint and of a woman, 'IHS' on a quarry (from Horham Hall, Thaxted), three men's heads, a peacock on a quarry, small rectangular panels of a landscape, and a Virgin and Child, etc.; (2–3) large figure subject of two donors in armour and their wives kneeling before St. Christopher with the Child and a bishop giving a wafer to a boy (Plate 193), early 16th-century, Flemish (bought from St. Catharine's College, 1921), head of wife on right modern; (4) a fragment of a quarter of the leopards of England with a label; parts of two angels' heads, crown in a hawthorn-bush with initials H.E. on a quarry, parts of roundels of the labours of the months, a fox and a goose, etc.; (5) a bishop's gloved and jewelled hand, part of a dragon transfixed, part of the head of St. Christopher and the Child, an angel, a black-letter inscription from Proverbs xxxi, 16, a strapwork panel dated 1581, a falcon, two angels' heads, part of a peacock, etc., (6) a leopard's mask, the mutilated arms of Baterman, a pile of coins of Charles I dated 1634, two quarries with a crown in a hawthorn-bush and the initials H.E. and H.K., etc., (7) a leopard's mask, parts of a woman's head, a crown in a hawthorn-bush, and two diapered shields one azure a mullet argent, the other gules a mullet argent, a quarry with a portcullis, another with crowned and looped initials E.R., another with a four-barred gate and dated 1571 (the last three given since 1920); (8) fragments, including a man's face; 15th–17th century, lights (1) and (4–8) mostly patchings removed from the great windows.

In chapel P—in window 46, in each main light a large figure in silver-stain on white glass, all set in quarries painted with flowers, etc. and crowns on hawthorn-slips; (1) St. Peter; (2) St. Philip; (3) nimbed bishop with crozier and book; (4) Zephaniah, in a turban, with scroll inscribed 'Acceda[m] ad vos in iudicio et ero testis velox' (Malachi iii, 5); (5) King David in a turban, seated, with a harp and scroll inscribed 'Redemisti me d[omi]ne deus veritatis' (Psalms xxxi, 5); (6) a nimbed Doctor (?) in gown and bonnet with cord and holding a book; (7) a nimbed bishop, his crozier with a vexillum twisted round the entire length of the shaft (Plate 9); (8) St. James the Great, all late 15th-century, much restored by Constable in 1857 (see also windows 28 and 30 in chapels A and C). In window 47, in upper lights, three quarries with the initial R, another three with B; in lower lights, four quarries with the looped initials R.B. and a fifth inscribed 'Robert Brassie' with scrolls above and below (Robert Brassie, Provost 1556–8).

In chapel Q—in window 48, main lights almost entirely by Constable but incorporating two half-length figures of Henry VI (3) and St. John the Evangelist (6) of c. 1520 and some 16th-century border quarries. In tracery, in centre quatrefoil a roundel of I.H.S., a Lancastrian rose, a Tudor rose, the Tudor Royal arms, and the College arms, a red dragon and a greyhound in flanking daggers, all perhaps original and in situ. In E. group of lights, seated figures of the four Latin Doctors, St. Gregory in triple tiara, St. Jerome in cardinal's hat, St. Augustine as a bishop and holding a heart, St. Ambrose as a bishop, c. 1520, two censing angels, a monster, a winged hermaphrodite centaur with bow and arrow (Plate 193), c. 1520; in W. group, the Evangelists' symbols (Plate 193), c. 1520, with flanking angels as before. In window 49—in upper lights, (1) St. John the Baptist, (2) St. Anne with the Virgin, (3–4) the Annunciation (Plate 194), the Virgin and the angel Gabriel with scrolls inscribed in black-letter with the quotations from Luke i, 28 and 38, (5) St. Ursula with the sacred virgins, (6) St. Christopher with the Child, all in a setting of quarries painted with flowers; in lower lights, quarries with roses, daisies, clover, a lily, and three with the initials R.H. (for Henry VIII) and three with R.h. (presumably for Robert Hacomblen, Provost 1509–28); in tracery-quatrefoils, devices in silver-stain, I.H.S., the Crown of Thorns encircling the Pierced Heart, the Sun, Moon, the Sponge on a Cross, a rose, etc.; all probably c. 1520, the original glazing in situ and little damaged; one quarry with scratching 'John Barker 1744 Glazier and Plumber'.

In chapel R—in window 51, one quarry with the arms of Martin Freeman, Fellow, died 1630, and of that date.

These chapel windows generally have suffered considerable damage and been much restored in the 18th and 19th centuries. Between 1920 and 1930 the amount of painted glass in the exterior windows alone was increased from twenty lights in five chapels to fifty–seven in nine chapels, excluding the tracery-lights, and subsequently further increased. (See also Miscellanea.)

Hatchment: In chapel D—on W. wall, framed painting on canvas, achievement-of-arms on black ground, of Thackeray impaling Cotton, 1850.

Lectern (Plates 6, 10): In centre of Chapel, mid-way between screen and altar-steps—of bronze, with circular moulded stem and widely spreading moulded base on four rectangular feet supporting seated lions, gabled double revolving bookrest with continuous lower band of quatrefoils, embattled ridge surmounted by a cresting of Tudor roses and fleur-de-lys and the infilling of the gable-ends pierced with a round and three quatrefoils; the sloping plates are pierced and engraved, one with a traceried circle enclosing a Tudor rose and flanked by seated figures of the Evangelists with their symbols and with a scroll inscribed 'Robertus', the other with a similar circle enclosing the arms of the College and flanked by Tudor rose-branches and a scroll inscribed 'Hacumblen'; the stem is prolonged through and above the bookrest to a moulded pedestal surmounted by the full-length crowned figure of Henry VI (Frontispiece) holding orb and sceptre and with an antelope couched at his feet, early 16th-century (Robert Hacomblen, Provost 1509–28), with candle-sconces designed by Butterfield and wood base made by Rattee added in 1854. The lecturn was removed from the choir from 1774–1854.

