Ecclesiastical Buildings
Parish Churches

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English Heritage

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1959

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254-298

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'Ecclesiastical Buildings: Parish Churches', An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of Cambridge (1959), pp. 254-298. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=128406 Date accessed: 28 November 2014.


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Ecclesiastical Buildings, Etc.

(42) Parish Church of All Saints stands on the S. side of Jesus Lane. The old church, of All Saints in the Jewry, which is first mentioned as having been bestowed upon the monks of St. Albans in the time of Abbot Paul (1077–93), stood on the E. side of St. John's Street, where the churchyard still is. In 1180 the advowson was given to St. Radegund's and at the dissolution of the nunnery it passed to Jesus College. The W. tower stood over the pavement and the building was largely of the 15th and 16th centuries with a chancel of 1726. The old church was demolished in 1865 when the hammer-beam roof of the nave was re-erected in the new church of Wendy near Royston; the latter has since been demolished and the roof is in a builder's yard. The present church was built on the new site in 1863–4 from the design of G. F. Bodley and decorated by William Morris. It contains from the old church the following:—

Fittings—Bells: three, 1st uninscribed and perhaps 14th-century; 2nd by Thomas Norris and with the names of the churchwardens, 1632; 3rd perhaps by Tobie Norris of Stamford, dated 1406, probably a transposition of 1604, and inscribed 'Non sono animabus mortuorum sed auribus viventium' in Lombardic capitals. Books: Henrie Bullinger, Fiftie Godlie and Learned Sermons, 1587; Bible, in black-letter, New Testament dated 1613; two prayer-books bound and presented by John Bowtell, jun., in 1821, now in University Library. Brasses and Indent. Brasses: In S. chapel—on E. wall, (1) of William Tireman, 1777, inscription only; on S. wall, (2) of Edward Salisbury, 1741, organist of Trinity College, and Margaret his mother, 1749, also Susanna Stephens, 1763, inscription only; (3) of John Edmund Lodge, 1808, inscription only. Indent: In old churchyard—of figure and inscription plates, much defaced, but perhaps that referred to in Cooper's Memorials as probably to Richard Holme, master of King's Hall, 1424, added inscription to Thomas Prince, 1782. Font: of clunch, octagonal bowl with quatre-foiled panels enclosing roses and shields alternately, moulded underside, octagonal stem and hollow-chamfered base, 15th-century, painting modern.

Monuments and Floor-slab. Monuments: In S. chapel—on E. wall, (1) of Isack Barrowe, M.D., [1616–7], and Ann his wife, [1589–90], widow of George Cotton, erected by her granddaughter Ann, wife of Sir Philip Landen, in 1631, plain black marble slab formerly on altar-tomb; on S. wall, (2) of William Gifford, 1786, white marble slab; (3) of James, eldest son of James Gifford, 1813, and two sons, Lucius, 1812, and Theophilus, 1811, white marble wall-tablet; (4) of Elizabeth Theodora Christie, eldest daughter of Charles Claydon, 1829, white marble tablet, by Tomson; (5) of Richard Shipton, 1692, slate tablet; (6) of Alexander Scott Abbott, 1843, Jane his wife, 1844, and Charles Graham his son, 1837, white marble altar-shaped tablet on black marble backing, by King, London; (7) of John Carter, 1825; (8) of Miriam Charlotte and Mary Drage, daughters of Moses and Mary Knell Browne, 1841, this and (7) white marble tablets on black marble backings; on W. wall, (9) of Thomas Daye, [1701–2], marble tablet with flanking palm-leaves, cherub-head, cartouche and urn; (10) of Samuel Munk, 1791, white marble tablet; (11) of Ann (Newling), wife of John Lettice, 1788, white marble tablet; (12) of Henry Neve, 1768, of St. John's College, white marble tablet; (13) of Rev. Salusbury Jones, M.A., 1763, Fellow of St. John's College, white marble tablet; (14) of William Bate Strong, 1843; (15) of George Thring, 1807, and Maria his wife, 1830; (16) of Mary, 1829, and Thomas Smith her husband, 1837; (17) of Hannah Maria Syer, 1832, and others; (18) of Richard Nethercoat Cooke, 1819, altar-shaped tablet with foliage garland; (19) of Catharine Thring, 1825; (20) of Thomas Cubitt, 1841; (21) of Thomas Blundell, 1819; (22) of Henry Thring, 1834; (14–22) white marble wall-tablets. In nave—on N. wall, (23) of John Masters, 1793, white marble tablet; (24) of William Beales, 1831, Sarah his widow, 1850, and others, black and white marble tablet; (25) of Susanna Forrester, widow, daughter of Edmund Salter, 1732–3, white marble tablet; (26) of William Norfolk, 1785, and Susan his wife, 1773, white marble tablet; (27) of James Gifford, alderman, 1774, Martha his wife, 1769, Robert their son, 1755, and Harriet Elizabeth, 1775, white marble tablet with shaped frame. In old churchyard—(28) of [Ri]chard Stephenson, 1668, broken headstone; (29) of Henry Kirke White, 1806, and other headstones, now flat, much worn and illegible, but including twelve with shaped tops, carved cherubs, etc., late 18th and early 19th-century. Floor-slab: in old churchyard—of John W....., 1768.

Plate: includes a cup with date-letter for 1568, inscribed 'Verbum Domini manet in eternum', maker's mark I.C. in a shield, a cover-paten probably of the same age, a paten with date-letter for 1633 with a shield-of-arms of Allot impaling Wade, a cup and cover-paten with date-letter for 1706, a paten with date-letter for 1698, inscribed 'Ecclesia omnium sanctorum Cantab', two flagons with date-letter for 1734, one provided from a bequest of Dr. Robert Strachie of Bishop's Stortford, 1704, the other given by Robert Lambert, D.D., Master of St. John's College, 1735, and three alms-dishes, one of pewter and engraved with the Stuart arms, the others of basemetal and dated 1846. Royal Arms: In vestry—of wood, carved and painted, Stuart.

The old churchyard in St. John's Street is enclosed with a wrought-iron Railing, partly of the 18th century, rearranged and extended in 1821, with vases on some uprights and scrolled standards; a taller upright in the middle of the S. side, embellished with scrolls, has a cross-bar and was perhaps a lampstandard.

(43) Parish Church of Christ Church stands on the S. side of Newmarket Road near Maids' Causeway. The walls are of red brick with stone dressings and the roofs are slate-covered. The church was built in the Tudor style to the designs of Ambrose Poynter, opened in May, and consecrated in June 1839; the cost was defrayed by a subscription exceeding £3,800 and grants from the Commissioners for building new churches and the Church Building Society. It is orientated N. and S. and comprises a shallow Sanctuary and Nave under one roof, East and West Aisles and a South Vestry. The nave (Plate 279) is of six uninterrupted arcaded bays with a clearstorey; the aisles stop some 6 ft. short of the S. end wall of the sanctuary. The form of the building is reminiscent of King's College Chapel. A North Porch was added in the second half of the 19th century. Minor repairs and alterations to the interior were made in 1946.


The Parish Church of Christ Church

The Parish Church of Christ Church

Architectural Description—The Sanctuary and Nave (28 ft. by 86 ft.) are structurally undivided. The S. and N. ends have stepped gables and the E. and W. walls have embattled parapets. At the S. end are diagonal buttresses continued high above the parapets in octagonal pinnacles with ogee-shaped domical caps; they are built in a chequer-work of brick and stone. The N. end has tall octagonal turrets at the angles divided by stone strings into stages, the uppermost with recessed quatre-foiled panels in each face, and with domical ogee stone caps. The transomed window in the S. wall of the sanctuary, the liturgical E. end, is of three trefoiled lights in a four-centred head. In the E. and W. walls are arcades of six bays with plain octagonal piers and moulded four-centred arches; the clearstorey has in each bay a window of two four-centred lights in a four-centred head with pierced spandrel. The N. window is similar to the S. window.

The East and West Aisles (13½ ft. wide) are uniform and divided externally into six bays by buttresses of brick and stone in two weathered stages. In each bay is a transomed window of two lights with four-centred openings in a square head with a segmental rear-arch. In the S. and N. walls are small single-light windows above doorways with four-centred heads. The panelled Roof of the nave (Plate 279) is contemporary with the building. It is divided into twelve and a half bays in the length by plain tie-beams on shaped wood brackets; each bay is divided into five panels by plain longitudinal beams; the painting is modern.

Fittings—Bell: In N.E. turret—one, by Mears, London, 1839. Chest: In E. aisle, of oak, with plank front and ends, panelled top with strap-hinges decorated with simple hatching, three locks, and on front a shield-shaped brass plate inscribed 'This was given by Frances Carow clark of Barnwell who dyed Ano. Do. 1635'. Font and Cover (Plate 17). Font: hexagonal, of limestone, straight-sided bowl, each face with tracerypanelling, panelled stem, moulded base. Cover: of oak, with ogee domical top, turned finial and embattled sides containing a band of carved paterae; inscription round lower edge recording purchase by penny subscriptions from 1200 children and presentation in 1839. Galleries: carried on traceried trusses over the E. and W. aisles and on pillars across N. end of nave, contemporary with the building but with modern fronts.

Monuments: In sanctuary—on W. wall, (1) of Rev. John Doudney Lane, M.A., 1847, Fellow of St. John's College, rector of Forncet St. Peter, white marble sarcophagus-shaped wall-tablet against a grey and black marble backing on corbels resembling triglyphs. In W. aisle—on S. wall, (2) of Frederic William Broughton, 1846, black and white marble tablet.

(44) Parish Church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the E. side of Bridge Street. The walls are of rubble partly ashlar-faced and the dressings are of Barnack and other freestone; the roofs are covered with Westmorland slates. Sometime between 1114 and 1130 Reinald, Abbot of Ramsey, granted the cemetery of St. George's and adjoining land to the members of the fraternity of the Holy Sepulchre to build there in honour of Christ and the Holy Sepulchre. The round Nave with its Aisle and a small chancel were built in the first half of the 12th century (Plate 282). The original form of the Chancel is uncertain, but the start of the N. wall was found during the restoration of 1842. At the same time remains of the base of a 13th-century W. respond are said to have been found in the same wall, under the later respond. Other remains of 13th-century work were found at the N.E. angle of the chancel. From this it appears that a N. chapel was added at this period and the chancel in part rebuilt. The church was much altered in the 15th century when a polygonal belfry was added above the clearstorey of the round nave and most of the windows of the round were altered and enlarged; further, the North Chapel, with the arches opening into it from the chancel and the nave-aisle, was rebuilt together with the chancel-arch; this last involving the destruction of the vault of the E. bay of the nave-aisle. A W. porch was added at some uncertain date and is shown in Cole's sketch of 1743 together with three square-headed windows in the N. wall of the N. chapel.

Part of the aisle-vault collapsed in 1841 and a drastic general restoration was undertaken by the Cambridge Camden Society, under the direction of Anthony Salvin, which involved the following works. The 15th-century belfry was destroyed and a stone vault, based upon indications of springers then found, erected over the round nave. The clearstorey-windows were replaced by others of 12th-century character, based on one that is said to have survived. The vault of the aisle was taken down and rebuilt and where it had been destroyed over the E. bay replaced; to allow of this last being done the chancel-arch was rebuilt narrower than its predecessor. The S. wall of the aisle having tilted over owing to the thrust of the vault was taken down to within six feet of the ground and rebuilt. Windows of the 12th-century form replaced the Gothic windows of the aisle; the W. doorway was taken down and completely restored, and all the stonework, inside and out, carefully cleaned and dressed. The W. porch had been removed at an earlier date. In the chancel the E. and N. walls were rebuilt partly of old materials, except the W. arch in the N. wall, and the E. arch to the N. chapel was added. The N. chapel was rebuilt, being extended half a bay to the E., and a bell-turret added on the N.W. angle. At the same time the South Aisle of the chancel and the S. arcade were built and the arch inserted between the new chancel-aisle and the nave-aisle. The whole of this work took place in 1841–43 and is recorded in the Ecclesiologist. The North Vestry was added later in the 19th century. The erection of a stone altar and credence-table led to a lawsuit and the closing of the church from 1843 to 1845: the Court of Arches declared them illegal in January 1845 and they were removed.

In spite of its drastic restoration Holy Sepulchre church is of considerable interest as one of the five surviving round churches in this country. The 19th-century restorations are notable for the care taken by the Cambridge Camden Society to preserve, and where necessary to re-create, the 12th-century style of the building.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (28¼ ft. by 18¾ ft.) has an E. wall rebuilt in 1841–43 incorporating old material; the E. window probably incorporates 15th-century material and is of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label. In the N. wall is an arcade of two bays with moulded four-centred arches and shafted responds. The W. arch is of the 15th-century but the E. arch dates from the mid 19th-century restoration. In the S. wall is an arcade of 1841–43 with arches uniform with the E. arch of the N. arcade. The chancel-arch replaces a wider 15th-century arch and mayincorporate material of that date; it is four-centred with shafted responds and above it are mid 19th-century openings to the triforium of the round. These openings consist of four cinque-foiled lights paired under four-centred sub-arches in a four-centred head with a pierced spandrel, which are flanked by pairs of cinque-foiled lights each in a two-centred head with a pierced spandrel, the whole group being embraced by a wide four-centred arch; the lights have square cinquefoil-headed stone panelling below a transom.


The Church of the Holy Sepulchre

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre

The North Chapel (37¾ ft. by 15½ ft.) was largely rebuilt during the restoration and has been extended to the E. The E. window, similar to that in the chancel, may incorporate old materials. In the N. wall are two mid 19th-century windows of three lights with cinque-foiled openings in four-centred heads. Across the S.W. angle is a 15th-century arch, moulded and four-centred and with shafted responds.

The South Aisle of the chancel (38 ft. by 14¾ ft.) was built in 1841–43; all the features are similar to those in the N. chapel, but of the mid 19th-century.

The Nave (Plate 283) (19¼ ft. in diameter) has a much restored 12th-century arcade of eight bays with half-round arches of two plain orders and one roll-moulded order on the soffit; the arches spring from cylindrical columns with moulded bases and scalloped, fluted or otherwise enriched capitals. The triforium is divided into bays by heavy cylindrical piers with scalloped etc. capitals; each bay has a main half-round arch of two plain orders enclosing two moulded sub-arches springing from one free and two attached shafts with scalloped, foliated or otherwise enriched capitals. The clearstorey now has, in each bay, a completely restored round-headed window. The stone vault, vaulting-shafts and corbels are of the mid 19th century.

The Aisle of the nave (Plate 283) (7½ ft. wide) is faced externally mainly with old ashlar. It has a restored stone vault with square ribs except in the W. bay, which has moulded ribs, and in the E. and S.E. bays, which have cheveron-ornamented ribs; the E. bay is entirely of 1841–43 as are apparently the head-corbels. Against the outer wall the main bays are divided by vaulting-shafts with scalloped capitals. The round-headed windows are all mid 19th-century restorations. The restored 12th-century W. doorway projects and has a half-round arch of four orders, the innermost continuous and with cheveronornament, the second moulded, the third with cheveronornament, and the outermost with embattled ornament; the three outer orders spring from shafts with scalloped caps and enriched abaci.

The Roof of the chancel is of the 15th century, flat-pitched and of four bays with moulded main timbers and embattled plates; the tie-beams have curved braces with restored angels below; at the main intersections are carved bosses or leaves; the E. boss has the Five Wounds, the centre three crowns and the W. a geometrical leaf-pattern. The roof of the N. chapel is similar but of eight bays and is partly mid 19th-century. The roof of the S. aisle of the chancel is similar to that in the N. chapel but of 1841–43 and with half-figures of men below the braces carrying blank shields and musical instruments.

