Trinity College

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1959

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'Trinity College', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge (1959), pp. 209-244. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=128404 Date accessed: 03 September 2014.


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Trinity College


Trinity College Arms

Trinity College Arms

(40) Trinity College (see plan at end of book) is bounded on the E. and S. by Trinity Street (formerly High Street), Trinity Lane (formerly St. Michael's Lane), Trinity Hall Lane (formerly Milne Street) and Garret Hostel Lane, on the N. by St. John's College, and on the W. by the River Cam (Plate 231).


Trinity College

Trinity College
plan at end of book

The College was founded in 1546 by King Henry VIII for a Master and about sixty Fellows and scholars. On the site stood Michael House, King's Hall and several private hostels, of which the most important was Physick Hostel. The two colleges surrendered, with their possessions, to the king, while Physick Hostel was acquired from Gonville Hall. The distribution of the land owned or leased by the three establishments is indicated in the accompanying diagram. The lanes that bisected the area, in so far as they affected the position of the buildings of the earlier foundations, will be shown to have had an important influence upon the disposition of the buildings of Trinity College. The king doubtless chose King's Hall as the nucleus of his royal College because of the connection since 1337, traditionally since 1317, with the Court through admission of boy scholars, 'the King's childer', destined for public service.

Michael House was founded by Hervey de Stanton, Chancellor of the Exchequer to Edward II, in 1324. It was in the vicinity of the S.W. corner of the present Great Court of Trinity College. Chambers stood to N. and S. and the Hall, as will be shown, was orientated N. and S.; such disposition suggests three sides of a court. Some of the buildings were demolished in 1550–2, but the Hall and probably the S. range were retained; the Hall was subsequently incorporated in the S. end of the W. range of Great Court but only fragments of the walling survive in situ. Opposite Michael House stood Physick Hostel, on the E. side of Milne Street; it was bequeathed to Gonville Hall in 1393. Little is known of the buildings, but a N. part and a S. part, perhaps ranges, were built in 1481. They too were to some extent demolished in 1550–2. That the S. ranges of both Michael House and Physick Hostel were however retained seems to be indicated by the entry in the accounts of 1550–1 for making a gate between them and for walling up their own gates. The N. section of Milne Street was closed and the new gate was evidently placed across the entry to it from St. Michael's Lane. This is taken to have predetermined the site of the present Queen's Gate of Trinity College, but some doubt has been expressed of the broken alignment here of Milne Street accepted by Willis and Clark (A. E. Stamp, Michaelhouse, privately printed 1924); instead, axial planning upon King Edward's Tower has been adduced to explain the siting. The total demolition between 1594 and 1597 of all the buildings in the way of Nevile's S. range of Great Court has hitherto been assumed; but John Hamond's view of Cambridge of 1592 shows an almost continuous sequence of ranges and tenements here and this, together with the fact that the masonry of the S. wall of the present S. range varies, suggests that some older walling was again retained. The masonry indicates the retention of the S. wall of a building extending the length of the centre third of the range, curtailed on the W. by the insertion of Queen's Gate. This length approximates very closely and could have coincided with that, known documentarily, of the E. to W. extent of the Physick Hostel property. Thus identification with the S. wall of the S. range of that Hostel may be hazarded. This would also imply a lesser break in the line of the former Milne Street and axial siting of Queen's Gate.

King's Hall was founded by Edward III in 1337, in continuation of Edward II's benevolence in supporting students at Cambridge, for a Master and thirty-two scholars. The house and land of Robert of Croyland had been bought for them the year before; the house is presumed to have stood immediately N. of King's Childer Lane and close W. of the present Great Gate; it has been entirely destroyed. By 1351 all the land further N., to the wall of the Hospital of St. John, W. to the river, and N.E. to the High Street had been acquired, but the property at the corner of King's Childer Lane and High Street was not obtained until 1376; this, and the facility of approach to the College afforded by the convergence of King's Childer Lane and Milne Street that it indicates, influenced the Society, after the initial expansion of Croyland's house, to extend their buildings at first to the N. and N.W. The work begun in 1375 and continued for nearly 50 years included a Court, of which the W. range in part survives in King's Hall Range, or 'King's Hostel', in a position N.W. of the present Chapel. In consequence of the preponderance of buildings thus being to the W. rather than to the E., when a monumental gatehouse, King Edward's Tower, was added (some 90 ft. S. of its present position) it was placed towards Milne Street, not towards High Street. It was begun in 1428 and finished structurally in 1432. At much the same time a range of chambers was built linking King Edward's Tower with the S. end of the W. range of the Court already described; this is shown in John Hamond's view of 1592, eight years before its demolition and the removal northward of King Edward's Tower. The accommodation of Henry VI and his retinue in College in 1445 is some indication of the development of the King's Hall buildings.


Trinity College

Trinity College
Disposition of the Site Preceding the Foundation of the College

In 1433 the eastern part of King's Childer Lane was acquired by the College, after the acquisition of land lying to the S. of it to a depth of some 90 yds. (see diagram, p. 210). In 1449 a building of some size was begun; the accounts, though incomplete, include for over two hundred loads of clunch for it, but its position is unknown. It may have been the range on this newly acquired land shown by Hamond projecting at right angles into the present Great Court; it was demolished probably in or shortly before 1599, but its position is established by the close alignment shown by Hamond of the S. wall with the S. end of the later 15th-century E. range; for the latter is marked by the thick wall surviving, though only to first-floor height, incorporated in the prolonged E. range of the Great Court of Trinity College (see plan).

The Chapel was begun in 1464–5 and not completed until twenty years later; it stood to the N.E. of the site, approximately in the position of the eastern five bays of the present Chapel of Trinity College.

By the middle of the 15th century King's Hall had extended its land eastward to include the whole frontage to High Street from the Hospital of St. John property on the N. for a distance of some 114 yds. southward. Thus, while closure of the E. part of King's Childer Lane, by preventing direct access to King Edward's Tower, must have created the need for main approach to the College from the E., from High Street, all obstacle to such approach had been removed. Not unexpectedly therefore in, or shortly before, 1490, a new building was begun which with reasonable certainty may be identified with the ground stage of the present Great Gate and the adjacent N. part of the E. range. In the accounts a porter's lodge with walls and turrets are named (K.H. Accts. xviii, 296 (1491–2), 'Nova edificacio: It.' pro coopertura pro le porters logge cum muris et turribus' etc.) and payments are included to John Wastell, freemason. Wastell was responsible for the Angel Tower of Canterbury Cathedral, 1494–7, where the wall-panelling is identical in design with that over the small arch of Great Gate (Plate 251). Similarities in the parts of the E. range flanking Great Gate show them to be contemporary, and a further agreement for roofing was made in 1495.

From the foregoing, although, as indicated, the evidence is not conclusive, it would seem that the E. range begun in 1490 extended from the Chapel on the N. as far as the line of the S. wall of the range of 1449 on the S., with the Great Gate near the centre, so presenting a balanced elevation to E. and W. Unspecified ranges of chambers were taken down in 1428 ('subtractione antiquarum camerarum') and 1490, and if these referred mainly to Croyland's house, then Great Gate gave impressive easterly access to a Court approximately quarter the size of the present Great Court of Trinity College. This is essentially the arrangement appearing in J. Hamond's view of this area, but presumably with some enclosure on the S.W. provided by 'the wall near the new gate' (King Edward's Tower) mentioned in the accounts for 1433–4.

The upper stages of Great Gate were not added until between 1528–35, though expenses 'circa novum turrim' begin sporadically with the accounts for 1518– 19. The masonry occurring in the N. and S. walls above the adjoining roofs shows that some predominance in height was intended from the very first, but this is the earliest documentary evidence of a scheme to raise over the gate a 'great tower' (so named in K.H. Accts. 1528–9, xxiv, 68, 'Expense circa magnam turrim'), and structural evidence that it was an afterthought appears from the eastern turrets being demonstrably additions set against the earlier ground stage and the western turrets being perhaps replacements of smaller turrets that were set closer in towards the W. archway. The facts however that the main gates were not supplied until 1522 and the stone vault of the Gatehall was never completed show that the whole resulted rather from a prolonged and irregular building operation than from a series of remodellings.

The history of the buildings of King's Hall after assimilation into Henry VIII's new foundation, other than that already given, may be summarised here. In the N.W. Court, the S. range, containing the late 14th-century Hall, and the S. part of the E. range, containing the early 15th-century Pantry and 'Squyer's Chamber', with the buildings eastward of it, including the 15th-century Chapel, were pulled down between 1554 and 1561 to make way for the new Chapel of Trinity College. The rest of the E. range, containing the 14th-century Kitchen, and most of the N. range, containing the 15th-century Library, were demolished in 1694.

A 'first plott' of Trinity College within the Town and University of Cambridge of King Henry VIII's foundation, that is, a report on the financial requirements and constitution of the proposed College, was prepared for the king by the Court of Augmentations, probably in consultation with John Redman and early in 1546. In April or early May possession was taken of the site. Although upon it stood a chapel and three halls, of King's Hall, Michael House and Physick Hostel, with their chambers, and the premises of some six of their subordinate hostels, already in May the buildings of the Franciscan friary (see Monument (39), Sidney Sussex College), were being demolished and the materials taken to provide 'toward the building of the King's Majesty's new College'. In December the Court of Augmentations was directed to pay £2,000 to Redman, the first Master, 'towards the establishment and buildings' and in recompense of a year's loss of revenues pending issue of letters patent for their donation. The formal dissolution of the older Colleges took place in October and December and the Charter of Foundation of Trinity College is dated 19 December 1546. The endowment granted was valued at £1,640 net a year; the annual income of King's Hall was £214 and of Michael House just over £141.

The indications of work of adaptation being begun immediately have been described. Costs of repairs, alterations and new buildings recur in the accounts, generally without detailed specification; but in 1547 work was being done on the Hall. The position of this last, and thus the probable identification of it with the Hall of Michael House, is shown by a 16th-century plan of Great Court preserved in the College Library and the corroborative evidence of the entry in the building accounts of 1604–05 for the present Kitchen, 'digging the foundation of the kitchen wall that goes through the old Hall', which is the stage of development shown in the early 17th-century Smithson drawing of Great Court (R.I.B.A. Drawings AE5/28). A great lobed oriel-window, clearly the dais window, occurs in these plans and in the views of the College by Hamond (1592) and Loggan (c. 1688); the foundations of it and of the flanking buttresses were revealed by excavation in 1892 (C.A.S. Proc. VIII, 234) and are indicated on the plan. The buttery etc. of the old Hall were on the N.

The northward extension of this West Range as far as, and including, the present Entrance-hall of the Master's Lodge, and the right-angle turn of it eastward to link with King Edward's Tower (in its original position) were in hand in 1554, and that they formed part of a general project appears from a Commission issuing in that year under the great seal of Philip and Mary authorising the assembly of craftsmen, labour and materials for 'new edifying, building, rearing and setting up' the College. Other contemporary works are described below. Chief among them is the Chapel; the contract was made in 1555 and the walls were finished in 1564. The circumstances of the ceiling of its western end between 1561 and 1563, with the subsequent preponderance of masons over carpenters and, in 1564, the references to preparation of roof timbers and to the supply of ironwork for the E. window, tend to confirm the possibility alluded to below in the description of the building that completion of three bays, and these to the E., was reserved until towards the end of the building operations. The entry in the accounts so late as 1560–1 for taking down the roof of the old Chapel, on the eastern part of the same site, suggests that this sequence was followed to enable part at least of the latter to be used while the new Chapel was being built. Entries in the Junior Bursar's accounts for 1556–7 for minor work to the floor and roof of the chamber at 'the new chapel end' may refer to the adjustment necessary to link either 'King's Hostel' or the E. range of King's Hall with the new building; the second is less probable since the old Chapel was still in use in January 1556–7. Repairs to and refitting the Chapel were begun in 1706 and continued throughout much of the first half of the century; the reredos, screen, organ, stalls and panelling are mostly of this period. Between 1868 and 1876 the E. and S. sides were newly ashlared, the vestries and S. porch added, and the interior redecorated, all under the supervision of A. W. Blomfield. Other alterations are described in the detailed account below.

The present appearance of Great Court and the inception of Nevile's Court are due to 'the splendid, courteous and bountiful' Dr. Thomas Nevile, Master 1593–1615. Before 1598 at least £1,453 had been spent on the buildings; but no details of the expenditure survive. The Junior Bursar's accounts for 1598–9 indicate that the continuation of the East Range S. from the northern King's Hall section of 1490–5, and the South Range, including the Queen's Gate and the turret in the S.E. angle, were approaching completion; the Gate is dated 1597. Incidental expenses in the 1601–02 accounts imply that they were being finished. Meanwhile demolitions were proceeding and the Court was levelled; the former included removal of the 1449(?) S. range of King's Hall, and, in the N.W. area of Great Court, of the ranges forming a salient angle with King Edward's Tower at the point.

The North Range, the old Library range, continuing W. from the Chapel, and the West Range continuing N. from the old Hall range were built at much the same time as the foregoing. The extension of the W. range more than replaced the Master's previous accommodation in the demolished return range. Payment to Mr. Hall for freestone for the old Library range occurs in the 1589–90 accounts and by 1600 the library had been built but not completed; in 1601 it and the staircase to it were finished. In 1600 the foundations of the W. range were laid and the building completed the following year. The same years saw the removal of King Edward's Tower and its re-erection in the present position.

Provision early in the 17th century of the present Hall, Buttery and Kitchen involved the demolition of the former W. range from within the N. end of the old Hall northward to the N. containing-wall of the further staircase shown in the 16th-century plan of Great Court preserved in the College (Willis and Clark, II, fig. 10, facing p. 465). The Hall was begun in 1604; Ralph Symons was paid for a model of the building. The Bursar and John Symes, the builder, had inspected divers halls in London and the dimensions of Middle Temple Hall were those adopted here. Symes began work in April and the roof was slated by October 1605. The Kitchen, which intruded laterally into the old Hall, and the Buttery were begun in July 1605; the roofs were slated by November the same year.

Dr. Nevile embellished Great Court with the Fountain. This was begun in 1601–02 and rebuilt, with some alteration, in 1715–16. The Sundial, further N., was set up in 1704. Nevile's Court, the gift of the eponym in the form it stood until 1676, is referred to below.

Great Court remained without alteration of note until the Mastership of Richard Bentley (1700–42). Between 1700 and 1709 the Master's Lodge in the W. range, of 1554 and 1600–01, was remodelled; sash-windows were inserted, except in the oriel, the interior was extensively refitted, and a grand staircase added. By custom royal visitors to Cambridge, and by custom and concession the sovereign's Judges on Assize, are lodged at Trinity College; for them Bentley refitted the state bedrooms in the King's and Judges' suites. In 1842 and 1843 the Lodge was restored; on the E., the sash-windows were replaced by the present stone-mullioned windows and the oriel-window, destroyed some time after 1740, was rebuilt; on the W., the sashes were left but the oriel was rebuilt, all to the designs of A. Salvin. Other alterations are described below in the detailed account of the Master's Lodge. In 1920 the S. rooms on the ground and first floors became the Fellows' Parlour and Senior Combination Room.

In 1750–1, under the direction of one Denston, from Derbyshire, most of Great Court was plastered. Three years later, the E. side of the Hall was extensively repaired and the S. side of the Court, including Queen's Gate and the S.E. angle-turret, in part refaced with new ashlar. This latter refacing was far less extensive than the accounts of 1753–4 at first suggest, for the greater area of the front retains reused mediaeval ashlar and it is known that stone from Cambridge castle was being reused for Nevile's buildings in c. 1600; furthermore the masonry is totally unlike the mid 18th-century stonework elsewhere in the College. In 1771 the S.W. angle-turret was demolished and the W. range thence northward to the Hall, but excluding Nevile's Kitchen, almost entirely rebuilt to the designs of James Essex, primarily to provide finer accommodation for the Combination Room and Parlour on the first floor. Work was completed in 1774 and the rooms occupied the following year; they are now the Old Combination Room and Junior Combination Room. Thereupon, it appears the possibility of rebuilding the whole Court was suggested but progressed no further. In 1810 the W. side of the E. range N. of Great Gate was repaired; as Bernasconi was employed the reparation probably consisted of a refacing in Roman cement, and in 1812–13 more work definitely of this nature was completed on the rest of the E. range and the N. range. In Queen's Gate the sash-windows inserted in 1723 on the first floor were replaced with the present stone-mullioned windows in 1866. Other 19th-century alterations to the ranges of Great Court include the refacing of the E. side of the E. range N. of Great Gate and rebuilding in stone the small annexe to it, both in 1856, under the supervision of Anthony Salvin. The W. side of the same part of the range was entirely refaced in 1935. On the N., the chambers on the third floor of the old Library range were improved in 1873 by the renewal of the S. windows and the insertion of some elaborate plasterwork.

W. of Great Court, Nevile's Court was built at Dr. Nevile's own expense, with the result that the charges for it are not entered in the College books and no accounts have survived. The only oblique references to it are in Orders of 1612 and 1614 in the College Conclusion Book that refer to adjustments to be devised by Symes and Pearce in the Kitchen and Buttery and to completion of a gable to be 'in concurrence with our Master's building'. The Kitchen had been completed in 1605; therefore Nevile's Court may probably be dated between 1605 and 1612. Again, from the history of St. John's College (Thomas Baker, History etc. (ed. J. E. B. Mayor, 1869), I, 208), it is known that the N. and S. ranges each cost £1,500

The N. and S. ranges were originally but three-fifths of their present length, the W. side of the Court being closed only by a wall with a gateway in the centre. With little doubt this last was the elaborate gate, Nevile's Gate, now at the entrance to the College by Bishop's Hostel. The extent of the buildings is indicated in the roughly-drawn view of Cambridge dated 1634 in Thomas Fuller's History of the University and the position of the W. wall is preserved in two ground plans of the Court in the Wren drawings at All Souls College, Oxford (Vol. IV, 50, I, 43). The extension of the ranges westward was undertaken in connection with the Library building next described.

The Library at the W. end of Nevile's Court was begun in February 1676–7; Isaac Barrow, Master 1672–7, promoted the scheme after damage by fire to the old Library, which was already inadequate. Sir Christopher Wren was the architect and gave his services without charge. The first proposal was for a free-standing centrally-planned domed building, reminiscent of Palladio's Villa Capra, 'La Rotonda', linked only by dwarf walls and railings to the ends of Nevile's ranges. The final scheme was for a long rectangular building with staircases on the N. and S. ends; this was to close the Court, in its original dimensions, on the W. The work was carried out, except for the omission of the S. staircase, almost exactly in accordance with the drawings, which are preserved in the Library at All Souls College (Wren drawings, Vol. I, 45–8, 50, 51), but the whole was placed some 27 yds. further W. than intended when the drawings were made, so extending the E. to W. depth of Nevile's Court. Enclosure on the N.W. and S.W. was then obtained by prolonging Nevile's N. and S. ranges in uniform style to meet the new building. The extension of the N. side was begun after April 1676 and the eastern half completed before 1679, at the charge of Sir Thomas Sclater, Bt., the western half before May 1681; the S. side was begun after May 1681 and finished the following year, the eastern half at the expense of Dr. Humphry Babington. Meanwhile the Library building was proceeding; the plastering stage was reached in 1686–7, and the whole completed c. 1695. The original fittings and furniture are to Wren's designs. Robert Grumbold, mason, was in charge of the work; other workmen employed are named below in the detailed account of the Library. Grumbold also supervised the extension of the S. range of the Court, and thus perhaps of the N. range.

The Tribunal at the E. end of Nevile's Court, against the W. wall of the Hall, was built in 1682; it endows the irregularity of this side of the Court with a measure of symmetry suited to the regularity of the other three sides. Robert Grumbold, who supervised the work, was in close touch with Wren at the time.

By 1755 the fronts of Nevile's ranges had weathered and become unstable and the decision was then made (Conclusion Book, 7 April 1755) to rebuild them; a 17th-century elevational drawing in the Victoria and Albert Museum (Drwg. E 408/1951), incorrectly titled 'Gresham's College', preserves their appearance. James Essex was entrusted with the work. He retained the arcade design and the main vertical and horizontal articulation of the fronts but omitted much of the Jacobean detail and raised the attics to a full storey, replacing the ranges of gabled dormers with larger windows and a horizontal balustraded parapet. This surface treatment was continued across the late 17th-century W. extensions of both ranges. The front of the N. range was the first begun and the cost of stone supplied before Michaelmas 1755, £330, indicates the extent of renewal. The S. side was in worse condition, 'so that a considerably greater quantity of new stone was used', (Junior Bursar's Day Book, 1755–6), while the back wall of the older part was reconstructed of new stone and with new dressings; thus Nevile's S. range was virtually entirely rebuilt, for the internal refitting was equally extensive. The whole work was finished in 1758; that to Nevile's ranges cost £5,486, to the later western extensions £578. The S. wall of the S. range was in part remodelled in the 19th century when New Court was built.

In 1669 John Hackett, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, gave £1,200 towards rebuilding Garret Hostel to the S.W. of Great Court, the new building to be named Bishop's Hostel. A substantial part was built before October 1670 though it was not finished until late in 1671. The contract, with a plan for the building, is preserved in the College; it is dated January 1669–70 and is with Robert Minchin of Bletchingdon, Oxfordshire, carpenter, who had worked for Wren at Trinity College, Oxford. Wren's brother-in-law was rector of Bletchingdon. The total cost exceeded Hackett's gift by some £357. It was restored by A. W. Blomfield in 1877.

The rapid increase in the number of admissions of undergraduates early in the 19th century and the policy of the Master, Christopher Wordsworth (1820–41), in accommodating more students within the College led to the building of the 'King's Court', generally called New Court, S. of Nevile's Court. It was designed by William Wilkins, begun in July 1823 and occupied in October 1825. The style is Tudor Gothic, but Wilkins also prepared a design in part at least Classical. The scheme adopted included a cloister-walk on the N. extending between the staircase-bays, but this was demolished in 1868. In 1833–4 Lecture Room Court was added on the S.E. of Great Court under the supervision of Charles Humfrey at a cost of £5,500.

Later additions to the accommodation include Whewell's Court (William Whewell, Master 1841–66), on the E. side of Trinity Street opposite Great Gate. The first part, to the W., was completed in 1860, the second, between the first and Bridge Street, was begun in 1865 and finished in 1868; both were designed by Anthony Salvin and remodelled to some extent in 1908 by W. D. Caröe. The ranges S. and W. of Bishop's Hostel were added between 1876 and 1878, the architect being A. W. Blomfield, who also added the Library extension against the N. range of Nevile's Court in 1892 and the W. extension of the Master's Lodge in the same year.

Restriction of space has led in recent years to the occupation of private houses, 2 and 37 Trinity Street, and the building of Bevan Hostel in 1949 some way from the College, in Green Street.

Among the architectural features in the College grounds, Trinity Bridge over the river, W. of New Court, was rebuilt to the designs of James Essex in 1764–5. The cost, £1,500, was defrayed from a bequest of Dr. Hooper, whose arms it bears. The materials from the old bridge of 1651–2 were used in the substructure. The 'High Walk' over the bridge leads to the Field Gate, to Queens' Road, which was given to the College in 1733 by Henry Bromley and came from the donor's house, Horseheath Hall; it replaced Nevile's Gate, which had been rebuilt in this position probably in 1681 where it appears in Loggan's view of the College. Trinity College Walks retain the arrangement shown by Loggan, c. 1688; the avenue E. of the Bridge was replanted in 1716–17, then continuing eastward where New Court now stands. The Bowling Green W. of 'King's Hostel' was laid in 1647–8.