Models: In chapel N—two, of pine, of Hawksmoor's proposed ranges for the E. and W. sides of the great court, the former of his first design, the latter his second (Plate 37). They can be dismantled to show the interior plan. In March 1712–13 John Adams, Provost, with Hawksmoor in Kensington saw a model and expressed a preference for pilasters to the portico, rather than free-standing columns. In September 1713 Adams sent for the two models he had 'ready made at Sir Christopher Wren's', and in the following January Hawksmoor sent him the bill for them.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In Side-chapel E—on E. wall, (1) of Sir Thomas Page, [1681], Provost, white marble oval tablet with laurel-leaf frame, cherub-head and achievement-of-arms of the College impaling Page, erected by Richard Page his nephew and heir in the 18th century. In chapel P—on E. wall, (2) of William Cooke, S.T.P., 1797, Provost, Dean of Ely, Headmaster of Eton, white marble tablet with pedimented cornice; on W. wall, (3) of Charles Roderick, S.T.P., 1712, Provost, Dean of Ely, Headmaster of Eton, white marble cartouche with draperies, fruit and flower festoons, cherub-head and smaller cartouche with the painted quarterly arms of the Deanery of Ely, Roderick, the College, and Bullock. In chapel Q—(4) of John Churchill, Marquess of Blandford, only son of John, 1st Duke of Marlborough, 1702–3 (Plates 15, 18), white and grey marble table-tomb on marble step, with moulded base and cornice, panelled sides and ends and gadrooned top surmounted by a flaming urn; Latin inscriptions in the side panels and carved cherub-heads on the ends supporting shields surmounted by coronets and with the painted arms, on the E., quarterly of six, Churchill with a label of three points, Wildyard or Widworthy, Winston, Tyll, Jennings, on the W., Churchill with a label; on E. wall, (5) of Robert Glynn Clobery, M.D., 1800, white marble tablet with broken pediment and urn; (6) of John Hungerford (died 1729), erected under the terms of his will, white marble tablet with enriched cornice and cresting, Latin inscriptions recording his and others' benefactions to the College, probably an early 19th-century renewal; (7) of George Alexander Seymour, 1838, [Scholar], white marble tablet; on W. wall, (8) of Samuel Collins, 1651, Provost, Regius Professor of Divinity, slate tablet in stone strapwork frame, with cherub-head, skulls, side-scrolls, and broken scroll-pediment with cartouche above painted with the arms tierced per pale and cheveron, of the College, the Regius Professorship of Divinity, and Collins; flanking and below the tablet, shields-of-arms of the College and the Professorship, both impaling Collins, and of Collins; early shadow-painting on the wall behind. In Chapel R—on E. wall (9) of John Sumner, D.D., 1772, Provost, his son William Henry, 1759, grey marble tablet in moulded frame, probably early 19th-century; (10) of William Scawen, 1710, [Fellow-Commoner], marble oval tablet with moulded frame, urn above and shield-of-arms of Scawen flanked by palm-leaves below; (11) of George Thackeray, S.T.P., 1850, Provost, white marble tablet, by Swinton; on W. wall, (12) of Martin Freman, 1630, Fellow, freestone bust on shaped bracket with inscription, separate shield-of-arms of Freeman in cartouche above, all recut in the 19th century. Floor-slabs: In chapel A—(1) of John Gerard, 1690, Fellow, with quarterly shield-of-arms of Gerard, Gerard in the second and third quarters, and (unidentified 14); (2) of John Smith (alias Hovell), 1706, Vice-Provost, with shield-of-arms of Hovell. In chapel D—(3) of William George, D.D., 1756, Provost, Dean of Lincoln, Margaret his daughter, 1743–4, and Robert his son, 1745, with achievement-of-arms of George impaling Bland in a roundel. In chapel E—(4) of Sir Thomas Page, 1681, Provost, with long Latin inscription and achievement-of-arms of the College impaling Page; (5) of Thomas Gearing, 1694, Vice-Provost, with long Latin inscription and achievement-of-arms of Gearing. In chapel F—(6) of [Thomas Crouch], 167[9], with achievement-of-arms of Crouch; (7) of Ralph Flyer, M.D., [16]84–5, with achievement-of-arms of Flyer. In chapel H (see Altar above). In chapel I—(8) of John Hawtrey, 1673, Fellow-commoner, with achievement-of-arms of Hawtrey. In chapel J—(9) of William Thackham, D.D., 1721, ViceProvost. In chapel P—(10) of Carolus Roderick (see Monument (3) above). In chapel Q—(11) of John Copleston, 1689, Provost, S.T.P., with achievement-of-arms of the College impaling Copleston. In chapel R—(12) of William Scawen, 1710, (see Monument (10)); (13) John Sumner and William Henry his son (see Monument (9) above); (14) Eldred Gaell, 1702, Dean of Arts, with achievement-of-arms of Gaell; (15) Charles Neville, 1662, [Vice-Provost], with achievement-of-arms of Neville.


Arms on Monument (8)

Arms on Monument (8)

Organ: On the screen-loft, main organ (Plate 151), four manual, with close oak-panelled lower casing superimposed on the gallery-fronts to E. and W. and supporting a wider open-framed superstructure displaying the pipes; close-panelled the full height to N. and S. On the E., the lower casing, with flat round-headed panels towards the ends containing applied figures, the one to the S., of a Magus, carved in low relief, has a pedimental head framing a pedestal with carved pendant supporting a low central tower of pipes surmounted by an achievement of the Royal arms of Charles II; at the foot of each slope of the pediment is a half-length figure, on the S. of Christ, on the N. of Herod. The central tower is linked to tall flanking towers by graduated ranges of pipes in framing with ramped entablatures enriched with carved scroll-work and Tudor badges in the frieze; the flanking towers of pipes project and are supported on winged satyrs carved in the round and have carved pelmets and enriched entablatures surmounted by crowns. The W. face differs from the E. only in detail, the lower casing has a broken scrolled pediment, below the central pedestal is a double-bodied beast with human head, the niches contain applied figures perhaps of prophets, and below the flanking towers are pierced pendants; in the superstructure, panelled styles enriched with Tudor roses alternate with panels of pipes, and in place of the Royal arms and the two crowns are, respectively, standing figures of King David with his harp and angels blowing gilded trumpets. The N. and S. sides are surmounted by entablatures continued across from the flanking towers. The case is for the greater part probably of 1688, enlarged in 1803 and 1859, and again in 1933 when the E. and W. faces were advanced some 2½ ft. to their present positions. The angels are of 1859 and modelled by Scott upon those shown in Loggan's engraving of the Chapel, which were supplanted before 1742 by Gothic pinnacles; the small applied figures are perhaps reused.

The choir-organ (Plate 21), projecting from the main organ and gallery-front on the E., stands on a return of the main entablature of the screen supported on a panelled cove springing from above the central archway; it has three towers of pipes with entablatures, that in the centre surmounted by a cartouche containing the College arms, the taller flanking towers by crowns, and linked by intermediate panels of pipes in framing with ramped entablatures and flying angels carved in low relief at the foot; all the members are carved and the cove and supporting entablature further enriched with cherub-heads, Tudor badges and pendants; probably of 1661, when a new 'chaire-organ' was set up, including the cove etc. It is now part of the main organ. (See also introduction to Fittings.)

Paintings: In Sanctuary—on N. wall, incorporated in modern panelling, the Deposition (Plate 113), ascribed to Siciolante da Sermoneta, given in 1780 by Frederick, 5th Earl of Carlisle, and formerly over the altar (see also Introduction to Fittings). In chapel H—on E. wall, forming reredos, the Virgin and Child (Plate 194) in mandorla bordered by roses and the Wounds, with kneeling nuns at foot, angels at head, painted on panel, Westphalian school, c. 1490, said to be from an Ursuline Convent in Soest, given by C. R. Ashbee in 1931, in modern oak frame.

Panelling: In Chapel—on N. and S. walls immediately E. of the stalls, similar lengths of oak bolection-moulded panelling with dado, both in seven bays flanking the N. and S. doorways divided and terminated by panelled Corinthian pilasters on pedestals, of dado-height, supporting an entablature with pierced cresting; the frieze and the shafts of the pilasters carved with foliated scroll-work incorporating Tudor badges and urns; the cresting with free-standing urns with scrolled handles over the pilasters and cartouches or shields over the bays, the latter with crowning palmette-ornament and flanking scrolls ending in bearded heads or winged busts of bearded men; on the N., the shields over bays 4 and 5 are carved with the arms of Gabriel Whistler and (unidentified 15), on the S., over bays 2, 4 and 5, of John Collins (knighted 1681), George Legge (1st Baron Dartmouth 1682), and the See of Worcester impaling James Fleetwood; by Cornelius Austin, 1678–9. In chapel I— on E. wall, forming reredos, large oak bolection-moulded panel flanked by carved and panelled Corinthian pilasters supporting an entablature with cresting, the pilaster-shafts and frieze carved with urns and scroll-work incorporating Tudor badges, the cresting consisting of a central cartouche with sidescrolls ending in bearded human heads; on N. and S. walls, a dado of bolection-moulded panels; on lower part of W. wall, three large bolection-moulded panels with enriched entablature, all of late 17th-century character and from the E. end of the Chapel, remodelled and extended with modern work to fit the present position in 1928. In chapel P—on S. wall, from floor to window-sill, modern oak panelling with late 15th or early 16th-century crested top-rail; on W. wall, to a height of 6 ft., with applied mouldings forming tall vertical panels with traceried heads, panelling probably 19th century, the brattishing, incorporating small shield carved with a Tudor rose, a later copy of that in similar position in chapel Q. In chapel Q— on S. and W. walls, similar respectively to the foregoing, but the first with curvilinear tracery carved in the top-rail and the second with a coved cornice below the brattishing and retaining traces of gilding and blue colouring, early 16th-century.

Pavements: From E. end to screen and extending to the steps in the Ante-chapel, of black and white marble squares in formal patterns, 1702, except the E. bay of 1775. In remainder of Antechapel, of square Portland stone slabs set diagonally, 1774–5. In side-chapels, where old, generally of square red tiles, with some slip-tiles and two mid 14th-century incised tiles, and bricks, two of stone slabs, all much broken. The bricks laid in 1935 in chapel H are reused from Gibbs' Building.