Fittings—Bells: one and sanctus; former by Robart Gurney, 1663; sanctus uninscribed. Chairs: In chancel, two, of oak, back of each with two sub-cusped ogee-headed and traceried panels, moulded and embattled top-rail, octagonal front legs supporting curved arms, foliated bearers below seats, 1845. Communion-Rails: of oak, with moulded top and chamfered lower rails, divided into ten bays containing open panels with sub-cusped trefoiled ogee heads and tracery by small buttressed standards, with larger standards with moulded and embattled caps at each end and flanking the gates in the two centre bays, 1845. Communion-Table: in chancel, of oak, with buttressed legs, top rail carved with naturalistic vine-ornament, pierced trefoiled spandrel-pieces, 1845. Chairs, Communion-rails and Communion-table 'furnished' by Joseph Wentworth. Font and Cover (Plate 17). Font: of clunch, octagonal, straight-sided bowl with sub-cusped quatre-foiled panels in each face, flared stem, moulded base, 1843. Cover: of oak, with crocketed spire, each face in two stages with pinnacled side-standards and two cinque-foiled window-light panels under ogee crocketed gable with finial, mid 19th-century; the cover swings on a wrought-iron bracket. Glass: In clearstorey of nave—in E. window, Agnus Dei on altar, with inscription; in N. window, figure of the Venerable Bede; in S. window, figure of St. Etheldreda; in W. window, pelican in piety, with chalice, Tables of the Law and inscription; all by Thomas Willement, inserted at the time of the 19th-century restoration and of that date; in N.E. window, figure in red robe, made-up canopy and fragments; in N.W. window, figure of St. Peter with book and key, canopy and fragments, red seraph above; in S.E. window, figure in white robe with crozier and head of angel, made up canopy and bust of seraph above; in S.W. window, figure in red holding cup below, head not belonging, figure of the Father above with fragmentary black-letter inscription; 15th-century and later, given by H. P. Oakes of Bury St. Edmunds in 1842. In nave-aisle—S. window, Entombment and Resurrection, by Wailes; in S.W. window, Baptism (Plate 36), with sacred monograms, by Thomas Willement, with his initials; both mid 19th-century.

Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) to Samuel Ogden, S.T.P., 1778, oval marble tablet with carved and painted laurel-wreath surround. In N. chapel, on N. wall (2) to Emma Yeldon, 1800, Francis Harwood, 1811, Ann his wife, 1838, and Ann their daughter, 1843, marble tablet with mediaeval style of lettering, by Tomson; (3) to Edward Goode, 1815, marble tablet, by Tomson. In S. aisle of chancel—on S. wall, (4) to Rene Labutte, 1790, and Mary his wife, 1808, white marble tablet; (5) to John Sparke, 1759, and Deborah Sparke, 1772, grey and white marble tablet with shield-of-arms of Sparke impaling Angerton, erected by Deborah Ashby, their daughter; (6) to Mary Bond, black and white marble oval wall-tablet, early 19th-century; (7) to John Wentworth, 1818, and Daniel Wentworth, 1822, Mary, wife of Daniel Wentworth, 1817, and Susan their sister, 1830, Martha, wife of Joseph ...., 1832, and Charles their son, rectangular marble tablet, partly obscured by organ. In churchyard, W. of church, (8) of Jonathan Sharp, 1794, stone pedestal-monument with urn.

Plate: includes two cups, one with the date-letter for 1725, the other very similar, both given in 1734, two stand-patens given the same year, a flagon with the date-letter for 1768, given the following year by Samuel Ogden, D.D., and two alms-dishes, one given in 1734 by Rev. Dr. Lambert, Master of St. John's College, and with the date-letter for that year, the other given the same year and with the date-letter for 1725. Royal Arms: In N. chapel—of Victoria, but perhaps painted on earlier carved arms. Tables of the Creed, etc.: In N. chapel, on W. wall, two plain round-headed panels and a rectangular panel, painted with Creed, Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer, early 19th-century. Tiles: in chancel and nave-aisle, slip-tiles with symbols of the Evangelists, geometrical and foliated patterns in white on red, mid 19th-century.

(45) Parish Church of the Holy Trinity stands on the W. side of Sidney Street. The lower part of the W. wall is faced externally with flint pebbles. Most of the rest of the building is covered with Roman cement, except the 19th-century chancel and the tower, which have been refaced in rough ashlar; the dressings are of freestone and the roofs are covered with lead. The Cambridge fire of 1174 is thought to have destroyed a church here; presumably it was then rebuilt. The existing flint pebbles of the W. wall may well be part of the late 12th-century building. The chancel was rebuilt c. 1300. Late in the 14th century extensive work was undertaken: the N. and S. arcades of the Nave were built and the North and South Aisles added, the work on the N. being undertaken first; the West Tower was built within the W. end of the nave at the same time. In the 15th century the North and South Transepts were rebuilt; the date of the earlier transepts is unknown. The clearstorey of the nave is contemporary with this rebuilding, and in the same period the buttresses of the tower were added and the E. tower-arch was strengthened by the addition of a further order on the E.; late in the century the North Porch was added. The S. aisle was widened and lengthened towards the W. in the 16th century. Galleries were put up in the church, beginning in 1616, to give the extra accommodation required in connection with the Town lectureship established here; but all have been removed except one, in the S. transept, of the early 19th century, probably of 1806 and commissioned by the Rev. Charles Simeon. In 1834 the stone-vaulted Chancel was pulled down and replaced by a brick building. The transept-arches were rebuilt, reputedly in 1851, and in 1885 the chancel was refaced in stone and the Organ Chamber added. The South-West Vestry is modern.

The church is of some architectural interest, and amongst the fittings is a wall-monument to the Rev. Charles Simeon. After his appointment as perpetual curate and lecturer in 1782 the church became the centre of the Cambridge Evangelical revival associated with his name.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (30 ft. by 23 ft.) was rebuilt in 1834; the chancel-arch is of this date and similar in design to the arches between the nave and transepts. The remaining features date for the most part from 1885.

The Nave (Plate 284) (50 ft. by 22½ ft.) is of the late 14th century and of four bays, within the westernmost of which stands the tower. The first arch on the N., of the 15th century, has been rebuilt with much of the original material, and is considerably larger than the others; the arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders, the inner springing from attached shafts with moulded caps and bases and the outer continuous and enriched with a band of cinquefoil-headed panelling. The three other arches, of the late 14th century, are two-centred and of the two wave-moulded orders springing from a quatre-foiled pier between the second and third bays and shafted responds, all with moulded capitals and bases. The S. arcade is also of four bays; the E. arch is similar to the corresponding arch on the N., of the same date and similarly rebuilt. The other three bays have late 14th-century two-centred arches of two orders, the inner chamfered and the outer wave-moulded; they spring from a pier and responds similar to those on the N., but some of the bases are partly covered by the modern floor. The two middle bays on both sides have three 15th-century clearstorey windows, each of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label.


The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity

The Parish Church of the Holy Trinity

The North Transept (23¼ ft. by 21½ ft.) was rebuilt in the 15th century and has an embattled parapet. In the E. wall are two ranges of windows; both the lower windows are of four cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with moulded reveals and label; the three clearstorey windows are each of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label. In the N. wall is a large window of six cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label. In the W. wall is an arch to the aisle similar to those in the middle N. bays of the nave; the three clearstorey windows are similar to those in the E. wall.

The South Transept (23¼ ft. by 26 ft.) was also rebuilt in the 15th century. In the E. wall are two lower windows both of five trefoiled and sub-cusped lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with moulded reveals and label. The three clearstorey windows are each of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with a label; their sills are continued across the wall-face as a moulded string, with brattishing and stone corbels carved with half-angels holding shields between the windows. In the S. wall is a large window of six trefoiled and sub-cusped transomed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with moulded reveals and label. In the W. wall is an arch to the aisle similar to the western arches of the S. nave-arcade and a modern doorway; the clearstorey has three windows similar to those in the E. wall.

The North Aisle (10¾ ft. wide) has, in the N. wall, two late 14th-century windows, both of four cinque-foiled lights with flowing tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and label; they have been completely restored externally. The restored N. doorway, originally of the same period, has moulded jambs and four-centred head. In the W. wall is a late 14th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a label.

The South Aisle (16 ft. wide) was rebuilt in the 16th century. In the S. wall are two reset late 14th-century windows, both of three cinque-foiled lights with pierced spandrels in a square head and with the middle light ogee-headed; further W. is a modern doorway. In the W. wall is a 16th-century window of four four-centred lights in a square head, all restored externally.

The West Tower (8½ ft. by 8 ft.) stands in the W. end of the nave and is of three stages with a plain parapet and a spire. It was built at the end of the 14th century and incorporates the late 12th-century W. wall of the nave. The ground-stage has, in the E., N. and S. walls, a moulded two-centred arch springing from chamfered and shafted responds; the E. arch has an extra order on the E. face added in the 15th century when the buttresses were built. The E. buttresses have moulded plinths and ranges of cinque-foiled panelling on the E. faces. Supporting the E. arch are two half-arches of two chamfered orders contemporary with, and springing from, the piers of the arcades and butting against the tower-walls. In the earlier W. wall is a late 14th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label and defaced head-stops. The upper part of the tower has been refaced with modern rock-faced ashlar and the octagonal stone spire was rebuilt in 1823.

The North Porch (8 ft. by 5¾ ft.) is of late 15th-century origin but has been much restored and rendered in cement. The outer archway is moulded and two-centred with a label; the arch springs from chamfered and shafted responds with moulded caps and bases.

The Roof of the nave is of the 15th century, of six bays, flat-pitched and with moulded tie-beams, purlins, plates and rafters; curved braces form four-centred arches below the tie-beams and spring from short wall-posts carried on stone corbels carved with half-angels holding shields, except over the arches to the transepts where the corbels are omitted or have been removed. The roofs of the transepts are generally similar to the nave roof and of the same date. The 15th-century lean-to roof of the N. aisle is low-pitched and of six bays with moulded principals and purlin; two of the principals have curved braces. The 16th-century roof of the S. aisle is of four main bays, each divided into panels by a principal rafter and two purlins; the timbers are moulded and chamfered.

Fittings—Bells: five and sanctus; 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th by Thomas Newman, 1705; 5th by Thomas Newman and with the names of the churchwardens, 1705; sanctus not hung. Books: New Testament translated into Persian by Henry Martyn, 1815. See also Miscellanea. Brass-indent: In S. aisle—of small figure with inscription-plate; see also Floor-slab (1). Chair: see Miscellanea. Chest: In nave—of wood covered with sheet-iron, with flat lid, handles and two locks, 16th-century. Consecration Cross: In N. aisle—on N. wall, painted in red and black, formy cross in rope circle, perhaps mediaeval, damaged. Font: In churchyard—octagonal bowl with moulded under-edge, plain stem and chamfered base, 14th or 15th-century, worn and patched. Gallery: In S. transept, spanning the full width, incorporating stair in S.E. corner—of wood and plaster, front with continuous succession of narrow vertical tracery-panels cinque-foiled at head and foot, supported on three moulded four-centred arches springing from quatre-foiled piers with moulded caps and moulded and foliated corbels against the walls, early 19th-century (a faculty of 1806 for the Rev. Charles Simeon to build galleries and a staircase at his own expense probably refers). Glass: In N. transept—in N.E. window, in four main lights figure subjects and texts, with Christ in the contexts of Matthew viii, 13, xi, 28, xxvi, 11 and Luke x, 42, the last two texts transposed, and in tracery sacred monograms and lilies, by the artist and of the date of the following. In S. transept—N.E. window, in five main lights large figures of Christ flanked by the four Evangelists under canopies (Plate 17), and in tracery angel musicians with scrolls of plain-chant and angel holding symbol of the Trinity, memorial inscription to Charles Claydon, 1809, and Hannah his wife, 1796, 19th-century, signed 'W.H. Constable Stained Glass Artist in Cambridge'.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on S. wall, (1) of Rev. T. T. Thomason, 1829, Fellow and Tutor of Queens' College, white marble tablet with pedimental head, by Swinton; (2) of Rev. Henry Martyn, 1812, Fellow of St. John's College, translator of New Testament into Hindustani and Persian, white marble tablet with pedimental head; (3) of Rev. Charles Simeon, 1836, vicar, Fellow of King's College, white marble tablet (Plate 17) in elaborate 19th-century Gothic frame with flanking niches containing figures of a man and a woman, with shield-of-arms of Simeon, by H. Hopper, London. In nave—on tower buttresses, (4) of Edward Warren, 1722, Ann his wife, 1734–5, and Edward his son, 1734, painted stone cartouche with scallop shells; (5) of Samuel Conant, 1706, Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, slate tablet in alabaster frame with cherub-head, cornice, urns and cartouche containing the arms of Conant. In N. transept—on W. wall, (6) of Francis Percy, alderman, and Margaret his wife, both 1711, also commemorating their two sons Algernon, 1705, and Henry, 1706, who served in the wars against France, paired black marble tablets with moulded shelf and achievement of arms of Percy impaling (unidentified 72); (7) of Pell Gatward, 1741, white marble tablet with achievement-of-arms of Gatward quartering Pell with an escutcheon of March quartering Rowland; (8) of Elizabeth (Anderson) Peyton, [1659], black marble tablet on two moulded brackets. In S. transept—on E. wall, (9) to Charles Claydon, 1809, and Hannah his wife, 1796, white marble tablet on black marble backing; on S. wall, (10) to John Porter, 1771, white marble eared tablet with pediment, urn and cherub-heads; (11) to Mary, wife of John Porter, 1747, white marble tablet with pedimental head; on W. wall, (12) to Anna Horlick, 1852, wife of Robert Potts, M.A., of Trinity College, white marble tablet with scroll inscribed with her own verses, lilies, harp and heavenly crown, on black marble backing, by Manning, London; (13) to Hannah, widow of Robert Potts, 1845, white marble tablet with laurel branch on black marble backing; in gallery, (14) to Richard Mee, 1791, and Elizabeth (Jacob) his wife, 1778, marble tablet with pediment and cherub-heads; (15) to Maria, wife of William Jackson, 1777, white marble tablet with pediment. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (16) to Thomas Burleigh James, 1799, white and black marble tablet with pedimental head; (17) to William Wallis, 1799, and Mary his wife, 1796, rectangular marble tablet; (18) to William and Susan Mott, 1785 and 1790, white and black marble tablet erected by their children; (19) to William Mott, alderman, 1772, and Mary his second wife, 1755, white marble tablet in coloured marble frame with pediment; (20) to Mary Anne and William, children of Thomas and Rebecca Mott, small white marble tablet with urn on black marble backing, 18th-century; (21) of Sir Robert Tabor (or Talbor), physician, [1681], son of John Tabor, registrar to the Bishop of Ely, grandson of James Tabor, registrar of the University, attended Charles II, Louis XIV and Louisa Maria of Spain, slate and white marble wall-monument with fruit and flowers carved in high relief, cornice, urns and cartouche containing a blank shield. In S. aisle—on E. wall, (22) to Capt. William Jardine Purchas, R.N., 1848, and William Jardine his son, 1850, black and white marble tablet, by Tomson; (23) to Elizabeth, widow of Rev. George Paddon, M.A., 1843, black and white marble tablet, by Tomson and Son; on S. wall, (24) to Mary Ann, wife of Rev. Frederick Hose, 1841, black and white marble tablet; (25) to John Ingle, 1809, and Susannah his wife, 1832, black and white marble tablet; on W. wall, (26) to Ann Ind, 1807, and Edward Ind, alderman, 1808, white marble tablet in coloured marble frame with pediment. Floor-slabs: Under tower—(1) of Edward Warin, 1722, reused slab with rectangular indent and also initials and date S.C., 1706; (2) of Pell March, son of Pell Gatward and Sarah Rowland his wife, 1735, with achievement-of-arms as on monument (7); (3) and (4) of Pell Gatward, 1741, and another member of the Gatward family, both with shields-of-arms, all much worn. In S. aisle—(5) of James Godby, 1786, and Ann his wife, 1827; (6) of W.J.P., 1848, and W.J.P., 1830; (7) of Margaret, wife of Fr. Percy, 1711; (8) of Edward Lawe, 1676, and Edward his son, 1682, of slate with achievement-of-arms, much worn.