At Trinity College, Great Court devised by Dr. Thomas Nevile c. 1600 is the most spacious College court in existence totally enclosed by buildings of dates varying from 1428 to the present century. King Edward's Tower of 1428–32, though rebuilt in 1600 with some alterations, is the prototype of the Cambridge gate-towers. Great Gate, begun as a structure of a different form in c. 1490 and largely completed as it now stands between 1528 and 1535, is the most monumental building of the kind in the University. The Chapel, though perhaps lacking in inspiration, is historically interesting as a building initially of the counter-Reformation almost wholly in the Gothic style. Dr. Nevile's Hall of 1605 contains one of the most remarkable timber roofs and one of the more elaborate screens of the period; the early 18th-century cast-iron brazier is a very rare survival. Nevile's Fountain in Great Court of 1601–02, rebuilt early in the 18th century, is the only important example of the kind remaining in this country.

Nevile's Court with N. and S. ranges built between 1605 and 1612, extended between 1676 and 1682 and reconstructed in the mid 18th century, is a refreshingly Italianate conception and on a more ambitious scale than are the surviving examples of the fashion elsewhere in England. The Library range, begun in 1676 and finished structurally by 1695, enclosing the same court on the W., is a mature and noble work of Sir Christopher Wren; the design is essentially Roman, with influences from France. A spaciousness within the Library greater than the exterior would suggest is obtained by an expedient, described below, typical of Wren's ingenuity.

The buildings of the College contain many fittings of note, in particular the contemporary woodwork of the Library and early 18th-century woodwork in the Chapel. These two buildings contain one of the most important assemblages of 18th and 19th-century sculpture in England.

Architectural Description (See plan at end of book)—Great Court (Plate 252) (273 ft. by 325 ft. average) has the entrance range on the E., the Chapel on the N., the Hall and Master's Lodge on the W., and ranges of chambers on the S. 'King's Hostel', adjoining the N. range and approached through King Edward's Tower, is described below after the buildings of Great Court.

The East Range is of two periods, the N. length, containing Great Gate, as far S. as the thick wall by the Bursary being a surviving part of King's Hall, the S. length as far as Trinity Lane, being part of Dr. Nevile's work in extension of Trinity College.

The lower part of Great Gate (Plate 250) and the flanking sections of the E. range formerly of King's Hall are probably those buildings begun in or shortly before 1490; from 1490 to 1492 £158 was spent. William Swayn 'lathamus' was paid for doors and windows and stone and seems to have been regularly employed as master-mason until 1505. 'Expenses concerning the new building' also include fees to John Wastell, freemason, in 1491–2 and 1496–7; the significance of his employment is suggested in the historical introduction above, the presumption being that he was peripatetic while Swayn was resident master-mason. Payments for covering the part of the range containing the Porter's Lodge were made in 1492. An agreement with the carpenter for roofing was made in 1495. The name of John Salter, carpenter, first appears in the accounts for 1496–7, for timber 'beyond his first agreement'. Payments to him in the accounts for 1497–8 include for a new door in the new wall to High Street. After c. 1505 thirty years elapsed before the upper stages of Great Gate were completed. The accounts for 1518–19 include a minor purchase of stone from King's Cliffe and payments to a small number of masons, including William Burdon, presumably master-mason. In the Audit book for 1522–3 is the cost of the new gates, by contract with Buxton, carpenter, in the sum of £6 13s. 4d., the timber being from Chesterford, Essex.

Work was fully renewed in 1528–9, when John Shereff, mason, was paid an earnest of 10/- and a first instalment of £10 on sealing the indentures. Thomas Loveday, carpenter, was paid £8 for making the upper floor and roof. The turrets are additions, subsequent to the building of the late 15th-century ground stage; a summary of accounts dated 1535 includes for payment to Loveday for floors in four turrets, showing that they had by then been added. The cost, mainly of materials, of this second phase of building was £109 10s.; bricks were bought from Browne of Ely.

In the last years of the century, under Dr. Nevile, some minor work of heightening, difficult to identify, was put in hand and the exterior was plastered. John Symes was mastermason and the work included cutting quoins and windowjambs. Shortly afterwards Paris Andrew was paid for carving Henry VIII's statue (Bursar's Accts. 1600–01), but he appears not to have completed it. All the four statues, of Henry VIII, James I, Queen Anne, and Prince Charles (Plate 255), were carved in London. The accounts of 1614–15 include payments to Cure (William Cure, jun.) for the Queen, Prince, and Henry, and the Queen's and Prince's shields-of-arms, to John Smythe for going to London to help with carving James I, and for transport of all the statues and their shields-of-arms to Cambridge. Surprisingly, the stone for the Stuarts came from Barrington and Eversden. The Royal arms on the W. are by Smythe. Thorpe wrought the metal crowns on the E. Finally the whole of Great Gate was whitened and the carvings painted and gilded.

The enriched embattling on the E. has been replaced since the measured drawing of Great Gate was made for publication by Willis and Clark (Architectural History of the University etc. (1886) II, 484, fig. 13). Corbels in the Gatehall indicate that a stone vault was intended, but it was never built, and a flat ceiling existed until 1845 when the present timber vault was inserted at the expense mainly of William Whewell, Master 1841–66, and designed by him in collaboration with Professor Willis.


Great Gate. Plan of Upper Floor of Tower

Great Gate. Plan of Upper Floor of Tower

Great Gate is of three storeys. The E. wall is of ashlar, the remainder of brick with stone dressings. It is rectangular, with taller octagonal turrets on the external angles. The stone plinth is moulded and all the walls are parapeted and embattled. The late 15th-century ground stage has on the E. a large archway flanked on the N. by a smaller archway (Plate 251); both have plain chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred openings; the smaller has a two-centred wall-arch above bringing it to a uniform height with the larger where both have square heads with traceried spandrels. The wall-arch contains an ogee crocketed finial over the opening, carved with a crown in glory in the spandrel, and a field enriched with elaborate tracerypanelling including quatre-foiled and sub-cusped roundels enclosing Tudor roses. The moulded cornice above is carved with paterae and on the frieze are 17th-century metal plates with renewed painted inscriptions in Roman characters, that in the centre with 'Edvardvs Tertivs Fvndator Avle Regis MCCCXXXVII', the rest identifying shields-of-arms in the wall-arcading above. This last is of three bays to each side of a wide central panel carved with the Royal arms of old France and England quarterly with lion supporters and a small shield-of-arms below of John Blyth, Master of King's Hall 1488–98, Henry VII's chaplain. The arcading consists of bays of windowlight tracery-panelling with crocketed ogee heads in cinque-foiled sub-cusped arches divided by pinnacled standards and framing carved and painted shields-of-arms surmounted by gilded 17th-century wrought-iron crowns. The arcading continues and disappears behind the turrets. The arms are of the sons of Edward III, from the N., (a) Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, (b) John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, (c) (blank) 'William of Hatfield' on the panel below, (d) Edward, Prince of Wales, with two shields charged with ostrich feathers painted on the stonework below, and 'Ich Dien', (e) Lionel, Duke of Clarence, (f) Edmund, Duke of York. All the foregoing is surmounted by a string enriched with spiral leaf ornament interrupted in the centre by a corbel carved with a demi-angel supporting the statue of Henry VIII in a niche above (Plate 255). The niche has a three-sided canopy with domical ogee top and pinnacled side-standards and is flanked by superimposed wall-panels with ogee heads; to each side are three-light windows with two-centred openings, once cusped, in square heads with moulded labels, and, at the extremities, between the windows and turrets, wall-panels with cinque-foiled heads. Much of this zone and the stage above belong to the work begun in 1518–19 but pressed on more actively from 1528 and finished by 1535; contemporary with them are the turrets.

The king's statue (Plate 255) begun by Paris Andrew c. 1600 and finished by William Cure was set up in 1615 and is now much weathered. He wears cloak and tunic with the Garter sash, from which the metal George has gone, and a modern gilded tin crown. In one hand is an orb, in the other a sceptre consisting of a wooden chair-leg. The top stage, demarcated by a string carved with paterae, has two windows similar to those below, but with rather rounder heads, from which also the cusps have been removed, and wall-panels at the extremities. In the centre wall-space is a sub-cusped quatre-foiled panel framing a shield of the Royal arms of new France and England quarterly. The enriched embattled parapet and parapet-string are restorations of the late 19th century based upon those shown in Loggan's view of the College.

The main gate of oak is that made by Buxton, with ironwork by a smith of Thaxted, and hung in 1523. It is in two leaves, each leaf being framed in three heights of five linenfold panels with a deep base rail enriched with carved quatrefoils; two of the last in each leaf contain shields charged with (a) the cross of St. George, (b) a saltire. The smaller archway contains an 18th-century oak screen of fielded panelling with a central wicket.

The E. turrets have high moulded stone plinths, different from the main plinth, and enriched strings dividing them into four stages. They are lit by loops with moulded jambs and two-centred openings in square heads. The lowest stage of the S. turret has been refaced and both parapets have been rebuilt in modern times; for the rest, the walling is pecked for plaster facing.

The W. side of Great Gate (Plate 250) has a large 15th-century stone archway the full height and most of the width of the ground stage between the turrets. It has plain chamfered jambs with moulded bases and a moulded four-centred head (p. 394) with elaborate tracery-panelled spandrels bringing the last out to the square; the outer ends of the jamb-dressings are ragged, as if originally concealed. Above the archway is a moulded string carved with paterae extending between the flanking turrets and broken in the centre by a renewed square traceried panel with label containing a blank shield. The two courses of clunch facing in this area may be remains of the upper part of the late 15th-century building; for the rest the brickwork is of the 16th century. In the second stage is a four-light stone-mullioned window of similar character to those on the E. at the same level; the label is interrupted by a niche above. Flanking the window are two stone traceried panels with blank shields and similar to the panel just described. The central niche and those to each side of it are insertions of c. 1615 and are similar to that on King Edward's Tower wrought by Paris Andrew c. 1600. They have at the sides, on pedestals carried on scrolled brackets, free-standing Ionic columns supporting cornices; to the shallow rounded niches are shell heads. They contain the statue of King James I in the centre, of Queen Anne (Plate 255) to the N. and Prince Charles (Plate 255) to the S., all much weathered and with renewed heads. The upper string is carved with paterae and runs at the sill-level of the four-light window of the third storey. This window is similar in character to those opposite and surmounted and flanked by carved stone achievements, now badly decayed, of the Royal arms of James I above in a Garter with lion and unicorn supporters, of Queen Anne to the N. with wild men supporters, and of Prince Charles to the S. with the Royal supporters; all are crowned. The Royal arms extend up through the parapet-string and into the embattled ashlar parapet. The date and carvers of the statues and arms have already been quoted.

The W. turrets are similar to those on the E. except that the S.W. turret has in the S. wall a stone doorway with continuous chamfered jambs and four-centred head under a moulded label. The re-entrant angle between the turrets and the W. wall of the two upper stages is splayed, the splays being carried on moulded stone corbels just above the ground stage. The quoins of the turret-angles adjoining the flanking ranges are continued down to the level reached by the former eaves of the latter, before they were replaced by battlements. All the quoins are pecked for a plaster facing.

The N. and S. walls of the tower rising above the E. range are of plain brickwork with stone parapet-walls but they incorporate some stonework in the lower exposed areas. The angles between them and the turrets are splayed as on the W.

The Gatehall (19 ft. by 23 ft.) has in the N. wall an original but much restored doorway to the Porter's Lodge with continuous chamfered jambs and four-centred head; the hatch to the E. of it is entirely plastered. The doorway in the S. wall is modern. The timber vault of 1845 rises from original stone springers on moulded corbels enriched with paterae; it is in two bays, with moulded ribs with carved and coloured shields-of-arms and foliage bosses at the intersections. The arms are, at the main intersections, of Edward III and the Tudors; elsewhere, of all the Masters (except Thomas Hill and John Arrowsmith) from John Redman to Montagu Butler inclusive, W. H. Thompson's and Butler's shields being later additions. The upper floors, which have been modernised, are reached by a stair in the S.W. turret approached only by the external S. doorway described above; a doorway into the lobby from the E. range is blocked. The floors of the N.W. turret have been cut through for a lift-shaft.

The rest of the E. range is of two storeys and attics and in part with a small cellar. It retains original or restored eaves on the E.; those on the W. were replaced by embattled parapets probably c. 1600; the roofs are covered with stone slates and tiles. The length N. of Great Gate has been entirely refaced on both sides, on the E. in 1856 by Salvin, who altered the former character, and on the W. in 1935, but here the measured drawing in Willis and Clark (II, 505, fig. 19) shows that at least the moulding of the original doorway to staircase 'E' was reproduced. This has chamfered jambs, moulded bases and a moulded four-centred head with a label and is similar to that to staircase 'G', both being in the late 15th-century part of the range; the doorways further S. differ from them. Inside, staircase 'E' is flanked on the N. by a set of chambers, on the S. by the Porter's Lodge; the first floor contains chambers. The ground floor retains a number of exposed late 15th-century ceiling-beams and wall-plates, stop-moulded in the N. set and stop-chamfered in the Porter's rooms. The room N. of the staircase is lined with early 18th-century fielded panelling with a dado-rail and cornice. The doorway from the Porter's N. room into the E. annexe is cut through an original window with moulded jambs and square head; the annexe is Salvin's replacement of the earlier arcaded annexe, presumably of the 17th century, shown in Loggan's engraving. The doorway to the N.W. turret of Great Gate has stop-chamfered jambs and a four-centred head; that to the N.E. turret has a four-centred head but is now largely concealed. The first floor has been modernised but retains in the N. wall a recess, presumably a blocked single-light window, with wide plain splays and chamfered segmental-pointed rear-arch.

The length of the E. range S. of Great Gate is of the late 15th century as far as some 6 ft. S. of the sixth W. window; the rest, as far as Trinity Lane, was begun in the last decade of the 16th century and finished probably in 1602. The walls, where not covered by later additions or cement, are of rubble with patchings of brick and with clunch and freestone ashlar dressings. On the E., the addition of Lecture Room Court and other buildings later has concealed or destroyed most of the original features. At the N. end some original walling faces on a small yard; it has a plinth and two three-light ground-floor windows, both entirely renewed. The three first-floor windows of clunch are original; the northernmost is of three lights, the others are of two, all with moulded reveals and two-centred openings in square heads with sunk spandrels. The dormer-windows have been renewed and the stack has been rebuilt. More original walling faces the small court further S.; the window on the ground floor and one of the two on the first floor are of two lights and similar to those just described but with plain chamfered and hollow-chamfered reveals; the third window is of three lights, with the centre light cut down to form a doorway to a balcony. The wall facing Lecture Room Court was remodelled when the Court was formed in 1833–4 and is described with it.

The W. side has an ashlar plinth and an embattled parapet; the Roman cement facing of the entire area between them conceals all features of the walling. It is in twenty-three bays and, though variations occur in the horizontal spacing and details, the effect is one of uniformity from end to end. On the ground floor are doorways to staircases 'G' and 'H' and at entry 'I', in the fifth, eleventh and eighteenth bays respectively; the windows, of two and three lights, are as shown on the plan. On the first floor two and three-light windows occur over the openings below. The doorways have chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred heads; the mouldings of 'G' consist of an ogee and a casement, of 'H' and 'I' of reversed ogees. The window-openings are two-centred, under square heads with sunk spandrels. The two northern ground-floor windows are entirely renewed and the next four differ in detail from the rest southward. In the roof are eighteen renewed gabled dormer-windows. The lead rainwater pipes have shaped heads and are of the 18th century.

At the S. end, in the S.E. angle of Great Court, is an octagonal stair-turret, 'Mutton Hall Turret', rising well above the main parapet. It is of ashlar, entirely renewed in the mid 18th century, and has a plinth, a string at first-floor level and an embattled parapet. The doorway in the N. face has chamfered jambs and a depressed four-centred head under a square label. The staircase is lit by four single-light windows on the N.W. with four-centred openings in square heads with labels.

The S. end of the range was refaced in brick in the late 19th century and the windows are of the same date.

Inside the E. range, S. of Great Gate, the ground-floor rooms N. of staircase 'G' now contain the Bursar's offices, with the Bursary next S. of the same staircase. The former contain some exposed chamfered ceiling-beams; the exposed joists are laid flat, those in the second and third bays from the N. being painted red with a white stencilling of the sacred monogram 'ihc' in black-letter. Similar stencilling extends to a third bay in the next room S. The walls of the N. room are lined with panelling of c. 1600 with a fluted and arabesqueenriched frieze and incorporating, on the N. wall, round-headed panels enclosing enriched diagonal panels and, on the E. wall, geometrical panels over the fireplace; round-headed panels form the window-shutters. The Bursary is lined with early 18th-century fielded panelling with a dado-rail and modillion-cornice, the panelling on the E. wall being divided into three and a half bays by Ionic pilasters supporting entablature-blocks. The fireplace has an eared surround and shaped, fluted and enriched entablature.

The room next S. of the entry 'I' is lined with panelling of the same period as the foregoing, with a dado-rail and cornice and a bolection-moulded panel over the fireplace. The doors retain two original brass rim-locks. The rooms further S. contain some exposed chamfered ceiling-beams. Where later additions have been made on the E. the windows have been blocked to form recesses and cupboards.

On the first floor are exposed ceiling-beams including a moulded longitudinal beam in the room N. of staircase 'G', otherwise little old work remains except in the middle room of the set between staircases 'G' and 'H'. Here are two reused moulded and embattled ceiling-beams of the 15th century and a central longitudinal moulded beam with large leaf stops; the decorative plaster ceiling between of early 17th-century design has been inserted in modern times. The walls are lined with early 18th-century fielded panelling with dado-rail and cornice. Reset in the S.E. window are six roundels of heraldic glass of the late 17th or 18th century, mostly foreign, of (a) (unidentified 21), (b) probably a rebus, (c) Cronenburg of Utrecht, (d) Pyke quartering Upton, with the crest of Upton, (e) (unidentified 22), and (f) Neville of (?) Holt quartering Neville of Bulmer.

The North Range of Great Court contains the Chapel and Ante-chapel to the E., the former projecting three bays beyond the E. range, King Edward's Tower towards the middle and the old Library range to the W. The Master's Tower in the N.W. corner of the Court serves the Master's Lodge in the W. range.

The Chapel (204½ ft., including the Ante-chapel 69½ ft. long, by 34 ft.) was begun in replacement of the Chapel of King's Hall in the reign of Mary I. It was not completed until 1567 and the date of consecration is unknown. The walls are of rendered brick, stone and flint with ashlar dressings and much 19th-century ashlar facing; the roofs are covered with modern slates. An agreement in the sum of £80 for the walls was made with Perse, mason, at Michaelmas 1555. Large quantities of stone again came from the Franciscan friary and Ramsey Abbey, including nearly three thousand loads from the friary in the first year, and from the Cliffe, Barrington and Weldon quarries. The accounts that survive show that about eleven masons and labourers were at first employed, mounting later to thirty, and four carpenters. Timber was selected from Thorney Park. On 30 April 1556 Stephen Wallis, burgess and joiner of Cambridge, contracted for the fittings and decorative woodwork. The last payment to him was not made until April 1566.

The walls, unlike those of King's College Chapel, seem to have been raised uniformly excepting, as will be shown, towards the E. The inference from the accounts and Wallis' contract is that three bays were completed subsequently to the rest: at the end of the accounts for 1556–7 is the entry for ironwork for nineteen windows, below the transoms, which suggests that only some three-quarters of the Chapel had been carried to half the height; the contract includes for fretwork for a timber roof 34 ft. by only 157 ft. Again, much extra timber was bought and men other than Wallis were employed in the later years. The inference, and the identification of the bays with the three E. bays, seems confirmed by the circumstances already briefly described in the historical introduction to the College.

In 1559–60 Russell, probably John Russell of Westminster, came from London to 'devise the chapel work', Forde, the carpenter, consulted with him, and Henry Dickinson came to inspect the stonework. John Brewster was master-carpenter. By 1561 the building had progressed to the stage of some of the corbel-table being worked and glass being bought for the 'new [W.] window at the end of the new Chapel'. Between 1561 and 1563 Wallis was ceiling the W. end and William Blithe of Thaxted and Miles Jugg began the glazing with white and 'painted' glass, which continued into 1565; the date of glazing the E. and N.E. windows is not recorded. In 1564 more of the Chapel was roofed and ironwork for the E. window was bought, while the Junior Bursar's accounts for 1564–5 include for painting the inscription on the coping of the E. gable and for ironwork for the E. finials. Presumably the structure was then completed.

In 1565 and 1566 the stalls, screens and panelling at the E. end were being set up, the stalls by Wallis and the panelling by Arnold Pinckney, and in September 1567 the entries in the accounts of payments for the Chapel end. None of the original glass and only fragments of the 16th-century woodwork survive.

The internal arrangements until the early 18th century are described by Willis and Clark (II, 574–8). The work of repair and refitting envisaged at the beginning of that century was started in 1706, and by 1717 nearly £5,500 had been spent upon it, but the cost was met largely by subscription and no detailed accounts survive. The date of the woodwork is not recorded; Woodward the carver was paid £79 between 1719 and 1721, over the Vice-Master's stall is carved the name of Dr. Richard Walker, who was elected in 1734, and the greater part of the refitting was completed during the Mastership (1700–42) of Richard Bentley. The carving in 1756 by John Woodward of twenty-six shields-of-arms, presumably of the thirty-four still on the stalls and screen, would seem to have been a later embellishment, perhaps of blank shields. Most of Bentley's fittings survive in position.

In 1832 the fabric was restored, the ceiling elaborated and the seating extended under the supervision of Edward Blore, at a cost of £2,511. In 1867 the roof was repaired and the earlier 19th-century elaboration removed; and between 1868 and 1873 the E. end and the S. side of the building were ashlared. Meanwhile the screen was reduced in width and it and the stalls were moved 7 ft. to the W., more seating was installed, and the Vestry, Choir-room, and South Porch were added, all to the designs of A. W. Blomfield; at the same period the organ was enlarged. Thereafter, under the supervision of the same architect, the painted decoration of the Chapel and the new glazing to a theme devised by Westcott and Hort were undertaken. The cost of the repairs and decoration was nearly £20,000. The roof above the panelled ceiling is entirely of the 19th century.

The Chapel has a moulded plinth, an embattled parapet, and diagonal and plain four-stage buttresses surmounted by panelled and crocketed pinnacles. The ashlar of the E. end is of the 19th-century except that of the low-pitched embattled parapet-wall, which has an original inscription in Roman capitals and Arabic numerals, 'Anno 1564' and 'Domus Mea domus orationis vocabitur' (Matthew xxi, 13), and parapet-string with carved bosses, one of a bearded man's head, the rest foliage. The transomed E. window, blocked in 1706, is of nine ogee cinque-foiled lights with subarcuated vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label with fleur-de-lys and rose stops. Principal mullions articulate the lights into three groups of three; the transom is embattled and the lights below have cinque-foiled heads. The dressings are all renewed.