Pedestals: In chapel H—two similar, of clunch, semi-octagonal, in two panelled heights tapering to central foliated band, with caps carved with paterae below a band of roses on one, vine leaves and fruit on the other, late 15th-century, formerly in chapel I.

Pulpit: (see Monument (51), Church of St. Edward).

Reredoses: (See Panelling and Paintings.) The modern reredos to the main altar incorporates old cresting similar to that over the panelling immediately E. of the stalls, 1678–9.

Screen (Plates 151, 182, 185): across the Chapel, in the seventh bay, some 14½ ft. deep, of oak; on the W., the main lower part has a wide central doorway with three bays of blind arcading on each side and a continuous panelled cove rising to a cornice supporting a gallery-front with crowning entablature. The panelled dado of the blind arcade breaks forward to form pedestals for Corinthian-like pilasters dividing and flanking the bays and supporting an entablature. The pilaster-shafts are carved with Italianate vases, stylised flowers, portcullises, fleurs-de-lys, masks, etc. and the quasi-Corinthian caps with satyrs, grotesques, human and bestial heads, in place of the usual foliation and volutes, and four with a Tudor rose on the abacus; the entablature has a frieze carved with foliated scrolls ending in human and grotesque figures, horsemen, flowers and incorporating Tudor badges and roundels containing reliefs of a putto with a snake, classical busts of a man and a woman, and Aaron (?). The recesses (Plate 186) have round heads, moulded and fretted archivolts, moulded imposts returned across each bay and panelled and carved responds with moulded bases on the dado-rail; the spandrels are carved with Tudor badges, cherub-heads, busts of warriors in fantastic Classical armour, flowers and foliage. The back of each recess, above the dado and below the tympanum, is divided into four deeply moulded panels by a muntin and rail with sunk fields carved with scrolled foliage, flowers, ribbons, a bull's head, 'antique' profile-heads, fantastic helmets and, in the three N. bays, shaped panels inscribed in Roman capitals (a) 'Dieu et mon droit', (b) 'Sola salus servire Deo', (c) 'Henricus 8'; muntin and rail meet against a projecting roundel carved with the crowned initials H.R. looped together by a tasselled cord. The head-rail below the tympanum, in continuation of the imposts, is enriched with scrolled foliage ending in monsters' heads and including Tudor roses, a fleur-de-lys and roundels carved with busts of men and women in low relief. Each tympanum (Plates 184, 186) is filled with carving in high relief, partly in the round, and all except one with very elaborate Renaissance shields, with supporters, charged with the following (a) the looped initials R.A. (for Regina Anna), with cherub supporters, (b) the Tudor Royal arms in a Garter, the motto inlaid in black composition, with lion supporters, (c) the same arms supported by a lion and a dragon, with a background strewn with roses, (d) the looped initials H.R. (for Henricus Rex), with a lion and a dragon supporters, (f) the Tudor Royal arms impaling Anne Boleyn, (quarterly of six, Lancaster, Angoulême, Guienne, Butler and Rochfort quarterly, Brotherton, Warenne) supported by a collared greyhound and a lion with a griffin's head gorged with a coronet and chained (Plate 186); all the shields except (b) are crowned. (e) is a figure-subject of the fall of the rebel angels, the half-length figure of the Almighty in a swirl of clouds in the centre, cherub-heads on the right and contorted figures on the left.

The wide central doorway (Plate 187) has a flattened elliptical arch, with archivolt and responds etc. similar to those in the side bays; in the spandrels are roundels containing 'antique' three-quarter heads mainly in the round of a man and a woman and flanked by foliage and small figures of a man and a grotesque. The door is in two leaves, including the tympanum, and is a later addition; each leaf is uniform in design with the panelling in the flanking recesses but the infilling of the panels above the dado is pierced and carved with vases of stylised flowers and musical trophies on scrolled strapwork cartouches; the carved muntins and rails with the roundels containing the initials H.R. may be contemporary with the screen and reused, similarly the carved head-rail with a Tudor rose and profile-head in a roundel. The centre pilaster-like check is panelled and carved with vases, flowers and a rose and, in the capping, the date 1636. The whole of the tympanum is filled with a pierced and carved achievement of the Stuart Royal arms with a crowned lion and a unicorn supporters against a background of tangled rose branches.

The cove is divided into eight bays by panelled cross-bands (Plate 185); in the centre of each bay is a carved pendant and the soffit is divided into a geometrical pattern of panels by shallow moulded ribs with roses at their intersections. In the panels are the following, Tudor roses, fleurs-de-lys, portcullises, cherub-heads and foliage, the crowned initials H.R. looped by a tasselled cord, crowned H.A. (for Henricus, Anna), similarly looped H.R.A.S. (for Henricus Rex, Anna Sponsa) in monogram, crowned demi-falcons displayed, crowned falcons holding sceptres and perched on rose-bushes. The fascia of the cove is articulated as an entablature, with dentil-cornice and frieze carved with Tudor badges, foliated scrolls, masks, heads in roundels, and naked horsemen; small semicircular returns enriched with badges and masks support the columns of the front above and end in pendants highly elaborately carved with grotesque human figures and monsters.

The gallery-front is divided into eight main bays by detached turned and enriched baluster-like columns with Ionic caps and moulded bases; the columns support the crowning entablature which has small semicircular returns over them. Behind the columns the front is divided by pilasters into sixteen bays containing round-headed panels with continuous splayed sides and heads carved with Tudor roses and foliage; two pilasters towards the northern end are plain, the rest have enriched shafts. The whole of this arcading appears to have been reset. The crowning entablature has an enriched cornice and a frieze with carving similar to that on the fascia of the cove but to a larger scale; the panelled soffit of the crowning entablature is ill-fitting and does not centre on the pilasters of the arcade immediately below.

The E. face (Plate 150) consists mainly of the returns of the stalls (Plate 187); these have an entablature to the canopies which is mitred across over the W. doorway and round the choir-organ. The later panelled gallery-front has an enriched cornice and the two panels flanking the choir-organ carved in bold relief with the figures of Caspar and perhaps a prophet on corbels supported by cherubs. The E. doorway has a surround, with elaborated side-pilasters, similar to that of the W. doorway, but above the entablature-blocks over the pilasters are shields-of-arms added later, probably in 1605, of the College on the S. and Eton College on the N. in strapwork frames (see also Stalls).

The N. and S. sides of the passage through the screen are each divided into two unequal bays generally similar to those on the W. face and with 'antique' profile heads in roundels in the spandrels; in the tympanum of both the N.E. and S.E. bays is a crowned shield of the Royal arms, the first with a dragon and leashed greyhound and the second an uncrowned lion and dragon supporters, of the N.W. bay a Tudor rose in a roundel, of the S.W. a rose in a beribboned wreath. The recesses in the wider E. bays are both divided below the head-rail by an enriched panelled pilaster; the sub-divisions each contain four panels with enriched muntin and rail; on the head-rail are carved the initials H.R., crowned Tudor roses, crowned fleurs-de-lys and foliation. Part of the panelling in the N.E. bay is hinged to form a doorway to the stair to the organloft.

The flat timber soffit of the passage is divided into a geometrical pattern of panels by broad moulded ribs carved with bead and plaited ornament. Alternate panels contain recessed circular inner panels with carved Tudor roses in the centres; two end panels contain crowned portcullises.

The crowned initials and arms of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn suggest a date for the screen between her coronation in June 1533 and her death in May 1536; subsequent additions, probably in 1605 and in 1636, are noted above. The arcading of the W. gallery-front may have been moved forward, while the character of the carving suggests that it may be a 17th-century addition. (See also Introduction to Fittings.)