Plate: includes a cup and cover-paten with inscribed date 1569 (Plate 24), repaired in 1827, a cup and cover-paten with date-letter for 1622 given by William Rowland the same year, repaired in 1827, two cups given in 1839, copies of the two earlier cups, an alms-dish with date-letter for 1631 with cinque-foiled dishing and cherub-heads on the rim, and an alms-dish with the mark for 1836 and engraved view of Holy Trinity Church, Ipswich. Pulpit: see Miscellanea. Recess: In N. transept —in N. wall, tall, with chamfered jambs and four-centred head, 15th-century. Royal Arms (Plate 53): In nave—over chancel-arch, carved and painted, 1814–37. Miscellanea: In Vestry— collection of relics of the Rev. Charles Simeon, including: his 'preaching Bible'; the collected edition (30 vols.) of his works, 1833; a large green umbrella; the 'Windsor' armchair used during his ministry 1782–1836, and a cabinet, about 3 ft. high, with four doors, made from the pulpit removed 1833. In churchyard—N.E. of chancel, carved stone with hand etc., probably corbel and mediaeval; N. of chancel, pilaster with drapery, probably part of 17th-century monument. In Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, clunch image of bishop (Plate 68) in cope and mitre, blessing, with remains of crozier and of figure at foot, retaining much original colouring, 15th-century.

(46) Parish Church of St. Andrew the Great, previously known as St. Andrew without Barnwell Gate, stands on the W. side of St. Andrew's Street, opposite Christ's College. The walls are of ashlar and the roofs are slate-covered. The former church was entirely destroyed in 1842 and the present church built by subscription in the late 15th-century Gothic style from the designs of Ambrose Poynter and consecrated in 1843. It consists of an aisled Nave with a Sanctuary, the latter projecting a short way beyond the line of the E. walls of the Aisles, and a West Tower. The South Porch and the Vestries at the W. end were built in 1850 and 1897 respectively.

Structural remains of earlier date than the rebuilding are confined to details, perhaps some walling in the heating-chamber and a re-erected archway S.W. of the church. The said walling, below the western end of the S. aisle, appears to be of old material and contains the lower parts of a single-light window, perhaps of the 13th century. Built into the same wall are the double capitals of two pairs of shafts, probably half-round, of the early 12th century and carved with crude volutes; there seems to be no evidence of their provenance. The re-erected archway, made up largely of 17th-century material, has square stone jambs with moulded imposts and a semicircular arch of two square orders with a moulded archivolt and a plain keystone.

The interior of the church (Plate 279) is an elaborate and well-preserved example of the period.

Architectural Description—The Sanctuary (6 ft. by 21 ft.) and Nave (62 ft. by 21 ft.) are structurally undivided and without a clearstorey. The E. window is of five cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head; the internal splays and soffit are panelled and jamb-shafts at the angles are continued up above the head to support a straight moulded cornice enclosing traceried spandrels. The nave has N. and S. arcades each of five bays with lofty four-centred arches of two chamfered orders springing from octagonal cast-iron piers with moulded caps and bases standing on high rectangular plinths.


The Parish Church of St. Andrew the Great

The Parish Church of St. Andrew the Great

The North and South Aisles (14 ft. wide) are uniform and of the same length as the nave. In each, the E. window and the side windows are similar and of three lights with external labels carried straight across the wall-face between the buttresses and, internally, with panelled splays and soffits and wood pelmets; the pelmets have four-centred under-edges, pierced tracery and square tops with cresting. The westernmost lights of the N.W. and S.W. windows have always been partly blocked so that they appear outside and not, below gallerylevel, inside. Below the window-sills are ranges of quatre-foiled panels and enriched strings. In the first bay is a doorway with a four-centred opening in a square head; that in the S. wall is now protected by a later porch. Over both aisles are galleries built up on cross-beams and raking members, with pierced tracery in the spandrels, supported on small cast-iron colonnettes immediately behind the piers of the nave arcades and standing on the same tall plinths; (see also Fittings).

The West Tower (13¼ ft. square) is of four stages with angle buttresses on the E., diagonal buttresses on the W. and an embattled parapet. The doorway in the E. wall has plain square jambs and a four-centred head. The N. doorway, which is the main entrance to the church, has casement-moulded jambs and a four-centred head with a label. In the W. wall is a modern door to the vestries. The second stage has single pointed lights in the S. and W. walls and a two-light window with tracery in the N. wall. In each wall of the bell-chamber is a three-light window with vertical tracery in a four-centred head.

The Roof over the sanctuary and nave is in five bays divided by queen-post trusses with curved braces below the tie-beams and others between the queen-posts and the collar-beams; all the spandrels are enriched with pierced tracery. The flat beamed roofs of the aisles are in ten bays, and each bay, except the westernmost, is divided into two main and eight subsidiary panels by chamfered beams with enrichments at the intersections. All these roofs are contemporary with the building.

Fittings—Bells: eight; 1st and 2nd, by Mears of London, 1856, with Latin inscription commemorating the Peace of Paris; 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th, recast by Mears, 1843; 7th by Robert Gurney, 1667; 8th by Thomas Newman, 1722. Benefactors' Tables: In tower—two, charities of (1) Thomas Carrington, 1820, (2) Elizabeth Cook, 1841, text painted on boards, mid 19th-century. See also Brass (3). Brasses and Indent. Brasses: in nave—(1) to Leonard Chappelow, B.D., 1768, Professor of Arabic, Mary his widow, 1779, lozenge-shaped inscription-plate only. In tower—(2) to Edward Noyes, 1801, shield-shaped plate; (3) record of bequest by Christopher Rose, died 1661, for an annual sermon to be preached on the day of his death, mid 19th-century, similar in shape to (2). Indent: In nave, of inscription-plate, Chairs: In sanctuary, two with panelled backs, embattled top-rails, curved and moulded arms, mid 19th-century. In vestry—six; one, with panelled back enriched with arabesques, scrolled cresting and scrolled arms, turned legs and stretcher carved with initials A.F., modern but incorporating early 17th-century material; five 'Windsor' chairs, two with arms, splats pierced with fleurs-delis, c. 1800. Coffin-stools: two, with turned legs and plain stretchers, 17th-century. Font: octagonal, of limestone, each face of bowl with panel containing four quatrefoils, stem with buttresses at the angles and vertical tracery panelling, mid 19th-century, in the late 15th-century style, Galleries: Over N. and S. aisles—fronts between piers of nave-arcades with cinquefoil-headed panels, small buttresses and moulded base and top-rails. At W. end of nave—gallery with similar front, breaking forward in the centre and supported on cast-iron columns with moulded caps and bases; all contemporary with the building. Glass: In sanctuary—in E. window, of multicoloured interlacing geometrical design on grisaille ground with foliage borders and, in the heads of the lights, shields of the arms of Christ's College, the See of Ely, Queen Victoria, the Deanery of Ely, and Emmanuel College, in the tracery-lights, an Agnus Dei, and Α and Ω. In N. and S. aisles—in tracery-lights of E. windows, sprigs of roses and made-up shields; in N. wall, in tracery of first window, six seraphim on golden wheels holding scroll of plain-chant, in tracery of second window, six children under canopies holding continuous scroll; in S. wall, in tracery of first window, canopy-work with name and date Nathan Jennings, 1851, in tracery of second window, similar canopy-work in memory of Mary Sayle, 1850, in fifth window, angel (Plate 36) with inscription to Samuel Francis, 1840. In tower—in W. window, of geometrical design similar to that of E. window. All the foregoing of the mid 19th-century.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In sanctuary—on N. wall, (1) of Capt. James Cook, R.N., killed by natives of Owybbe in the Pacific Ocean, 1779, Nathaniel Cook, lost with the man-of-war Thunderer, 1780, Hugh Cook, 1793, Cdr. James Cook, R.N., drowned 1794, Elizabeth Cook, 1771, Joseph Cook, 1768, George Cook, 1772, Elizabeth Cook, 1835, white marble tablet (Plate 17) with flanking pilasters, trophies, a mourning woman, urn and, on the apron, a shield-of-arms of Cook; only Hugh, James and Elizabeth their mother buried here; (2) of John Wolryche, 1689, white marble tablet (Plate 14) with flanking putti, two cherub-heads, urn and blank shield; on S. wall (3) of Thomas Thackeray, surgeon, 1806, and Lydia his wife, 1830, white marble tablet with broken pediment and carved apron; (4) of James Robson, alderman, 1676, his son James, 1686–7, and Catherine Robson, 1709–10, black marble tablet (Plate 14) with gilt lettering, with side-pilasters and cherubs holding emblems of mortality, cherub-heads and achievement-of-arms of Robson; (5) of Anna Robson, 1727, oval marble tablet on corbel carved as cherub-head. In nave—on W. wall, (6) of Richard, son of Richard Humfrey, 1659, stone tablet (Plate 13) with strapwork apron and achievement-of-arms of Humfrey; (7) of Isaac, son of Giles Aleyn, 1661, very similar to (6) and with the arms of Aleyn (Plate 13). In N. aisle—on E. wall, (8) of George Fowler, 1775, Fellow-Commoner of Christ's College, white and coloured marble wall-monument with oval panel flanked by Doric pilasters supporting a pedimented entablature, with painted shield-of-arms of Fowler; (9) of Daniel Yate, 1676–7, Master of Emmanuel College, black marble tablet with alabaster side-scrolls and broken pediment supporting nude reclining angels holding emblems of mortality and framing achievement-of-arms of Yate; (10) of Robert, son of Charles Stoddart, vicar of Eglingham, 1732, rectangular marble tablet in plain slate frame; (11) of George, son of Shukburgh Ashby of Blaby, 1760, painted stone cartouche; on N. wall, (12) of John Bones, solicitor, 1813, and Mary his wife, 1786, white marble tablet surmounted by draped urn, on shaped grey marble slab, by S. Manning; (13) of Joseph Wilson, 1815, white marble tablet, by Tomson; (14) of Rev. John Edwards, 1716, Fellow of St. John's College, and Catharine his wife, 1744–5, of Mary, wife of Rev. Dr. John Newcome, Master of St. John's College, 1744, and Dorothy their daughter, 1758, white and coloured marble tablet with pedimented cornice and cartouche below; (15) of Jean Baptiste Goussel, 1832, teacher of French in the University, white marble tablet, by Tomson & Son, Cambridge; (16) of Joseph Butcher, 1814, white marble tablet on black slab, by Tomson; on W. wall, (17) of Thomas Fairmeadow, M.A., 1711, Fellow of Christ's College and rector of Ansty, black marble tablet with clunch flanking garlands, coved cornice and cartouche containing the arms of Fairmeadow. In S. aisle—on E. wall (18) of John Collins, [1618], painted stone wall-monument with bust cut in relief surrounded by inscribed fillet and scrolls flanked by pilasters, hand issuing from clouds above; (19) of Thomas Wiseman, J.P., 1764, alderman and mayor, cartouche with shield-of-arms of Wiseman impaling Butler (?); monuments (18) and (19) are difficult to see; on S. wall, (20) of Mary Humfrey, 1828, and four of her children, black and white marble tablet; (21) of John Fisher, 1795, and others later, plain tapering marble tablet; (22) of John Favell, 1804, Elizabeth his wife, 1840, and their children, George, 1798, John, died of wounds received at Baccum, 1799, buried in Leyden 'Cathedral', Capt. Samuel, killed at Salamanca, 1812, William Anthony, killed at Toulouse, 1814, James, in H.M.S. Leven at Delagoa Bay, 1823, Elizabeth, 1834, Thomas, Cdr. R.N., 1835, Edward, 1854, and seven infants, plain tapering black marble tablet; (23) of Jane, wife of G. B. White, Town Clerk of Cambridge, 1826, and two sons, white marble tablet with fluted side-columns, acroteria and urns; (24) of Frances (Redfarn), wife of Robert Barber, 1831, white and black marble tablet, by A. Swinton; (25) of Henry Cornwall, LL.D., 1699, alabaster tablet (Plate 14) flanked by palm-leaves, with cherub-heads, torches and cartouche containing the arms of Cornwall, and, immediately below, plain black memorial tablet to his sister Susanna, wife of John Baines, 1700; on W. wall, (26) of Rev. George Langshaw, B.D., 1843, Fellow of St. John's College, vicar, black and white marble tablet, by Swinton. In churchyard—S. of church, (27) of Maria Elizabeth Couldsbury, 1841, and Charlotte Elizabeth Mill, 1843, tomb with steep gabled top; about fifty headstones dated between 1715 and 1850, one to Willm Buttler, 1745, and Joan his wife, 1744, the rest later, some carved with cherub-heads, putti, angels and vases of flowers, many illegible. Floor-slabs: In nave —(1) of Dionsius Shales, 1718–9, Damaris his wife, 1732, and Dionsius their son, 1732–3, with achievement-of-arms of Shales impaling (unidentified 73); (2) of Elizabeth, wife of Gilman Wall, apothecary, 1760, Mary (Wall), wife of Morgan Gwynn Davies, 1782, Lydia Wall, 1789, Gilman Wall, 1790, and Mary Wall, 1796; (3) of John Barnard, 1703, with achievement-of-arms of Barnard; (4) of William, son of the Rev. William and Elizabeth (Cullum) Boys, 1722, with achievement-of-arms of Boys; (5) of Joseph Butcher, solicitor, 1814; (6) of the Rev. John Edwards, D.D., 1716, and Catharine his wife, 1744–5; (7) of William Woods, 1820; (8) of Thomas Thackeray, 1806, and Lydia his widow, 1830; (9) of Hugh, 1793, and James Cook, 1794, and Elizabeth their mother, 1835 (see monument 1). In N. aisle—(10) of A. Wall, 1798; (11) of Norris Wilson, 1821, and Mary his wife, 1822; (12) of Samuel England, 1741. In S. aisle—(13) of B. Audley, 1783.

Organ: In E. bay of S. aisle—front in two heights, the lower panelled, the upper with central group of pipes and flanking towers, W. side enclosed with shafted panelling that formerly lined the sanctuary, all mid 19th-century, in the Gothic style, reset early in the present century. Plate: includes a cup and cover-paten, the latter with the engraved date 1569, a flagon with the date-letter for 1732 and alms-dish, given by Ann Robson in the same year, both with shield-of-arms of Robson, and a cup, a stand-paten and two plates with the date-letter for 1844, given the following year. Seating: In nave, at W. end, two benches incorporating some early 16th-century material, shaped brackets below the seats, shaped ends, one terminating in a carved poppy-head. Miscellanea: Loose in the church— various architectural fragments including freestone and Purbeck marble bases and caps, one cap with stiff-leaf foliage, all 13th-century and said to be from Barnwell priory, but authority not known.