The N. and S. walls (Plate 254) are each in twelve bays of slightly differing lengths. The N. wall between the buttresses is faced with Roman cement and other rendering from plinth to parapet-string. Projecting between the eighth and ninth bays is an octagonal stair-turret with loop-lights with square and two-centred heads in the N. and W. sides; it has a rebuilt top stage containing an original doorway opening on the roof with square head, moulded and stop-chamfered jambs and pediment; the domical ogee roof is of stone, with crockets and finial. The parapet-string of the S. wall is enriched with bosses carved with foliage, a lion and the demi-figure of a bishop. In every bay except the westernmost on the N. and the fourth on the S., where the E. range adjoins, is a transomed window of four cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a label; on the S. this last has returned diagonal stops. The S. door, in the eleventh bay, with shafted jambs and moulded four-centred head, is entirely renewed. The blocked W. window retains the mullions and tracery showing inside the building; outside only the blocking and part of the damaged label appear. It is similar in division to the E. window and has unusual vertical cusping to the lights and narrow vertical tracery in a high four-centred head. A small late 14th-century window looking into the Chapel by the N. angle of the foregoing, of two cinque-foiled two-centred lights under a frieze of trefoiled curvilinear tracery-panelling, has been removed to make way for the modern war-memorial. It opened from an E. extension of the S. first-floor set of rooms in 'King's Hostel', at one time the Master's camera.

The roof, continuous from end to end, is in twenty-four bays with a flat timber ceiling at the level of the tie-beams. From wall-posts on moulded and carved stone corbels spring short shallow braces with pierced tracery in the spandrels. On the tenth tie-beam are the letters R B Mr. (Robert Beaumont, Master 1561–7) and a roughly-cut face. Each bay is sub-divided into four panels from N. to S. by longitudinal beams, which also bear initials and dates, a beam in the seventh bay IT and NS, the eight bay Rh (or RK) twice, and the tenth bay 1561 twice with ER on the S. wall-plate. HR is on both the wall-plates in the twelfth bay. All the main timbers are moulded and carved with folding leaf, vine and other running foliage ornament; they and the panels are enriched with late 19th-century painting and gilding.

Fittings—Brass: In Ante-chapel, of John Beaumont, 1565, rectangular plate with black-letter inscription. Communion Rails (Plate 7): forming a three-sided enclosure, of oak, with moulded base-rail, moulded and enriched top-rail, pedestals with panelled and carved dies, and infilling with elaborate pierced foliation, early 18th-century.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In Ante-chapel—freestanding centrally towards W., (1) of Sir Isaac Newton, [1727], of veined white marble, full-length standing figure (Plate 260) in academic dress holding small prism, on base resting on tall pedestal with black marble step; the base inscribed, on the E., 'Newton. Qui genus humanum ingenio superavit.', on the W., 'Posuit Robertus Smith S.T.P. Collegii hujus S. Trinitatis Magister MDCCLV. L. F. Roubiliac invit et scit.' Freestanding to S.E., (2) of Francis Bacon, 1626, white marble seated figure on pedestal with inscriptions including, on the E., 'H. Weekes. Sc. 1845'; a copy of that in St. Michael's, St. Albans, and presented by Dr. William Whewell, Master 1841–66. On N. wall, (3) of Thomas Kynaston Selwyn, A.B., 1834, white marble tablet with pedimental head containing bay-leaves, on black marble backing, by Tomson and Son, Cambridge; (4) of Francis Hooper, S.T.P., 1763, white marble bust (Plate 19) standing against veined marble pyramidal backing and flanked by books, all on the cornice of a black marble inscription-tablet, signed 'N. Read int. et sct.'; (5) of Richard Porson, 1808, Fellow, Regius Professor of Greek, white marble bust, signed 'Chantrey, sculptor', with inscription-tablet below; (6) of Daniel Lock, 1754, white marble bust (Plate 19) flanked by books and attributes of Painting, Sculpture and Music, all against a black marble shaped backing and on a shelf with inscription-tablet below, of similar material, signed 'L. F. Roubiliac sculpt.'; (7) of Peter Paul Dobree, A.M., 1825, Fellow, Regius Professor of Greek, white marble bust against black marble backing (Plate 20), on foliated corbel incorporated in inscription-tablet below signed 'Baily, R.A. sct. London', inscription by Bishop Kaye. On S. wall, (8) of Richard Stevenson, A.M., 1837, white marble oval tablet flanked by laurels, signed 'W. G. Nicholl, Scult., London'; (9) of the Rev. Thomas Jones, A.M., 1807, white marble bust against dark marble backing, with inscription-tablet below supported on corbels, one signed 'Nollekens Ft.'; (10) of Isaac Hawkins Brown, A.M., 1760, white marble tablet with semicircular top containing three female figures, roundel above with portrait head, signed on the tablet 'Flax[man] R.[A]. scul[psit]', set up 1804; (11) of Roger Cotes, 1716, Fellow, Lucasian Professor, white marble cartouche with acanthus, scrolls, cherub-heads and shield-of-arms of Cotes, inscription by Dr. Bentley. In Choir-room—on E. wall, (12) of John Wordsworth, A.M., 1840, Fellow, white marble bust against black marble backing (Plate 20), cornice of inscription-tablet below signed 'H. Weekes sc. 1840'; (13) of George Chare, 1676–7, white marble draped cartouche (Plate 16) with flaming urn and smaller cartouches above and below, the upper with the carved arms of Chare, all on a scroll-corbel signed 'I. Latham', set up by Albion Chare, his brother. In Vestry—on E. wall, (14) of the Hon. Charles Fox Maitland, A.M., 1818, son of James, 8th Earl of Lauderdale, white marble tablet with two mourning angels, corbel below signed 'Richard Westmacott, R.A., invt. et fecit'; on N. wall, (15) of Frederick Malkin, A.M., 1830, Fellow, white and grey marble neo-Greek tablet; on buttress on S. wall, (16) of John Davies, S.T.B., 1817, Vice-Master, square white marble tablet (Plate 17) with wreathed inscription-roundel with cup and paten below and border with Greek fret, all on grey marble backing; (17) of Samuel Hawkes, A.M., 1829, Fellow, white marble sarcophagus-shaped tablet; (18) of James Lambert, A.M., 1823, Regius Professor of Greek, white marble sarcophagus-shaped tablet, corbel below signed 'Crake, London'; against S. wall, (19) of Thomas Seckford, 1624, painted stone canopied tombchest with effigy, removed from N. wall of Ante-chapel in 1831–2, much damaged and mutilated, chest with panelled front with inscriptions, hour-glass, and two shields-of-arms, of Seckford impaling Brewster and of Seckford, effigy of boy in academic dress lying on side with head originally propped on right arm, forearm and head missing, canopy in two stages each of two bays, the lower stage with Corinthian columns and panelled responds supporting an ovolo-moulded cornice carved with cherub-heads, now defaced, the upper stage with flanking Corinthian columns on pedestals and a central corbel supporting round-headed arches below a plain ovolo-moulded cornice, the corbel being in the form of a horizontal robed figure, now headless; painted on the back wall of the lower stage are three quotations, one in Greek from I Thessalonians, iv, 16, the others, on roundels below, in Latin from Job xix, 25, and II Timothy i, 12; on the tomb-chest is carved 'Henricus Sekford patruus nepoti posuit, Gulielmus Hardwik curavit, Edwardus Woodrofe exculpsit'; fragments lying on the monument include the small figure of a woman, part of an obelisk and three pedestals, the last with six shields-of-arms on the dies, of Seckford impaling (a) (unidentified 23), (b) Jenny, (c) Cranwell, (d) Goldingham, (e) Purry and (f) Harlow.


Floor-slabs: In Chapel—at E. end, of (1) Richard Bentley, S.T.P.R., 1742; (2) William Lort Mansel, S.T.P., 1820, Bishop of Bristol, Master; (3) Robert Smith, S.T.P., 1768, Master. In Ante-chapel—(4) Humphrey Babington, S.T.P., 1691–2, Vice-Master, with shield-of-arms of Babington; (5) Elizmar Smith, 1758, sister of Robert Smith, Master, with shield-of-arms of Smith; (6) William Lynnet, S.T.P., 1699–1700, Vice Master; (7) George Chare, M.A., 1676–7, Fellow, with shield-of-arms of Chare; (8) Peter Courthope, 1695, with shield-of-arms of Courthope; (9) Richard Porson, 1808; (10) Daniel Brattell, S.T.P., 1694–5, Fellow; (11) Dionysius Lisle, LL.B., 1727, auditor and registrar of the College, etc., with shield-of-arms of Lisle; (12) Edward Walpole of Houghton, A.M., 1688–9, Fellow, with achievement-of-arms of Walpole; (13) Thomas Rotherham, A.M., 1702, with shield-of-arms of Rotherham; (14) William Corker, A.M., 1702, Fellow and benefactor, laid down by the College in 1709, payment of £14 10s. being made to Robert Grumbold (see Bursar's Accts. 1709–10); (15) Thomas Bainbrig, S.T.P., 1703, ViceMaster, with shield-of-arms of Bainbrig; (16) Sir Thomas Sclater, Bt., 1684, Fellow, with achievement-of-arms of Sclater; (17) Thomas Smith, S.T.P., 1713–14, Fellow, ViceMaster; (18) John Wordsworth, 1839; along W. end (19–32), small paving-stones with 19th-century inscriptions: W. H., S.T.B., 1715, Fellow; J.B., 1598; H.P., 1697; E.B., A.M., 1718–19, Fellow; J.C., S.T.B., 1714, Fellow; Moore Meredith, S.T.B., 1789; J.N., 1683, Master; John Wilson, S.T.P., 1754; P.C., A.M., 1717–18, Fellow; Stephen Whisson, S.T.B., 1783; N.C., 1633; W.G., 1702–03; W.D., M.A., 1713, Fellow; A.H.

Organ and Organ-case. On Screen between Chapel and Antechapel: organ, begun by Bernard Smith, completed by Christopher Schrider (Conclusion Book, 3 May 1708) and subsequently enlarged; organ-case (Plate 258), of oak, in two stages, the lower close panelled, the upper jettied on carved console-brackets and in two main bays to E. and W. divided and flanked by four towers of pipes, the shorter middle two paired and flanking a narrow subsidiary central bay; the towers supported on paired cherub-heads and with crowning entablatures and pierced pelmets; the main bays with three panels of exposed pipes with carved pelmets etc., the middle panel extending up into a high entablature and flanked by scrolls to the towers, the entablature having a broken curved pediment with central pedestal supporting an elaborate foliate feature; the narrow central bay with lofty elaborately carved cresting; centre part c. 1710, the remainder, that is the flanking towers and adjoining panels, represent a late 19th-century enlargement to N. and S. by Messrs. Hill. Choir-organ, over E. face of Screen, case with central tower flanked by two panels of exposed pipes with cornices and pierced pelmets etc., the outer panels higher than the inner, all the members and the plinth with carved foliated enrichment, c. 1710 (see also Screen, under Panelling).

Panelling, Screen and Stalls: In Chapel, lining the N. and S. walls to sill-level and returned on the E. and W., bolection-moulded panelling in one tall height above a dado, or fixed benches, and divided into bays by coupled attached Corinthian columns and pilasters on pedestals supporting an entablature; the six E. bays and the E. returns are those demarcated by columns, the W. ten bays and the W. returns by pilasters; the necking mouldings are continuous and the space above, between the pilaster caps, is filled with elaborate carving (Plate 33) partly in the round of garlands, drapery, cherub-heads and shields-of-arms with the names of the bearers below on scrolls; the enriched entablature has console-brackets the full depth of the frieze supporting a cornice of wide projection with coffered soffit and surmounted, on the Screen, by a gallery-front of bolection-moulded panelling. The square-headed doorway in the middle of the Screen is flanked by attached Corinthian columns on pedestals supporting paired brackets under a canopy-like projection of the main cornice, on which stands the choir-organ (see above); symmetrically to S. and N. of the doorway, the Master's and Vice-Master's stalls have detached side columns and responds supporting open curved pediments with cherub-heads carved on the frieze of the entablature-blocks; the seats are within semi-domed niches with shell heads with 'R. Bentley Mr. Coll.' and 'R. Walker V-Mr.' respectively carved in Roman capitals on the moulded archivolts; above the niches are carved foliage, garlands and shields-of-arms, and beside them are elaborate scrolled arm-rests; the close-panelled desk-enclosures have enriched members. The remainder of the stalls, arranged as shown on the plan, have desks with plain close-panelled fronts. The shields, reading from N.E., by W., to S.E., are of (i) Rud, (ii) Knight; (iii) Trevor, (iv) Campion; (v) Hacket, (vi) James; (vii) Newton, (viii) Montagu; (ix) Stubb; (x) Cotes; (xi) Burrell, (xii) Eden; (xiii) Bathurst; (xiv) Cressar, (xv) Barrington; (xvi) Perry; (xvii) Walker; (xviii) Bentley (Master's stall); (xix) Pierpoint; (xx) Montagu; (xxi) Bacon, (xxii) Modd; (xxiii) Chamberlayne, (xxiv) Miller; (xxv) Jurin; (xxvi) Ekins; (xxvii) Ayloffe, (xxviii) Hutchinson; (xxix) Middleton, (xxx) Moyle; (xxxi) Smith, (xxxii) Colman; (xxxiii) Fuller, (xxxiv) Banks. The woodwork described, except the desks, is enriched with modern gilding. The W. face of the Screen (Plate 258) is uncoloured; it is of the Doric order and in five unequal bays divided and flanked by fluted columns, those on the flanks being square, supporting a continuous entablature; the end columns are engaged and flank tall semi-domed niches with panelled seats and moulded imposts and archivolts; the two middle columns are freestanding, the back wall being recessed; the three recessed bays are divided and flanked by attached half and quarter columns and contain the doorway to the Chapel in the middle and niches similar to those just described to each side. The full Doric entablature supports a gallery-front of bolection-moulded panelling divided into bays by panelled pedestals. Within the thickness of the S. end of the Screen is a stair to the organ-gallery above. The limiting dates for the woodwork are given above; stylistically it is c. 1735; twenty-six of the shields were not carved until 1756. Extra rows of seating and wrought-iron desks in front of the centre blocks of stalls are late 19th-century. In Ante-chapel, lining N., S. and W. walls to a height of 7 ft. above fixed benches, oak panelling divided into narrow bays by attenuated pilasters and with carved 'antique' heads flanked by foliated scrolls over the segmental top of each panel and below the main cornice, parts perhaps mid 16th-century, largely late 19th-century; supporting the 19th-century benches, parts of moulded and shaped arm-rests cut from oak stalls, 16th-century.

Reredos (Plate 258): against the E. wall, of oak, painted and gilded, of baldachino form, with four grouped Corinthian columns at each side on panelled pedestals supporting enriched entablature-blocks with modillion-cornices; from the last springs a semicircular arch with moulded archivolt and wide coffered soffit, each coffer containing a carved rosette; flanking the arch and rising from the entablature blocks, elaborately carved scrolls with urns upon the volutes support an open pediment with all the members enriched; the tympanum and the rest of the space above the arch and between the scrolls are filled with palm-leaves and foliation of much complexity with, in the centre, a triangle supported by cherub-heads and painted with ΑΩ on a rayed roundel; the back wall of the arch has a dado of bolection-moulded panelling and short returns of the order etc. framing late 19th-century paintings, a Pietà below, the Ascension above (see Library, for the painting formerly here); the E. window was being blocked in 1706 presumably to provide the setting for this reredos, early 18th-century. Screen: see under Panelling. Stalls: see under Panelling.

King Edward's Tower (Plate 254), sometimes known as the 'Clock Tower', adjoining the Chapel on the W., formerly stood some 90 ft. further S. where it was the gatehouse, preceding Great Gate, to King's Hall. Begun in 1428, the master-mason was probably John (?) Dodington; John Brown and Henry Jekke of Barrington supplied the clunch for it; stone came from Burwell and Hinton. John Douse was the chief carpenter and the accounts of 1428–9 include payments to him for the centering of the gateway. Timber came from Haverhill. The battlements and vaults were added and the stonework evidently finished in 1432; thereafter the gates were made and mounted and the carving, which included a statue of the king, coloured. The date of removal to the present position is shown by the accounts for 1599–1600, which include for digging the new foundations and for carrying the stonework to store pending rebuilding the following year. A number of alterations were made during re-erection; the N. turrets were superimposed and neither the staircase in the N.W. turret nor the main vault of the gatehall retained; furthermore, compression seems to have been necessary to fit the laterally constricted space between the two buildings, the Chapel and Old Library, to E. and W. A number of decorative additions are noted below. In 1610 the clock and bell were inserted, but the former was renewed and a new clock-face made in 1726–7, when also two more bells were added. The timber bell-turret is of the mid 19th-century, though following in form and silhouette that, probably of 1610, shown by Loggan; it was taken down, repaired and re-erected in 1945. In 1752–3 Charles Bottomley was paid £88 for repairing 'and beautifying the turrets and great gate of the Clock' and for stone, presumably for some refacing.

The Tower is of coarse shelly oolite, except the brick N. wall. It is rectangular on plan with octagonal angle turrets on the S. continued above the main parapets and embattled; the turrets on the N. now rise from within the fourth storey, their N. faces being flush with the N. wall-face. Of the four storeys, the first and second floors are reached from the Old Library stair and the top floor by a stair in the S.W. turret. The Tower has a moulded plinth, strings dividing the front into three and the S. turrets into four stages, and, except on the E., a main parapet embattled on the S. and W., plain on the N.

The S. archway has chamfered jambs and moulded high four-centred head with a moulded label (p. 394) with returned stops, that to the W. carved with a shield now much decayed charged with a saltire for Nevile. (fn. 1) Over the head of the arch is a strapwork panel of c. 1600 enclosing the carved and painted arms of the College with a painted inscription below, 'Tertivs Edwardvs fama svper aethera notvs', extending between two 15th-century shields in cusped panels over the haunches of the arch; the shields are carved and painted with the arms of England on the E. and new France and England quarterly on the W.

The niche in the middle of the first floor, for the columns of which payment to the carver Paris Andrew occurs in the Junior Bursar's accounts of 1600–01, has a shell head and flanking Ionic columns on pedestals supporting a cornice with strapwork cresting incorporating a roundel painted with the arms of England impaling old France. In the niche is a statue of c. 1600 of Edward III, with metal crown, holding an orb and metal sword, the last encircled by three crowns; on the sill is the painted inscription 'Pvgna pro patria 1377'. The windows each side of the niche are of two lights with two-centred openings in square heads with sunk spandrels and moulded labels; the labels butt against the flanking turrets on the extremities. The four-light window on the second floor has openings with polygonal heads and sunk spandrels; most of the upper-half is concealed by the clock-face. To each side of the window are crowned strapwork roundels of c. 1600 containing the arms of new France and England quarterly on the E., and of England on the W., each in a Garter. The two windows on the third floor are similar to those on the first floor but with ill-fitting carved crestings instead of labels. Level with the cresting, splayed across the angles between wall and turrets, are carved lions' masks below the main parapet-string; this last is enriched with paterae and surmounted by a band of curvilinear tracery-panelling. The band has been compressed to fit the space between the turrets; above it, the embattled parapet is panelled.

The turrets have a S. window in each stage consisting of a single light with four-centred opening in a square head with a label; additional oval windows low in the second stage are both of c. 1600.

The rebuilt timber bell-turret is hexagonal and in two diminishing stages with open arcaded sides, the arcading in the upper stage being in two heights; the lead-covered dome, of reversed ogee profile, has a tall timber and iron finial and weather-vane. It contains three bells: 1st inscribed and dated 'Trinitas in unitate resonat 1610 Ricardus Holdfeld me fecit'; 2nd inscribed 'Cum voco venite Thomas Osborn Downham Norfolk fecit 1795'; 3rd dated 1726; all were recast in 1910.

The N. side has the two lower floors largely concealed; on the ground floor towards the E. is a 15th-century archway with moulded four-centred head; it opens to a passage to 'King's Hostel' with a rendered pointed-segmental barrel vault. On the second floor is a two-light window similar to those to the S. on the first floor; the small rectangular two-light window on the third floor has a timber frame and mullion. The E. side is concealed. The W. side, where it rises above the adjoining range, is faced with Roman cement; on the top floor is a two-light window similar to those at the same level on the S. but with a label and no cresting.

The Gatehall (15½ ft. by 15¾ ft.) and the rest of the interior have been modernised. The doorway from the Old Library staircase to the Treasury on the second floor has chamfered jambs and a high four-centred head and retains an old nail-studded plank door with original wrought-iron embattled lockplate.

The Old Library Range, towards the W. end of the N. side of Great Court, is of three storeys. The Library formerly occupied most or all of the top floor; the books were removed from it in 1694–5. The range will be seen to occupy one of the two positions suggested for it in the 16th-century plan of the College reproduced by Willis and Clark (II, fig. 10 facing p. 465), but it follows English tradition in style, not the colonnaded plan there proposed. The accounts of 1589–90 include for stone bought from one Hall. By 1600 the range was built but not completed. In 1601 the N. parapet was rendered, the staircase was plastered, the ironwork bought for the interior, and the lead flashings of the roof adapted to the 'new tower' (King Edward's Tower). The N. extension of the Master's Lodge on the W. of Great Court was built at much the same time, but the Old Library range, through to the external W. wall, was completed first. The whole exterior is described here in the correct architectural context but part of the interior is allocated to the Master and accordingly, with the exception noted below, is described with the Lodge.

Entries in the accounts of 1665–6 show that the Library had been burnt and the roof destroyed; the damage seems to have necessitated rebuilding much of the N. and W. walls of the range and the addition of buttresses on the N. Subsequently the conversion of the top floor into chambers involved some alterations to the windows. In 1812–13 the S. side was faced with Roman cement by James Clabbon, and in 1873 five of the S. windows on the top floor were renewed.

The rendered S. side is in eight bays, with a plinth and an embattled parapet. In the second and sixth bays are doorways with chamfered jambs, moulded four-centred arches in square heads enriched with shaped dentils and moulded labels; the more easterly doorway has blank shields in the spandrels. The windows generally are of two and three lights, those on the ground and first floors with polygonal openings, those on the second floor with two-centred openings, all in square heads with sunk spandrels and moulded labels. The turret, the Master's Tower, overlapping on the W. is described with the Master's Lodge.

The N. side is of clunch, rubble and brick, with a plinth and a white brickwork parapet, the last renewed in 1756–7. It is divided unequally by five 17th-century four-stage buttresses of white brick with Ketton stone dressings. In the E. division are two bays of windows, in the next three, and in the third two; in the fourth a modern two-storey addition has been built between the buttresses; in the fifth is one bay of windows. Except in the end bay the ground-floor windows are of one, two and three lights with two-centred openings in square heads with sunk spandrels and in part restored; presumably many windows from the demolished buildings were available in 1590–1600 and the foregoing are probably earlier features reused; the seventh window, of three lights, may be wholly modern; the end window is of the early 18th century with rectangular sash-hung opening and moulded stone architrave. On the first floor are two windows similar to that last described, a third taller and a fourth of the same date but with a timber frame, three of one, two and three lights similar to the older ones described but the three-light window over that below again perhaps wholly modern, and one modern two-light window. On the second floor one original but much restored three-light window with four-centred openings in a square head remains at the E. end; of the nine other windows, three are of the early 18th century, as described above, though one is now blocked, and the rest modern.