Stalls (Plates 150, 187): of oak, arranged as shown on the plan, with thirty stalls against each wall and four in each W. return against the screen, all with canopies, and the lower rows in blocks of eight, nine and eight. The divisions have moulded cappings and scrolled arm-rests, these last in the W. return stalls being carved with foliage except that to the N. of the Vice-Provost's stall; below the seats, the divisions are panelled and those flanking the seventh to the tenth upper stalls on the N., between the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth and the twenty-ninth and thirtieth on the S., and of the return-stalls have turned balusters in front. The misericords are described separately below. The canopies to the upper stalls have, rising from the cappings of the latter, tall turned baluster-like columns with Ionic capitals supporting semicircular arches turned between panels over the capitals and with cherub-heads carved in the spandrels; a continuous crowning entablature, forming the fascia to the coved soffit described below, with elaborate pierced and carved cresting breaks forward over the panels and has a dentil-cornice and carved frieze, the latter including Tudor badges, urns and scrolls ending in monsters. The pierced cresting has cartouches framed in fanciful gablets with scrolled grotesques on the ramped slopes and flanked by urns with scroll-handles; two of the cartouches on the N. stalls and three on the S. are carved with the looped initials H.R.

The panelling at the back, behind the columns, is framed between pilasters below a continuous coved soffit to the canopies; the cove is divided into geometrical panels by moulded ribs enclosing Tudor badges, foliage, etc. and, over the tenth and twentieth S. stalls, shields of the quartered arms of Crouch. The pilasters (Plate 187) with their plinths and continuations of their caps framing the panelling of the returnstalls are minutely carved with military trophies, Ormonde knots, grotesques, scrolls, initials H.R., R.A., H.A., H.R.A.S., and Tudor badges, while the coved soffit includes also crowned roses and various combinations of the initials H.R. and H.A.

The Provost's and (Plate 187) Vice-Provost's stalls are wider than the rest and have turned posts and figures, of a prophet (?) and a woman, on pedestals on the free ends (Plate 190) and further elaboration of the canopies, including carved enrichments on the baluster-like columns to which are pegged seated figures cut in the round, now much damaged and with three missing, extra mitres in the crowning entablatures and the initials H.R. twice and H.R.R.A. in the frieze; their larger cresting consists of the Tudor Royal arms in a Garter with lion and dragon supporters. The panels behind the Provost's stall (Plate 183) are carved in relief with the demi-figure of the Almighty blessing, and a roundel of St. George in classical armour slaying the dragon bordered by mythical figures, one with a caduceus, the other a two-headed beast, and a woman with three children, one being devoured by a lion.

The panelling against the N. and S. walls is divided into fifteen bays by Composite pilasters (Plate 191) on panelled pedestals all with carved enrichment including fleurs-de-lys, thistles, pomegranates, and lilies, garbs and escallops from the arms of Thomas Weaver, and the following shields-of-arms: N. side, fifth pilaster (a) England, (b) France modern, (c) the College; sixth (a) England, (b) France modern, (c) Eton College; thirteenth as the sixth and with 'H6' below (a) and (b); fourteenth as the fifth; fifteenth and sixteenth (a) and (b) as before, (c) Scotland, (d) Ireland; S. side, fifteenth and sixteenth as those opposite. In each of the fifteen bays on both the N. and S. is a large and elaborately carved achievement-of-arms in elm, of 1633 (Plate 191); the arms are arranged by identification in six groups of five, University or Collegiate in the first shield in each group, sovereigns of the House of Tudor in the second and third, of Lancaster in the fourth, and of Stuart in the fifth. N. side, (1) Eton College supported by kneeling angels, all in a strapwork frame, (2) Henry VII, with dragon and greyhound supporters, (3) Henry VIII, with lion and dragon supporters, (4) Henry VI, with lion and antelope supporters, (5) Charles I, with lion and unicorn supporters; (6) Oxford University, with the book inscribed 'Sapientiae et foelicitatis', supported by kneeling angels in a strapwork frame, (7) as (2), (8) Mary, with lion and crowned eagle supporters, (9) Henry VI, with antelope supporters gorged with a crown and chained, (10) as (5); (11) Eton College supported by cherubs in a strapwork frame, (12) as (2), (13) as (3), (14) as (4), (15) as (5). S. side, all similar to those opposite, except (1) the College, supported by angels in a strapwork frame, (6) the University, supported as S. (1), (11) the College, supported by cherubs in a strapwork frame, (13) Mary, as N. (8), (14) Henry VI, as N. (9); all the Royal arms are in Garters and with the motto 'Dieu et mon droit' in a strapwork panel below.

The desks before the return-stalls have panelled fronts and ends, carved top-rails and turned corner-posts supporting seated heraldic beasts holding shields, some charged with initials, on the N. a griffin-headed lion (?) with R. A., a collared greyhound with H.R., a lion with H.R., and a dragon, on the S. a collared greyhound, a lion with H.R., a lion, and a dragon with R.A.; standing on the desk-slopes at their outer ends are figures, on the N., of a putto holding and bestriding a bird, on the S., of a cherub, damaged, holding a branch. The doors to the Provost's and Vice-Provost's stalls have shaped tops, fielded panels and carved framing.

The lower stalls incorporate the desks to the upper N. and S. stalls. From the capping behind the first rises an open balustrade supporting the lower edge of the sloping desk-tops above; a coved soffit to the desks serves as a canopy over the lower stalls and stops against the carved fascia of the desk-tops; the fascia is supported on turned balusters rising from the arm-rests below. The cove is panelled and carved with Tudor badges, cherub-heads and the looped initials H.R. Standing on the desk-slopes at the W. end of the centre blocks and at both ends of the W. blocks are six small carved figures (Plate 190), originally pegged, but now screwed, to small turned supports; they are of two women, one holding a Corinthian capital, two men with shields, another holding a baby flung across his thigh, and a fourth, or perhaps a woman, with a sword, all more or less damaged.

The desks to the E. and W. blocks of the lower stalls have balustraded fronts and incorporate continuous benches on shaped supports. The desks to the centre blocks have been rearranged by the insertion of an extra row of 19th-century stalls; those in front are supported on 18th-century wrought-iron brackets. The portable benches in front of the E. and W. blocks, together with other similar benches in the Ante-chapel, incorporate a number of carved side-wings from 17th-century lectern bookcases, formerly in the S. chapels, broken up in the 19th century (see Bookcases above).

The Misericordes (Plates 188, 189): To the N. upper-stalls, (1–8, 10, 12–17, 20, 22–26, 30) with stylised foliage supporting the semi-octagonal underseat only, (9, 19, 28, 29), all opposite the passage ways, similar to the foregoing but with finer and more elaborate foliation, (11) winged male head, (18) winged satyr's head, (21) grotesque winged head, (27) small male head issuing from foliage. N.W. return stalls, (1) stylised foliage with flanking leaf-scrolls enclosing heads of putti, (2) blank shield supported by grotesques, flanking scrolls with men's masks, (3) lion's mask, two winged creatures issuing from the mouth, flanking beast-headed scrolls, (4, ViceProvost's stall), horse's head sprouting grotesque human figures, with ribbons to flanking roundels containing naked men riding restive horses. S. upper stalls, (1) man's head with leaves, (2–8, 10–18, 20–27, 30) stylised foliage, (9) a crowned shield charged with a rose and supported by angels, with elaborate side-scrolls ending in grotesque masks, (19) grotesque head amidst foliage, (28, 29) stylised foliage, but finer and more elaborate than before. S.W. return stalls, (1, Provost's stall) winged twin sphinxes, with scrolls to flanking roundels enclosing busts, (2) grotesque mask flanked by winged satyrs holding lions, (3) winged demi-creature flanked by harpies holding horse-like beasts trampling and spewing forth reptiles, (4) bicorporate winged demi-figure with horse's head and foliage, small human figures at sides, one with a sword, the other standing on a dragon and holding a snake. N. lower stalls, (1–7, 9–25) stylised foliage, (8) foliage with small winged head. S. lower stalls, (1–25) stylised foliage.

All the stalls up to the capping, the misericordes, the canopies of the return-stalls with their panelling, and the desks, 1533–8; the doors of the Provost's and Vice-Provost's stalls added late in the 17th century. The heraldic panels and panelling behind the upper N. and S. stalls, 1633; the rest of the canopies 1675–8, including perhaps the cresting on the canopies of the returnstalls. (See also Introduction to Fittings.)