(47) Church of St. Andrew the Less stands on the N. side of the Newmarket Road. The walls are of clunch rubble, extensively refaced with rough freestone ashlar, much of it reused material; the dressings are of Barnack and other freestone and the roofs are covered with tiles. The church, consisting of Chancel and Nave, was built early in the 13th century by the adjacent Barnwell Priory and, until the Dissolution, was served by one of the canons. Cole's sketch of 1745 shows a bell-turret and a S. porch. After being closed since 1846, the church was restored in 1854–6 under the supervision of the Cambridge Architectural Society when the upper part of the N. wall seems to have been rebuilt and the lower part refaced; it was reopened in the latter year. The Vestry and Organ Chamber were built in the later 19th century and the South Porch in 1929 on the site of the earlier porch. A Choir-vestry was added on the N. in 1955.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (22¼ ft. by 18¼ ft.) is structurally undivided from the nave. In the E. wall are three 13th-century lancet-windows, with two-centred rear-arches of two moulded orders and internal labels with mask-stops at the outer ends; the outer orders spring from Purbeck marble shafts with moulded stone capitals, bands and bases; the inner orders and the splay-mouldings stop against the abaci, which are continued into the splays. The string-course below the sills is continued round the church. In the N. wall, which sets back above the string, are two modern lancet-windows and a modern doorway. In the S. wall are two windows; the eastern is a restored 13th-century lancet-light; the western is of the late 14th century, of two transomed and trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with a label and headstops; below the embattled transom the lights are rebated for shutters and served as a 'low-side'; the staples for the shutters remain.

The Nave (48¼ ft. by 18¼ ft.) has, in the N. wall, three lancet-windows and further E. an opening to the organ and a staircase, all of the later 19th century. The entirely restored N doorway has jambs and two-centred arch of two chamfered orders with a label; the internal string-course is carried square over the rear-arch. In the S. wall are three completely restored lancet-windows, two of which are shown on Cole's sketch; both the larger windows in the same sketch have been removed. The S. doorway is largely original and has a two-centred arch of two chamfered orders, the inner continuous and the outer springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the label has mask-stops. In the W. wall are two restored lancet-windows and in the gable are two modern openings for bells.


The Parish Church of St Andrew the Less

The Parish Church of St Andrew the Less

Fittings—Bells: two, inaccessible, with Latin inscriptions, one said to be by Taylor of St. Neots, c. 1800, the other probably post-1850. Coffin-lid: In chancel—tapering slab with moulded edge and ornamental raised cross, 13th-century. Font: of limestone, plain octagonal bowl and stem with moulded base, 13th-century. Monuments: In churchyard— against W. boundary-wall, (1) of Jacob Butler, barrister-atlaw, 1765, Rose (Clark) his wife, 1778, and with genealogy of the family including fifty-one names, six framed stone panels with pediment, removed from chancel in 1854; against E. wall of church, (2) of Elene, wife of Phill. Prigg, 169[0–1], cartouche with emblems of mortality; (3) of Philip Prigg, 1686–7, similar to (2); against S. wall of chancel, (4) of John Clarke, 1673, panel with shaped head; in S.W. corner, (5) headstone inscribed E.P., 1690–1; Painting: In nave—high on W. wall, large sacred monogram in a circle, in red, date uncertain. Piscina: In S. wall of chancel, rectangular recess with two drains, with octofoiled dishings, 13th-century, with modern wood frame. Recess: In chancel—in N. wall, with chamfered clunch jambs and segmental head, 13th-century, restored.

(48) Parish Church of St. Benet stands on the S. side of Benet Street. The walls are of rubble, with oolite and other freestone dressings, except of the vestry, which are of brick with stone dressings; the roofs are covered with tiles, slates and lead. The church, consisting of Chancel, Nave and West Tower was built in the pre-Conquest period, perhaps early in the second quarter of the 11th century. Of this building the tower, the four external angles of the nave and probably much of the S. wall of the chancel survive. The base of this S. wall was uncovered in 1872 and recorded to be of large blocks of Barnack stone with a few of the quoins remaining in the S.E. angle; at the same time in the 19th century remains of a N. wall were found just within the existing N. wall of the chancel. In the 13th century, windows were inserted in the S. wall of the chancel and recesses for altars were contrived on each side of the original chancel-arch; conjecturally to the same period may be assigned the addition of aisles 10 ft. wide of which traces of the foundations were found in 1853.

During the reign of Edward I the church was badly damaged by fire (Liber mem. ecc. de Bernewelle, 159) and at the end of the 13th or beginning of the 14th century the chancel-arch was enlarged, the nave-arcades were rebuilt and probably also the aisles. This at the latest is when the N. wall of the chancel was reconstructed further N. The nave-roof was renewed in 1452 and a clearstorey was probably added at the same time. The church was intimately connected with Corpus Christi College, part of it being used as the College Chapel until the Chapel in the College was built in 1579; Dr. Thomas Cosyn, Master (1487–1515), built the South Vestry and a Chapel above together with the building containing a Gateway and a Gallery joining them to the College. The North Aisle was rebuilt wider and the North Porch added in 1853 from the designs of J. R. Brandon. Under A. W. Blomfield in 1872 the South Aisle was rebuilt and widened, the clearstorey, the E. and N. walls of the chancel and probably the chancel-arch were rebuilt, and the Organ Chamber was added.

The church is most notable for the survival of the pre-Conquest tower and some portions of the nave and chancel of the same date. Dr. Cosyn's building of c. 1500 shows an interesting and unusual arrangement providing a Gateway to Corpus Christi College and, on the first floor, access across from College to church.


The Parish Church of St. Benet

The Parish Church of St. Benet

Architectural Description—The Chancel (22¼ ft. by 16½ ft.) has a late 19th-century E. window of 14th-century character; it has shafted splays and moulded rear-arch and label. In the N. wall is an arch and, to the E., a single-light window, both of the late 19th century. In the S. wall is a 14th or 15th-century doorway with jambs and two-centred arch of two chamfered orders; higher up in the wall are two blocked 13th-century windows, visible internally; the eastern is of one pointed light with a segmental-pointed rear-arch; the western is wider but shows only the splays and segmental-pointed rear-arch. The E. side of the last is partly cut away by a blocked opening of c. 1500 with a flat segmental head formerly opening into the chapel over the vestry. The chancel-arch is of the late 19th century, but against the side-walls are the mutilated moulded bases of the chancel-arch of c. 1300. N. and S. of the arch, on the W., exposed in rough holes some 4½ ft. above the pavement, are remains of the springers and voussoirs of wall-arches to recesses that flanked the chancel-arch existing before the reconstruction of c. 1300. The requisite space for them could only be obtained, it seems, by excavating and splaying off the inner face of the pre-Conquest nave-walling on the N. and S. extremities.

The South Vestry (19¼ ft. by 12¼ ft.) and the former chapel above were built c. 1500. The walls are of brick with stone dressings. The lower floor has an E. window of three four-centred lights in a square head with a label. In the S. wall, the E. doorway is of the late 19th century; the other doorway and that to the staircase to the upper floor are partitioned off and serve Corpus Christi College. The upper floor and the adjoining building now being part of the College are described with it (p. 57).

The Nave (35½ ft. by 17¾ ft.) has N. and S. arcades of c. 1300 and of three bays with two-centred arches of two chamfered orders; the quatre-foiled piers, with subsidiary shafts, have moulded caps and bases and the responds have attached half-piers; E. of the arcades, above the haunches of the arches, are the remains of the doorways at each end of the former rood-loft. The N.E., N.W. and S.W. angles of the nave retain their pre-Conquest 'long and short' quoins and there are also a few remaining at the base of the S.E. angle. The clearstorey has three late 19th-century windows on each side.

The South Aisle (54¼ ft. by 14¼ ft.) is of 1872 except for the E. wall, containing a doorway of 1872 to the vestry, and, further S., the projection enclosing the staircase to the upper chapel and gallery. In the staircase-wall are three small lights, two opening into the church.

The West Tower (Plate 281) (14½ ft. by 14¼ ft.) is of three stages and four floors. The walls are of rubble with 'long and short' quoins, square strings between the stages and remains of pilaster-strips in the middle of each face of the third stage rising from corbels over the windows and cut off at the reconstructed parapet; the quoins project slightly and there are some remains of a former harled outer surface. The semicircular tower-arch (Plate 281) is of one square order with a moulded surround on both faces; on the E. face this springs from two carved lions (Plate 28); the moulded imposts are continued along the wallface; the responds are faced with long and short slabs and are of similar section to the arch, the moulding forming rectangular and half-round pilaster-strips stopping on a restored plinth; the N. respond has been partly restored. In the S. wall is a late 14th-century doorway with jambs of two chamfered orders and a two-centred head. The W. window is of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a four-centred head with a label and headstops; only the arch, label and head-stops are old, of the 15th century. The second storey has, in the E. wall an original doorway with round head, chamfered imposts and jambs faced with slabs laid in 'long and short' fashion. In the W. wall is a restored 15th-century window of one elliptical-headed light in a square head. The bell-chamber has in each wall an original window of two round-headed lights with 'long and short' jambs, imposts and central baluster-shaft; higher up are two small round openings, also original, one only surviving on the E. Flanking the larger windows are inserted round-headed windows formerly all with pendants to the key-stone; the head of the southern one on the W. has the initials and date R.P. 1586.


Church of St. Benedict

Church of St. Benedict
Pre-Conquest Tower-Arch

Fittings—Altar-slab: In S. aisle—part only, with three consecration-crosses, mediaeval. Bells: six; 1st by Robard Gurney, 1663; 2nd dated 1588; 3rd dated 1607; 4th 1825; 5th by Tobie Norris, 1610; 6th by John Draper, 1618. Benefactors' Tables: In N. aisle—on N. wall, two with eared architraves, semicircular heads and entablatures and aprons, gilded and marbled, made in 1735. See also monument (9). Bier: In N. aisle—with turned handles, turned legs and turned pendant in middle of each side, 17th-century. Books: In N. aisle—include volume 1 of Erasmus' Paraphrase and part of a second copy; Jewell's Defence of the Apology, 1571, and his Apology, 1626; Bible of 1617, given by Thomas Hobson in 1626; Bible of 1635 bound with Prayer Book of 1635 and Metrical Version of the Psalms of 1630; Sermons or Homilies, 1635; and two old chained bindings with blank fillings. Brass and Indents. Brass: In S. aisle—to [Richard Billingford, D.D. 1442, Master of Benet's College], small kneeling figure in academic dress; inscription, perhaps angels bearing soul to Trinity, and scroll missing. Indents: In N. aisle, (1) of figure, inscription-plate and Evangelists' symbols, cut down. In S. aisle—(2) of figure, inscription-plate and Evangelists' symbols, early 16th-century. Chest: In N. aisle—small, iron-bound, with two locks and hasps, cambered lid, late mediaeval. Coffin-lid: In N. aisle— tapering slab with double omega-ornament, 13th-century, broken. Coffin-stools: In N. aisle—two, with turned legs, 17th-century. Communion Rails: In chancel—modern but incorporating four carved early 17th-century panels, two with small figures of Justice and Truth, probably German or Flemish, two with arabesques and perhaps English. In S. aisle—with upper and lower rails, open arcading of six bays with balusters and end posts, incorporating some 17th-century materials, balusters mostly modern. Fire-hook: In N. aisle—of iron about 5½ ft. long with rings for guy-ropes, 17th or 18th-century. Font: In N. aisle—of marble and freestone, with round moulded bowl and baluster-stem, 18th-century. Locker: In chancel—in former E. wall but with rebated S. jamb only remaining, with groove for shelf, mediaeval.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In tower—on N. wall, (1) of Richard Dunthorne, 1775, and Elizabeth his wife, 1789, eared marble tablet; (2) of Mary, 2nd wife of Edward Randall, 1827, and Edward Randall, 1840, stele-shaped marble tablet on green marble backing; (3) of Pearse White, 1819, Town Clerk, a nephew with the same name, Frederick White, M.A., 1816, and Charles White, 1812, marble tablet; on S. wall, (4) of Susannah, wife of the Rev. George Coulcher, M.A., incumbent, 1842, marble tablet; (5) of Elizabeth Mary (Pershall), widow of Sir Buswick Harwood, Professor of Anatomy, 1836, marble tablet, by Tomson & Son, Cambridge. In S. aisle—on N. wall, (6) of Charles Skinner Matthews, M.A., 1811, Fellow of Downing College, marble tablet with urn, by Tomson; (7) of John Randall, D. Mus., 1799, Professor of Music, Grace his wife, 1792, and Ann (Mayor) wife of Edward his son, 1797, marble tablet on green marble backing; (8) of William Woodcock Hayward, 1838, marble tablet with pediment, Chi-Rho and urn, by R. Westmacott. In churchyard— N.E. of church, (9) flat stone slab with moulded edge recording the benefaction of John Meres, esquire-bedell, to the University and provision for a commemoration sermon; N.W. of church, (10) of Sarah, daughter of Samuel Newton, 1724–5, stone and marble pedestal-tomb (Plate 15) with gadrooned top, surmounted by urn, and achievements-of-arms of Newton at each end, one in a lozenge; (11) of Sam. Newton, 1718, Elizabeth his wife, 1723, six sons and three daughters, also Elizabeth their daughter, 1721–2, and Benjamin Watson her husband, 1717–8, and others, stone table-tomb with panelled sides and emblems of mortality on ends. In gateway in Dr. Cosyn's building, on S. wall, (12) of Thomas Felsted, 1705–6, and Dorothy his wife, 1687, stone wall-tablet with scrolls, swag and skulls; (13) of John, 1675, and Joseph, 1683, sons of Thomas Felsted, somewhat similar tablet. Against wall of Corpus Christi College, S. of church, (14) of The[ophilus] Chaplin, M.A., 1667, rector of Waram (Wareham ?), headstone; (15) of Thomas, son of Henry Woodroofe, 1689, headstone; (16) of [Thomas Grumbold, mason], 1657, shaped and scrolled headstone with panelled side-pieces and emblems of mortality; (17) of John Overton, 1696, and three children and Elizabeth his wife, 1696, headstone with carved parted drapery; (18) of Richard Daniel, 1717–8, mutilated headstone; against S. wall of church, (19) of Anthonie Milnar (?), 1666 (?), headstone. Floor-slabs: In nave—(1) of Mary, widow of Samuel Squire, 1732–3, and Susanna Newcome their daughter, 1763, slate. In N. aisle—(2) of John Pierse, 1652–3, with shield-of-arms of Pierse; (3) of Henry Gosling, S.T.B., 1674–5, Fellow of Corpus Christi College, with shield-of-arms of Gosling; (4) of Martha, daughter of........Bacon, and others, early 19th-century; (5) of Thomas Finch, 1773, and Sarah his daughter, 1777; (6) of John Paris, 1781; (7) of Ann, daughter of Searle and Mary Palmby, 1763 (?), and........wife of........ Palmby, 1793; (8) of Thomas Fox, 1710; (9) of Sandys, son of Henry Peyton of Isleham, 1682, and Margaret his wife, 1687–8; (10) of Samuel Sharp, 1824. In S. aisle—(11) of John Dyer Edwards, 1833; (12) of Isaac Gallyon, 1830.

Piscinae: In chancel—recess with cinque-foiled ogee head and two square drains, blocked squint at back with quatre-foiled opening, 14th-century. In S. aisle—in staircase projection, recess with trefoiled head and quatre-foiled drain, 13th-century, reset. Plate: includes a late Elizabethan cup and cover-paten (Plate 24) without assay-marks, the first with rounded bowl and two engraved bands of simple strapwork ornament, similar band on the cover; a cup and cover-paten with dateletter for 1629, given by Mrs. Smith in that year; two flagons with the date-letter for 1659 (Plate 23), one given by John Preist, 1658, the other bought by the parishioners; two alms-dishes with the date-letter for 1670, given by Tobie Smith, 1670, and a brass alms-dish with repoussé figure-subject of St. George and the dragon, S. German, early 16th-century. Seating: In N. aisle—long oak bench with turned legs, 17th-century. Sedile: In chancel—with moulded jambs and ogee head, label with crockets and finial cut back, seat removed, 14th-century. Table: In N. aisle—with heavy turned legs, bracketed upper and plain lower rails, 17th-century. Miscellanea: In S. aisle—against tower-wall, reconstructed masonry with 15th-century recess or niche with four-centred head cut in pre-Conquest stones removed from the N. respond of the tower-arch; stone with incised pinnacled device and the initials I.T., probably 16th or 17th-century; on S. wall, wooden bracket with scrolls, leaves and cherub, late 17th-century. In second storey of tower—three carved oak scrolls from former reredos, 18th-century; also framed panel with names of subscribers to the new pewing, 1732; panel with note of erection of the gallery in 1823, and a third panel with the record of a peal of 720 Court Bob in 1783.