The W. end has a plinth and parapet-wall continued from the N. side; the latter rises in the middle in a low-pitched gable. The wall up to about half the height is of rough clunch ashlar with small patches of brick and, above, of brick with some Ketton ashlar patches. The windows on the ground and first floors are both of the early 18th century and similar to those of the same date on the N. already described; flanking the head of the lower and the sill of the upper window are traces of blocked windows relating to the original floor-levels inside (see Master's Lodge). On the second floor are two windows and the patching where a third window has been removed; those surviving are of three and two lights with four-centred openings in square heads; the first is entirely restored, the second perhaps original.

The interior contains Fellows' and undergraduates' rooms, except the westernmost room on the ground floor and the W. half of the first floor; these are part of the Master's Lodge. The first floor room next W. of staircase 'B', which was added to the Lodge in exchange for the Master's S. rooms taken over by the College in 1920, is the Master's Library; being a modern allocation, it is here described.

On the ground floor are exposed chamfered ceiling-beams. Staircase 'B' rises only to the first floor, staircase 'C' to the full height; the latter is that finished in 1601. On the first floor, the E. room has an oak fireplace-surround made up of materials of c. 1600, with flanking enriched coupled and fluted Doric pilasters supporting an entablature forming an overmantel in three bays with frieze-panels containing arabesques. The small room adjoining on the N.W. is lined with 18th-century fielded panelling with a dado-rail and cornice. The Master's Library has only a secondary approach from staircase 'B'; the floor is at the original level and lower than that in the westernmost room. The walls are lined with modern bookcases and panelling, but the latter incorporates six enriched arched panels of c. 1600 in the overmantel. On the second floor, the middle room is lined with late 18th-century panelling with a dado-rail and has a plaster dentil-cornice; the fireplace has a wood surround with a traceried frieze, corniceshelf, and eared panel in the overmantel. The large room next W. has an elaborate cellular plaster ceiling probably of 1873. The self-contained W. set is approached by the Master's Tower and entered through a small lobby partly lined with reused panelling of c. 1600 and containing a flight of 17th-century stairs with close strings, turned balusters, square newels and moulded handrail. The set contains more reused panelling of c. 1600 and a bolection-moulded fireplace-surround of c. 1700.

The West Range of Great Court contains the Hall in about the middle with the Kitchen etc. to the S., and the Master's Lodge to the N. The Hall and all to the S. are almost wholly of c. 1605 and c. 1775, the earlier being part of Dr. Nevile's great rebuilding scheme. Some account of the former buildings on the site, of which only fragments survive, is given in the historical introduction to the College.

The Hall (Plate 253) (40½ ft. by 101¼ ft., including the Screens 9¾ ft. wide overall), begun in 1604 and slated the following year, was designed by Ralph Symons and built by John Symes. Thomas Yates was paid for the slating and Gilbert Wigge for the paving. Clunch came from Barrington and Eversden and limestone from King's Cliffe; ragstone was reused from Cambridge Castle. Francis Carter was master carpenter; an agreement with him for the timber-work in the Hall, Buttery and Kitchen, but not the roof of the last, was made in February 1603–04 in the sum of £212, the first payment being made to him in June 1604 and the last recorded in September 1605.

The wainscoting was made by Andrew Chapman by agreement dated February 1604–05; the wood was brought from King's Lynn. Both Carter and Chapman, the former by evidence of the accounts, the latter by inference, were responsible for the Screen. The windows were not glazed until 1607–08. The total cost of the work has been computed at £1,994. In 1651 the arms of the Commonwealth were set up over the dais panelling but were replaced by the Stuart Royal arms, carved by George Woodroffe, in 1660. The cellars below the Hall were dug in 1751–2. In 1866 the interior was restored and the dais increased in depth. In 1955 the dais panelling and the Royal arms were taken down, restored, recoloured and regilded and in the following year the screen was similarly renovated, in situ. The 'Tribunal' against the outside of the W. wall is described with Nevile's Court.

The Hall is open to the roof. The walls have been largely refaced outside in modern times with Ketton and Clipsham stone ashlar; the infilling is brick, four courses measuring 10 ins. The N. wall is of modern brickwork. The roofs are slate-covered. The E. and W. sides have plinths and embattled parapets; they are generally similar; both are in seven bays, with oriel-windows filling the second bay from the N. and the other bays divided and flanked by three-stage buttresses, those on the E. with pinnacles rising above the parapet-wall, those on the W. stopping just below the parapet-string. In each free bay, above a high moulded string, is a stone-mullioned window. The windows in the N. bay are of three and the rest are of four transomed lights with four-centred openings in square heads below horizontal labels continued as strings that butt against the buttresses and return round the oriel-windows. These last are of four lights on the face, three on each canted side and two on the straight returns, all being divided into equal heights by four transoms. The lights have four-centred openings, below each transom as well as at the head, and sunk spandrels. The main embattled parapet is returned round the oriels, that on the E., and possibly that on the W., supplanting the strapwork cresting shown in both Loggan's and West's engravings of the College, of c. 1688 and 1740.

The porch bounded by the buttresses in the S.E. bay is one storey high and approached up eight steps, elliptical on plan. The outer arch has a semicircular head with moulded archivolt and keystone, enriched network diapering on the soffit, and enriched responds with moulded caps and bases; flanking it are attached Roman Doric columns on pedestals supporting an entablature surmounted by a modern strapwork cresting, reproducing that shown by Loggan, incorporating a square panel carved with the College arms. The steps were given their present form between c. 1688 and 1740.

The reset E. and W. doorways to the Screens-passage are of the 15th century; they have moulded jambs and two-centred arches in square heads with traceried spandrels and a 17th-century horizontal string above; both are extensively restored; that to the W. has a segmental-pointed rear-arch, some brickwork in the splays and a four-centred brick relieving-arch. The oak doors are of the early 17th century, with applied nail-studded mouldings forming rectangular and radiating panels, wrought-iron strap-hinges, two with fleur-de-lys terminals, and wickets.

The N. and S. ends of the Hall are gabled. The gables rise clear of the adjoining buildings; each contains a restored window of five mullioned and transomed lights with four-centred openings in a square head with a label. The copings and finials are modern and the S. gable has been refaced with white brick, probably in 1862 when the window was reopened after being blocked since 1774.

The timber lantern at the roof-ridge is hexagonal and in three stages, with a shaped lead-covered dome rising to a gilded ball and slender obelisk-finial supporting a wrought-iron weather-vane; the vane is pierced with the arms of the College. Almost filling each face of each stage is a glazed window, and at the corners of the upper stages are gilded wrought-iron scrolls rising from squat pedestals on the cornices of the stages below. The lantern is generally similar to that shown by Loggan except that the heads of the openings in the two lower stages are now two-centred and that scrolls replace small vanes on the top stage. The accounts for the original louvre include for 'the great and the lesser' vanes and the 'spire'; thus, although the structure is much repaired, and glazed, the original form is probably perpetuated. John Atkynson was paid for the original boarding.

The interior (Plate 256) retains the original double-framed timber roof in seven bays divided and flanked by hammer-beam trusses with three collars. The arched braces from the shaped corbels to the hammer-beams and from the hammerposts to the lowest collars are rusticated; at the junctions, below posts and collars, are shaped pendants. Longitudinal plates across the heads of the hammer-posts support the principals and intermediate principals and are stiffened by curved longitudinal braces from the posts, again with pendants at the junctions. In each roof-slope are four purlins. All the spandrels and the spaces between the first and second collars are filled with open arcading of semicircular arches springing from square and turned Ionic columns tapering to the base; the arches have key-blocks with small turned pendants. Between the second and third collars are shaped posts only. The roof is ceiled above the third collar and below the common rafters. Between the wall-plate and the lowest purlin is close-panelled arcading. Most of the timber mouldings are of Classical profile. The lantern-opening in the middle bay is hexagonal.


Cross-Section through Hall Trinity College

Cross-Section through Hall Trinity College

The panelling behind the dais and returned into the oriel-windows is seven panels in the height and divided into five bays on the N. wall, one on each return, and one on the N. sides of the oriels by Ionic pilasters on pedestals supporting an entablature just below window-transom level. The pilasters are panelled and enriched with arabesques; the pedestals contain lozenge-shaped panels; the entablature has arabesque friezepanels separated by foliated and mask-brackets, the middle bracket being carved with the arms of Nevile. All the main panels are sub-divided into a geometrical pattern of smaller panels. Surmounting the three middle bays on the N. wall is an elaborate pyramidal strapwork cresting flanked by obeliskfinials and incorporating terminal figures supporting an entablature to frame the Stuart Royal arms; these last are carved in high relief and with the motto 'Semper eadem' on a ribbon below, the motto being imposed to adapt the arms to Queen Anne (before 1707). In the end bays are projecting doorcases with fluted pilaster-strips supporting entablatures with mask-brackets and strapwork cresting flanked by spiked ballfinials. The doors are uniform with the rest of the panelling. The whole is painted and heightened with gilding. Except the Royal arms by Woodruffe, the woodwork is doubtless part of the work of Andrew Chapman for which he was paid £40 and an earnest of £3 6s. 8d. in 1605. The panelling on the S. sides of the oriels and on the E. and W. walls is renewed but incorporates some early 17th-century arabesque frieze-panels and some old grotesque masks.

The Screen (Plate 257) is in two stages and in five symmetrical but unequal bays divided and flanked by superimposed Ionic and Corinthian columns on pedestals. The middle and end bays of the lower stage and all the bays of the upper are divided into two subsidiary bays by terminal figures. The entablatures of both orders are continuous, returning over the columns. Surmounting the Corinthian entablature is a pyramidal strapwork cresting to each main bay divided and flanked by pierced strapwork obelisks over the columns. The second and fourth bays of the lower stage contain segmental-headed doorways with fanlights; the rest, that is, the six subsidiary bays are close panelled. The ten subsidiary bays of the upper stage have, above a panelled dado, arched openings with removable shutter-boards (Plate 257). The Ionic columns and responds are carved with arabesques to one-third their height and fluted above; their pedestals contain lozenge-shaped panels and their entablature has carved masks on the entablatureblocks, arabesques and roses in the frieze, and a dentil-cornice. The terminal figures in this stage have baskets of fruits on their heads and spring from tapering shafts enriched with arabesques, strapwork, etc.; the close panelling is framed in a geometrical pattern. The doors and fanlights are of the late 19th century, but the enriched key-blocks and spandrels are original. In the upper stage, the columns are diapered and fluted, the terminal figures support Ionic caps, and the pedestals of both are continued as a dado and the whole carved with elaborate foliation, cartouches and fruits. The Corinthian entablature is enriched with grotesque masks and jewel ornament on the frieze and acanthus on the cornice. The arched openings have key-blocks with turned pendants, enriched responds with caps and bases and foliated spandrels. Incorporated in the cresting over the three middle bays are the carved arms of the College in the centre, and achievements of Nevile quartering Neville, Albany, Middleham, Albany, Middleham, Clavering, (unidentified 24) on the E., Hide on the W. The shutter-boards (Plate 257) are covered with carved foliation, grotesques, masks, winged mermaids, human figures with extremities ending in scrolls etc. of the highest elaboration; the fourth shutter from the E. includes the arms of Nevile.

The S. side is in five bays divided by Ionic pilasters, enriched as before, on pedestals; the arches of the doorways spring from terminal figures on pedestals; the other bays are close panelled. In April 1605 Francis Carter was paid £5 for part of 'his bargain for the workmanship of a screen for the hall'. In 1607–08 Andrew Chapman was paid £6 10s. in full discharge of his bill for the Hall wainscoting; three years before he had been paid, as noted above, and Willis and Clark (II, 492) conclude that the later payment was for a share in the workmanship of the screen.

In the S. wall of the Screens-passage are three clunch doorways with chamfered jambs and four-centred heads. Elsewhere in the College is preserved the Hall brazier (Plate 273) bought for £12 in 1702–03 and discarded in 1866; it is of wrought and cast-iron, with a lobed-square fireplate, some 2 ft. 10 ins. across, on shaped feet and with a perforated dome in the middle surrounded by a balustrade, 8¼ ins. high, with ball terminals.

The Hall windows contain much heraldic glass, which in the following account is divided into two groups: first, that of the late 16th and early 17th centuries; second, that of later date to 1850. The first also includes two mediaeval fragments, and the second an 18th-century portrait-head of Queen Anne. Group A: in N.E. window, upper N. light, (a) See of Ely; in second light, (b) Wilmer quartering Lumley. In E. oriel, top tier: second light, (a) Henry Bellasis, K. and B., of Newbrugh, Bellasis quartering (unidentified 25), Lespring, Cardigan, Billingham, Errington; third light, (b) See of Bath and Wells impaling (John) Still; fourth light, (c) Russell quartering two blanks, Herring, Froxmore, Wyse, blank, Seamark, Barnack, Tilly, Tame, Tilly, Laxham, Oldham, (unidentified 26 and 27); fifth light, (d) Coke quartering (unidentified 28, 29 and 30), damaged; sixth light, (e) Thomas Howard, K.G., 1st Earl of Suffolk, Howard quartering Brotherton, Warren, Mowbray, within a Garter with an earl's coronet; seventh light, (f) See of Canterbury impaling (Richard) Bancroft, with motto, faded; eighth light, (g) Egerton quartering Bassett within an engrailed sable border; ninth light, (h) Devereux, Earl of Essex, K.G., Devereux quartering Bourchier, Woodstock, Bohun of Hereford, Milo, Mandeville, Louvain, Woodville, Crophull, Verdun, Bigod, Marescal, Ferrers, blank, Quincy, Blanchman, within a Garter with an earl's coronet; eleventh light, (i) Jenour quartering (unidentified 31), Fitzherbert, Zouch of Leicester, Molineux, Segrave, (unidentified 32 and 33), blank, (unidentified 34, 35, 32, 36 and 37), Segrave, blank; second tier: sixth light, (j) Sir Francis Barrington, Barrington quartering Mandeville, Clarence, Neville, Montagu, Holland, Beauchamp, Spencer, Clare; ninth light, (k) Parker of Herstmonceux quartering Morley, (unidentified 38), Morley, blank, Marescal, (unidentified 39), de la Pole, Latham, Isle of Man, Warren, (unidentified 40–42), Parker; tenth light, (l) See of Ely impaling Heton quartering More, faded; eleventh light, (m) Fulke Greville, Lord Brooke, Greville quartering Ufford, Beke, Latimer, Cheney, Stafford, Maltravers, Beauchamp, Ufflet, with a label below inscribed 'Fulco Greville', with a crest, faded and damaged. In middle E. window, upper N. light, (a) Smith of Suffolk; upper fourth light, (b) Jermyn, reset in reverse and partly upside down, in nine quarters, blank, Rushbrooke, Jermyn, Redesham, blank, Gissing, Bosun, Burgon, Reppes, damaged. In fifth window, upper N. light, (a) Richard Lovelace reset in reverse and much patched, in four quarters, St. Barbe, Hengham (twice), Lovelace; upper fourth light, (b) Harcourt quartering (unidentified 43), Marmion, Kilpeck, Fundin, (unidentified 44), blank, (unidentified 45), Zouche, (unidentified 46–48). In sixth window, upper N. light, (a) Deanery of Canterbury impaling Nevile quartering Neville, Albany, Eudo; upper S. light, (b) Nevile quarterly as in sixth (a) impaling Mantell quartering Heyford, Wood, Cantelupe.

In N.W. window, upper N. light, (a) Stanhope quartering (illegible), Longvillers, Lexinton; upper middle light, (b) (unidentified 49), achievement in oval panel; upper S. light, (c) Elwes of Stoke quartering Garbett, a crescent for difference in fess point, achievement. In W. oriel, lowest tier: second light, (a) Furtho; third light, (b) Keyes, (c) Weld quartering Button, (unidentified 50); fourth light, (d) Fotherby with motto, (e) Nevile quartering Neville, Albany impaling Eudo, Middleham; fifth light, (f) Stanhope quartering Malovell, Longvillers, Lexinton, much renewed and first quarter reversed, (g) Harcourt, dated 1610, achievement, (h) Thorold quartering Hough, Burnell, Brerehaugh, Touchet, Audley, Hough, blank; sixth light, (i) (unidentified 51) quartering Norton, (j) Sir John Cutts, Cutts quartering Esmerton, with scutcheon of pretence of Brocket quartering Neville, (unidentified 52), two blanks, Lytton, inscribed 'Ioh Cuts', achievement, (k) Henry Bellasis of Newbrugh, Bellasis quartering (unidentified 25), Lespring, Cardigan, Billingham, Errington; seventh light, (l) Sir Robert Wroth, (m) Howard quartering Brotherton, Warren, Mowbray, within a Garter, with earl's coronet and motto, (n) Zouche quartering Cantelupe, Brewes, Milo, Marescal, Segrave, blank, St. Maur, Lovell, Zouche, Quincy, (unidentified 53, 54), Segrave, Segrave, Dynham, Arches, (unidentified 55), Welby, (unidentified 56–58); eighth light, (o) Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick, Rich quartering Baldry, (p) Cecil quartering Echington, Wynston, Echington, Walcot, Cecil, within a Garter, with an earl's coronet, (q) Sir Percival Hart, Hart quartering Peche, [Hadley?], blank, Bray, Bray, blank, [Wright?], Butler, Hussey, (unidentified 59, 60), Crosier, D'Abernon; ninth light, (r) Radcliffe, (s) Stanhope quartering Malovell, Longvillers, Lexinton, inscribed 'Ed. Stanhope', achievement, (t) Duckett quartering impaled coats of Stopham and Vavasour, Bellingham, Burnishead; tenth light, (u) William Thornhill, Thornhill quartering Eland quartering Tankersley, (v) Stanhope quartering three damaged coats impaling Macwilliams quartering blank, Easton, Caunfield, Wingham, Ingloss, Gestingthorp, Eston, Hartishorn, Nernvit, Ley, (w) Metcalf quartering blank, Pigott, Leeds, Normanville, Metcalf; eleventh light, (x) small figure in plate armour, inscribed 'Ricardus Dux', c. 1425 (Plate 230), (y) Tudor Royal arms, 15th-century; twelfth light, (z) (unidentified 61), (aa) Gray quartering Hastings, Valence, Quincy, Astley, Woodville, Bonville, Harrington, with an ermine label overall, with inscription below 'Joh Gray Miles', and crest, (bb) Banning quartering Norden; thirteenth light, (cc) Hall, formerly inscribed 'W. HA', (dd) Radcliffe quartering Fitzwalter, Burnel, Mohun, Lucy, Egremont, Mortimer, Coulchiefe, inscribed 'W. Radcliffe Miles Comensal Col 1567', (ee) Toddington impaling Throckmorton; fourteenth light, (ff) Falconer, (gg) John Hammond, Fellow, doctor to James I and Prince Henry, inscribed with name, titles and date 16[08], damaged, (hh) Barrow. In middle W. window, upper N. light, (a) Whalley, the first quarter blank, quartering Leeke, (unidentified 62, 63), blank, Kirton, Stockton, Hatfield, Selioke, Warde, Francis, Mallet, much faded; upper S. light, (b) Bill. In fifth window, upper S. light, (a) Goodyear. In sixth window, upper N. light, (a) Bill; upper S. light, (b) Nevile quartering Neville, Albany, Middleham. In S.W. window, upper N. light, (a) Clifton quartering Constable, all reset in reverse, in four grand quarters, Frechville, Constable, (unidentified 64), Newmarch quartering Rode, Clifton, (unidentified 65), Cresby, on a scutcheon over all (unidentified 66); upper S. light, (b) Kercher, faded.

Group B: the later heraldic glass to 1850 consists generally of achievements-of-arms, with names and dates below. Those of the late 18th-century have foliated wreaths or naturalistic flowers, those of c. 1830 have cusped Gothic framing. In N.E. window, upper S. light, (a) head of Queen Anne, in grisaille, early 18th-century; lower middle light, (b) Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex, 1830, with Gothic canopy-work and inscription on scroll. In E. oriel, top tier, first light, See of Peterborough impaling Hinchliffe. In third window, top row, (a) George John, Earl Spencer, Spencer quartering Bingham quartering Turberville, with supporters, motto, and earl's coronet above, 1787, (b) More Meredith, B.D., with crest, 1786 (?), (c) James Backhouse, B.D., with crest, 1786 (?), (d) Charles, Lord Compton, with supporters and motto, 1787; second row, (e) Sir William Bolland, with crest, 1830, (f) John Singleton Copley, Lord Lyndhurst, with motto and crest, (g) Sir Nicholas Conyngton Tyndale, with crest, 1830, (h) Sir James Parke, with motto and crest, 1830; third row, (i) John Henry Manners, Duke of Rutland, with supporters and crest, 1835, (j) Thomas Pelham Holles, Duke of Newcastle, arms of Clinton with supporters, motto and crest, 1830, (k) Augustus Henry Fitzroy, Duke of Grafton, with supporters and crest, 1830, (l) John Jeffreys Pratt, Marquess Camden, Pratt quartering Jeffreys, with Molesworth in pretence, 1835; fourth row, (m) See of Hereford impaling Thomas Musgrave, (n) George, Lord Lyttleton, with motto and crest. In middle E. window, top row, second light, (a) William Collier, M.A., Professor of Hebrew, with crest; third light, (b) Lord Gray of Groby, Gray quartering Booth, with baron's coronet above, 1786; second row, (c) James Henry Monk, S.T.P., Bishop of Gloucester, 1830, (d) Charles Grey, Earl Grey, with crest, 1832, (e) Lawrence, Lord Dundas of Aske, with crest, (f) See of London impaling Charles James Blomfield, 1828 (?); third row, (g) William Pitt, with motto and crest, 1830, (h) Philip Yorke, Earl of Hardwicke, with supporters and crest, 1830, (i) William Lowther, Earl of Lonsdale, with supporters and crest, (j) William Spencer Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire, Cavendish quartering Boyle, Clifford, with supporters, motto and crest, 1830. In fifth window, top row, second light, (a) George Henry Fitzroy, Earl of Euston, Fitzroy with a silver label, with earl's coronet, 1786, (b) Henry Legge, Lord Stawell, Legge quartering Stawell, 1786; second row, (c) John Henry Smyth, Smyth quartering (unidentified 67), Foxley, Wood impaling Fitzroy, with a scutcheon of Ibbetson, with crest, 1830, (d) Charles Manners Sutton, LL.D., Sutton quartering Manners, with crests of Sutton and Manners, 1830, (e) Sir James Scarlett, (f) Sir Thomas Coltman, Justice of the Common Pleas, with crest, 1837(?). In sixth window, top row, second light, (a) William Henry Lambton, with crest, 1786; third light, (b) Lord Henry Fitzroy, Fitzroy with a silver mullet, with baron's coronet, 1786; second row, (c) John Cust, Earl Brownlow, Cust quartering Brownlow with baronet's badge over all, with supporters and crest, 1833, (d) S. Peck, Senior Fellow, with crest, 1786, (e) I. Tharp, Fellow-Commoner, of Jamaica, with crest, 1786, (f) Sir John Williams, tierced in pale, Richardson (for Williams), Davenport quartering Ward, and Davenport quartering Calveley, Hazelwall, (unidentified 68), [1835]. In S.E. window, (a) Millecent, with crest, and cartouche below with family names and dates and 'W. Price Lon[don] pinxit 1703'; upper third light, (b) Robert Hitch, oval shield in cartouche with putti and inscribed with paternal descent and 'Henricus Gyles Eborac pinxit 1690'.