In chapel P—against W. wall, bench with tracery-panelled end with half poppy-head; desk with applied mouldings on front forming four rectangular panels, and tracery-panelled end with carved Tudor roses and poppy-head, early 16th-century. In chapel Q—bench and desk similar to the foregoing with traces of gilding and red and blue colouring.

Tapestries: In chapel A—on S. wall, (1) with figures, including a Roman general and kneeling man and woman, perhaps the Clemency of Scipio, probably Brussels, late 16th or early 17th-century. In chapel G—on E. wall, (2) with two standing figures in classical armour, Flemish, late 16th or early 17th-century, with unidentified weaver's mark. In chapel H— on W. wall, (3) the Angel appearing to Hagar, probably Dutch, dated 1622. All given by Lady Walston in 1949.

Trunk: in chapel R—hide-covered, with curved top, fretted wrought-iron mounts, lock-plate and handles, 17th-century.

Miscellanea: In chapel A—framed on S. wall, altar-frontal with coloured flowers in embroidery stitch, gold and silver threadwork and sequins, on white mount, with Agnus Dei in centre, Continental, 18th-century. In chapel A—over W. door, painted inscription 'J. Metcalfe, painter' (?), 18th-century. In chapel B—on E. wall, painting in black line, of cartouche inscribed 'J. A. Mills, glazier, and John Leach cleaned [the windows]', 18th-century. In chapel C—on E. wall, painted inscription similar to the foregoing, with the names Robert Walls and William Robi. On roof of chapel F— cast in lead-sheeting, record of releading of 'these small Chapels' in 1829 by T. Greef, plumber. Close S.E. of Chapel— sundial, of stone, cubical, one face renewed, N.W. face inscribed and dated 1649, the other two with incised graduations and Roman numerals, with two pierced gnomons, modern pedestal-base, capping and finial; from the church of St. Anne on the Sands, Dunbar, given to the College in 1938 in memory of W. R. Sorley, Fellow.

The Gatehouse and screen-wall (Plate 195) enclosing the main Court on the E. are part of the work begun in 1824, and completed within about four years, from the designs of William Wilkins in the Tudor-Gothic style. The interior was partly remodelled in 1936 and 1952. The walls are of Ketton stone ashlar from the quarries of Wansford, whence the stone was 'carried down the Nene and along the drains by Whittlesea to this place' (Cambridge Chronicle, 23 April 1824). The roofs are slate-covered. The Gatehouse is of two storeys, with the Gate-hall (25 ft. by 16 ft.) flanked by porters' rooms and with chambers on the first floor. It consists of a rectangular centre block with square N. and S. wings; the tall plinths are moulded, the parapet-strings are carved for part of their length with vine leaves and Tudor badges, and the parapet-walls to E. and W. are pierced with sub-cusped quatrefoils and trefoils; the N. and S. parapet-walls are plain. The projecting E. and W. fronts of the centre block have coupled pilaster-strips towards each end carried up above the parapet as octagonal embattled pinnacles linked by pierced trefoiled sub-cusped panels and ending in crocketed spires; between the pilaster-strips is a window to each floor, the lower with tracery, the upper with a sub-cusped trefoiled opening, both in square heads; on the face of the strips level with the upper windows are crowned Tudor roses and portcullises carved in bold relief. The E. entrance-archway has a moulded four-centred head, moulded and shafted jambs with moulded capitals and bases and an ogee moulded and crocketed label passing through a crown carved in the round just below the finial; in the tympanum is a shield of the Tudor Royal arms. The W. archway is also four-centred but the label follows the line of the arch; above it are three multifoiled panels, the centre one containing a shield of the College arms, the outer ones large Tudor roses.

Rising from the centre of the roof is an octagonal tower with pierced and tracery-panelled sides incorporating clockfaces, a parapet-wall with carved string, gabled over each side, and an ogee dome with angle-ribs and the surfaces enriched with a closely-meshed pattern of panels; the dome ends in a tall octagonal pinnacle with panelled sides and a domical capping with crockets and finial.

The N. and S. wings have octagonal angle-buttresses ending above the parapets in octagonal pinnacles with tracery-panelled sides and domical ogee caps with crockets and finials. The parapet-wall is gabled over each free side and the E. and W. gables are filled with elaborate cusped and sub-cusped panelling; corbelled out from the N. and S. gables are small finials containing chimneys. In both the E. walls, on the ground floor, is a large window of three multi-cusped lights with vertical tracery in a square head with a label; above the N. window is a carved shield-of-arms of Eton College, above the S., of King's College. In both the W. walls, on the first floor, is a window of two cinque-foiled ogee lights with tracery in a square head with a label; below the sill is a moulded string. In the S. wall of the S. wing are a modern doorway and window.

The oak door of two leaves in the E. entrance-archway is contemporary with the building; each leaf has a band of quatrefoils at the base and is divided into two heights of panelling by an enriched middle-rail; the lower panels have cinque-foiled heads, the upper sub-cusped trefoiled-ogee and crocketed heads with tracery-panelling under a four-centred arch-mould; in the spandrels are quatre-foiled circles.

Inside, the Gate-hall is covered by lierne-vaulting in two bays with moulded ribs springing from corbels and with bosses at the intersections carved with Tudor roses, demi-angels, a squirrel, a portcullis, and foliage. In both the N. and S. walls is a doorway with a four-centred opening in a square head, and, in the S. wall, a two-light window with four-centred openings in a square head.

The Screen-wall linking the Gatehouse with the Chapel and the S. range of the great court has a tall moulded plinth, a parapet-string enriched on the E. face with large paterae carved with Tudor badges, and a pierced parapet-wall with gablets similar to the parapet-walls of the side-chapels of the Chapel. The two lengths are each divided into five bays by pilaster-strips ending above the parapet in tall pinnacles similar to those on the N. and S. wings of the Gatehouse. In each bay is a seven-light transomed window, unglazed, with cinque-foiled openings and vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded labels; the transom is embattled and at the base of the window on the E. face is a band of quatre-foiled panels enclosing paterae carved with Tudor badges. On the W. face the wall-head is weathered back to the parapetwall.

The South or Hall Range (Plate 195) of the main Court, extending from King's Parade on the E. to opposite the middle of the S. end of Gibbs' Building on the W., is of Ketton stone ashlar; the roofs are slate-covered. It was designed by William Wilkins in the Tudor-Gothic style, begun in 1824 and completed by February 1828; buildings have been added subsequently on the S. It is of three adjoining blocks symmetrically designed in themselves and, together, forming a symmetrical group of uniform height to the parapets. The centre block projects and contains the Hall open to the roof; the flanking blocks are of three storeys and contain the Combination Room etc. and an undergraduates' Reading-room, as shown on the plan, and sets of chambers.

The N. front generally has a continuous plinth, moulded strings at the sill-level of the first and second-floor windows, a parapet-string enriched with carved paterae, and an embattled parapet-wall. At the corners of the Hall-block and at each end are octagonal buttresses carried up above the parapet as embattled towers.

The Hall (101¼ ft. by 36 ft.) is in ten bays and lit by eight windows and an oriel-window on the N., the oriel occupying the centre two bays, and by eight windows on the S. The N. doorway to the screens-passage is matched by a second doorway, now blocked, at the opposite end of the N. front; both have panelled and shafted jambs with moulded caps and bases and a four-centred moulded arch in a square head with a Tudor rose and a portcullis in the spandrels. The semi-octagonal oriel rises the full height of the range and has diagonal buttresses ending in pinnacles above the return of the main parapet; behind, the parapet-wall is gabled to receive the ashlar ogee roof of the oriel and pinnacled. In each face of the oriel is a tall window with double-transomed multifoiled lights and vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label. The other Hall windows are similar to the foregoing but of only two tiers of lights and with a continuation of the upper string returned to form labels. Over the apex of every N. window is a crowned Tudor badge and below the sills a band of octofoiled panels containing Tudor roses, except those round the oriel which contain shields; these last on the N. face are carved with the arms of the College, the Tudor sovereigns, and Eton College.