(49) Parish Church of St. Botolph stands on the E. side of Trumpington Street. The walls are of coursed flint and pebble rubble with dressings of freestone, Barnack stone and clunch; the roofs are covered with tiles and lead. There was a church on the site in the 12th century and of this some reused fragments remain. Structural evidence of an earlier church, which the dedication to St. Botolph might be taken to suggest, is entirely absent. The Nave and Aisles were rebuilt in the first half of the 14th century. The West Tower was built in the 15th century; later in the same century the South Chapel and South Porch were added and the aisle-walls heightened. The chancel was rebuilt in brick in the 18th century. The church was restored in 1841, 1872, 1874–7 and again between 1909 and 1913. The Chancel was rebuilt from the design of G. F. Bodley in 1872 and the N. Vestry and Organ Chamber added. An Outer Vestry was built in 1924.

The church has a good foursquare tower and, among the fittings, the font-case and cover and the four mediaeval bells are noteworthy. The monuments to the architects James Essex and Robert Grumbold are of some historical interest, particularly in the present context of architecture in Cambridge.


The Parish Church of St. Botolph

The Parish Church of St. Botolph

Architectural Description—The Chancel (33¼ ft. by 18¾ ft.) is of the late 19th century except for the 14th-century chancel-arch, which is two-centred and of two orders, the outer moulded and continuous and the inner chamfered and springing from attached shafts with moulded caps and modern bases.

The Nave (62¼ ft. by 17¼ ft.) has 14th-century N. and S. arcades of four bays with two-centred arches of one chamfered and one hollow-chamfered order springing from octagonal piers and semi-octagonal responds with moulded caps and bases and, except for the S.W. respond, standing on square plinths. Reused in the bases of the W. pier on the N. and the middle pier on the S. are small mid 12th-century capitals. Both arcades have been restored and incorporate 19th-century dressings in the bases.

The North Aisle (8½ ft. wide) was heightened in the 15th-century and buttresses were added; two have since been demolished. It has, in the E. wall, a much restored 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a segmental-pointed head with a label; below it is a modern doorway. In the N. wall are three windows similar to the foregoing. The 14th-century N. doorway, now blocked, has moulded jambs and two-centred arch with a label and one head-stop. In the W. wall is a window similar to that in the E. wall. Marks of the heightening of the aisle are visible on the outside of the N. wall.

The South Aisle (8½ ft. wide) was heightened in the 15th-century. It has one window in the E. wall, two in the S. and one in the W. wall, all of the 15th century and similar to those in the N. aisle. In the S. wall is a 15th-century arch opening into the S. chapel; it is four-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous and the inner springing from attached shafts with moulded caps and bases; the bases are some 3 ft. above the chapel floor, which itself is higher than that of the aisle, and they probably stood on a low screen-wall now removed. Further W. is a doorway to the S. chapel with stop-chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred head. The S. doorway is modern. Marks of the heightening of the aisle are visible externally in two bays of the S. wall.

The South Chapel (14¼ ft. by 9¾ ft.) has a reset and partly restored 14th-century E. window of two trefoiled ogee lights in a square head with a label and defaced stops. The S. wall is almost entirely filled by two adjacent and partly restored 15th-century windows of three lights similar to those in the aisles. In the W. wall is a recess for the door-swing with chamfered four-centred half-arch.

The South Porch is of one build with the chapel and has an embattled parapet. The late 19th-century outer archway is four-centred and moulded and the jambs have attached shafts with moulded capitals. In the W. wall is a modern window, replacing one found blocked.

The West Tower (Plate 280) (10¾ ft. by 13¾ ft.) is of the 15th-century and of three stages with massive polygonal buttresses on the angles with subsidiary five-stage buttresses on their cardinal faces, a moulded plinth and a brick embattled parapet with carved stone figures of the symbols of the Evangelists at the angles; these formerly supported vanes. The tower-arch is two-centred and of two moulded and one chamfered order on the E. side and three chamfered orders on the W.; the outer and middle orders spring from attached shafts with moulded bases and capitals carved with paterae. The reset 14th-century W. doorway with two-centred head is of two continuous wave-moulded orders with a label and defaced head-stops; above it is a late 19th-century or modern window. The second stage has, in the N., S. and W. walls, a single-light square-headed window; reused in the N. and S. walls are pieces of 12th-century masonry carved with cheveron ornament. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a much restored window of two square-headed lights; Cole's sketch (1745) shows two of them without mullions.

The lean-to Roof of the N. aisle is of the 15th century, much restored; it is divided into eight bays by moulded principals, the alternate principals having curved braces; braces, plates and purlin also are moulded and the rafters are exposed. The roof of the S. aisle is similar to that of the N. aisle and of the same dates. The low-pitched roof of the S. chapel is of the 15th century and in two bays with moulded principals, ridge and purlins; one wall-plate is enriched and embattled, the other renewed; at the middle intersection is a foliage-boss. The 15th-century roof of the S. porch is of two bays, with braces below the principals forming four-centred arches and wall-posts with tenons at the lower ends, for carvings now removed; all the main timbers are moulded and enriched with paterae; at the intersections and at each end of the ridge are foliage bosses.

Fittings—Bells: four, with the initials J.D. (for John Danyell) 15th-century; 1st inscribed "Sancte Apoline ora pro nobis"; 2nd inscribed "Sancte Andrea ora pro nobis"; 3rd inscribed "Sancta Margareta ora pro nobis"; 4th inscribed "Nomen Magdalene campana gerit melodie"; all except 1st with a stamp of the Royal arms (France modern and England); bell-frame old. Benefactors' Tables: In S. aisle—marble tablet in moulded stone frame recording testamentary gift of John Brewer, bricklayer, 1706. In tower, painted boards in moulded frame, recording gifts by John Lanham, 1651, and Adam Newling, 1696, given by John Peck in 1764, probably repainted in 1836. Books: Bible of 1634, bound with a Common Prayer of 1636, printed by Robert Barker; Bible of 1599, printed by representatives of Christopher Barker; book of sermons, 1595, London; works of Bishop Jewel, 1621; the last three rebound; imperfect copy of Commonplaces of Wolfgangus Musculus, printed by Reginald Wolfe, London, 1563. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In S. aisle—on S. wall (1) of John Smith, 1840, printer to the University, inscription-plate with incised Gothic ornament, mounted on stone tablet, by Cox & Sons, London. On outside of S. chapel—(2) of William Archer, 1616, formerly mayor, rectangular inscription-plate on stone tablet. Indents: In N. aisle—(1) of small figure of priest, inscription plate and shields at the corners, mid 15th-century, mutilated; (2) of figure, probably in academic dress, and inscription-fillet, slab with moulded edge from top of former altar-tomb, probably 15th-century. (See also Floor-slabs 8, 13 and 17). Chests: In S. aisle—(1) iron-bound, with one large and one smaller lock, 17th-century, top probably later. In S. chapel—(2) small, with three locks, late 17th-century. Door: In W. doorway of tower—of planks with nail-studded frame and applied mouldings forming four vertical panels, 17th-century. Font (Plate 32): octagonal stone bowl enclosed in timber octagonal casing with moulded skirting and capping and an arched panel on each face; cover to font with four shaped brackets supporting a ball; standing on casing, a timber canopy of four columns with caps, bands and bases, supporting a square entablature with pyramidal cresting over each face and four diagonal shaped brackets rising to a central turned finial; crestings each with a cartouche and carved swag; casing, cover and canopy painted dark green with repetitive foliate enrichments in gilt; woodwork bought in 1637 (Churchwardens' Accounts), painting and gilding added the following year, subsequently restored and with 19th-century painted inscriptions on the canopy. Glass: In S. aisle—in S.E. window, mediaeval and later fragments given about 1879.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. aisle—on N. wall, (1) of Mary, wife of Thomas Hide, 1770, white and coloured marble tablet with frame and obelisk with incised decoration; (2) of Mary, wife of the Rev. Thomas Preston, 1776, and Susanna, wife of the Rev. Anthony Fountayne Eyre, 1776, both buried elsewhere, erected by their father Kenrick Prescot, Master of Catharine Hall, oval marble tablet with shell, palms and cherub-head; (3) of William Lillie, 1788, marble wall-tablet, with side pilasters, cornice, broken pediment and cartouche with the arms of Lillie; (4) of Thomas Peacock, 1786, black and white marble tablet with pediment; (5) of Richard Hayles, 1781, surgeon, and Martha his wife, 1799, and four children, white marble tablet with pediment and shelf on brackets; (6) of Hannah, wife of Robert Roberts, 1711, clunch tablet with drapery, weeping putti and emblems of mortality; (7) of James Essex, F.S.A., architect, 1784, and his children, James, 1757, and Meliscent, wife of the Rev. John Hammond, 1787, white marble tablet with pediment; (8) of Edward Tomson, statuary and mason, 1829, and his brothers, Lewis, 1832, and Thomas, 1849, white and black marble tablet, by T. Tomson, Cambridge; (9) of Catherine, wife of Thomas Bennet, 1729–30, James, Catherine, James and Elizabeth their children, and Thomas Bennet, 1770, black marble tablet with pediment; (10) of Hannah, daughter of Peter and Sarah Middleton, 1812, white marble tablet with Greek Doric side-columns and pediment; (11) of John Sharp, 1783, for 40 years butler of Queens' College, stone slab with shaped top. In S. chapel, on W. wall, (12) of Thomas Plaifere, S.T.D., 1609–10, Lady Margaret Professor of Divinity, freestone wall-monument with bust of man in recess, flanking Corinthian columns and obelisks, entablature with enriched cresting containing a blank shield, and three crowning obelisks; monument formerly painted and on N. wall of chancel. In churchyard—on S. wall of chancel, (13) of Mary, daughter of George and Elizabeth Wilkinson, 1720, also of Thomas and Mary, children of William and Martha Swann, tablet with drapery held up by cherub; (14) of Robert Grumbold, 1720, and Bridget his wife, 1721, tablet with drapery, cherubs and emblem of all-seeing eye in radiant triangle; on E. wall of S. aisle, (15) of Judith Clay, 1664, tablet with moulded frame, scrolled pediment and emblems of mortality; on E. wall of S. chapel, (16) of Nicholas Goldsbrough, 1666, and Mary his wife, 1685, also Robart their son and two of his children, 1685, stone tablet with scrolls and skulls; on S. wall of S. aisle, (17) tablet with two panels, one with cartouche, the other skull and scroll, late 17th-century; S. of chancel, (18) of James Essex sen. and Bridget his wife, James Essex jun. and Elizabeth his wife and their two children, James Essex and Millicent Hammond, Elizabeth the last survivor died 1790, table-tomb; N. of tower, (19) of John Smith, 1840, printer to the University, pedestal-monument with panelled faces, on steps; also other 19th-century table-tombs and numerous 18th-century headstones. Floor-slabs: In chancel —(1) of John Hayes, 1705, Printer to the University, and Elizabeth his wife, [1705]; (2) of Thomas Walker, LL.D., F.R.S., 1764, and Elizabeth his widow, 1780. In nave—(3) of John Brewer, 1706, and Elizabeth wife of William Pitches, 1741, slate; (4) of Martha Beales, 1834, and others, slate; (5) of Hannah, daughter of Peter Middleton, 1812. In N. aisle— (6) of Thomas Cooper, 1740–1, Purbeck marble; (7) of Robert Roberts, 1778; (8) of James Barker, 1742, Purbeck slab with indent of brass inscription-plate; (9) of Herbert Raban, 1818; (10) of William Comings, 176., and Fowler and Robert Comings, infants, 1779; (11) of .......wife of ......s Soulsby, 1734; (12) of [Hannah], wife of Robert Roberts, 1711; (13) of Susannah Selby, 1739, with indent of brass inscription-plate. In S. aisle—(14) of Sarah, wife of Daniel Slack, 1788; (15) of Mary, wife of James Hinkin, 17.., James Hinkin, 1737, and Jane his second wife, 1794; (16) of Frances B[lythe], Richard [Blythe], [1722], and Frances Dehague, their daughter, 1723; (17) of John, infant son of William and Mary Seymour, 1748, and William Seymour, 1761, with indent of brass inscription-plate; (18) of Elizabeth, daughter of Robert Wright, 1685–6, and Elizabeth his wife, 1702; (19) of Richard, son of Richard Hayles, 1754, also of Richard Hayles, surgeon, 1781, Martha his widow, 1799, and Frances, their daughter, wife of the Rev. F. I. H. Woolaston, 1804; (20) of Thomas Bourn, 1741, [cook to Queens' College]; (21) of Martha, wife of John Prowett, 1834, and John their son, 1787; (22) of . . . . . . Gotobed, . . . ., and others; (23) of John Prowett, 1847, and others; (24) of Edmund Curtis, 1780.

Painting: In chancel—over altar, oil painting on canvas of the Crucifixion, 18th-century copy of Van Dyck, given in 1819 by John Smith, University printer; on N. wall, copy of Madonna and Child by Raphael, after 1850. Plate: includes an alms-dish with the date-letter for 1712, given by John Hayes. Pulpit: hexagonal, of oak, five sides with fielded panels and cornice, early 18th-century, reconstituted in modern times probably from the larger structure previously here, stone base modern. Railings: dividing churchyard from street, plain uprights, main standards with knob-finials, late 18th-century. Royal Arms: In tower, framed painting on canvas, Hanoverian, 1814–37. Screen: Under chancel-arch—of three main bays including entrance, latter with septfoiled and sub-cusped head and pierced traceried spandrels, side bays with solid panelling below a moulded rail and, above, each of three lights with trefoiled and sub-cusped heads and tracery over, modern moulded beam and cresting, 15th-century, much restored. Seating: In S. chapel—two desks with shaped ends and poppy-heads incorporating a number of linenfold panels, early 16th-century and made-up. Sundials: On S.W. angle of tower —two adjoining painted stone dials replacing those repainted in 1614, restored in 1913. Tables of the Creed and Decalogue: In W. tower—on S. wall, two round-headed panels with moulded frames and scroll-brackets, painted respectively with the Creed and the Lord's Prayer, 19th-century. In S. porch—two round-headed painted panels in bolection-moulded frames containing the Decalogue, 19th-century, painting modern. Miscellanea: In N. aisle—wood carving in high relief of the Betrayal, probably Dutch or N. German and c. 1500. In outer face of S. wall of S. aisle, W. bay—fragment of 12th-century stone dressing; in outer faces of N. and S. walls of second stage of tower—stone fragments with cheveron-ornament, 12th-century. On S. wall of tower—moulded lead rainwater-head with downpipe, 18th-century. In churchyard—S.E. of S. aisle, octagonal stone structure with moulded plinth and moulded and embattled capping and low pyramidal top, 15th-century, purpose uncertain, possibly base of former cross.