In N.W. window, lower middle light, William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester, with Gothic canopy-work, 1830. In W. oriel, in lowest fourth light, See of Peterborough impaling John Hinchliffe, D.D., 1785, shield renewed. In middle W. window, top row, second light, (a) Posslethwaite, with crest; third light, (b) Thomas Horton, Horton quartering Horton and Scott. In fifth window, top row, first light, (a) Darley; second light, (b) Richard Newbor, Senior Fellow, with crest, [1786]; third light, (c) Lord Charles Fitzroy, Fitzroy with a silver crescent, 178[6]; second row, fourth light, (d) William John Bankes, Bankes quartering Wynne, (unidentified 69), with crest, 1822. In sixth window, top row, second light, (a) William Lowther, Lowther quartering Quale, Stapleton, Lucy, Strickland, Warcop, (unidentified 70), Lancaster, with crest, 1786; third light, (b) Ralph John Lambton, Lambton with a crescent for difference, 1786. In S.W. window, upper second light, (a) Thomas Spencer, M.A., with crest, 1786; upper third light, (b) John Higgs, B.D., with crest, 1786 (?).

Opening off the Hall on the N.W. and contemporary with it is a rectangular staircase-turret, which gave access to the Master's Lodge; after being partly covered by the N. range of Nevile's Court, it was altered in the 19th century and remodelled in 1920.

The Buttery adjoins the Hall on the S. and the Kitchen stands S.W. of the Buttery. Both were contemporary with the Hall, but the former, with the rooms over, has been almost wholly remodelled to accord with the rest of the range to the S. and is described with it. The Kitchen (32 ft. by 28 ft.) is equivalent to three storeys in height and open to the roof. The walls are of ashlar to the N. and ashlar and brick to the W.; small areas still unmasked on the S. are of rubble incorporating 'herringbone' masonry. The foundations were begun in July 1605; Francis Carter's contract of February 1603–04 for carpenter's work has been mentioned with the Hall; a second contract with him, of September 1605, was for the roof of the Kitchen. The last payment to the slaters was made in November 1605. The spacing of the roof-bays is now irregular; this and the early 17th-century Smithson drawing of the College (R.I.B.A. Drwgs. AE 5/28) leave little doubt that the Kitchen originally extended another bay eastward. Thus the significance emerges of the entry in the accounts of 1604–05, quoted in the historical introduction, for digging the foundation of the Kitchen wall 'that goes through the old Hall'.

The exposed W. part of the N. wall has been remodelled superficially to accord with the treatment of the S. range of Nevile's Court. The entablatures, main cornices and balustraded parapet are continued across it and the three-light windows at first and second-floor levels are both uniform with those further W. The S. wall, now almost entirely concealed by modern kitchen-offices, has in the upper part two windows of two lights with casement-moulded jambs; that to the E. has two-centred openings in a square head, the other has four-centred openings in a four-centred head with a pierced spandrel and both are earlier features reused. The W. wall, partly covered by the S. range of Nevile's Court, shows the projection of the W. fireplace, with a moulded plinth, and has at the S. end a modern doorway cut through an original window. The exposed upper S. part is largely of brick; of the two clunch windows high in the wall and in the gable, the lower is of four lights with polygonal openings in a square head with a label, the upper of three similar lights and without a label. The hexagonal timber louvre at the roof-ridge has a lead-covered flared roof.

The interior has large fireplaces in the N., S. and W. walls; the first and last have been entirely encased with modern tiles; the S. fireplace, now partly blocked, is of stone, with chamfered jambs and segmental head with a plain keystone. The roof is in three bays; a fourth bay was probably destroyed in the 18th century by the insertion of the arcaded wall forming the E. service-passage. The hammer-beam roof-trusses are original; they rise from wall-posts on plain stone corbels and are similar in form to those of the Hall but much rougher, with only two collars, three purlins, one with curved wind-braces, and without the arcaded infilling, queen-posts alone occurring between the collars. The timbers are unmoulded except on the ends of the hammer-beams. The louvre is supported by struts rising from the lower collar beams. The dormer-windows are later insertions. The service-passage of 1771–4 has two large elliptical-headed arches in the W. wall and is covered by a groined vault now in two and a half bays.

The Buttery and rest of the W. range S. of the Hall underwent a remodelling, begun in 1771 and finished in 1774, so extensive as to amount almost to rebuilding. James Essex was the architect. In 1927 the W. side of the Buttery was refronted, in Clipsham stone. The range is of three storeys with cellars. The E. wall is of Ketton stone ashlar; the W. wall, except of the Buttery, and the S. wall are of white brick. The roofs are slate-covered. The E. side, extending from the Hall to the S. range of Great Court, is symmetrical, in seven bays with the middle three projecting slightly. It has a plinth, a plat-band at first-floor level and a modillion-cornice surmounted by a balustraded parapet. The doorway in the middle and the windows in the flanking bays and in every bay on the floors above have rectangular openings with architraves; the entablatures restricted to the first-floor windows give them the main emphasis in the composition. All the windows have plain sills except the three in the middle of the top floor, which have returns of the architraves.

The S. end has a plinth, a stone cornice and brick parapetwall. On the ground floor are two and on both the upper floors three 18th-century windows with flat brick arches; the bay-window is modern. The W. side, where now visible, is of similar character to the foregoing.

Inside, the ground floor is occupied largely by kitchen-offices; at the S. end is a Porter's Lodge. The entrance-passage and flanking rooms have groined plaster vaults; the W. wall of these is in, or close to, the position of the original E. wall of the Kitchen, while the thick S. wall is perhaps a survival from Michael House.

The late 18th-century staircase approached through the E. doorway in the S. wall of the Hall rises to the first floor in three flights; it has open bracketed strings, thin turned balusters, square newels and a moulded ramped handrail. Against the walls is a panelled dado. The staircase further S. is similar but with close strings and without ramps to the handrails.

On the first floor, the Old Combination Room (Plate 274) (30 ft. by 36 ft.), occupying the whole of the middle three bays and extending westward to the wall inserted in the Kitchen, rises through two storeys. It has a plaster dado with wood dado-rail enriched with Greek key-pattern ornament. At the wall-head is a frieze modelled with honeysuckle flowers and foliation and an enriched dentil-cornice. The plaster ceiling has a recessed circular panel in the middle and restrained decoration of foliage-festoons, pendants and scrolls, urns, ribbons, etc. The N. door-case has an enriched architrave and entablature, with delicate festoons and ribbons in the frieze; the mahogany door is in six panels. All the decoration except the fireplace-surround is contemporary with the building. From the ceiling-panel hangs a glass and ormolu oil lightfitting (Plate 55) with a central vase and two tiers of crystal pendants, the lower hung from a metal band inscribed in applied Roman capitals and numerals 'D.D. Ca[r]olus Shaw Lefevre hujus Collegii quondam socius pietatis ergo A.D. 1809'.

The part of the W. range of Great Court N. of the Hall is of two storeys with attics. The side to the Court is of ashlar; the W. side is of clunch rubble, ashlar and brick. The roofs are slate-covered. Next to the Hall are the Fellows' Parlour and Combination Room on the ground and first floors respectively; these rooms formerly belonged to the Master and were exchanged in 1920 for the room, now the Master's Library, described above, in the Old Library range. The rest of the range northward contains the Master's Lodge with rooms for H.M. Judges on Assize at the N. end. The oldest part of the building, from the Hall to the thick wall N. of the Master's Entrancehall, was in hand in 1554; the Entrance-hall was then the room ('conclave magistri') in the external angle of the Court, the range continuing eastward from it to link up with King Edward's Tower. Nevile's porch is in the position of the former turret in the angle between the two ranges. The arrangement is shown in J. Hamond's view of Cambridge (1592) together with the mid 16th-century Master's Gallery, which extended at an angle on the N.W. towards the river and was replaced in 1892 by a new wing designed by Arthur Blomfield.

In 1599, as part of Nevile's rebuilding scheme, the E. return range was taken down, and in 1600 the foundations were laid of the N. extension of the W. range, that is, from the Entrancehall to the Old Library range, the fabric of which was then in process of completion. Both were finished in 1601. The interior fitting of the extension of the Lodge seems to have been completed slowly; work was still proceeding in 1612–13. Chapman was again employed for the wainscoting.

Dr. Bentley, shortly after becoming Master in 1700, began an extensive scheme of improvement, replacing the stonemullioned windows with sash-hung windows, inserting new ceilings and fireplaces, panelling the rooms, and adding a spacious new staircase on the W. Cornelius and John Austin were paid for panelling, Robert Grumbold for windowdressings and for setting up marble chimney-pieces. By 1703 at least £1,193 had been spent. By 1705 the staircase was nearing completion, and by 1710 the work and the expenditure had become a matter for such acrimonious dispute with the College that the Senior Fellows drew up an indictment, 'Articles against Dr. Bentley', for submission to the Visitor. A summary of expenses to 1723 shows that the work had cost the College £2,086.

Sometime after c. 1740 (see West's engraving of the College) the semicircular E. oriel was demolished, and in 1785–6 the roof was renewed. During the Mastership of Dr. Whewell (1841–66) changes were made under the supervision of Anthony Salvin with the aim of reinstating something of the earlier external appearance of the Lodge, at least towards the Court. In April 1842 rebuilding the E. oriel and insertion of mullioned windows in the E. wall were begun, and in September the conversion of the shallow single-storey bay-window on the W. into the present oriel was decided upon; these works were finished early in 1843, at a cost of £3,766. The ground plan of the Lodge as it remained to the present century is reproduced by Willis and Clark (II, 605, fig. 41). In 1920, when the S. end between the Master's Entrance-hall and the College Hall was taken over by the College, the party-walls between the two S. rooms on ground and first floors were demolished and an entrance-vestibule and staircase contrived adjoining the Hall; these last, which may recreate some such earlier arrangement, involved a remodelling of the Master's staircase-turret at the N.W. angle of the Hall. The W. side of the Lodge was restored in 1941 when the Master's Dining-room was reconditioned.

The E. side, from the Hall to the Master's Tower, is now largely the work of Salvin of 1841 to 1843. It has a plinth and embattled parapet; the windows, all of the 19th century, are of two and three lights with four-centred openings in square heads with labels. The two-storey semi-octagonal orielwindow, replacing the semicircular oriel depicted by Loggan, has windows of four lights on the face, two on each canted side and one in each return; it is surmounted by an enriched continuation of the main parapet with a weathered inscription, 'Munificentia fultus Alex. J. B. Hope generosi hisce aedibus antiquam speciem restituit W. Whewell Mag. Collegii A.D. MDCCCXLII'; the College paid two-thirds of the cost. The acute gable above the oriel, containing a window of three stepped lights and three much weathered shields-of-arms, with a lofty finial, is Salvin's innovation. On the roof are eight 18th-century flat-topped dormer-windows.

The Master's porch is a work of Nevile, c. 1600, though restored. It has canted angles with attached Ionic columns on pedestals supporting an entablature with elaborate strapwork cresting incorporating the crowned arms of new France and England quarterly in the middle. The outer arch has a semi-circular head with moulded archivolt, carved soffit and jewelled keystone; it springs from jewelled and enriched responds with moulded imposts that are continued to divide enriched flanking pilaster-strips into two stages. In the side walls are single-light windows with four-centred openings.

The stair-turret, the Master's Tower, in the N.W. angle of Great Court, is contemporary with the adjoining ranges; it is three-sided to the height of the last, polygonal above and divided into two stages by a string; the embattled parapet with parapet-string has been renewed. The S. entrance has chamfered jambs and a four-centred opening in a renewed square head with a moulded label. In the front wall are five single-light windows of similar form to the foregoing, except the second and third, which have polygonal openings. It contains a bell of 1811.

The W. side, between the Old Library range on the N. and the W. wing of 1892 on the S., has a preponderance of clunch in the lower part and of brickwork above; it has a plastered plinth and a plain parapet and contains two 18th-century sash-hung windows on each floor. Towards the S. is Salvin's semi-octagonal oriel-window of 1842–3 rising through two storeys and with the main wall behind it gabled. In the roof are two 18th-century hipped dormer-windows. S. of the W. wing the lower part of the wall is covered by modern additions as far as Bentley's staircase bay; this last is of red brick, gabled to the W., and with a large semicircular-headed W. window divided into small panes by heavy timber glazing-bars. The rest of the wall visible southward has the lower part of rubble, the upper of ashlar, but both have been much refaced. On the ground floor are three two-light windows with polygonal openings in square heads with labels; the middle window replaces a doorway, the other two are of c. 1600 but entirely restored. On the first floor are two two-light windows with four-centred openings and otherwise similar to those below; they also are entirely restored. The chimney-shafts are of 18th-century red brickwork flush with the main wall-face and rebuilt later where they rise clear.

Inside, the Fellows' Parlour (29 ft. by 36 ft.), converted from the former Master's kitchen and housekeeper's room, has been modernised but retains an old clunch fireplace with moulded jambs and four-centred head. The Combination Room above (28¾ ft. by 47¼ ft.), converted from the Master's bedroom and study, was fitted in 1920 but has an old clunch fireplace, now partly defaced, in the N. wall with four-centred opening in a square head. The reset overmantel of c. 1600 is divided into three bays by enriched Ionic pilasters supporting an entablature with lions' masks and guilloche ornament in the frieze and a modern cornice; in the middle bay, over an enriched panel inscribed '1546 H8R Fundator', is a strapwork cartouche with the crowned Tudor Royal arms in a Garter with lion and dragon supporters flanked by the crowned initials 'H' and 'R' and by Tudor roses; in the side bays are round-headed panels. The small room W. of the foregoing is lined with reused panelling of the 16th century and c. 1600 incorporating modern work. The doorway to it has a reset timber frame in part original, with stop-moulded jambs and a square head.

The Master's Entrance-hall (28¾ ft. by 29 ft.) has two original chamfered ceiling-beams running N. and S., now encased. At the W. end of the N. wall is a reset clunch doorway of c. 1600 with stop-moulded jambs, flat four-centred head and sunk spandrels. The room is lined with panelling of the 16th century on the E., N. and S. walls, of c. 1600 elsewhere, incorporating some later repairs, in six and seven heights with a cornice of c. 1700; in the overmantel the panels have round heads, enriched responds and carved spandrels. The bolection-moulded fireplace-surround is of gray marble and of c. 1700; the cast-iron fire-back is dated 1596 and displays the arms of the Holy Roman Empire. The Junior Bursar's accounts for 1600– 01 include £26 to Chapman for labour and materials in the Master's Lodge, including fitting the wainscot in two of the old chambers and adding new wainscot to it. For the following year the Senior Bursar's accounts include £115 to him for wainscot work in the Library and Master's Lodge.

Dr. Bentley's Staircase (Plate 67) (27 ft. by 14 ft.), in process of completion in 1705, opens off the W. side of the Entrancehall through an exceptionally wide doorway with glazed door of the same date. It has a bolection-moulded panelled dado, open bracketed strings, turned and twisted balusters, two to a step, and a moulded ramped handrail. The first-floor landing is lined with bolection-moulded panelling incorporating four doorcases with architraves and cornices consisting of returns of the panelling entablature and hung with eight-panel doors. The plaster ceiling is coved.

The Dining-room (28 ft. by 38 ft.), next N. of the Entrancehall, has three chamfered ceiling-beams running E. to W., now encased. The walls are lined with early 18th-century bolection-moulded panelling with moulded dado-rail and cornice, the last now in part encased; the doors are of six moulded and fielded panels. In the overmantel are two fruit and flower festoons finely modelled in plaster. The bolection-moulded fireplace-surround is modern. The cast-iron fire-back displays the Tudor Royal arms with lion and dragon supporters. The room was restored in 1941 when the oak panelling was stripped of paint and found to be heavily restored and supplemented with deal, particularly on the N.; no doubt this was done to provide the partitioning for the narrow passage projected into the room on the N., probably late in the 18th century; similar panelling, part of that described, remains lining the passage. Further repairs in 1952 revealed part of an old clunch fireplace with four-centred arch in a square head close N. of the present fireplace.

The rest of the ground floor of the range northward comprises the Judges' Suite. Both bedrooms are lined with early 18th-century bolection-moulded panelling similar to that already described; the marble bolection-moulded fireplacesurround in the Junior Judge's bedroom is of the same period. The dressing-room at the S. end is lined with plain panelling. The passages on the E. are a 19th-century arrangement.

On the first floor, the room over the entrance-hall has an enriched plaster cornice of c. 1840; the fireplace-surround incorporates 17th-century carved woodwork. The Master's Drawing-room (Plate 274) over the Dining-room has an original plaster ceiling with canted angles. A network of narrow moulded ribs divides it into a geometrical pattern of panels radiating from fifteen moulded and enriched pendants. The elaborate stone fireplace-surround, of the same period, has at the sides twisted pilasters with quarter-length blackamoor terminal figures supporting Ionic caps; the entablature has a frieze of ogee section carved with arabesques; the overmantel, flanked by scroll-like pilasters based on the cornice-shelf and enriched on the face, is in three bays, that in the middle containing a cartouche with the carved and painted arms of the College, those at the sides with strapwork surrounds to roundels containing painted shields-of-arms of Nevile on the N., and of the See of Canterbury impaling Whitgift on the S. Surmounting the crowning dentil-cornice is a pyramidal cresting with obelisk and ball-finials painted blue with gilt stars framing a rectangular panel carved with an achievement of the Tudor Royal arms in a Garter with mantling and lion and dragon supporters. The enrichments of ceiling and fireplace are part gilded and coloured. The surviving accounts suggest that fitting this room was prolonged from 1601 to 1613, but loss of some of the Bursars' books prevents definite allocation of expenditure.

The rest of the first floor northward comprises the King's Suite; the arrangement and fittings of the rooms are similar to those of the Judges' suite below.

The difference between the floor levels of the King's Suite and the rest of the Old Library range, and the position of the blocked windows in the W. end of the latter, show that the rooms of the Judges' Suite have been heightened. The change may be connected with the incorporation, at an unknown date, of these rooms in the Master's Lodge, in order to obtain uniformity throughout. Dr. Bentley's responsibility seems indicated but, against this, appropriation of rooms in the Old Library range is not an item in the Fellows' indictment of him. Further, the arrangement of the ground-floor ceiling-beams suggests that any heightening of the N. rooms would involve a heightening throughout the 1600–01 extension of the Lodge and thus that the change may have taken place in the 17th century.

Access to the N. rooms and, as described, to the top floor of the Old Library range is by the lobby and staircase in the Master's Tower through doorways in the W. and N. walls with chamfered jambs and four-centred heads. The doorway to the first floor of the Old Library range, into the Master's Library, is now blocked.

The South Range of Great Court incorporates the Queen's Gate rather to the W. of centre; the rest contains sets of chambers. It is of two storeys with attics, except the threestorey Gate. The N. wall is of ashlar, mostly reused material, the S. wall of rubble, both random and in 'herringbone' courses. The roofs are slated and tiled.

Some evidence for the retention and use of older walling is given in the historical introduction to the College, but the range in the form it now stands was not begun before 1594. Most of the structural timber is reused material. The Queen's Gate is dated 1597, which may mark completion of the fabric; but work on the range continued into the 17th century when the accounts of 1601–02 indicate that it was finishing. A variation in the building progress E. and W. of the Gate, which minor differences in the fabric suggest, seems to be confirmed by the expenses: these include for boarding over the upper chambers overlooking Gonville and Caius College in 1598, for making the gutters between the Hall and the Queen's Gate in 1601–02. In 1753–4 the N. side was repaired and 'new faced' but, as shown in the historical introduction, this amounted chiefly to retooling, while refacing with new ashlar was confined to the plinths, much of the door and windowdressing, and the upper part of the wall from above the first-floor window heads. The N. face of the Queen's Gate, which had sash-windows inserted on the first floor in 1723, was included in this work, with only rather more refacing and new or renewed arms carved by Woodward; stone-mullioned windows were reinstated in the 19th century. James Essex's work S. of the Hall necessitated the rebuilding of a short length of the W. end of the range between 1771 and 1774. The whole N. front was repaired again and cleaned during the period 1945 to 1947.

Queen's Gate is approximately square outside, with octagonal turrets at the corners so inset that the Gatehall (18¾ ft. by 23 ft.) has irregular canted angles. It has moulded and chamfered plinths and embattled parapets, the turrets being carried up well above the main parapet. The ashlar N. side has an archway with chamfered jambs and high four-centred moulded head with a label (p. 394); over the apex and haunches are three sunk rectangular panels, the first cusped, containing respectively the arms of the College, the See of Canterbury impaling Whitgift on the E., and Nevile quartering Neville, Neville of Bulmer, Bulmer, Eudo, Middleham, Clavering, Glanville, Albany on the W. In the middle of the first floor is a niche, entirely renewed, similar to that opposite on King Edward's Tower, but without the cresting and with 'Dieu et mon droit' inscribed on the sill, containing a seated statue of Queen Elizabeth, crowned and holding orb and sceptre, brought from London in 1597; crown, sceptre and cross on orb are of metal, gilt. Flanking the niche are late 19th-century two-light stonemullioned windows with four-centred openings in square heads with labels. At second-floor level is a moulded string stopping against the sides of the turrets, and on the second floor is a four-light window, of similar detail to those below, flanked on the E. by a Tudor rose, on the W. by a fleur-de-lys. The parapet-string above is enriched with paterae and lions' masks, the parapet with flutings and roundels flanking the carved date 1597, and the face of the merlons with vertical tracery-panelling. The N. turrets are divided into three stages by moulded strings; in the N. face of each stage is a single-light window and, in addition, low down in the second stage, a small oval window. The oval windows are similar to those opposite in a comparable position in King Edward's Tower.

The S. side, of random rubble with restored ashlar dressings, has an archway similar to that in the opposite wall but with a chamfered head and hung with an original nail-studded oak door. This last is in two leaves, each leaf with the face divided into two heights of four panels by moulded rails and muntins and with the back lattice-framed; the panels are ridged and in the E. leaf is a small wicket. On the first floor is a four-light window and on the second floor are two two-light windows, all similar in detail to those in the opposite wall and restored. The turrets are generally similar to those on the N. but so inset that only three faces project from the main wall-face; the S. windows are all, except the oval lights, more or less 19th-century renewals and now without labels. Two similar windows are in the W. side of the top stage of the W. turret.

In the Gatehall is a chamfered ceiling-beam; the doorway to the N.W. turret has chamfered jambs and four-centred head. No old work is apparent on the first floor; the second-floor room is lined with plain 18th-century panelling with a timber cornice.