The S. windows occupy the eight centre bays; small rectangular staircase-wings masking the end bays are linked by a low service-passage, contemporary with the building, with walls of white brick and slated roof, which masks the wall below the windows. The horizontal features of the E. and W. flanking blocks are continued round the stair-wings. The E. wing has a doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head in the E. wall and is lit by a window of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head on the ground floor and a single-light window above, both in the S. wall. The W. wing, largely concealed by later additions, is lit by one original and two modern windows in the E. wall and one original window in the S. wall.

The roof has a gable at each end surmounted by enriched chimney-stacks; from the ridge rise two identical timber lanterns built in 1950–1 to replace two of 'artificial stone' (Camb. Chron. 15 Dec. 1826).

The Interior of the Hall (Plate 121) has a panelled roof of four-centred form divided into ten bays by trusses springing from wall-posts on concave-sided and panelled semi-octagonal corbels. The structural timbers are almost wholly concealed above the panelling, only the lower members of the moulded and enriched four-centred arches formed by collars and braces being visible below; these have three octagonal pendants in the width from which spring four-way arches of four-centred form below the trusses, centre and side purlins, with pierced tracery in the spandrels; against the side-walls, similarly decorated timber arches between the wall-posts frame the window-heads, except over the oriel. The moulded and embattled wall-plates are each enriched with a frieze of quatre-foiled panels enclosing Tudor badges. All the visible surfaces are faced with plaster painted brown and picked out with gilding. The original working drawings for the roof are preserved in the College. The roof of Crosby Hall is said to have been the prototype.

In both the E. and W. walls are three panelled recesses similar in form to, and on a level with, the windows in the side walls; between the recesses are canopied niches. All these features are of pre-cast plaster; those in the W. wall are now concealed behind a 17th-century tapestry of the Battle of the Mulvian bridge.

The archway to the oriel has shafted jambs with moulded caps and bases and a moulded four-centred head with traceried spandrels between it and the wall-plate; the spandrels are enriched with Tudor roses and shields-of-arms of the College and Eton. From angle-shafts in the oriel springs a ribbed vault with bosses.

In the S. wall, in both the third and eighth bays, is a servicedoorway with moulded shafted jambs and four-centred arch with traceried spandrels.

The screen and screens-passage at the W. end occupy the tenth bay only up to the level of the window-sills, the gallery above being open to the Hall. Access to the gallery is through a doorway in the S. wall with moulded jambs and four-centred head. A similar arrangement existed at the E. end of the Hall until early in the present century, but with a solid screen to a through-passage that led, in a scheme never adopted, to a S. library; under the supervision of T. G. Jackson, the screen was removed, the N. and S. doorways to the passage were blocked and the doorway to the gallery boarded over, leaving only the upper part visible from the Hall.

The Screen is in five bays divided by buttresses and with a continuous-crowning cornice. In the second and fourth bays are doorways with continuously moulded jambs and four-centred heads and labels; the label-stops are carved with demiangels holding shields-of-arms of the College and Eton. Subcusped trefoil-headed panels above the doorways contain the crowned Tudor Royal arms with dragon and greyhound supporters flanked by crowned Tudor roses. In each of the other three bays, occupying the full width, is a four-light transomed window with geometric and vertical tracery in a four-centred head; the transom is embattled and the heads of the lights above and below are cinque-foiled; the apronwall below the sill is tracery-panelled. The embattled cornice is enriched with carved paterae and a band of octofoiled diagonal panels containing roses. The apron-walls and door jambs, to the springing, are of stone; the rest is of pre-cast plaster, except the painted wood embattling.

The E., N. and S. walls are lined, above a stone plinth, to about half their height with linen-fold panelling in five heights contemporary with the building, except the eastern 12⅓ ft. on the N. and S. walls and the crowning cove and cresting on the E. wall, which are modern. The panelling on the N. and S. walls has a frieze of modern hammered copper surmounted by painted wood embattling continued from the screen; the copper-sheeting conceals a band of plaster diagonal panels.

A length of panelling in the Gothic style refixed on the W. wall of the screens-passage is a fragment of the altar-screen designed by Essex and set up in the Chapel between 1770 and 1776.

The glass in the Hall windows is for the most part heraldic, with scrolls inscribed with the names, titles and dates of the bearers of the arms. In N. wall—in E. window, seven shieldshaped panels inscribed with the names Oughtred, Lisle, Croke, Anstey, Hyde, Morell, Fletcher, and hung on guiges slung from Royal emblems, with inscribed scrolls, a crown and laurel branches, and the large initials and date J.P.H. 1840; in tracery-lights, red and white roses; all 1840 and by Hedgeland. In second window, six shields-of-arms, all except the second with crests, of Patteson, the See of Ely impaling Dampier with a mitre over, Dampier, Vicary Gibbs, Pratt with Jeffreys in pretence with griffin and lion supporters, Mansfield quarterly; in tracery-lights, lilies and roses; after 1830. In third window, six shields-of-arms with crests or mitres, of the See of Ely impaling Cox, Woodlark, the See of York (modern) impaling Rotheram, the See of Chichester impaling Hare, Stanhope, the See of Chester impaling Pearson; in tracery, Yorkist roses and fleurs-de-lys; c. 1840. In fourth window, six shields-of-arms with helms and crests and within laurel wreaths, of Glynn, Thackeray, Baker, Davidson, Battie, Bryant; in tracery, crowns, Lancastrian roses, stars; after 1839. In oriel, all the windows contain quarries painted with the initials H R ligatured, crowns, feathers, roses, fleurs-de-lys, a crowned H, etc.; in N.E. window, second light, an achievement-of-arms of Francis Basset, Lord de Dunstaville (created 1795), with Basset, Dunstaville, Reginald de Dunstaville, bastard son of Henry I, and Pendarves quarterly, with a quarterly escutcheon of Coxe, (unidentified 16), and Hippisley, all impaling Lemon, supported from below by unicorns, each with a shield of the first quarter hung from the collar; in N. window, in first light, a shield-of-arms of Eton College, in second light, crowned Tudor Royal arms supported from below by yales, and the figure of a king holding book and sceptre, inscribed 'Henricus VI Fundator', in third light, the arms of the College; in N.W. window, in second light, an achievement with the arms of Basset, for de Dunstaville, otherwise as before; all signed and dated J. Hedgeland 1830. In fifth window, six shields-of-arms with crests, of Gaches, James, Rennell, Keate (scroll missing), Simeon, Manistree; in tracery, Lancastrian roses and lilies; after 1837. In sixth window, as in fifth, of the See of Bangor impaling Bethel, the See of Chester impaling Sumner, the See of St. Asaph impaling Luxmoor, Cooke, Thackeray, Goodall; after 1837. In seventh window, as in fifth, of Horatio, 1st Lord Walpole, with coronet, Poyntz, Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, in a Garter, Frederick Howard, Earl of Carlisle, quarterly of six, Howard, Brotherton, Warren, Mowbray, Dacre, and Greystoke, in a Garter and with a coronet, Sir Stratford Canning, with the ribbon of the Order of the Bath, Thomas Orde Powlett, Lord Bolton, with a ribbon inscribed 'Aimey Loyaute'; signed and dated J. Hedgel[and] 1837. In eighth window, seven shield-shaped panels containing the names Fuller, Saunders, Frith, Sumptner, Glover, Hullier, Harman, with dates and inscribed scrolls; initialled and dated J.H. 1840. In S. wall—in fourth window, quartered arms with two crests, of Craufurd quartering Craufurd, signed 'J. Hedgeland', c. 1840. In the fifth window, achievement-of-arms of Draper, with ribbon of the Order of the Bath and military trophies.

Each of the symmetrical blocks E. and W. of the Hall is in seven bays on the N., with a central doorway; on the first floor a semi-hexagonal oriel-window corbelled out over the doorway has a pierced parapet forming the balustrade before a tall window on the second floor. The doorway has moulded jambs and a four-centred head with a label. The oriel is of three cinque-foiled and transomed lights on the face and one on each canted side and has a panelled apron-wall. The top window is of three cinque-foiled lights with blocked vertical tracery in a four-centred head; this last rises through the parapet-string which is mitred over it as a label and the parapet-wall above is gabled; at the apex of the gablet is a small octagonal finial. In each of the flanking bays and on every floor is a window of two cinque-foiled lights in a four centred head with a moulded label; the windows on the ground and first floors are transomed. In the E. block, a window has subsequently been inserted on the ground floor, between the second and third windows. The chimney-stacks at the ridge have two and three circular shafts enriched with interlacement and with shaped and moulded caps and bases.