(50) The Parish Church of St. Clement stands on the E. side of Bridge Street. The walls generally are of rubble with some brick and with freestone dressings; the chancel is of brick with stone dressings to the windows; the tower is cement-rendered. The roofs are covered with tiles, slates and lead. The church seems to have been largely built or rebuilt in the first half of the 13th century and to this period belong the four W. bays of the N. and S. arcades of the Nave and probably the responds and much of the arch of the chancel-arch; the wider E. bay of the nave indicates some form of transept or transeptal chapels. The E. bay of both arcades seems to have been rebuilt early in the 14th century and perhaps at this time or later the earlier piers to the W. were heightened and the arches reset; the first free pier on both sides was rebuilt early in the 16th century. In the E. wall of the N. aisle is a blocked 15th-century arch to a former N. chapel. Early in the 16th century the North and South Aisles were rebuilt and widened and the clearstorey was added. The Chancel was rebuilt in or about 1726 and the present capitals of the responds of the chancel-arch inserted. In 1821 the West Tower was built across the site of the W. wall of the nave from a bequest of the Rev. William Cole and to the designs of Charles Humfrey; the 15th-century five-light W. window and the former timber belfry standing in the churchyard to the N. of the nave were destroyed at this time. The church was restored in 1863 and the Vestry built on the site of the former N. chapel in 1866; the spire formerly on the tower was removed in 1928.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (33¾ ft. by 17¾ ft.) is of the early 18th century and of reddish brick. Some bricks at the N.E. angle bear initials, presumably of bricklayers. There is no E. window. The N. and S. walls have both two windows of stone, of two four-centred lights in a square head outside; they have been partly blocked inside in the 19th century and now appear from within as pseudo-Gothic windows of one and two pointed lights. The partly restored 13th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the responds both have a chamfered inner order with an early 18th-century moulded capital.


The Parish Church of St. Clement

The Parish Church of St. Clement

The Nave (60 ft. by 16¾ ft.) has N. and S. arcades of five bays. The E. bay on both sides has an early 14th-century segmental-pointed arch of one wave-moulded and one chamfered order; the E. respond has a semi-octagonal shaft with moulded capital and base; the first pier is octagonal and of the early 16th century with moulded capital and base. The four western bays on the N. have early 13th-century arches of one chamfered and one hollow-chamfered order; the octagonal piers have moulded capitals and bases as has the W. respond; the shafts appear to have been heightened and the arches reset. The corresponding bays on the S. are similar but the arches are of two chamfered orders. The early 16th-century clearstorey has on each side five partly restored windows each of three pointed lights in a four-centred head.

The North Aisle (16 ft. wide) has, in the E. wall, a blocked 15th-century arch with a four-centred head and, on the N.E. external angle, a buttress, presumably of the former N. chapel. In the N. wall are four early 16th-century windows, each of four pointed lights in a four-centred head with a label. In the W. wall is a similar window but of three lights; N. of it and visible externally is a blocked doorway, with chamfered jambs and moulded four-centred head.

The South Aisle (16 ft. wide) has an E. wall built, apparently, immediately W. of the earlier S. transept wall, now indicated by a buttress, perhaps to give more direct support to the chancel-arch. In the E. wall is a blocked window with a four-centred head with an early 19th-century window set in the blocking and itself blocked. In the S. wall are three early 16th-century windows similar to the N. windows of the N. aisle. The reset and almost wholly restored 13th-century S. doorway has a two-centred arch of three moulded orders, the innermost continuous and the others springing from shafts with moulded capitals and bases; the label has head-stops; the restoration was the work of Poynter and is mentioned in the Ecclesiologist for 1843. In the W. wall is a window similar to the W. window of the N. aisle.

The West Tower (9 ft. by 8¾ ft.) is eight-sided, a square with splayed angles, and stands half within the nave. The exterior is rendered in Roman cement and has stone dressings. It was built in 1821 and is of three stages with pilaster-strips at the angles and an embattled parapet carried on an arcaded corbel-table. The low tower-arch has chamfered jambs and four-centred head. The W. doorway has chamfered jambs and a moulded four-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels and a label; above, on the outside, is a multifoiled diagonal panel inscribed in black-letter capitals "Deum Cole". The second stage has in the E. wall an opening with splays and two-centred head of two chamfered orders, and in the W. wall a window of two transomed ogee cinque-foiled lights with tracery in an acute two-centred head; the transom has foliage pendants over each light. Over the window just described is a circular quatre-foiled light, and in each wall of the bell-chamber a window of two trefoiled lights in a square head with a label.

The Roof of the N. aisle has lengths of carved and inscribed wall-plates reset against the S. wall; the inscription runs— "Orate pro bono statu Thomas Brakin Armigire et Luce 1538" and "Orate" alone.

Fittings—Bells: one and sanctus, former by Charles Newman, 1691, with the names of the churchwardens; sanctus by T. Osborn, 1780. Brasses and Indent. Brasses: In nave—(1) of Alan Hoberd, burgess, 1432, restored inscription. In N. aisle— on S. wall, (2) of Phoebe (Percevall), wife of Edward Withnoll, pastor, 1658, plate in modern wooden frame. Indent: at E. end of churchyard, of figure with marginal inscription and roundels at angles, 15th-century. Door: In S. doorway—of oak, battened, with applied moulded ribs, probably 16th-century, but very much restored. Font: octagonal bowl with shield in quatrefoil on each face, moulded underside with carved heads of two women, two men and four beasts, stem with cinquefoil-headed panels, early 15th-century, bowl probably recut.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) of Sarah, wife of John Gunning, 1832, white marble tablet on black marble backing; on S. wall, (2) of William Scott, 1808, Elizabeth his wife, 1812, white marble tablet on black marble backing. In N. aisle—on S. wall, (3) of John Whittred, 1795, and Mary his wife, 1801, white marble tablet with cornice and cherub-heads below; on N. wall, (4) of Josiah Neale, 1792, Ann his wife, 1802, and Ann their daughter, 1826, white and black marble tablet, by Gilbert; on W. wall, (5) of James Burleigh, 1828, and Sarah his wife, 1824, white and black marble tablet, by Gilbert, Cambridge. In S. aisle— on S. wall, (6) of Robert Hodson, 1763, and Mary his wife, 1769, white marble tablet with pediment. In tower—on S. wall, (7) of the Rev. William Cole, A.M., 1782, formerly of Clare Hall, Vicar of Burnham, Deputy-Lieutenant for Cambridgeshire, black marble slab with triangular head, recording that his remains are in a tomb under the centre of the tower erected pursuant to his will and with money left by him for that purpose. On external W. wall of N. aisle, (8) of Joseph Gray, apothecary, 1808, slate and stone tablet. In churchyard— at E. end, (9) coped slab with seated skeleton holding hour-glass and scythe, probably 17th-century; (10) defaced headstone with cherub and drapery parted to reveal skull, 17th-century; against N. wall of vestry, (11) of Henry (?) Woolley, 1704, headstone; (12) of . . . . . . . . Brown, 1661, headstone; against N. aisle, (13) of Geoffrey Best, 1662, waterman, slab from table-tomb, also table-tombs to N.W. with inscriptions defaced. Floor-slabs: all of black marble. In chancel—(1) of Charles Filkins, 1743; (2) of . . . . . ., . . . ., and Anne, wife of John Hide, 1759, partly covered by organ. In nave—(3) of Charles, 1788, and Judith Martindale, 1799; (4) of Rev. Thomas Verdon, B.D., 1731–2, and his wife, 1751; (5) of Phebe, wife of William Anderson, 1762, four infant children, Elizabeth her daughter, wife of Nathaniel Vincent Stevens, 1774, and of William Anderson, 1774; (6) of Daniel Love, J.P., 1707–8, Captain of the Train Bands, and Martha his wife, 1715, with achievement-of-arms of Love impaling (unidentified 74); (7) of Ann, wife of Thomas Willett, 1774, also of Dinah his second wife, 1783, Abigail, his third wife, 1800, and of Thomas Willett, 1808; (8) of Mathew Wildbore, 1689, Francis Brackenbury, 1699–1700, and Katherine, successively wife to both, 1706, with defaced achievement-of-arms. In N. aisle—(9) of William Pedder, 1683; (10) of Adam Newling, 1696–7, alderman, Elizabeth his wife, 1686–7, Mary Smith, 1773, and Francis Smith, 1783. In S. aisle—(11) of Elizabeth, wife of Matthew Benson, 1736–7, Thomasin her daughter, 1739, and Matthew Benson, 1752.

Piscina: In N. aisle—in E. wall, plastered recess with quatre-foiled drain cut back, mediaeval. Plate: includes two cups and two alms-dishes, the latter plated, the first with the date letter for 1838 and all given in the same year by the Rev. George Spence, LL.B., vicar; a paten of 1674, given by Lewis Covell in memory of his daughter Joan; and a flagon made in Birmingham with the date letter for 1850. Pulpit: modern, with fragments of early 16th-century carved panels incorporated. Stall: In chancel—probably foreign and made up with 16th-century carved misericorde. Stoup: Immediately E. of S. door, with square jambs and chamfered two-centred head, back carved with formy cross, mediaeval. Miscellaneous: In tower, on N. wall, diagonal wood panel recording that the first stone of the tower was laid by Granado Pigott of Ely, legal representative of the Rev. William Cole of Milton, 6 June 1821.

(51) Parish Church of St. Edward King and Martyr (Plate 285) stands between King's Parade and Peas Hill. The walls are of stone rubble, much of it reused material, largely cement-rendered and with some Barnack stone dressings; the internal dressings are of clunch and freestone. The roofs are covered with tiles. The West Tower was built in the early part of the 13th century and at this time there was an aisleless nave; parts of the chancel may also be of this period, including the thicker E. end of the N. wall. The Nave including the chancel-arch and Aisles was rebuilt c. 1400. Consequent upon Trinity Hall and Clare Hall losing the use of the church of St. John, St. Edward's was appropriated to the use of Trinity Hall by Henry VI in February 1446, thereafter and probably before 1466 the North and South Chapels were added and the arcades of the Chancel built; the chapels overlap the nave by one bay and are or were known as Trinity Hall Chapel and Clare Hall Chapel. The S. wall of the W. bay of the S. chapel has an external string-course which is not present in the other bays and may indicate a slight difference in date. From Cole's drawing (1744) of the N. side of the church it appears that many windows had been altered in the late 17th or early 18th century. He refers to a new S. doorway; the N. doorway was apparently of the same date, and both have been removed, probably under a faculty of 1784, which also provided for the removal of the porches and for making a W. door. The Vestry and Organ Chamber were built in 1846. During the restoration of 1858–60 G. G. Scott redesigned the E. window, the rest of the work being done under the direction of R. Brandon; the W. door and window are of this date, and several other windows were renewed in 1869 including the N. and S. windows of the N. and S. chapels. The chancel was restored in 1932, the nave in 1939, and the windows in the N. and S. walls of the N. and S. aisles were renewed in 1946 and 1949 respectively.

The church is of considerable architectural interest and distinguished for its wall-tablets and floor-slabs. The scale of the nave is much increased by the close interspacing of the piers of the arcades of c. 1400 and the maintenance of height in the arches, which are thus acutely pointed for their period.


The Parish Church of St. Edward King & Martyr

The Parish Church of St. Edward King & Martyr

Architectural Description—The Chancel (25¾ ft. by 18¼ ft.) has a five-light E. window of 14th-century character but of the mid 19th century. In the N. wall, which leans noticeably to the N., is a late 15th-century arch, four-centred and of two wave-moulded orders separated by a casement-moulding; the responds have three attached shafts with moulded bases and caps carved with paterae. Further W. is a small opening spanned by a modern four-centred arch. In the S. wall is a mid 15th-century arcade of two bays with responds and arches similar to those on the N.; the pier has four attached shafts. The chancel-arch of c. 1400 is two-centred and moulded, with two chamfers separated by a sunk chamfer; the last is continued down the responds, which have three attached polygonal shafts with moulded caps and bases and slightly concave faces. It retains the collars of an iron tie-rod removed in 1943. Above the apex of the arch is a blocked window.

The North Chapel or Trinity Hall Chapel (37 ft. by 14¾ ft.) has a 19th-century E. window of 14th-century character. In the N. wall and replacing the four windows shown in Cole's sketch are three 19th-century four-light windows of 15th-century character, of which the second is now concealed on the N. The window formerly in the third bay has been entirely cut away to make room for the organ. Under the window in the E. bay is a modern doorway; below the sill of the window in the second bay is an arcading of small blind arches with cinque-foiled heads and, in the pier immediately to the W., a recess of similar form. Across the chapel between the third and fourth bays is a chamfered four-centred arch apparently completely restored and springing from modern corbels.

The Vestry (26 ft. by 15 ft.) was built in 1846; the E. window is of three transomed lights with trefoiled openings under a square head. In the N. wall is a square-headed window of one light and a doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head with a label. The chimney has an octagonal shaft with moulded weathering and capping.

The South Chapel or Clare Hall Chapel (37¼ ft. by 14½ ft.) has a 19th-century three-light E. window of 14th-century character. In the S. wall are four 19th-century four-light windows of 15th-century character; below the sill of the E. bay is a blocked doorway and W. of it and below the sills of the two middle windows are blind arches similar to those in the N. chapel, with a recess of similar form in each of the piers between the three easternmost windows. Across the chapel is a completely restored arch similar to that in the N. chapel; the wider buttress outside and the form of the roofs in the two chapels indicate that this represents an ancient feature, no doubt inserted to support the chancel-arch.

The Nave (37½ ft. by 18¼ ft.) has N. and S. arcades of c. 1400 and of four bays with acute two-centred arches of two plain chamfered orders separated by a continuous sunk chamfer; the piers and responds have attached semi-octagonal shafts with slightly concave faces and moulded caps and bases.

The North Aisle (9 ft. wide) has a N. wall with modern facing and two renewed windows; between the windows Cole's sketch shows an 18th-century doorway of which no structural evidence survives. In the W. wall is a three-light window of the 19th century externally, but the splays and rear-arch with a label are probably of c. 1400.

The South Aisle (9¾ ft. wide) is generally similar to the N. aisle. The two S. windows are modern and similar to those in the N. wall of the N. aisle. The wall-facing has been renewed and no trace remains of a S. doorway of 1735 referred to by Cole. The window in the W. wall is of similar date to the corresponding window in the N. aisle, with old internal label.

The West Tower (13¼ ft. square) is of the 13th century and of three stages with an embattled parapet; the floor and the surrounding ground-level have been considerably raised. Incorporated in the W. walls of the aisles are the N.E. and S.E. buttresses of the tower, indicating that the nave was aisleless when the tower was built. The stair-turret on the S.E. is a 15th-century addition with four-centred door-heads; the brick barrel-vault is sprung from the newel and the landing has a groined vault. The tower-arch is of distorted two-centred form of two chamfered orders; the responds have both a semi-octagonal shaft with a partly restored moulded capital with the abacus continued round the respond; the outer order of the respond is now flush with the side-walls of the tower indicating that the arch was built rather before the rest of the tower. In the N. wall is a recess contrived in the blocking of a 13th-century window or doorway; in the S. wall is a 13th-century lancet entirely modern externally and with a modern internal head, and the W. doorway and W. window are of 1858–60; high up in both the N. and S. walls of the ground stage is a blocked 13th-century lancet only visible from inside. The second stage has in both the N. and W. walls a round light of the 17th or 18th century set in a pointed internal recess, the head being that of a 13th-century window; in the S. wall is a 13th-century lancet, probably made narrower when the stair-turret was added and now blocked. In the E. wall is a 13th-century doorway or window, partly blocked, with rebated and chamfered jambs and two-centred head. The bell-chamber has in each wall a window of two pointed lights in a pointed head and probably of the 17th century.