E. of Queen's Gate, the N. wall of the S. range is of reused ashlar masonry, some being of the 13th century, retooled and in part refaced. It has a moulded plinth and embattled parapet, both refaced, and is in fourteen bays, with ground-floor openings as shown on the plan and two and three-light windows correspondingly on the first floor. The doorways in the fourth, eighth and twelfth bays have chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred arches in square heads with labels. The stone-mullioned windows also have four-centred openings in square heads with labels. The dressings were very extensively renewed in 1753–4, but the original clunch inner order of many of the windows survived until 1945, though much decayed. The lead rainwater-heads and downpipes are of the 18th century. On the roof are seventeen flat-topped dormer-windows.

The S. wall is of 'herringbone' masonry for some 75 ft. W. from the brick gable of the E. range; thereafter, to Queen's Gate, it is of large random rubble with many reused dressed blocks in the upper part. It has a plinth, in part renewed in brick, and plain eaves. The chimney-flues have been repaired in red brick flush with the wall-face; above, the stacks have been rebuilt in the 18th century and later in white brick. The windows on ground and first floors, placed above as below, are of one and two lights with four-centred openings in square heads. They are of much-weathered clunch, with renewed mullions and sills of freestone, or entirely renewed, and some are blocked, but they mainly represent the original fenestration. In the roof are twenty-six restored gabled dormer-windows.

Inside, staircases 'L', 'M' and 'N' rise to the first floor in straight flights between original timber-framed partitions. The sets generally consist of a large room, a small room opening from it on the side away from the staircase, and a gyp-room below or above the stairs. The longitudinal ceiling-beams on ground and first floors are chamfered and some of the timber-framed partitions incorporate central posts supporting them. The wall below the window-seat in the ground-floor room E. of staircase 'M' is lined with panelling of c. 1600 and the room opposite is lined to two-thirds of the height with panelling of the same date.

On the first floor, an original stone fireplace with chamfered jambs and depressed four-centred head remains in the S. wall of the easternmost main room. The main room E. of staircase 'L' is lined nearly to the ceiling with panelling of c. 1600, four panels high with enriched but defaced frieze-panels. The main room opposite retains an original stone fireplace now much mutilated. The main room W. of staircase 'N' has the E. and W. walls lined with panelling of c. 1600, five panels high with fluted frieze-panels, and the N. and S. walls, except below the windows, with 18th-century panelling with a cornice; this last is continued round the room; below the windows the panelling is of c. 1600. Small cupboards with 18th-century panelled doors are contrived in the blocked S. windows. The two-panel door from this room to the N.E. turret of Queen's Gate is of the 18th century; it masks an original stone doorway with chamfered jambs and four-centred head. The similar doorway to the S.E. turret retains an original door of six panels hung on 'cock's-head' hinges. In the attics some of the main chamfered roof timbers are exposed.

W. of Queen's Gate, the N. and S. walls of the S. range are composed of ashlar and 'herringbone' rubble respectively; the first, where not refaced, differs from the ashlar E. of the Gate only in the use of rather smaller blocks of stone, probably almost wholly of the 13th century; the second is much patched and repaired in random rubble. The chimney-stacks on the S. are similar to the others eastward. The N. side has a plinth, three courses at the wall-head and an embattled parapet renewed in the 18th century. It is in ten bays with doorways in the third and seventh bays and an archway in the westernmost bay. This last projects and is an 18th-century rebuilding; the archway is of the same date and has chamfered responds and a four-centred head. For the rest, the doorways and windows are similar to those E. of Queen's Gate but all placed approximately 1 ft. lower. In the roof are nine flat-topped dormer-windows.

On the S. side, the windows differ from those further E. only in the profile of their mouldings. The westernmost bay was rebuilt in the 18th century; in it, the contemporary S. archway has chamfered responds and a four-centred head and the first-floor window is of two lights. On the roof are nine gabled dormer-windows.

Inside, the exposed chamfered ceiling-beams run N. and S., otherwise the arrangement is similar to that in the E. part of the range. On the ground floor, in the partitions of staircase 'P' and E. of staircase 'Q' are original oak-framed doorways with stop-moulded posts and moulded lintels. On the first floor, the main room E. of staircase 'P' is lined to 2 ft. from the ceiling with panelling of c. 1600, incorporating modern work, with a reeded frieze and cornice. In the attics some of the chamfered principals and purlins of the roof are exposed.

The octagonal Fountain (Plate 278) (17 ft. from side to side), standing in the middle of Great Court, is of Cliffe and Clipsham stone ashlar. It was begun in 1601–02. Wyat and Thorpe were paid £5 for carving eight beasts and the lion at the apex; Robert Masson 42s. for the enriched plaster soffit; Lyllie and Baylie £4 10s. for six thousand bricks for the foundations and vaults, among other works. The water-cocks were of brass. The recorded expenses in 1614–15 for painting the Fountain as part of the decorations for the visit of James I show that it was then, at the latest, complete. It was repainted and gilded and twice extensively repaired before being completely rebuilt in 1716 by Robert Grumbold at a cost of nearly £184. Jeffs and Bentley made further repairs in 1766–7 costing £136; in 1821–2 the steps and in 1842 the pipes were repaired.

The water-supply is obtained from the aqueduct first laid in 1327 to bring water from a source some 300 yds. W. of the Observatory (Monument (19)) to the Franciscan friary formerly on the site of Sidney Sussex College (Monument (39)). The supply led under King's Childer Lane, and thus, after 1433, through King's Hall land; thereafter the aqueduct was held jointly by the friars and the scholars until granted by Henry VIII in its entirety to Trinity College.

In spite of repairs and rebuilding the Fountain retains the form and detail, so far as the last is identifiable, shown in Loggan's view of the College in c. 1688, except that the steps have been reduced in number, the crowning flying-ribs are now embellished with intermediate finials, and the main basin is no longer in part covered; further, Masson's enriched plaster soffit has been replaced by a flat boarded ceiling.

The Fountain is raised on three steps. A solid panelled base with chamfered plinth, which contains the main basin, has attached pedestals at each corner on which stand Ionic columns. From the columns spring semicircular arches with solid spandrels supporting an entablature. The entablature has an elaborate pierced strapwork cresting incorporating pedestalbases to seated beasts at the corners. From behind the beasts rise flying chamfered ribs of ogee form meeting in a finial surmounted by a crowned lion holding a shield of the Royal Tudor arms. The total height of the building is 39¾ ft. Standing in the middle of the main basin and rising to the ceiling is a stone shaft supporting two smaller basins.

In each face of the panelled base is a much-weathered carved terminal figure; in the abdomen of the W. figure is a tap, but all the figures appear once to have been so fitted with watercocks; below the tap is a lead-lined basin cut in the chamfer of the plinth. The Ionic columns have five-sided capitals and a deep necking enriched with varied paterae, knots, rosettes, etc. The arches have continuous moulded archivolts, mask keystones, and spandrels carved with strapwork incorporating small shields-of-arms and cartouches as follows: N. by W., clockwise, to N.N.W., (a) See of Canterbury impaling John Whitgift (Archbishop 1583–1604), (j) (unidentified 71), (m) See of York, (n) the College, (o) Thomas Nevile (Master 1593–1615), (p) See of Canterbury, (b, c, f, g, l) decorative cartouches etc., (d, e, h, i, k) blank shields. The frieze of the entablature contains elaborate interlacement of tendrils and foliage. The strapwork cresting incorporates shields-of-arms and blank roundels alternately over each face; the shields, at the cardinal points, are: N., See of Canterbury impaling Whitgift; E., Nevile; S., See of Chester impaling Henry Ferne, Master (Bishop of Chester 1662); W., the College. The Junior Bursar's accounts of 1661–2 include payment to Spakman for carving the arms of the Bishop of Chester. The seated beasts include lions, greyhounds, dragons and griffins.

The central shaft, which, in the lower part, is in the form of a Corinthian column, is fluted up to a foliated band beneath four much decayed demi-figures supporting a large hemispherical fluted basin with eight carved masks on the underside fitted with lead spouts; above, the Corinthian capital supports another basin similar to that below but smaller. The upper part of the shaft is four-sided, panelled and with four naked putti below a foliated cap supporting the timber ceiling. Applied on the last are radiating moulded ribs that mitre with a stone cornice round the perimeter.

About midway between the Fountain and King Edward's Tower is a stone Sundial set up in 1704 at a cost of £6 19s. 8d. The dial was renewed in 1795. It stands on two circular steps and has a broad baluster-stem with moulded base and capping, the last with the upper members octagonal. The engraved bronze dial is by Troughton of London.

'King's Hostel', being the W. range of the former inner court of King's Hall, stands close N.W. of the Chapel, extending N.N.E. from King Edward's Tower to the College boundary. It is of two storeys with attics. The walls are of brick and rubble with dressings of clunch; the roofs are slate-covered. The range is the work of two periods and the oldest surviving building in the College. In 1375 the ranges round the Court were begun and the Rolls series of accounts, 1375–7, refer to a solar, evidently the Master's camera and on the first floor of the S. half of the surviving 'Hostel'; the garderobe at the N.W. corner of it is referred to in the College accounts of 1416–17. The S. and E. sides of the Court were completed before the Library range on the N. and the chambers between it and the Master's rooms were begun in 1417; these chambers thus comprised the N. half of the surviving 'Hostel'. A contract for roofing the new chambers was made in 1418, the last payment being made to the contractor in 1420, and the Library was finished by 1422. In the 1416–17 accounts Dodington is shown to have received payment, probably as mastermason.

Subsequent demolitions have already been noted in the historical introduction to the College. In 1791 'King's Hostel' was cased in brick and given regular fenestration. In 1905 the brickwork was removed and the original building restored and re-roofed under the supervision of W. D. Caröe, who published an account of the work (King's Hostel, Trinity College, Cambridge, for the Cam. Ant. Soc., 1909).

A projecting bay about the centre of the E. side of the range, shown in Loggan's map of Cambridge, may have contained an Oratory. Adjoining it on the S. was a stair to the Master's camera entered from the dais of the Hall, which lay to the S., through a doorway that survives in situ. A walk, 'claustrum', in the position of the modern E. passage, had, N. of the bay, an upper storey, 'deambulatorium', providing access to the Library on the first floor of the N. range. Both walks seem to have been prolonged through to the N. wall of the N. range, which here survives and contains a doorway on the first floor that opened into a 'latrina prope librarium'.

The buildings now standing between the 'Hostel' and the Chapel are all of the second half of the 19th century and modern.

Access to the King's Hall range is from a modern passage on the E. closed at the S. end by an old cross-wall containing the 15th-century clunch doorway mentioned above. The doorway has stop-moulded jambs and a two-centred arch in a square head with quatre-foiled traceried spandrels. A block of masonry uncovered in 1905 in the angle formed by the N. side of this cross-wall and the range was found by Caröe to be the base of a staircase and the N.E. angle of the containing wall, now destroyed, lay a short way N.E. of the doorway (Willis and Clark, II, 463 and fig. 6).

In the E. side of the range are the following old features on the ground floor, from N. to S., a much-weathered clunch archway with moulded jambs, four-centred head and high chamfered rear-arch opening to a passage through the range; a small rectangular window with chamfered reveals and a four-centred rear-arch; a doorway, much renewed, with stop-chamfered jambs and four-centred arch opening on a circular stair; two early 15th-century casement-moulded windows each of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head with sunk spandrels and retaining old wrought-iron grilles and rebated inside for shutters, the hinge-pins for which survive; and an early 15th-century doorway with stop-chamfered jambs, four-centred arch, carved foliated spandrels and a square moulded label with decayed stops, the S. spandrel including a human mask and the S. label-stop being in the form of a demi-angel holding a shield. The foregoing open into the early 15th-century half of the range. The following are in the earlier half, a doorway probably of the late 14th century with chamfered jambs and four-centred arch, the lower part of the jambs being rebated for a door, and with a small light above with chamfered reveals and fitted with an old wrought-iron grille, and a two-light window, modern externally but with original splays.

On the first floor are two mediaeval doorways both with chamfered jambs and four-centred arches; that to the N., now blocked, is approximately over the second ground-floor window from the N. That to the S. is over the early doorway below, and retains an old plank door hung on strap-hinges; immediately N. of it is a small blocked loop with chamfered reveals. The other openings at this level are ostensibly of 1791 or modern.

The W. side of the range has been completely restored. The N. half is of brick interspersed with rubble; the S. half has a modern brick facing. In the middle is a tall recess, with a rough triangular arched head, which is the remains of the Master's garderobe. The ground-floor openings are shown on the plan. The N. archway has moulded jambs and four-centred head but only the lower courses of the dressings are old. The next three two and three-light windows with cinque-foiled openings in square heads incorporate some reused original dressings. S. of the garderobe recess, the first two-light window, similar to the windows further N. but smaller, retains old dressings in the head and reveals. The doorway, now blocked, with moulded jambs, partly old, and a renewed head, is a 17th-century conversion from a window. The next two windows are completely renewed outside, and the recess at the S. end retains an old square head and N. reveal.

On the first floor, in the N. end of the wall are the splays and rear-arch of a doorway, which presumably originally opened on an external stair; the chamfered jambs and four-centred head show inside the N. room. Continuing southward, the first two windows are modern, but close S. of each is the moulded S. reveal of an original window; next is an original window, now blocked, with restored reveals and four-centred arch in a square head with sunk spandrels, followed by the N. reveal of an original window, and two modern windows; the second of these last is flanked by the N. reveal and the S. reveal of original windows. The garderobe-recess retains a stone doorway, now blocked, with chamfered jambs and square head; over the S. haunch of the recess is the N. reveal of a small original light. S. again are three modern windows, with the S. reveal of an original window S. of the second. All the modern windows replace 18th-century sashhung windows.

The N. end of the range contains two small single-light windows with four-centred rear-arches set high in the ground floor and a single cinque-foiled light on the first floor, all original, but only that on the first floor remaining unblocked. The S. end is covered by adjacent buildings.

Inside, on the ground floor, the second room from the N., formerly the Senior Bursar's Room, is probably that converted into an 'elegant chemical laboratory' by Dr. Bentley. It has an open timber ceiling with a moulded beam supported on modern wall-posts and braces. The N. doorway and fireplace are original, the first with clunch stop-chamfered jambs and high four-centred head, the second with defaced clunch jambs and depressed four-centred brick arch. The rest of the range southward is now divided into small rooms by 18th-century and modern partitions; in the N.E. corner is a wallrecess with a half-arch to allow for the swing of the N.E. door. The Muniment Room (18¼ ft. by 21 ft.) has part of an old fireplace in the S. end of the E. wall.

On the first floor, the N. room has an open timber ceiling with moulded wall-plates and central cambered beam, the last with mortices for braces; the joists are laid flat. The old S. fireplace has chamfered jambs corbelled to support a moulded lintel; it has been restored and narrowed on the E.; to the W. of it is the stone base course with stop of a destroyed doorway. The second room is lined with early 18th-century bolection moulded panelling with moulded dado-rail and cornice. The doorcases have bolection-moulded architraves and doors of six panels. The fireplace has a flat moulded surround of coloured marble contemporary with the panelling. The main approach to the first-floor set of chambers formed in the 18th century in the S. half of the range, in the Master's former camera, is now by the staircase in King Edward's Tower. The N. room of the set is lined with 18th-century fielded panelling with dado-rail and cornice; E. of it is a narrow lobby, entered through the S. mediaeval doorway already described with the E. side of the range, giving access through an altered opening to a modern stair to an attic bedroom. The main room next S. contains panelling, doorcases and doors similar to those previously described in the second room on the same floor. The S. entrance-passage next King Edward's Tower is lined with plain 18th-century panelling with a cornice; it gives access also eastward into a wedge-shaped gyp-room, between the 'Hostel' and the Chapel, which has in the E. wall the rear-arch of the destroyed window already described that opened into the Ante-chapel.

Part of the N. wall of the early 15th-century Library range survives extending some 8 yds. from the N.E. corner of 'King's Hostel' and incorporated in the boundary-wall to St. John's College. It contains on the first floor remains of four 15th-century openings, all now blocked and visible only from the S.; these include the chamfered jambs and four-centred arch of a doorway nearly on the axis of the modern E. passage adjoining the 'Hostel', further E. the reveals of a single-light window, and E. again, the splays and the W. splay and four-centred rear-arch respectively of paired doorways.

Nevile's Court (228 ft. by 131 ft. on the E., 144½ ft. on the W.) is enclosed by the Hall and Buttery already described on the E., the Library on the W., and uniform ranges on the N. and S. containing cloister-like arcaded walks on the ground floor and sets of chambers above.

Towards the Court, the North and South Ranges are of three storeys and faced with Ketton stone ashlar repaired in the present century with synthetic stone. The N. rear wall is of 'herringbone' rubble to the E. and brick with stone dressings to the W. The S. rear wall is now rendered. The roofs are slated and tiled. The ranges are, for three-fifths of their length from the E., part of a single building scheme, paid for by Dr. Nevile, begun and completed between 1605 and 1612. This, the extension of the ranges westward between 1676 and 1682, and their remodelling and part rebuilding between 1755 and 1758 are described in the historical introduction to the College. Subsequent alterations to the S. side of the S. range are connected with the building of New Court, which adjoins on the S. The N. side of the N. range is obscured in the lower part by A. W. Blomfield's Library-extension of 1892.

The North Range has the whole of the ground floor devoted to the cloister-walk, without interruption by any projecting feature. The thickening of the N. wall indicates the beginning of the late 17th-century W. extension. The S. side (Plate 213) is divided into three stages, coinciding with the storeys, by two continuous entablatures and a continuous cornice below the balustraded parapet, and into five main bays by panelled pilaster-strips to the full height; the link with the Hall range is provided by a plain part-bay projecting to the same extent as the pilaster-strips, and with the Library range by a wide plain pilaster-strip. Each main bay is sub-divided into four bays. The continuous open arcade of twenty bays on the ground floor consists of round-headed arches with moulded archivolts, plain keystones and fielded spandrels springing from Roman Doric columns and half-columns on square sub-bases. Across the head of the arches and across shaped post-like brackets in the spandrels runs the lower entablature, already mentioned, with triglyphs and diapered panels in the frieze. On the first floor, over each of the arches, is a rectangular three-light transomed window without architrave or label; similarly on the second floor are short three-light windows. The parapet is divided into bays uniformly with those below by main and subsidiary pedestals, panelled over the pilaster-strips and plain between. In the E. part-bay are six windows, generally similar to the foregoing, of two and three lights; those of two lights on the ground floor and that above them on the first floor are modern.

Apart from the considerable renewal of stonework in 1755– 6, the pilaster-strips are Essex's transformation of superimposed pilasters on pedestals originally in their position; he omitted short Ionic columns corbelled out between the first-floor windows and thus repetitive returns of the upper entablature (see drwg. E 408/1951 in V. and A. Museum), and discarded cartouches containing the arms of Nevile, Sclater and Babington, which are now reset near the Brewhouse (see below). The front of the second floor is an entire innovation replacing gabled and finialed dormer-windows; in this at least James Burrough was again in some measure concerned with Essex, for he set the price of the stonework.

The N. side is of two storeys with attics and garrets and the earlier wall exhibits a notable expanse of 'herringbone' masonry. From it project three rectangular staircase-towers, those to Nevile's building being smaller than the one to the W. and original though refitted inside. The wall above the late 19th-century Library is extensively masked by numerous additions against the towers, while the appearance of the upper part has been much altered by the heightening of some of the attic rooms involving carrying up the main wall and linking the original dormer-windows and chimney-stacks. The windows were mostly of two transomed lights but many of the mullions and transoms have been removed. The unaltered attic and garret dormer-windows are gabled, the second being much smaller than the first. The staircase-towers are continued above the main eaves and gabled; they each have three windows, largely original, in the N. wall, the lower two of three transomed lights, the third in the gable, smaller and of two lights; windows of one and two lights also occur in the side walls. The chimney-stacks, flush with the wall-face, are of brick; the upper parts have been rebuilt in white brick, some with additional shafts.

The interior of the N. range has the back wall of the walk unpierced except by six doorways to the staircases etc.; these have chamfered jambs and semicircular heads with plain imposts and keystones all contained within shallow rectangular stop-moulded wall-recesses. They are of early 17th-century character. Staircase 'L' is of the mid 18th-century, with close moulded strings, thin turned balusters, square newels and moulded handrails. The timber door-frames on the first-floor landing with flat triangular heads are original, of 1605–12, and retain their oak plank doors with nail-studded mouldings forming nine panels. The doorways on the second-floor landing are original, 1605–12, with stone chamfered jambs and four-centred heads; one retains an original oak door. Staircase 'I' is modern; one original doorway on the first floor and two on the second are similar respectively to those just described. Staircase 'G' is of the date of the structure, 1676–81, with close moulded strings, heavy turned balusters, square panelled newels with turned pendants, and moulded handrail.

The chambers served by the first two staircases, that is, in Nevile's range, have been modernised; only in the E. first-floor set are some mid 18th-century doors with fielded panels remaining. The attics have been altered as described, but some of the principals and purlins of the original timber roof are exposed. In the late 17th-century extension, in the E. half, paid for by Sir Thomas Sclater, Bt., the main first-floor room is lined with oak bolection-moulded panelling with dado-rail and enriched entablature; the three bolection-moulded doorcases have entablatures with enriched cornices, central panels and broken pediments; the doors are of two bolection-moulded panels and retain old rim-locks. The original bolection-moulded fireplace-surround is of marble. The plaster ceiling (Plate 61) has a central oval wreath of leaves and flowers, roundels at the sides modelled with helms with crests of wreaths and at the ends with shields-of-arms of Sclater, and shaped panels in the spandrels filled with elaborate scrolled foliation, wreaths and flowers. Sclater's building was completed by 1679 and occupied before May 1681. In the W. half of the extension, the main first-floor room has a dado of bolection-moulded panelling and a simple 19th-century timber cornice. The outer doors to these last two sets are of two bolection-moulded panels. In the attics some old panelled doors remain and some of the main timbers of the original roof are exposed.

In the South Range virtually nothing of Nevile's period other than the form and basic design, and some panelling, survives. Of the E. extension, the E. half, paid for by Dr. Babington, was begun in 1681 and completed in 1682 under the supervision of Robert Grumbold; Cornelius Austin was paid for the wainscoting in the first-floor main room at 6s. a yard with £16 10s. for the carving; the W. half was built at much the same time, by agreement with Robert Grumbold, Thomas Silke and Matthew Fitch. Nevile's front was entirely rebuilt in 1756–7 and a similar extent of the S. wall at the same time; in the following year the interior of Nevile's range was refitted, with new floors, new ceilings and plastering throughout, new wainscoting on the first floor and the old wainscoting reset above. These fittings mostly survive. Essex was paid £213 for the new wainscoting in the four sets; in December 1758 the rent of these rooms was increased.

The S. range is similar in form to the N. range, and the design of the Court side repeats that opposite except that the part-bay on the E., a refacing of the earlier Kitchen, is longer and with windows, as described earlier, only in the two upper stages, the ground stage being blank. The S. wall is now masked by buildings and Roman cement added in the 19th century to complete the Tudor Gothic unity of New Court (1823–5). The parapets were embattled, octagonal turrets added to the two more westerly staircase-towers, and the windows of the last greatly enlarged and elaborated. An arcade of six four-centred arches with semicircular rear-arches was pierced in the wall between the towers, regular fenestrations of mullioned and transomed windows opened on the floors above, and a niche with canopied head added as a central feature. Beyond the towers, single-storey additions with embattled parapets were made and the main wall-face above remodelled to accord with the rest.