The E. end of the E. block, to King's Parade, has the plinth, strings and parapet carried round from the N. front. It is in two bays divided by a three-stage buttress and flanked by octagonal turrets on the angles of the building, as described. The buttress stops at the lower string and is surmounted by a tall canopied niche pinnacled above the parapet; in the niche is a statue of Henry VIII. Each bay is sub-divided by a shallow buttress and contains two transomed windows similar to those on the N. but with carved label-stops; the buttresses die out into the corbelling of oriel-windows on the first floor. Both the oriels, with the windows and gablets above them, are similar to the central feature on the N. front of the block. The four ground-floor windows and the shallow buttresses were inserted when the adjoining building on the S. was added by Scott. The statue and the pinnacle over the niche are also subsequent additions.

The S. side of the E. block, forming the N. side of Chetwynd Court, was originally similar to the N. front. The wall to the three E. bays, remodelled, is now internal behind Scott's addition.

The W. end of the W. block has the Library range adjoining and masking the southern third, up to second-floor sill-level. The plinth, strings and parapet are continued from the N. front; the parapet-wall is twice gabled. On the ground floor is a modern tripartite window in an area of refaced walling; the two windows on the first floor and the three on the upper floor are similar to those at the same levels respectively on the N. The S. side of the block forms a part of the N. side of Webb's Court; it was similar to the N. front but the lower part of the three E. bays is now covered by modern kitchen-offices. The central doorway was altered and the W. ground-floor window converted into a doorway in the present century.

The Interiors of the E. and W. blocks contain some original features. The entrance-lobbies and staircase-halls have four-centred vaulted and panelled plaster ceilings springing from cornices enriched with Tudor roses and foliation; the inner entrance-doorways have moulded jambs, four-centred heads and shafted jambs with moulded caps and bases supporting labels. The E. staircase is original, with moulded stone steps and a cast-iron balustrade of open cusped panels; E. of it, the ground-floor chambers have been converted recently into a Reading-room. The chambers generally have original plaster cornices, four-panel doors and fireplace-surrounds; the latter are of simple design, of marble, with panelled side-pilasters and plain shelves.

In the W. block, the Combination Room (36½ ft. by 23 ft.) has been remodelled in recent times; it retains an original moulded and enriched plaster cornice and a central ceiling-panel with neo-Greek ornament. The Orangery is part of the same remodelling, when the staircase also was moved to the present position. The white marble fireplace surround in the Octagon, with panelled pilasters with voluted caps and reeded shelf, is original; the caps (Plate 51) are reminiscent of the anta-caps from the Temple of Apollo Didymaeus, Miletus.

The Kitchen, S. of the Hall and contemporary with it, with walls of brick, has been completely modernised internally. On the N. wall is a stone tablet recording the first dinner dressed in this kitchen by J. Lawrence, 27 February 1828; a second similar tablet records the first dinner cooked after the reconstruction of 1946.

The Fellows' or Gibbs' Building (Plates 196, 197) stands free on the W. side of the main Court, leaving open ways between the Chapel and the Hall-range. It is of three storeys with cellars. The walls are of wrought Portland stone and the roof is slate-covered. It was designed by James Gibbs. The foundation stone was laid on 25 March 1724 and by the beginning of 1729 the building was ready for the timber-work. In April 1731 the wainscoting was ordered.

All the elevations are symmetrical. The three centre bays on the E. and W. project I ft. and are pedimented, so forming centrepieces which frame the compositions described below (Plate 196). The walls are divided horizontally according to Classical formula into basement, main wall-face and cornice. The rusticated ashlar basement rises the full height of the ground floor and has a moulded plinth and a plat-band at the head. The main wall-face is of smooth ashlar. The modillion-cornice has a carved and dentilled bed-mould and is surmounted by a balustraded parapet divided into bays by pedestals. The first floor is accentuated by greater elaboration of the windows there than elsewhere, while the spacing of the windows, close on the E. side and wide on the W., relates, perhaps fortuitously, to the more constricted setting of the building seen from the E. than from the W. Immensity of scale is given to the design by the columniated and pedimented surrounds to the lofty archways and their lunette-windows above framed in the E. and W. centrepieces. Reclining figures were intended for the slopes of these pediments, with the lunette-windows as a foil behind them; any lack of unity in the composition is due to their absence. The archways are open and lead into a gatehall, in the manner of a gatehouse.

The rectangular chimney-stacks are of ashlar with simple cappings. The roof does not appear, being double-pitched, with a central longitudinal valley.

The E. front to the Court is of twenty-one bays; in the third and eighth bay from each end, approached up a flight of semicircular steps, is an entrance-doorway with square rusticated head, panelled flanking pilaster-strips and carved consolebrackets supporting a cornice. The square heads of the cellarwindows appear in the plinth. The ground-floor windows have square rusticated heads with keystones and moulded sills each supported on two scroll-brackets reaching down to the plinth; between the brackets is an ashlar panel. The first-floor windows all have a moulded architrave, eared at head and sill, and a tripartite keystone extending across the pulvinated frieze of a crowning entablature to the cornice. The second-floor windows are similar to those on the first floor but without the frieze and cornice of the crowning entablature. The windows contain later double-hung sashes with thin glazing-bars.

The fenestration is constant, as described, except in the wider centre bay. The archway in the centrepiece (Plate 196) has a round head with tripartite keystone carved with a bearded mask, moulded archivolt, simple imposts, rusticated responds and moulded bases; imposts and bases are continuations of the plat-bands and plinths respectively of the flanking wall-faces. The spandrels between the arch and the rectangular surround contain palm-leaves encircled by coronets. The boldly projecting surround has flanking detached Roman Doric columns with pilaster-responds, all with rosette ornament on the necking, supporting a full pedimented Doric entablature. The metopes are carved alternately with closed crowns on crossed sceptres and sprigs of roses; in the tympanum is a similar crown surmounting crossed sceptres linked by a scrolled ribbon. The whole surround is set against a slight projection of the wallface, in the form of short returns of the order, that is continued up as the base for the springing of the semicircular lunette immediately above. This last is of three lights with plain mullions and a moulded archivolt with scroll-keystone flanked by foliage swags; the horizontal members of the main pediment embracing the three centre bays are returned over the keystone.

In the tympanum of the main pediment is a small round window in an elaborate scrolled cartouche-like framing flanked by bay-leaves.

The W. front is uniform in general design and detail with the E. front, but without the doorways, and of only seven bays to each side of the main pedimented centrepiece, seventeen bays in all. The N. and S. ends are again uniform in detail with the rest but are unpierced, four recesses on each floor simulating windows.

The 'gatehall' (40¼ ft. by 20 ft.) in the centre of the range, popularly known since the late 19th century as 'Jumbo', is covered by a groined plaster vault in two bays.

The Interior of Gibbs' Building contains sets of chambers symmetrically planned round the staircases. With few exceptions the rooms retain their original painted panelling and fireplaces, but some of the latter have been more or less altered subsequently. The front rooms on the E. are lined to the full height with fielded panelling with dadoes, moulded dado-rails and dentil-cornices; the doors are in six fielded panels and the doorways have moulded architraves. The architraves round the fireplaces are of stone, with wood cornices.

The back rooms are also lined with panelling but of simpler design than the foregoing; the panels are not fielded and the cornices are without dentils. The fireplaces too are rather plainer.

On the ground floor, in the front room N. of staircase 'F', is a fireplace with marble slips, an enriched eared architrave, a pulvinated frieze carved with laurel-leaves and a cornice with acanthus-leaves; in the overmantel is an eared panel flanked by swags surmounted by a broken pediment with enriched cornice; the panel contains a painting on canvas of a Classical scene with figures, probably Italian, 17th-century.