The Roof of the chancel is of trussed rafter type and of pointed barrel form with moulded wall-plates of the 15th century and decorated with mid 19th-century stars. The Roof of the N. chapel, E. of the cross-arch, is of the late 15th century, almost flat-pitched and with moulded plates, principals and purlins; the principals are carved on the soffit with running foliage; under the W. end of the middle purlin is a stone head-corbel of a king, c. 1400 (Plate 29); the W. bay has a similar roof. The Roof of the S. chapel is flat-pitched and of smiliar date to that in the N. chapel, with moulded principals, ridge and plates; under the ridge over the cross-arch is a stone bearded head-corbel of c. 1400 (Plate 29).

Fittings—Bells: six, 1st by Christopher Graye, of Haddenham, 1669, 2nd and 3rd by the same, 1669, inscribed 'In timphanis laudate Dominum C.G.'; 4th inscribed 'De Buri Santi Edmondi Stefanus Tonni me fecit WL 1576,' from the Bury foundry; 5th inscribed in black-letter 'Sancta Anna ora pro nobis', by H. S., late 15th-century, from the Bury foundry; 6th inscribed 'Non clamor sed amor cantat in aure Dei', 1622(?). Bell-frame old. Benefactor's Table: In vestry on N. wall, Charity of Elizabeth Goodall, by will dated 1809, proved 1814, painted on boards in moulded wood frame, early 19th-century. Book: Bible, 1629, printed by Thomas and John Buck, printers to the University of Cambridge. Brass-indents: In chancel—(1) of inscription-plate, with later inscription to Owen Mayfield, 1685–6, see Monument (7). In N. chapel—(2) part of slab with two shields and later inscription to An. Ma. Crask, 1706, see Monument (2). In S. chapel—(3)of inscription-plate and shield. In nave—(4) of inscription-plate; (5) part of slab with upper parts of figures of man and wife, added inscription cut away but the date 1704 remains; (6) of inscription-plate, added inscription to Jno. Mortlock, see Monument (10); (7) of figures of man and wife, inscription-plate, scrolls, Trinity and two groups of children, with added inscription of 1729, late 15th-century; (8) of figures of man and wife, two inscription-plates, scrolls, Trinity, two groups of children, shield, added inscription to M.D. 1773; (9) of inscription-plate, added inscription to C.B.; (10) part of slab with figure of man in Doctor's cap, inscription, two Evangelist's symbols, added inscription to Frances Halfhyde, 1727; (11) of figure in shroud, scroll and inscription-plate, added inscription to S.F., 1755; (12) two pieces of slab with parts of figures of man in bascinet, feet on beast, and wife, two shields and inscription-plate, late 14th-century; (13) of inscription-plate, added inscription to Charlott, daughter of John and Margarett Heatherington, 1746, and A.H., 1748 (?). Font: In S. aisle, octagonal bowl with upper moulding carved with paterae, a quatre-foiled panel in each face enclosing a flower, half-angels supporting angles of bowl, shafted octagonal stem with cusped panels between the shafts and moulded base with carved leaves and paterae, presented by the Cambridge Camden Society in 1842, being a complete restoration of the 15th-century font, much decayed, previously here.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. chapel—on N. wall, (1) of William Becke, 1614, of the Middle Temple, wall-monument with kneeling figure of a man in academic dress with ruff, enriched side-pilasters, entablature and damaged scroll-cresting; on S. wall, (2) of Judith, 1704, and Anna Maria (Wright), 1706, wives successively of Thomas Crask, doctor of physick, formerly of St. John's College, and Thomas, son of Thomas and Anna, 1707, alabaster and slate wall-tablet with cherub-head, garlands, cornice and cartouche with the arms of Crask; on W. wall, (3) of Thomas Lombe, 1800, solicitor, Ann his wife, 1789, Margaret their daughter, 1765, and Margaret his sister, 1759, white marble wall-tablet with pediment and painted shield-of-arms of Lombe. In S. chapel— on E. wall, (4) of Rev. Samuel Blythe, S.T.P., 1713, Master of Clare Hall, alabaster and black marble tablet (Plate 54) with cartouche with the arms of Clare Hall in chief and Blythe in base; (5) of Frances, widow of Edmund Halfhyde, apothecary, 1727–8, Edmund their eldest son, rector of Girton, 1739–40, Elizabeth their daughter, 1743, and Thomas their youngest son, 1745–6, scrolled white marble wall-tablet with achieve ment-of-arms of Halfhyde; on S. wall, (6) of Elizabeth (Buck) widow of Coniers Hatton, 1731–2, and Richard her son, 1735, scrolled white marble tablet with achievement-of-arms of Hatton; on W. wall, (7) of Owen Mayfield, 1685–6, formerly mayor, and Sarah his wife, 1684, freestone wall-monument with side-pilasters, drapery, scrolled and broken pediment and scrolled cartouche in tympanum with the arms of Mayfield. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (8) of Edward Lunn, 1813, Ann his second wife, 1809, and Susanna Turner her sister, 1818, white marble tablet, see Floor-slab (21). In S. aisle—on S. wall, (9) of John Mortlock, 1816, mayor, Elizabeth Mary his wife, 1817, and William their son, 1848, who rebuilt Knight's Almshouses, white marble tablet; (10) to John Mortlock, 1754, scrolled white marble tablet with cartouche with the arms of Mortlock; (11) of Edward Gillam, 1831, cheese-factor, Lydia (Andrews) his wife, 1793, and two children, Mary (Lunn) his second wife, 1807, and Mary, 1788, and Mark Gillam, 1809, saddler, Edward was buried at Canterbury, white marble tablet with shield-of-arms of Gillam; (12) of Robert Dawson, 1799, stonemason, plain oval marble tablet. In churchyard—against N. wall of church, (13) of E ...., daughter of James .... and Mary Mayfield (?), 1699, scrolled headstone with emblems of mortality; (14) of Elizabeth, wife of Paul (?) Goddard, 1711, headstone with cherubs and drapery, possibly displaced walltablet. N. of church, (15) of John Nicholson and others, late 18th-century, double headstone with cherub-heads, sun in splendour, hour-glass, etc. reused on reverse in 19th century; S. of church, (16) of William Sandars, 1767, and others, double headstone with linked urns, early 19th-century. Floor-slabs (see also Brass-indents): In chancel—(1) (Plate 18) of Thomas Buck, 1669–70, esquire-bedell, of black marble with shield-of-arms of Buck; (2) (Plate 18) of Hugh Martin, 1716, esquire-bedell, and Mary his widow, 1738, of black marble; (3) of Charles Morgan, S.T.P., 1736, Master of Clare Hall, black marble; (4) of Samuel Newton, 1718, alderman, Sarah his wife, 1716, and John their son, 1719, black marble, with scroll-work roundel. In N. chapel—(5) of Edward Clarke, 1726–7, Senior Fellow of Clare Hall and esquire-bedell, with long Latin inscription by Robert Greene, President of Clare Hall; (6) of Richard Thurlbourn, 1706, Elizabeth his wife, 1702–3, Mary Thurlbourn, 1702, and others; (7) of John Wood, 1742; (8) of Michael Pria ...., 1767. In S. chapel—(9) of Theophilus Dillingham, 1678, 'praefectus' of Clare Hall, and Thomas his son, 1722, black marble; (10) of Sha. .ter Briggs, 1799, and Martha his wife, 1799; (11) of Elizabeth Hatton, [1731–2], black marble; (12) of Jane Kerrich, daughter of John Kitchingman, 1731; (13) of George Griffith, 1686–7, headmaster of the Perse School, added inscription to Edmund, Elizabeth and Thomas Halfhyde, 1745–6, with shield-of-arms of Griffith; (14) of John Wilcox, S.T.P., 1762, Master of Clare Hall. In nave—(15) of Robert Whiting, 1741–2; (16) of Rowland Simpson, S.T.B., 1736–7, rector of Gaywood and Aberdaron and Senior Fellow of St. John's College, black marble; (17) of Thomas Fagg, 1753, laid down by Sir William Fagg of Chartham, his brother, with shield-of-arms of Fagg; (18) of George, son of John and Mary Spen(s?), 17 ..; (19) of Ann, wife of John Wood; (20) of Martha ......, 1735. In N. aisle— (21) of Ann, second wife of Edward Lunn, 1809, Edward Lunn, 1813, and Susanna Turner her sister, 1818, black marble, broken.

Plate: includes a cup with the date-letter for 1568 (Plate 24), with deep bowl engraved with two bands of scroll-ornament, gadrooned stem and foot, a plain cup with the date-letter for 1627 on domed foot, a small cup with rounded bowl on low moulded foot and a cover-paten with the date-letter for 1704, both with the engraved date 1734 (Plate 23), given for the sick communicants by Mrs. Dorothy Roderick, and with engraved lozenge-of-arms of Roderick impaling Bullock, a stand-paten with the date-letter for 1707, a flagon with date-letter for 1711 (Plate 23), with straight sides, moulded foot, scrolled handle and moulded lid with finial, given by James Johnson, LL.D., and two alms-dishes, one with the date-letter for 1711, the other for 1769 and with engraved inscription of 1836. In S. chapel—pair of pewter candlesticks, 17th-century. Pulpit: of oak, hexagonal, four linenfold panels in each face in moulded framing, open below and with corner styles continued to form legs, solid base, early 16th-century with modern repairs and additions and some alteration to the lower part, from King's College Chapel, but originally in the church and associated with Hugh Latimer. Seat: In chancel, of oak, composed of linenfold panels in moulded framing, with three-sided back and box seat, incorporating early 16th-century material. Tables: In S. chapel—(1) with fluted and carved bulbous legs with Ionic caps, carved top and moulded lower rail, c. 1600, said to have been given in 1719 by Emmanuel College. In tower— (2) with reeded and fluted top rail, turned and enriched legs, and plain stretchers, late 16th or early 17th-century.

(52) Parish Church of St. Giles stands in the angle N.E. of the junction between Castle Street and Chesterton Lane. The former church, a small building consisting of chancel, nave, N. transept and S. porch, to which a large N. annexe was added early in the 19th century, was in part at least of the late 11th century. It stood just to the S. of the existing church and was pulled down when the latter was built in 1875; some portions of it were incorporated in the new building, which was designed by Healey of Bradford.

Architectural Description—The former chancel-arch, of the late 11th century, has been reset in the new church between the S. chapel and the S. aisle. It has a semicircular head of one square order with a moulded label on the E. face; the square responds have moulded and chamfered imposts with cableornament and a rough enrichment of network-diaper on the chamfers. The doorway, said to have been the former S. doorway, reset between the N. aisle and the Vestry in the new church, is made up of late 12th-century fragments. It is two-centred and of three orders, the inner chamfered and continued on the responds and the others moulded, the outer being enriched with cheverons on edge; the label has nail-head ornament; the jambs have detached shafts with moulded bases and carved capitals with moulded abaci continued round the inner order. Only one shaft on each side now remains and the stonework is much weathered.

Fittings, mostly from the old church—Bell: one, inscribed 'Cum cano busta [mori cum] pulpita vevere desi' (for 'vivere disce'), '1629'. Chests: in N. aisle—of oak, front of three arcaded and enriched panels with side-pilasters, enriched styles and rails, incorporating early 17th-century material. In S. aisle—of oak, front of three enriched arcaded marquetry panels with enriched styles and rails, first half of 17th-century, restored. Clock: works of turret clock with anchor escapement, going and striking trains of wheels mounted side by side in iron frame, locking-plate mechanism of bolt and shutter type, made by William Clement, London, 1671, with some later alterations and additions; at King's College until transferred to St. Giles in 1817; presented to the Science Museum, South Kensington, in 1925. Communion Rails: with moulded and carved top-rail, panelled standards and shaped carved and gadrooned square balusters, early 18th-century, brought from the English church at Rotterdam; (see also woodwork in Hall at Selwyn College). Font: plain octagonal bowl with moulded under-edge, octagonal stem and octagonal to square base, 15th-century, one face of bowl retooled.

Monuments: In S. chapel—on S. wall, (1) of [Nicholas] Carre [M.D., 1568, Regius Professor of Greek], Catherine Carre his daughter, who erected the monument, and William James, much restored freestone wall-monument (Plate 13) with skulls over the inscription-panels, side-columns, entablature, obelisks and elaborate strapwork cresting, with shield-of-arms of James impaling a blank shield and achievement-of-arms of James impaling Carr, early 17th-century. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (2) of Katharine, wife of Jacob Smith, 1833, white marble tablet on black marble backing; (3) of Jacob Smith, 1814, similar to (2); (4) of William Wilkins, 1815, Hannah his wife, 1815, and others, white marble sarcophagus on panelled base; (5) of Elizabeth Gifford, sister of Joseph Ivatt, 1800, white marble oval tablet; (6) of Rev. John Warter, 1802, Fellow of Magdalene College, white marble oval tablet on black marble backing. In churchyard—(7) of John Hinds, 1697–8, headstone, and twenty-eight other headstones carved with cherubs, emblems of mortality, etc., 17th–19th centuries, mostly much worn. Paintings: In nave—on W. wall, 18th-century copy of the Adoration of the Magi by Paolo Veronese, painted on canvas, in 19th-century gilt frame. In Vestry—Crucifixion on copper, 19th-century. Plate: includes a plain cup with the date-letter for 1622 and engraved with the initials of the incumbent, H.T., and the churchwardens, I.S., T.P., and a set of a cup, stand-paten and flagon all with gadroon-ornament, unmarked, probably early 19th-century.

(53) Parish Church of St. Mary the Great, commonly called the University church, stands in the centre of the city, on Market Hill. The external walls are of rubble with some ashlar and dressings of oolitic limestone, with perhaps some Barnack stone reused from an earlier building. The interior is faced largely with clunch. In 1522 stone was being brought from the Weldon quarries, and again probably from the same source in 1592 for the completion of the tower; more came from the ruins of Ramsey and Thorney abbeys and Eversden and Reach clunch quarries in 1594. The chancel was refaced in 1857 with Ketton stone. The roofs are covered with lead and copper.

A stone with 12th-century cheveron-ornament is reused in the S. wall of the W. bay of the S. aisle, but in view of the sources of much of the stone no great significance should be attached to it. The Chancel was built or rebuilt early in the 14th century after a fire in 1290 and consecrated by Thomas de Lisle, Bishop of Ely, in 1351. In the latter part of the 15th century a general rebuilding was begun. In 1478 the foundation stone was laid, but the initial expenditure was small and little seems to have been done until 1488; then five years of activity was followed by a suspension of work until the early years of the 16th century. Over the period, the Nave, Chapels and Aisles were built, the nave roof being framed in 1506. John Bell, mason, appears to have been in close touch with the work and may have been the mason in charge until 1503, when records of him cease. The chancel also was extensively remodelled, and a S. porch and S.E. vestry added. William Rotherham, mason, and William Buxton, carpenter, were at work on the last in 1514 and this year probably saw the completion of the church but for the upper stages of the tower. Payments to William Burdon, mason, by the University between 1508 and 1510 and by the churchwardens, 1512–13, may indicate that he succeeded John Bell. The altar in the S. or Lady Chapel was set up in 1518; the nave seats were made and the nave opened in 1519.

The West Tower was begun in 1491 but by 1550 it was standing only to just above the W. window, which had been glazed in 1536. It was designed to stand free of the aisles, with N. and S. arches providing a procession-way since the W. wall bordered the western limit of the site. Early in the 16th century, it would appear, the aisles were extended to cover these arches and the bands of quatre-foiled ornament high above, which were almost certainly intended to be external, as on the W. face of the tower. In consequence the nave-arcades, which lie outside the full width of the tower, were left without W. abutment; to provide this, extra thickness of walling was added on the N. and S. faces of the tower up to the level of the aisle roofs.