Inside the S. range the ground floor is devoted to the cloisterwalk, as in the N. range, and the five doorways in the back wall are also similar to those opposite; they are renewals of 1756. Staircase 'A' is of the late 17th century, with close moulded strings, turned balusters, square newels and moulded handrails. Staircase 'C' is similar to the foregoing. Staircase 'D' is of the date of the structure, 1681–2, with close moulded strings, turned balusters, square panelled newels with ball finials and turned pendants and moulded handrail.

The first-floor main rooms each side of staircase 'A' are lined with fielded panelling of 1758 with dado-rail and dentilcornice and retain contemporary six-panel doors; the smaller rooms are lined with plain panelling of the same date with a cornice. The E. main room has an early 19th-century marble fireplace-surround. On the second floor, the outer doors of the sets are of the mid 18th century and of six panels. The main E. room is lined with plain panelling as before, and the room N.E. of it is lined with reused early 17th-century panelling incorporating some arched panels enriched with arabesques; both rooms contain flat moulded stone fireplace-surrounds of the mid 18th century. The main W. room is lined with reused early 17th-century panelling and the fireplace is similar to those just described; both the smaller rooms contain similar reused panelling.

The first-floor rooms off staircase 'C' are lined with panelling similar to that in the corresponding rooms of staircase 'A'. The fireplace in the E. main room is also similar to those just described above; that in the W. main room is of the early 19th century, with reeded surround with roundels at the angles. In the partition between the small rooms in the W. set are double doors under a semi-elliptical arch with, on one side, a moulded archivolt springing from pilasters. The second-floor rooms again contain reused early 17th-century panelling, incorporating two fluted pilasters on panelled pedestals. The E. main room has three mid 18th-century doors and a flat moulded stone fireplace-surround of the same date. The modern fireplace in the W. room has a surround made up of early 17th-century fragments; in the adjoining N.W. room is a mid 18th-century fireplace-surround similar to those described.

The outer doors to the first-floor sets off staircase 'D' are of the date of the building, 1681-2, each of two bolection-moulded panels. The main room in the E. set, the Old Guest Room, is lined with bolection-moulded panelling supplied by Cornelius Austin with dado-rail and enriched entablature. The two doorcases have carved entablatures and contain doors of two bolection-moulded panels. The late 19th-century ornamental plaster ceiling with heraldic devices was added by Sir William Vernon Harcourt and the overmantel is modern. The adjoining bedroom is lined with reused early 17th-century panelling, extended with modern material, with a frieze of arabesques and a gadrooned cornice; the fireplacesurround and overmantel are made up of miscellaneous enriched woodwork of the same period; the ceiling is of the date and character of that in the main room. In the W. set, the main room is lined with mid 18th-century panelling with dado-rail and dentil-cornice; the doors are of six fielded panels except in the W. wall where a large opening formed in the early 19th century is hung with a door of two panelled leaves. The enriched wood surround to the fireplace is eared and has a frieze carved with acanthus foliage; in the overmantel is an eared panel with cornice and broken pediment, all enriched. On the second floor, the E. set has an old plank outer door, and the W. set an 18th-century door of four fielded panels. Some of the principals of the original timber roof are exposed.

The Library Range (Plate 264), enclosing Nevile's Court on the W., contains the Library on the first floor. The ground floor, forming an open undercroft, has an open arcade to the Court, a row of columns down the centre and open fenestration and doorways on the W. At the N. end projects a rectangular staircase-pavilion. Clunch from Hinton and Barrington was used in the foundations, as well as brick, and in the wall infilling. Brickfields named in the accounts are Stow and Trumpington. The walls are of Ketton stone ashlar except of the pavilion, which are of red brick. The hipped roofs are lead-covered.

The inception of, and Sir Christopher Wren's proposals for, the Library are described in the historical introduction to the College. Work was begun on the building on 23 February 1676–7 and the accounts show that Wren, already Surveyor-General of the King's Works, kept in constant touch with it either by sending agents to Cambridge or through Robert Grumbold, the mason in charge, coming to London; further, Matthew Banckes (Master-carpenter in the Office of Works 1683–1706) was employed as surveyor in 1676 and 1685–6, and craftsmen were engaged who worked for Wren in London. A full descriptive, but undated, letter by Wren accompanies the drawings of the building that are preserved at All Souls College, Oxford (Wren drawings Vol. I, 44, 45–48, reproduced in Wren Society V, 32–44, pls. xxii–xxiv); when it was written, the intention was to place the range against the ends of Nevile's N. and S. ranges. At this stage the site had apparently not been fully surveyed and the drawings show a building even longer than the existing one, which itself, owing to the wedge shape of Nevile's Court, is longer than would have fitted further E. Two of the working drawings are also at All Souls (Wren drawings, Vol. I, 50, 51; Wren Soc., V, pls. xxv, xxvi) and another is in the College Library.

Wren uses continuous superimposed orders towards the Court and contrives the Library floor at the springing of the arches between the lower columns. He describes his motives: 'I chose a double order rather than a single because a single order must either have been mutilated in its members, or have been very expensive, and if performed would not have agreed with the lownesse of the porches which would have been too darke and the solids too grosse for the openings. I have given the appearance of arches as the order required fair and lofty; but I have layd the floor of the Library upon the impostes, which answer to the pillars in the Cloister, and the levels of the old floores, and have filled the Arches with relieves of stone, of which I have seen the effect abroad in good buildings and I assure you where porches are low with flat ceilings is infinitely more graceful than lowe arches would be, and is much more open and pleasant: nor need the mason feare the performance, because the arch discharges the weight, and I shall direct him in a firme manner of executing the designe. By this contrivance the windowes of the Library rise high and give place for the deskes against the walls, and being high may be afforded to be large. I have given noe other Frontispiece to the middle than Statues, according to ancient example because in this case I find any thing else impertinent, the Entrances being endwise, and the roofe not suiting it.' In addition to this letter and the drawings mentioned, there survive in Trinity College Library circular letters from Barrow and North appealing for subscriptions to the building fund, a list of the subscribers, the Senior Bursar's accounts for the relevant years and Robert Grumbold's account book. Extracts from the Bursar's accounts are printed in Designs of Sir Chr. Wren for Oxford, Cambridge etc. in Wren Society, V (1928), 34–44.

Isaac Barrow, Master, died in 1677 when, according to Roger North the biographer of the Hon. Dr. John North, who succeeded to the Mastership, 'the library was advanced about three-quarters of the height of the outward walls'. Dr. North (Master 1677–83) is said to have seen the finishing of it, except the classes, but the shell only must be meant. In 1680 lead for the roof was bought and a contract made with John Kendall, plumber, and in May 1681 Gabriel Cibber was paid £80 for carving the four statues on the parapet. More than £18 was paid for his and his men's board and so, with little doubt, the figures were cut in Cambridge. Percy was one of the carvers paid for the architectural sculpture. In January 1684 the scaffolding, presumably the external scaffolding, was struck. Timber for the roof had been provided in 1683–4, for the flooring in 1685–6, and the internal plastering and ceiling were completed in 1687; Doogood and Grove were the London plasterers. The most ingenious floor-construction supervised by Banckes is illustrated and described by H. M. Fletcher, 'Sir Christopher Wren's Carpentry', in R.I.B.A. Journal, xxx, 3rd Ser. (1923), 388. In 1688 the marble paving was laid by agreement of March 1687, with Grumbold, at 2s. 3d. a foot. Before the end of 1690 all mason's work was finished. Partridge, a London smith, provided the iron gates on the ground floor and the staircase balustrading for £400, and these were installed in 1691–2.

Regarding the woodwork etc., other than the structural timber-work, between 1685 and 1691 Cornelius Austin was paid for boarding, planks, including cedar, carving and bookcases. By the later year he had made nineteen bookcases, for £28 each. Subsequently he made a pair of doors for one of the MS. classes for £22 10s. Apparently in connection with a visit of his to London between March 1691 and February 1692, a guinea was paid to Hawksmoor. Grinling Gibbons and Cornelius Austin supplied the achievements etc. on the ends of the cases between March 1691 and December 1695; for his part of these, the busts above, the statue of the Duke of Somerset, and other carvings unspecified the former was paid over £400; only two of the original busts survive. In May 1695 the Library was still not furnished, according to Ralph Thoresby, although books were moved in in that year (The Diary of Ralph Thoresby, ed. Hunter, 1830, 435). In 1698–9 John Austin and Francis Woodward made two more pairs of doors for the MS. enclosures and in 1699 more books were moved in. The subscription-lists were already closed and the building may be regarded as then complete. Some uncertainty must remain about the cost, but it was of the order of £15,000.

The glass now in the N. and S. windows was added subsequently. In 1850 additional small oak bookcases were made in consultation with C. R. Cockerell and in 1850–1 the trabeations of the ceiling, omitted in the building, though shown in Wren's drawing, were added.

The E. side (Plate 264), to Nevile's Court, is strictly symmetrical; it is of two correct superimposed orders, Roman Doric and Ionic, with contained arches in eleven bays within the confines of the N. and S. ranges and with two flanking astylar bays across the ends of these last and rising clear of them. The whole has a balustraded parapet with plain pedestals, of which the middle four support statues (Plate 271). The attached three-quarter columns of the lower order have square sub-bases and support an uninterrupted entablature returned to end just short of the N. and S. ranges, so setting the architectural bounds of the composition fronting the Court, returns of the Ionic entablature being vertically above. The Doric architrave is plain, the frieze contains a triglyph centred over each column and three between in every bay. The contained arches have plain responds with moulded bases and imposts; these last support flat arches in the form of moulded lintels from which spring semicircular arches with moulded archivolts and keystones. The keystones project as scrollbrackets rising to the soffit of the main entablature. The tympanum of each arch is solid and contains a sculptured relief, that in the middle a figure-subject, Ptolemy II receiving the Septuagint from the Translators (Plate 271), for which a payment in April 1679 to 'the carver at London for cutting of the middle piece in the middle arch for stone and other things' is thought to refer, the others with elaborate cartouches flanked by garlands on broad pedestals with foliate side-pieces (Plate 271).

The attached three-quarter Ionic columns have plain shafts and capitals with swags slung from the volutes; they stand on low pedestals returned as apron-walls across each bay and support a plain crowning entablature returned at the end columns and continued across the end bays. The contained arches rise from the apron-walls and have plain responds with moulded bases and enriched imposts, moulded archivolts and keystones carved with masks. They contain three-light windows with square stone mullions and a moulded transom at the springing; the glazing consists of rectangular leaded quarries. The astylar end bays are both panelled and contain a window in an arched frame, similar to the foregoing but without the keystone, screened in the lower part by the adjoining ranges, and with a human mask flanked by swags immediately over the archivolt.

The payments for these enrichments of the upper part are recorded in detail: 'Mr. Percy and carver. Dec. 1678 to Mr. Percy for cutting the impost mouldings in part £8 10s. March 1679 for the thirteen great heads £13, for twelve capitals £25 10s., for four festoons £8.'

On the parapet, on the middle pedestals, stand Cibber's statues personifying Mathematics, Physics, Law, and Divinity (Plate 271), all female figures, the first counting on her fingers, the second holding a staff encircled by a serpent, the third holding a scroll inscribed 'Ivbet et Prohibet', the fourth shrouded, holding a book; each is accompanied by her emblem, a globe, a cock, books, an eagle. Cut on the die of the southernmost pedestal on this side are the name and date 'John Yaxly' and 'turner 1712'.

The W. side (Plate 263) is in two stages, divided as described below, and with a balustraded parapet. The lower stage is designed as a monumental base, with a great expanse of ashlar pierced by three doorways and ten windows symmetrically arranged. The openings are low in order to clear the Library floor, which is not expressed architecturally on this side. The surrounds to the doorways are similar to one another; they are of the Roman Doric order, with attached three-quarter columns with short pilaster-like returns at the sides supporting full entablatures, all on a very large scale. The entablatures are returned and continued across the building, the architrave and frieze together as a slight projection of the wall-face, entirely plain, the cornice in full. The doorways rise only some threefifths of the height of the order; flat arches in the form of moulded lintels are there supported on responds with moulded caps and bases and the blind spaces above panelled. In the openings are original wrought-iron gates, hung in 1691–2, with plain uprights and two deep bands of scroll-work (Plate 273). The windows have architraves, friezes and cornices, and square sills, elaboration being restricted to the simplest of moulding; they contain original wrought-iron grilles.

The Doric cornice described divides the stages. Above it is an unbroken masonry course with moulded capping-string forming a plinth to tall rectangular wall-recesses containing the Library windows, thirteen in all, opposite those on the E. and generally similar to them but without keystones and enrichment on the imposts; the end windows, being in wider bays, are flanked by narrow blind recesses. At the wall-head is a plain unbroken frieze and cornice. The parapet balustrade is divided into seventeen bays, corresponding to the recesses below, by pedestals.

The N. end is largely covered by the staircase-pavilion, but the upper part, rising clear, is of ashlar with a return of the top cornice and balustraded parapet; in it is a window similar to the W. windows in the Library. 'I made the pavilions of the stairs so as I might not lose my end lights' (Wren's letter quoted above). On the E. is a small rectangular projection of red brick with stone quoins containing a staircase to the roof; the cornice and parapet, here plain, return round it. The pavilion is of similar materials to the foregoing and with stone windowdressings. Half the length of the N. wall has been refaced and the N.W. angle rebuilt; the lower part of the latter is now splayed and the angle above supported on plain splayed corbelling. In the N. wall are four rectangular windows, of two lights with architraves. The shaped, lead-covered roof rises in a convex curve to a short vertical face with a cornice from which it continues in flat ogee form.

The S. end is partly covered by the W. range of New Court. High in the middle of the lower stage is a square-headed doorway with eared architrave opening on a small balcony with a wrought-iron railing. William Grizell was paid £20 for this last, which was set up between March 1693 and July 1695. The staircase-pavilion at this end proposed by Wren, of similar design to that on the N., was never built, but this doorway, which would have given access to it, shows that the proposal was not abandoned until comparatively late. The Doric cornice alone returns from the W. side, but only a short way, and then continues as a plat-band. The frieze and cornice at the wall-head and the balustraded parapet are continuous. The window in the middle of the upper stage is similar to the W. windows of the Library but without mullions and transom.

Inside the Library range, the 'cloister' (Plate 263) on the ground floor is open from end to end, excluding the staircasepavilion. Down the middle, from N. to S., is a row of fourteen Roman Doric columns, the two towards each end coupled; on the side and end walls and in the angles are responds in the form of attached half-columns and quarter-columns. They support a heavily trabeated plaster ceiling. The columns, responds and E. wall are of ashlar; the N., S. and W. walls are plastered. 'I have chosen middle pillars and a double portico and lights outward rather than a middle wall, as being the same expense, more graceful, and according to the manner of the ancients who made double walks (with three rows of pillars, or two rows and a wall) about the forum'. (Wren's letter quoted above, All Souls College, Wren drawings, Vol. I, 44). The openings to the walks in the N. and S. ranges of Nevile's Court are similar to those of the rest of the E. arcade as viewed from inside the 'cloister'. In the N. wall, the doorway to the staircase has a stone architrave and contains an original oak door in two leaves, each of five bolection-moulded panels.

The Staircase-pavilion (27 ft. by 21 ft.) has a black and white marble pavement. The staircase rises to the first floor in three flights. The wrought-iron balusters are alternately square and twisted, the twisted ending in scrolls, and support a moulded wrought-iron handrail. On the containing walls is a dado of bolection-moulded panelling. The inner ends of the black marble steps are supported on stone walls; in the W. wall of these last are two semidomed niches, one incorporating a doorway to a cupboard, flanking a white marble bust on a corbel, of Edward Wortley-Montagu signed 'P. Scheemakers Ft, 1766'. The landing also is paved with black and white marble squares, and the doorway to the Library has a stone door-case with eared architrave, pulvinated frieze and cornice; the door is original, in two leaves, each of five bolection-moulded panels. The plaster ceiling (Plate 270) has deep coves rising to a modillion-cornice surrounding a rectangular panel containing an oval wreath framing a small plain domical recess. The coves are enriched with panels containing elaborate scrolled foliation with incidental beasts and birds flanking wreaths containing achievements-of-arms, on the N., of the Hon. Dr. John North (Master 1677–83), the S., of the See of Chester impaling John Pearson (Master 1662–73, Bishop of Chester 1673–86), the E., of the Hon. John Montagu (Master 1683–1700) Montagu quartering Monthermer, the W., of Dr. Isaac Barrow (Master 1673–7). Flanking the Library door, on modern pedestals, are white marble busts of Charles, Lord Whitworth of Galway, and Thomas, 2nd Lord Trevor, both signed 'L. F. Roubiliac sculpit 1757'. On the E. wall is a large oil painting by Benjamin West of St. Michael binding Satan, formerly in the Chapel reredos, given by Dr. John Hinchliffe, Master 1768–89.

The Library (Plate 265) (38 ft. by 191½ ft.) consists of one great compartment. It has panelling on the end walls and projecting bookcases and wall-cases down each side, all rising to about 2 ft. below window-sill level. The walls above and the trabeated ceiling are plastered. The broad central walk is paved with black and white marble squares. On the ends of the projecting bookcases are pedestals carrying wood and plaster busts; Wren proposed statues in these positions but in fact Gibbons was paid for busts. Standing against the ends of the cases are white marble busts on pedestals; these were not part of the original scheme but have been collected and so placed at different times, to become part of the architectural aspect of the building.


Trinity College Library

Trinity College Library

The side walls above the bookcases are each divided into thirteen bays by Composite pilasters supporting a continuous enriched entablature with modillion-cornice; the wider end bays are divided from the rest by coupled pilasters. Between these last are carried the mouldings of the enriched imposts to the great windows. The inside surrounds to the windows are of similar form to those outside, without key-blocks. The end walls above the panelling are each divided into three bays by coupled Composite pilasters. In the middle bay is a great window similar to the foregoing. The enriched imposts of the window and the necking-mouldings of the pilaster-caps are continued across the flanking bays, and below the first are semidomed niches in the S. wall and above the second swags of fruit and flowers. The niches are an afterthought; they were inserted by Grumbold in 1692, after the plastering, for which John Grove was paid in full in 1687. The S.W. niche contains a white marble standing figure of Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset (Chancellor 1689–1748) (Plate 272) in Roman armour, for which Grinling Gibbons was paid in 1691.

The glass in the head of the N. window includes an achievement of the arms of Queen Anne, before 1707, with the initials A.R., the motto 'Semper eadem' and lion and unicorn supporters. The Junior Bursar's accounts 1705–06 include for 'carriage of the Queen's arms'. They were made by Henry Gyles of York in 1704 and set up in 1707; he refers to them in a letter to Ralph Thoresby (Letters addressed to Ralph Thoresby (ed. Hunter, 1832), II, 63). The supporters may have belonged to the arms of Charles II referred to in the accounts, 1682–3: 'Samuel Price, goldsmith in Lombard Street, gave the king's arms in painted glass'. The glass in the S. window (Plate 272) shows the University, personified by a female figure, in the left foreground presenting Sir Isaac Newton to George III. The king is enthroned, with Britannia beside him and Fame and cherubs in the clouds above. Seated in the right foreground is Lord Bacon in Lord Chancellor's robes. It was fixed in 1774–5; Cipriani was paid £105 for the design and Peckitt of York £315 for making it.

The N. and S. doorways have oak doorcases with enriched architraves, Corinthian columns at the sides supporting entablature-blocks and broken segmental pediments. Applied on the frieze and the pediment are limewood garlands of fruit and flowers exquisitely carved in the round; similarly in the pediments are roundels of the Royal arms of William III in a Garter, crowned and flanked by wings and palm-leaves. The inner N. door is modern; the inner S. door is original and of bolection-moulded panels. Similarly moulded panelling with applied limewood swags lines the walls to each side of the doorcases and returns to form projecting cupboards containing panelled alcoves in the corners of the room. The alcoves (Plates 266, 267), facing N. and S., are three-sided and have semicircular heads with most elaborate carved limewood flowers and foliation in place of archivolts; two of the carvings are missing. The semi-conoidal soffits have radiating panels and in the small tympanum formed in the back of each recess is a limewood whorl of foliage. The alcoves are flanked by pilaster-strips with paired cherub-heads and garlanded drapery instead of caps supporting a broken segmental pediment with enriched members. The return-panelling to the ends of the cupboards is on the plane, and repeats the design, of the ends of the projecting bookcases next described, except that the limewood shields-of-arms are omitted and the panels contain metal grilles; above are pedestals and busts, as on the bookcases (see below).

The fourteen projecting oak bookcases on each side are centred on the wall-pilasters above, thus the penultimate bays are narrower than the others; the narrow recesses so formed are closed by doors. The reason for the spacing and the use of it are described by Wren, 'The necessity of bringing windows and doors to answer to the old building' of Nevile's Court 'leaves two squarer places at the ends and four lesser cells not to study in but to be shut up with some neat lattice doors for archives'. The projection of the alcove features described above, presumably Wren's own revision of the scheme he describes, has reduced 'the squarer places' to the normal bay width, and doorways were never in fact opened through to the N. and S. ranges of Nevile's Court.

The bookcases, returned across the back of each recess, have cupboards in the base behind a high plinth with bolection-moulded panels, open shelves above and a continuous enriched entablature; the ends, between the plinth and the entablature, are in two heights of bolection-moulded panels, the lower panels each enclosing a smaller hinged panel containing book-lists and with a foliated cartouche for the class-letter above and carved swags below, the upper for the most part with achievements-of-arms and cyphers (see below) in wreaths of foliage, fruit and flowers hung upon them. The last described are carvings of remarkable virtuosity; they are cut from blocks composed of 2½ in. planks of pale limewood glued together. The pedestals on the entablatures are original, but the busts they support are, except two, later. The doors to the archive enclosures are in two leaves, close-panelled below and with carved and pierced panels above and scrolled top-rails. Before the ends of the bookcases and between the N. and S. doorways and the alcoved cupboards are white marble busts on pedestals (see below).

The series of limewood achievement-of-arms etc. and the two series of busts are here listed, first on the E. side, from N. to S., then on the W. side, from N. to S.; by including the cupboards and blank spaces in each series the numbering is constant for each group:

Arms etc. of (1) (cupboard), (2) Robert Drake (Plate 268), (3) cypher H.P., for Sir Henry Newton Puckering, Bt. (Plate 268), (4) Newton and Puckering quarterly, (5) crest, of Puckering, (6) William Lynnet, D.D., (7) Humphry Babington, D.D., Babington quartering Cave, (8) Sir George Chamberlaine, (9) Sir Robert Hildyard, Bt., (10) Sir Thomas Sclater, Bt., (11) the Hon. John Montagu, Montagu quartering Monthermer, (12) Isaac Barrow, D.D. (Plate 269), (13) See of Chester impaling John Pearson (Plate 269), (14) See of Lichfield and Coventry impaling John Hackett, (15) (blank), (16) (cupboard); on the W., (17) (cupboard), (18) decorative swag, (19–30) devices of Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, Chancellor 1689–1748, (19) achievement, quarterly of six, the Seymour augmentation, Seymour, Beauchamp of Hache, Esturmy, Macwilliam, Prynne, all in a Garter with crest and unicorn and bull supporters, (20) Seymour crest, a demi-phoenix in flames issuing from a coronet, (21) cypher C.S. in a Garter, coroneted, (22, 25, 28) as (19), (23, 26, 30) as (20), (24, 27, 29) as (21), (31) (blank), (32) (cupboard). Payments are recorded in the accounts between March 1691 and December 1695 to Grinling Gibbons for (6–14) and (19–30) inclusive at £5 each, and to Cornelius Austin for (2) at £5.