The four oak staircases are original; they have close moulded strings, turned balusters, moulded handrails returned to form the cappings of the square panelled newels, and dadoes of fielded panels against the containing walls. The outer doorways to the sets have eared architraves, pulvinated friezes and cornices and are hung with doors of six fielded panels.

On the first floor, in the main room N. of staircase 'H', is a late 18th-century fireplace-surround with fluted frieze and, in the opposite S. room, a late 18th-century fireplace with marble slips and enriched framing and entablature of wood, the frieze carved with honeysuckle ornament. The early 19th-century fireplace in the room N. of staircase 'G' has a flat marble surround with rectangular impost-blocks.

On the second floor, the sets N. of staircase 'F' and S. of staircase 'G' incorporate the W. and E. rooms respectively over the 'gatehall'. The W. room has a mid 18th-century fireplace-surround removed from the Manor house, Elsworth, with stone slips, pine eared architrave, frieze carved with scrolls and acanthus and an enriched cornice; that in the E. room, with marble slips, wood eared architrave, enriched pulvinated frieze and dentil-cornice, is of 18th-century character. The set S. of staircase 'G' also contains in the W. room a marble reeded fireplace-surround of the early 19th-century with an elliptical panel of radiating leaves in the frieze; contemporary with this is the plaster cornice round the room enriched with honeysuckle ornament; the E. room has been divided by the insertion of panelling, taken probably from the bedroom, to form a way to the room over the 'gatehall'. In the main room of the set N. of staircase 'G' is a fireplace with marble slips, an enriched architrave, a shaped frieze carved with festoons and a broken scroll-pediment with dentilcornice, all made up; in the E. wall of the N.W. room is a central recess, contemporary with the building, with fluted Doric side-pilasters supporting a semi-elliptical arch with moulded archivolt and plain key-block.

The Library is beyond the confines of the great Court, on the first floor of an eastward prolongation of the Hall-range extending to the former Provost's Lodge. The range is of two storeys and of Ketton stone ashlar, with slate-covered roofs and is part of the work designed by Wilkins and built between 1824 and 1828. The ground floor has been remodelled in the present century and an open way made through it flanked by the Muniment Room on the E. and offices on the W. The Library has now been extended into the former Provost's Lodge.

The N. front has a moulded plinth, a moulded string in continuation of the sills of the first-floor windows, and a pierced parapet-wall with parapet-string enriched with carved masks and paterae. It is divided into seven bays by two-stage buttresses surmounted by panelled octagonal pinnacles rising high above the parapet-wall. In the first bay is a two-light window and in the sixth and seventh are windows of four paired lights, all with cinque-foiled ogee lights with tracery in square heads with labels; in the fifth bay is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with panelled spandrels and a label. These four features are original ut the original arrangement comprised doorways in the second and sixth bays and windows in the remainder. In the second to fourth bays are modern archways. On the first floor, in each bay, lighting the Library, is a tall three-light window with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label.

The S. front, to Webb's Court, is of six bays. The lower storey has been refaced with modern brick with stone dressings. At the E. end is an octagonal angle-turret similar to those at the ends of the Hall-range but smaller; the new Provost's Lodge built in 1928 adjoins it on the W. The embattled parapetwall is divided into seven bays by pinnacles. On the ground floor is a two-light window in the E. bay similar to that opposite on the N.; the other openings and windows are modern. On the first floor is a range of six three-light windows similar to those in the N. wall.

The Interior contains, on the first floor, a main compartment (107 ft. by 26½ ft.) of six bays with a timber ceiling further divided by moulded beams into twenty-four panels in the length and seven in the width, each panel being quatre-foiled, sub-cusped and foliated. The seventh, westernmost, bay is at a higher level than the foregoing, has a plain ceiling, and extends S. over the new Provost's Lodge and W. to include the first bay of the former Provost's Lodge. The walls of the main compartment are lined to within 5 ft. of the ceiling with original oak bookcases, with projecting cases between the windows. The cases have coved cornices returned round octagonal corner-posts. Many new presses have been added on the ends of the projecting cases and down the centre passage-way.

The former Provost's Lodge (Plate 39), adjoining the Libraryrange on the W. and with the new Lodge adjoining on the S.E., is now only in part used by the Provost. Designed by Wilkins and built between 1824 and 1828, it is rectangular on plan with a symmetrically designed N. front. This last, deriving in style from early 16th-century great houses in E. Anglia, is in five bays. The centre bay, containing the entrance-doorway is flanked by plain octagonal turrets of three stages continued above the parapet and embattled. The outermost bays are flanked by larger and squatter three-stage turrets, enriched with panelling in the two upper stages, and contain two-storey rectangular oriel-windows. The moulded plinth is continuous; between the levels of the first floor and the sills of the first-floor windows is a broad band defined by moulded strings and enriched, between the two centre turrets and across the full width of the outermost bays, with quatre-foiled panels containing Tudor roses. The parapet-wall is panelled and embattled; it is raised above a quatre-foiled frieze over the centre bay and gabled behind the embattled parapets of the oriels.

The entrance-doorway has shafted jambs and a four-centred opening in a square head with traceried spandrels and a label; the window above on the first floor is of three lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label. The other windows are all transomed and with four-centred openings in square heads, those in the oriels with four lights on the face and one on each return, the rest of three lights and with labels.

The S. side has the plinth, strings and parapet-wall continued from the N. front but the parapet-wall is embattled only. At the W. angle is an octagonal turret. A two-storey oriel-window in the centre, originally with three transomed lights on the face and one on each canted side, has the centre light below the transom on the ground floor now converted into a doorway. The three windows on each floor on either side have square heads and labels, except the westernmost on the ground floor extended in modern times into a bay-window.

The Interior contains on the ground floor an open screen between the hall and staircase consisting of a column and responds composed of paired antae with paterae on the necking, all plaster-faced; the W. wall of the hall is similarly articulated. The stone fireplace-surround in the stair-hall is carved with the arms of the College and crowned Tudor badges. Several original plaster ceilings with neo-Greek enrichments on the cornices and centre panels remain. The doorcases in the Drawing-room and Audit-room are original, with narrow panelled pilaster-strips at the sides supporting entablatures with dentil-cornices; the doors are in four panels. In the E. wall of the second of these rooms is a round-headed recess with moulded archivolt springing from responds with moulded imposts and bases and all framed by narrow pilaster-strips on pedestals supporting an entablature similar to those of the doorcases. The Study has a dentil-cornice below a coved ceiling; the narrow marble fireplace-surround is moulded and flanked by panelled pilasters supporting a plain shelf. The walls are lined with 19th-century oak bookcases very similar in design to those in the Chapel (see Bookcases in chapels M (3), N (4, 5), O (6, 7) ), with the surmounting cartouches painted with the arms of Crouch and Hobart; in 1851 some bookcases were removed from the Chapel to the Provost's Lodge. The staircase has moulded stone steps, ornamental cast-iron balusters and a mahogany handrail.

Reset in the new Provost's Lodge, in the Dining-room, is a late 18th-century white and grey marble fireplace-surround with side-pilasters inlaid with green marble to simulate fluting and a frieze with foliage swags similarly inlaid.

The Bridge (Plate 38), over the river, W. of the former Provost's Lodge, built in 1819 to the designs of Wilkins is of Fifeshire stone ashlar. The Rev. Charles Simeon defrayed much of the cost. It is in one segmental span springing from simple abutments with single pilaster-strips of slight projection on each side; the ashlar courses over the arch are stepped as a giant architrave below the main parapet-capping. The archivolt is cut on the recessed voussoirs which extend the full depth of the spandrels. The moulded cappings of the parapets are continuous over the parapet-walls of the abutments.

The Gate to Queen's Road is of the same date as the bridge and of similar material; it was also designed by Wilkins. The three unequal rusticated bays, each containing a semicircular-headed arch, are stepped and surmounted by separate cornices; the wider centre bay projects and is further accentuated by a stepped blocking-course.

The Railings returning eastward between the N.E. turret of the Chapel and the E. range of the Schools were set up in 1797; they surmount a stone dwarf wall and consist of simple pointed uprights and rails incorporating a gate of similar character.



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