Busts on the bookcases etc. of (1) Joseph Nollekens, R.A., aged 84, signed 'L. A. Goblet fecit 1821', (2) Homer, (3) Democritus, (4) Demosthenes, (5) Socrates, (6) Julius Caesar, (7) Marcus Aurelius, (8) Horace, (9) Cicero, (10) Marcus Brutus, (11) Seneca, (12) Virgil, (13) Anacreon (Plate 267), (14) Plato, (15) Shakespeare, (16) Hooper; W. side, (17) Newton, (18) Shakespeare, (19) Spenser, (20) B. Jonson (Plate 267), (21) Beaumont, (22) Fletcher, (23) Inigo Jones, (24) Sydenham, (25) Milton, (26) Dryden, (27) Locke, (28) Tillotson, (29) Addison, (30) Pope, (31) Porson, (32) Coleridge. (13) and (20) may well be two of those for which Gibbons was paid; they are of wood painted white.

Busts before the bookcases etc. of (1) Francis Willoughby (Plate 261), 'L. F. Roubiliac. Sct. 1751', (2) Sir William Bolland (1772–1840), 'Sievier Sc.', (3) Adam Sedgwick, '1860, T. Woolner, Sc. London.', (4) Anthony Shepherd, 'J. Bacon R.A. Sculpt. 1790', given 1796, (5) John Mitchell Kemble, 'T. Woolner. Sc. London., 1865', (6) Roger Cotes, 'P. Scheemakers Fecit: 1758', given the same year, (7) Arthur Caley, 1821–95, 'Henry Wiles Sc. Cambridge', (8) Lord Houghton, 1809–85, by W. W. Story, (9) Sir Robert Cotton, Bt. (Plate 261), 'L. F. Roubiliac 1757', given the same year, (10) William George Clark, 'T. Woolner Sc. London. 1879', (11) Julius Charles Hare, 'T. Woolner, Sc. London, 1861', (12) Connop Thirlwall, 1797–1875, 'E. Davis Sc. London', (13) Richard Bentley (Plate 261), 'L. F. Roubiliac Sct. 1756', given the same year, (14) Joseph John Thomson, 'Derwent Wood R.A. 1923', (15) (blank), (16) Francis Bacon, 'L. F. Roubiliac Sculpit 1751'; W. side, (17) John Ray (Plate 261), 'L. F. Roubiliac Sct. 1751', (18) Alfred Tennyson, 1857, 'T. Woolner, Sc. London.', (19) Arthur Henry Hallam, 1811–33, 'F. Chantrey Fecit', (20) James Jurin, 'P. Scheemakers Ft. 1766', (21) Coutts Trotter, 'T. Woolner Sc. London 1888', (22) Robert Smith, 'P. Scheemakers Fecit: 1758', given 1758, (23) Robert Leslie Ellis, 'T. Woolner. Sc. London. 1867', (24) John Ferguson McLennan, 'J. Hutchinson R.S.A. Edinburgh 1892', (25) Sir Edward Coke, 'L. F. Roubiliac 1757', given the same year, (26) Johnstone Munro, 'T. Woolner Sc. London 1886', (27) William Whewell, 'E. H. Baily, R.A. Sculp. 1851', (28) William Clark, by Timothy Butler, London, given 1882, (29) Isaac Barrow, signed twice 'L. F. Roubiliac Sct. 1756', given the same year, (30) Lord Lyndhurst, 'W. Behnes Sculpt. 1844', given 1876, (31) (blank), (32) Isaac Newton (Plate 262), 'L. F. Roubiliac Sculpit. 1751'. Ray (17) and his pupil Willoughby (1), F. Bacon (16) and Newton (32) flanking the N. and S. doorways respectively were the first to be set up; they have original marble pedestals; most of the rest are on oak pedestals copied from the last. (See also Staircase-pavilion above). A terracotta bust of Newton (Plate 262), signed 'M. Rysbrack 1739', has recently been placed near (32); it was at Teddesley Hall, Warwickshire, from 1756 to 1932.

Centrally placed towards the S. end of the room is a large white marble seated figure of Lord Byron on a pedestal (Plate 81) signed 'Thorvaldsen Fecit', given in 1843 and set up here in 1845. The feet rest on a fragment of a Doric column, and he holds a pencil and a copy of Childe Harold; in the pedestal is a relief of the Genius of Poetry, a winged youth playing a lyre, with his foot on the prow of a ship. It was carved in Rome in 1831. A committee of Byron's friends offered it to Westminster Abbey.

In the recesses between the bookcases are original readingtables and stools. Wren's suggestion for these appears in his sketch dated 1686 at All Souls College for one of the bookcase bays, and the final design in a dimensioned drawing in the same collection (Wren drawings, Vol. I, 48 and 49; Wren Soc., V, 44 and pl. xxiv). The oak tables have square tops, panelled bearers, and four turned legs with carved braces; turning on central posts threaded through the tops and steadied by diagonal stretchers below are flattened pyramidal bookrests. The oak stools have rectangular seats, panelled bearers and turned legs.

The Tribunal, a classical composition on a raised terrace, stands against the W. side of the Hall, centred on Nevile's Court. Payments for it to Robert Grumbold occur in the building accounts for the Library in 1682 and 1683. Built of Ketton stone ashlar, it consists of a screen with the W. face in five unequal bays divided and flanked by attached Roman Doric columns on square sub-bases supporting a full crowning entablature. This last is discontinued over the middle bay, which is spanned by an open pediment surmounted by three urns containing carved flowers. The order frames a large round-headed segmental niche in the middle bay and smaller niches in the flanking bays; the narrow end bays are panelled. The niches rise from stone benches and have moulded archivolts with keystones and continuous imposts extending between the columns. Grumbold was paid £7 10s. for the 'flowerpots upon the pediment' in October 1683. The terrace, arranged as shown on the plan, has a rusticated ashlar retainingwall on the W. surmounted by stone balustrading between pedestals. On four of the pedestals are 18th-century wrought-iron lamp-standards. The paving is of rectangular stone slabs.

Bishop's Hostel (Plate 212) is a detached building standing 10 yds. S.W. of Great Court, with the E. side bordering Trinity Hall Lane. It is of two storeys with attics. The walls are of red Stow brick, in Flemish bond, with freestone dressings, and the roofs are tiled. Dr. John Hackett, Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry 1661–71, was the donor and Robert Minchin, carpenter, of Bletchingdon, Oxfordshire, the builder. The agreement between the Master and Fellows and Minchin is dated 15 January 1669–70; the contract survives, and the present Hostel differs only slightly from the plan attached. It was finished in 1671 and cost £1,200. The original dormer-windows were altered in the late 18th century. In 1874 the proposal to demolish the building suggests that it was in bad condition, but in the event it was restored under the supervision of A. W. Blomfield between then and 1878.

The building is symmetrically planned in the form of a half-H, with the wings extending northward. It has a brick plinth with moulded stone weathering, stone quoins, a stone plat-band at first-floor level and a plaster coved eaves-cornice springing from a stone necking-mould. The windows, except the dormers, are uniform, with moulded stone architraves and sills; none of the original two-light and transomed timber frames survives, and the present 19th-century ones are very slight reproductions of them. The hipped dormer-windows have two-light timber frames with 18th-century leaded glazing. The main roofs are hipped, 'a sufficiently strong French roof to be made after the best manner hipped and with handsome Lutheran windows in the roof answerable to the fashion of the same roof' (Minchin's contract).

On the N., the recessed entrance-front is in three bays. The middle bay presents an Ionic pedimented composition; it projects and is carried up a short way above eaves-level; all the horizontal features described above, plinth, plat-band, and cornice, stop against it; flanking the central entrance-doorway and inset from the quoins are two colossal Ionic stone pilasters on stepped sub-bases supporting a full pedimented entablature with short returns. In the tympanum is a freestanding cartouche carved with the arms of the See of Lichfield and Coventry impaling Hackett. The doorway has a stone architrave, pulvinated frieze and cornice; over it is a flat stone inscribed 'Bishops Hostel 1670' and surmounted by a horizontal rectangular panel of carved foliage. The central window above on the first floor is of the pattern already described. In each side bay is a window on each floor and a dormer-window axially above.

The N. wings and E., W. and S. sides have openings as shown on the plan. The doorways near the re-entrant angles are similar to that already described but rather smaller and with simpler mouldings. On the first floor a window occurs over each ground-floor opening. On the roof, the dormer-windows number two on each of the inward facing sides, one on each of the N. ends, two on the E., two on the W., and five on the S. The three chimney-stacks rising from the roof-ridges have square bases, arched panels in the sides and moulded brick cappings; they are similar to those shown by Loggan though rebuilt above the bases in modern times.

Across the base of the recessed front is a low, paved terrace approached up three steps and with a brick retaining-wall with flat stone coping.

The interior has been much modernised; some of the partitions between studies and bedrooms have been removed, but otherwise the original arrangement remains. 'Upon the ground floor there shall be five outward chambers, and each of those chambers to have made and belonging thereunto two bedchambers and two studies', each bedchamber to be 7 ft. by 5½ ft., and each study 6 ft. by 5 ft., and the first floor to repeat this arrangement (Minchin's contract). Only one departure was made from the revised contract plan, presumably during building: the chimney-stack shown projecting from the middle of the S. wall was placed within the S. block, centrally against the E. cross-wall.

Both staircases are original and divided from the adjoining corridors by open screens of turned balusters in timber framing. On the first floor, the middle room of the S. block is lined with bolection-moulded panelling in two heights surmounted by an entablature; this last crosses small panelled pilasters flanking a square panel in the overmantel of the modern fireplace. Some old moulded plank doors and others of two panels survive.

Nevile's Gate (Plate 259) is now between Bishop's Hostel and the S. range of Great Court, at the W. end of Trinity Lane; this is certainly the third and probably the fourth position in which it has stood.

It is of the early 17th century and conjectured to have been originally in the cross-wall that closed Nevile's Court on the W. In c. 1688 a gate recognisable as Nevile's Gate is shown by Loggan at the W. end of the avenue crossing Trinity College Meadow; the leases of the land beyond had only been acquired after the middle of the same century. In 1733 it was moved to the entrance to the College from Trinity Hall Lane, then close S. of Bishop's Hostel, and, in 1876, during the Mastership of W. H. Thompson, to its present position.

The gateway is of ashlar, much refaced. The two sides are similar in design. The arch has a semicircular head with moulded archivolts and imposts, scrolled keystone with prism pendant, carved spandrels containing shields, and stop-moulded responds. Against the flanking piers are Roman Doric half columns on tall panelled pedestals supporting an entablature. This last is surmounted by a large central achievement-of-arms in a strapwork frame and by carved badges, roses and thistles, and obelisks over the columns. The wall-faces flanking the shafts of the order have shields-of-arms on the inward sides and oval sinkings on the outward sides.

The large achievement is of the Stuart Royal arms on the E. flanked by rose and thistle badges, the Nevile arms in six quarters on the W. flanked by Neville crests of a bull's head and a ship on a chapeau; the Nevile arms quarter Neville, Bulmer, Eudo, Middleham, Clavering. If the conjecture of the original position of the Gate be accepted, then the achievements are probably those carved by G. Woodroffe (Junior Bursar's accounts 1659–60) to replace those of the Commonwealth, which themselves replaced the Royal arms in 1650–1. The other arms are, on the E., in the spandrels, both of Nevile, on the piers, of Magdalene College impaling Nevile, and the College impaling Nevile; on the W. similarly, of the College, and Thompson impaling Selwyn, and of the Deanery of Canterbury impaling Nevile, and the Deanery of Peterborough impaling Nevile.

'King's Court' (151 ft. by 164 ft.), known as New Court (Plate 39), adjoining Nevile's Court on the S., was designed by William Wilkins in 1821, begun in 1823 and occupied in 1825. George IV contributed £1,000 towards the total cost of £50,444. Spicer Crowe, builder, of London, was the contractor. It is in the Tudor-Gothic style. The N. range is a part of the S. range of Nevile's Court and described accordingly above, the 19th-century work being a remodelling only of that part of the S. side towards New Court. The other ranges are of three storeys with attics and contain sets of chambers.

The river front is faced with Ketton stone ashlar and that to Garret Hostel Lane with white brick with Ketton dressings; the rest of the walling is for the most part cement-rendered. The buildings have moulded plinths, strings at first and second-floor levels and embattled parapets with parapet-strings embellished with carved bosses. On most of the salient angles are octagonal buttresses carried up above the main parapets and embattled. Unless otherwise described, the windows are of two lights with cinque-foiled openings in square heads on the ground floor and four-centred heads with pierced spandrels on the floors above, all with labels. Except in the N. range, the inner order of the windows to the Court is of cast-iron painted to simulate stone.

The East and West Gatetowers are very similar; the first is placed axially upon the Court in the E. range, the second asymmetrically in the W. range but axially upon Trinity Bridge. They rise above the flanking buildings and have taller octagonal buttresses at the corners. Both have E. and W. gateways with moulded jambs and four-centred arches in square heads with carved spandrels containing shields-of-arms of the College. The original timber gates are both in two leaves of three tiers of four linenfold panels. On the first floor are two windows as described, but transomed, separated and flanked by wall-panelling; on the second floor, except in the W. face of the W. Gatetower, similar windows, without transoms, are separated but not flanked by wall-panelling. The differing W. tower has two two-light windows with vertical tracery in square heads flanking a central niche with traceried canopy and a corbel supported on an angel holding a shield of the Tudor Royal arms. Below the E. and W. parapetstrings are friezes of quatre-foiled panels enclosing blank shields; the embattled parapets are plain except again on the W. side of the W. tower where the wall is elaborated with pierced quatre-foiled panels and a central octagonal pinnacle. The Gatehalls (27¼ ft. by 17 ft. and 27 ft. by 16¾ ft.) have pointed-segmental plaster vaults with tracery-panelling on the soffits.

The fenestration of the W. side of the West Range, excluding the N. bay and the two S. bays, is arranged in four groups, each group being of three bays and symmetrical in itself; the Gatetower occurs between the first and second group from the N. Each centres upon a first-floor oriel-window supported on moulded corbelling, with three transomed lights on the face, one on each canted side and a pierced parapet. Centrally above the foregoing is a large second-floor window of three lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head rising above the main parapet-string into a small gable. The gable is elaborated with a blank shield and an octagonal pinnacle at the apex. The ground-floor windows and the flanking windows on the upper floors are similar to those described but with transoms on the first floor. The northernmost bay is of two storeys only and divided from the rest by an octagonal buttress; in it are paired archways with moulded jambs and four centred heads on the ground floor and two windows on the first floor similar to the window next to the S. at the same level. The two S. bays contain windows on all floors similar to those at the same levels next to the N. The dormer-windows, largely screened, are flat topped, and the plain chimney-stacks are rendered.

The E. side of the W. range is without the elaboration of the W. side. All the features are as generally described above. The ground-floor openings are shown on the plan, the doorways having continuously moulded jambs and four-centred heads with labels, and windows occur regularly over them on both floors above. Again the northernmost bay is marked by a buttress and of two-storeys only, being largely screened by a single-storey forebuilding of the N. range. In the S.W. angle of the Court is a projecting turret rising as an octagon above the adjoining ranges and embattled; it is entered through a doorway similar to those just described but smaller and lit by single-light windows.

The East Range has much of the lower part of the E. side concealed by later additions. Most of the ground floor S. of the Gatetower is of exposed brick to a height of 6 ft.; here the windows are as shown on the plan, those without mullions containing double-hung sashes, and with dummy windows opposite the staircases and smaller lights inserted subsequently below. The single-light windows each have three others closely spaced in the height of wall above them. With these exceptions, the windows on all floors are similar to those described generally above, the larger with cast-iron inner orders. The W. side is of similar detail and character to the W. side of the Court.

The N. side of the South Range, again similar in detail to the E. and W. sides of the Court, is elaborated with a grouping of three bays in the centre similar to the individual tripartite grouping described on the W. side of the W. range with, in addition, tall niches beyond the flanking windows; the niches contain pedestals and have canopies surmounted by wall-arches containing crowned Tudor roses. The symmetry is accentuated by projecting the middle nine of the total of thirteen bays on this side and placing buttresses on the salient angles. The recessed faces contain tiers of single-light windows at the extremities. The S. side, to Garret Hostel Lane, has buttresses at each end, that to the E. cut away on the ground floor; all the windows have flat brick arches and double-hung sashes.

Inside, the E., S. and W. ranges contain stone staircases with plain iron balustrades. The sets opening from them on each side contain a sitting-room overlooking the Court, a bedroom behind and a gyp-room; some of those adjoining the Gatetowers and the S.E. and S.W. turrets are slightly more ingeniously planned and contain an extra room. The fireplacesurrounds, mostly original, have flanking panelled pilaster-strips and plain shelves; those in the larger sets are mostly of marble or wood, the rest of stone. A late 18th-century surround on the first floor of the E. range comes from elsewhere. The original main doors are of four panels with a central beadmoulding. Most of the plaster ceilings are original, segmentally vaulted on the second floor of the Gatetowers and with simple cornices elsewhere.

Lecture Room Court (43 ft. by 53 ft.) was added on the S.E. of Great Court in 1833–4. It is of two and three storeys, with walls of gault brick, rendered towards the Court, and slated roofs. The building, according to the Conclusion of 15 June 1833, was to be superintended by Humfry (Charles Humfrey). It consists of a N. range, elongated from N. to S. to fit into the constricted space between the E. range of Great Court and the old boundary-wall dividing the College from the houses on Trinity Street, and a S. range in continuation of the S. range of Great Court. The S. range, which may incorporate a rather earlier building on the S., was extended S.E. after 1864. In 1953–4 the N. range was heightened, the upper lecture room being demolished and replaced by two floors of chambers.

The Court is in the Tudor-Gothic style, the E. side of that part of the E. range of Great Court facing it being remodelled accordingly. The ranges have low plinths, discontinuous strings at first-floor level and embattled parapets to the original walls. The windows generally are transomed, with four-centred openings above and below the transom, square heads and labels. The doorways have continuous moulded jambs and four-centred heads with labels.

The North Range has large oriel-windows to N. and S. rising the full height of the building, the upper parts being modern; on the S. oriel is a shield-of-arms of the College, on the N. of Wordsworth impaling Lloyd. The recessed S.W. wall contains a doorway and three windows, of one, two and three lights; over the doorway is a cusped panel with the date 1834.

The N. side of the South Range is symmetrical, with small rectangular towers at each end rising above the main parapets and embattled. Over the central doorway is a cusped panel containing a blank shield. Three-light windows occur on the first floor over those below, and a single-light window over the doorway. The S. side, excluding the late 19th-century extension, is in red brickwork incorporating some gault bricks. The centre bay projects slightly. The windows are of two and three lights and insertions. Remodelling of the W. side of the Court consists of the addition of two two-stage buttresses to the late 16th-century wall and the adjustment of the windows symmetrically in each bay.

Inside, the stone staircase in the N. range has a plain wrought-iron balustrade and the plaster ceiling of the stairhall is trabeated, the centre panel opening to a lantern. The mid 18th-century staircase in the S. range is of wood, with close strings, turned balusters, moulded handrail and square panelled newels.

Trinity Bridge (Plate 38) over the river W. of New Court is of old material reused in the piers and abutments and of Portland and Ketton stone ashlar above water-level. It was designed by James Essex, who supervised the building in 1764–5, in replacement of a mid 17th-century bridge, which itself replaced an earlier one. Dr. Francis Hooper bequeathed the money for it, the cost being £1,500.

It is slightly cambered from end to end and in three spans of graduated semi-elliptical arches springing from low cutwaters. The two sides are alike; the arches have moulded archivolts, and in the spandrels between the latter and a continuous modillion-cornice at road-level are carved shields-of-arms of the College and of Hooper; above is a solid parapet-wall with moulded plinth and capping. The parapet-walls stop at each end against pedestals, which have ramped and scrolled returns surmounting short ashlar continuations of the abutments. The flanking retaining-walls are of red brickwork.

The early 18th-century Field Gates at the W. end of the avenue leading from Trinity Bridge replace Nevile's Gate (see above), which was removed to make way for them in 1733. They were given to the College by the Hon. Henry Bromley, M.P., of Horseheath Hall, whence they came in that year. They are entirely of wrought-iron, with a central gate hung in two leaves and smaller side gates, the three being divided and flanked by wrought-iron piers supporting overthrows. The large central overthrow, containing the College arms, is composed of scroll-work of much elaboration with sheet-cut foliation and vase-shaped finials; the supporting piers have embossed sheet capitals and scroll-work spires. The side overthrows are slighter and in the form of scrolled abutments; the flanking piers have small scroll-work spires. Extending from the Gates are short lengths of railings, probably of 1733, guarding the bridge over the stream bounding the College grounds on the W.

The mid 18th-century Gate at the entrance to the Fellows' Garden, W. of Queens' Road, came in the present century from the Rectory Manor House, Enfield, Middlesex (see also Monument (21), the University Library). It consists of a central gate hung between piers supporting an overthrow and flanked by short lengths of railings, all being of wrought-iron incorporating decorative scroll-work and extending between modern stone piers.

Some ancient Boundary-walls etc. survive in the College grounds. The high wall running W.N.W. from the late 19th-century kitchen wing of the Master's Lodge probably marks one boundary of the former King's Childer Lane (see historical introduction to the College). Some 4 yds. at the E. end are modern, the next 25 yds. are mediaeval, thence to the river it is probably of the 17th century. The mediaeval length is of clunch, much patched and with brick bonding-courses in the E. part; it formed the S. external wall of a two-storey building, either part of the Master's Gallery, or the Comedy Room, and blocked doorways and windows with clunch dressings remain on both ground and first floors. The 17th-century length is of red brick.

Bounding Lecture-room Court on the E. and continuing a short way N. and S. is a length of high walling, much altered and concealed by cement rendering. It is at least as ancient as the late 17th century, being indicated in the left foreground of Loggan's engraving of the College.

At the W. end of the Master's kitchen-garden is an 18th-century brick retaining-wall beside the river. In it are four semicircular stone arches, probably to culverts, but now blocked.

Little of interest survives in the early 19th-century Brewhouse S.W. of New Court, but built into the W. wall and into a short length of 17th-century boundary-wall extending westward from it towards Garret Hostel Bridge are four late 17th-century stone cartouches carved with the arms of Nevile (twice), Sclater, and Babington, which were on the N. and S. ranges of Nevile's Court until these were remodelled in the 18th century. In all probability the one with Dr. Humphry Babington's arms is that for which Robert Grumbold was paid £3 (Willis and Clark, II, 527).



Footnotes

1 The arms of Nevile are those of Thomas Nevile (Master 1593– 1615); those of Neville refer to other branches of the Neville family. See Armorial.


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