The terms of an appeal (B.M. Cotton MSS. Faustina C III, 487–8), undated, but of the late 16th century, show that though the timber for the bell-chamber floor had been delivered it could not be placed nor the bells newly hung until the tower had been built 24 ft. higher 'besides the battlements'. The bell-chamber was begun in 1593 with Robert and William Grumbold as mastermasons, and after a further appeal (Petition 28 May 1595; B.M. Lansdowne MSS. 99, 66) all the bells were rung for the first time in 1596. A spire at least 80 ft. high was projected, but the tower itself was not finished until 1608 and the spire was never built.

In 1735 the galleries in the aisles were erected, and in 1754 another gallery, 'Golgotha,' was inserted in the chancel; this last was taken down in 1863 when the interior of the church was rearranged. The South Porch was built in 1888 on the site of the earlier porch destroyed in 1783. The classical W. doorway of the tower erected in 1576 was replaced by the present Gothic one, designed by Gilbert Scott, in 1850–51; the tower was restored in 1892. The old vestry was demolished in 1857 and the chancel was refaced in the same year under the supervision of Anthony Salvin. Alterations to the church, particularly to the windows, were made by James Essex in 1766, and other restorations were carried out in 1784, 1805, 1812 and 1955.


The Parish Church of St. Mary the Great

The Parish Church of St. Mary the Great

The church (Plate 295) is an elegant example of late 15th-century building by masons whose work is identifiable elsewhere in the east and south-east of England, the nave having close affinities with that of Saffron Walden church for which a contract was made with Simon Clark and John Wastell, freemasons, in 1485. Among the fittings, the font, benches and remains of the 18th-century pulpit are noteworthy. Martin Bucer, who was buried here and exhumed in 1557, is commemorated by a modern brass.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (43½ ft. by 23 ft.) has been entirely refaced outside but retains much old ashlar facing inside. The E. window has 14th-century shafted and moulded splays; the five cinque-foiled and transomed lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head in 15th-century style are of the mid 19th century. The N. and S. walls have each a moulded and two-centred late 15th-century arch, the outer members continuous and the inner springing from attached shafts with moulded bases and caps carved with paterae. In each of the same walls is a window of late 15th-century character but completely restored, except perhaps the splays and rear-arches. Between the arches and windows are 15th-century doorways with moulded and shafted jambs and four-centred heads; the jamb-shafts are semi-octagonal, with moulded caps and bases. Between the window and the doorway on the N. is a blocked 14th-century doorway, not visible externally except for straight joints in the footings; it has moulded splays and two-centred rear-arch and is almost entirely masked by the modern stalls. In the same position in the S. wall is another blocked 14th-century doorway, not visible externally, with damaged shafted splays and segmental-pointed rear-arch. Further W. in the S. wall is a blocked early 14th-century window with a moulded two-centred rear-arch. The chancel-arch is similar to the N. and S. arches but much taller and, on the W. face, with elaborate traceried spandrels, mostly foiled circles enclosing flowers; across the head of the arch is a deep moulded frieze of quatre-foiled squares set diagonally enclosing paterae, with small paterae on the lower member, and a cornice enriched with paterae, Tudor flowers and cresting.

The North Chapel (22½ ft. by 16¼ ft.) is of the late 15th century but the windows have all been restored. The E. window is of four cinque-foiled and transomed lights with tracery in a four-centred head with a moulded rear-arch. In the N. wall is a window altered by James Essex in 1766; it is of four cinque-foiled and transomed lights in a four-centred head. Further E. is a doorway with moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head with a label. In the W. wall is an arch similar to, but smaller than, the side arches of the chancel except that the opening is four-centred. Below the windows in the E. and N. walls is an internal string-course carved with paterae, leaves, Stafford and Bourchier knots and a leopard's face.

The South Chapel (23 ft. by 17¼ ft.), now a vestry, has a restored or largely modern E. window of four cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head. Below the window is a blocked doorway with moulded splays and four-centred rear-arch; indications of the outline of the former vestry remain in the external face of the E. wall. In the S. wall is a window similar to the corresponding window in the N. chapel, with an internal string-course below carved with paterae, leaves, a leopard's face and two beasts with leaves. At the E. end of the same wall is a doorway similar to that in the N. chapel but with shields with the initials I.H. and the arms of Hatcher; it was inserted by John Hatcher in 1576 and the head has been restored. In the W. wall is an arch similar to the W. arch of the N. chapel. S. of the foregoing is the lower doorway to the rood-loft stair; the upper doorway is in the S.E. angle of the S. aisle and has a four-centred chamfered head and jambs.

The Nave (Plates 286, 288) (71¼ ft. by 26¾ ft.) has N. and S. arcades of five bays divided by slim shafts with moulded caps and bases continued up into the clearstorey to support the main roof-trusses. The arches are two-centred and moulded, the outer members continuous and the inner springing from attached shafts with moulded caps carved with paterae and moulded bases; they have traceried spandrels, the main quatre-foiled panels having carved cusp-points, and across the head of each a string-course with paterae. The embattled clearstorey has, in each bay, two restored windows each of three cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head with moulded reveals and rear-arches; below the sills inside are bands of quatre-foiled squares set diagonally enclosing paterae.

The North Aisle (17 ft. wide) has an embattled parapet. The N. face of the nave-arcade has traceried spandrels similar to those on the S. face. The four eastern and the westernmost windows are similar to the N. window of the N. chapel as altered by Essex; the fifth window is similar but of three lights; below them internally is a partly restored string-course stepped over the N. doorway and carved with paterae, leaves, flowers and masks. The N. doorway has moulded and shafted jambs and a moulded four-centred arch, with panelled and traceried soffit, in a square head with traceried spandrels and a label with paterae and defaced stops; the cusped four-centred rear-arch has traceried spandrels including quatrefoils with paterae. The western end of the aisle is partitioned off and known as the Consistory Court; it is now used for parochial purposes. The tracery of the W. window was renewed in the 19th century.

The South Aisle (Plate 288) (17 ft. wide) is uniform in general arrangement with the N. aisle, but the rear-arch of the doorway has foliated spandrels and above it is an early 17th-century stone panel carved and painted with a shield-of-arms of Hare quartering Bassingbourn. The string-course is carved with paterae, leaves, cap or mitre, serpent, leopards' faces, cock, pelican, women's heads, double eagle-head, beast, snail, Prince of Wales' feathers, initial letter H, woolsack and two shields-of-arms, one defaced, the other of Lisle (?). The exterior of the S. doorway has moulded and shafted jambs and a four-centred opening in a square head with foliated spandrels and shields carved with a rose and a portcullis as label-stops. The tracery of the four-light W. window was renewed in 1877.

The West Tower (ground-stage 11¾ ft. by 22¾ ft.) is of four architectural stages and four storeys with a moulded plinth and modern embattled parapet. At each angle is an octagonal turret continued up above the parapet; against the turrets are angle-buttresses in three weathered stages finishing below the bell-chamber. The lower part, including the arches and W. window, is of 1491–1550 and the upper part was added in 1593–1608; the ashlar facing has been restored. The E. tower-arch is two-centred and of two moulded orders, the outer continuous on the E. and dying into the tower-walls on the W. and the inner springing from attached shafts with moulded bases and caps carved with paterae. The arch rises through two storeys; the lower part is filled with a contemporary but partly restored screen wall and the upper part is open to a W. gallery; no doubt this is the original arrangement. The screen-wall has a central doorway with, on the W. face, moulded jambs and two-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels enclosing paterae; the rear-arch is treated in a manner similar to that of the N. doorway and the soffit has cinque-foiled panels with traceried heads and paterae. Flanking the doorway, on the E. face, are doorways with moulded jambs and three-centred heads; that on the N. opens into a small chamber with a four-centred vault, that on the S. into a turret-staircase; on the W. face the chamber and stair have loop-lights.

In the N. and S. walls of the ground storey are arches generally similar in character to the E. arch but smaller and having on the outward face square heads with quatre-foiled spandrels enclosing paterae; high above them are bands of sub-cusped quatrefoils enclosing paterae and shields, on the N. of (a) (unidentified 75), (b) the abbey of Bury, (c) the See of York; on the S. (Plate 31), of (a) the See of Ely, (b) arms ascribed to Richard Barrowe. A later thickening of the N. and S. walls of the tower, added probably early in the 16th century to provide abutment for the nave-arcades, is arched over the bands of quatrefoils so framing them and the arches below. In the W. wall is a mid 19th-century Gothic doorway with shields-of-arms of the See of Ely and Trinity College. The ground storey has an original stone panelled vault of pointed segmental form running N. and S.; the panels have cinque-foiled heads with finials and tracery above. The second storey has a barrel-vault in imitation of that below but running E. and W. and apparently of plaster. The restored W. window is of four cinque-foiled lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head with a label; below the sill is a band of quatrefoils similar to those on the N. and S. but much restored; they enclose a lily-pot, a Tudor rose, and shields carved with (a) arms of Rotherham (b) the Instruments of the Passion, (c) lily-pot, (d) arms of Bishop Alcock. The third storey has in the N., S. and W. walls a restored window of one cinque-foiled light with a label.

The bell-chamber is faced internally with brick and has in each wall a restored window of three pointed lights with intersecting tracery in a four-centred head with a label; across the angles are squinches turned in brick. The octagonal angleturrets where they rise clear have a square-headed opening with pierced filling in each face; the former cappings have been removed. The S.W. turret, containing the stair from the second storey to the roof, is lined with hard dark bricks up to the level of the bell-chamber floor and with friable bricks of lighter colour in the late 16th-century work above.

The Roof of the N. chapel is of the early 16th century, flat-pitched, in two bays with moulded main timbers and with wall-posts and curved braces to the end tie-beams standing on corbels carved with foliage, a monkey holding a cup (N.W.), and a grotesque beast (S.W.). The roof of the S. chapel is similar but the ridge and plates are carved with scrolled running foliage; the wall-posts and braces have been removed and the corbels altered or removed, except the S.E. corbel, which has a carved beast. The early 16th-century roof of the nave (Plate 287) is of ten bays, flat-pitched, with moulded main timbers; the tie-beams have curved braces with traceried spandrels and spring from wall-shafts and corbels alternately. The large bosses at the intersections of tie-beams and ridge-purlin are carved as follows: (a) foliage, (b) two demi-angels holding a star or molet, (c) priest kneeling before a crucifix, (d) two demiangels holding a shield with M.R. and a crown, (e) as (d), (f) foliage, (g) Crown of Thorns and foliage, (h) a pelican in piety, (i) St. Michael spearing a dragon, (j) Tudor rose, (k) foliage. Foliage half-bosses against the tie-beams cover the intersections with the side purlins. In the large hollow-moulding of the wall-plates are half-angels, with the wings broken off, holding scrolls, mitre, crown, blank shields, Crown of Thorns; spaced out in the sunk-chamfer above are traceried and foliated ornaments. The nave roof was repaired in 1726 and a second protective roof was built above it by James Essex in 1783. The late 15th-century roof of the N. aisle is similar to that of the N. chapel; the corbels on the N. wall (Plate 287) are carved with (a) fool, (b) half-angel holding a shield, (c) twoheaded dove with a scroll, (d) half-angel holding a shield with a heart, (e) eagle with a scroll, (f) half-angel in prayer, (g) ox with scroll; on the S. side the capitals of the supporting wallshafts are enriched with paterae. The roof of the S. aisle is similar to that of the S. chapel; the corbels on the S. wall are carved with (a) a cock and scroll, (b)–(f) foliage, some restored, (g) a monkey; on the N. side the shaft-capitals are carved with (a) a fox and a cockerel, (b) two monsters with intertwined necks, (c)-(e) foliage, (f) a ram and ewe.

Fittings—Bells: twelve and sanctus; 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 10th by Richard Phelps of Whitechapel, London, 1722; 7th, 9th by same founder, 1723; 11th by William Dobson of Downham, 1825; 12th by Pack & Chapman, London, 1770; sanctus by John Warrin of Cambridge, 1607; all the canons, except on the sanctus, have been removed. Benefactors' Tables: In tower— on E. and W. walls, four, boards in moulded frames with painted inscriptions recording charities of 1648, 1652, 1679, etc., probably 18th-century and all repainted in the 19th century. In N. and S. aisles—two, painted boards in moulded framing, charities of 1809 and 1790, 1805, 19th-century. Books: include sermons by Henrie Bullinger, 1584, and bibles of 1611, 1706 and 1753. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In N. chapel—on N. wall, (1) of Anne, wife of John Scott, notary, 1617, inscription-plate, largely illegible, and two shields-of-arms of Scott and Underwood; (2) of Thomas Lorkin, M.D., 1591, inscription-plate with two shields-of-arms of Professorship of Medicine impaling Lorkin and of Lorkin (Plate 6); (3) of Michael Woolf, 1614, inscription-plate with rose. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (4) of Elizabeth (Pritchard), wife of John Wickstede, 1616–7, inscription-plate only. Indents: In N. chapel—(1) of inscription-plate, reused as floor-slab (1). In nave—(2 and 3) defaced indents; (4) of marginal inscription and probably figures; (5) of three figures, four shields, three small plates and marginal inscription with roundels, probably early 16th-century; (6) of two figures and two shields, probably early 16th-century. In N. aisle—(7) of three half-figures, inscription-plate, two small plates and roundels at angles, reused as floor-slab (18); (8) of two figures, four shields and marginal inscription, reused as floor-slab (19); (9) probably of two figures, four shields, marginal inscription and plates at angles; (10) of inscription only. In S. aisle—(11) probably of two figures, four shields and small plate, reused as floor-slab (31); (12) defaced, reused as floor-slab (32); (13) probably of two figures, two shields and inscription-plate; (14) of two figures, much defaced. In tower—(15) slab with incised cross on calvary, indents of two figures and inscription-plate; (16) of two figures, inscription-plate and two plates, probably 16th-century.

Chest: In S.E. vestry, with five rectangular panels in front and two in each end divided by pinnacled buttresses, all except two containing flamboyant tracery and blank shields under ogee heads with finials and elaborate crockets filling the spandrels, the centre panel plain and mounted with a pierced wrought-iron lock-plate, and one end panel with a man's head in a wreath, double-headed dolphins, human masks and foliage, probably largely of the 19th century with some early 16th-century French panels incorporated, modern top. Clock: on W. face of tower, clock-face with spandrels carved in low relief and with painted date 1679 above, painting renewed. Coffin-stools: In S. chapel, organ lofts and ringing-chamber of tower, seven, with turned legs and fluted enrichment, 17th-century. Doors: In N. and S. doorways, two similar doors, in two leaves, with eight panels and moulded and nail-studded framing, early 16th-century, restored; in 1513–14 payment of 33s. 4d. was made to John Kale, a joiner and carver, for making the church door. In N. and S. chapels—in N. and S. doorways, two, generally similar, but in three and two heights respectively of three panels with applied hollow-chamfered mouldings and with wrought-iron strap-hinges, late 16th-century, repaired. In doorway to rood-stair, of nail-studded planks with moulded ribs applied to form three vertical panels, with strap-hinges, late 16th-century. In tower—in screen-wall, to N., plank door with applied ribs, 17th-century, to S., of moulded planks with moulded ribs and frame, nail-studded, late 15th-century.

Font (Plate 8): of freestone, octagonal, straight-sided bowl with upper and lower mouldings enriched with leaves and cable-ornament, shaped and foliated underside, pedestal carved with stylised tendrils, leaves and flowers, moulded foot on stepped base, each face of bowl carved in relief with strapwork framing to blank shields, a vase, cherubs' heads and ribbons, a vase and dancing innocents with books, and an oval panel with the date 1632; in 1631 Francis Martin gave three pounds towards the cost of a new font and in the year ended Easter 1633 two pounds was paid to George Thompson for making the font. Font-cover: of oak, a pyramidal octagon rising from an entablature to a ball-finial, with triangular moulded panels in each face, 17th-century, much restored. Galleries: over N. and S. aisles, with enriched moulded and panelled fronts on enriched entablatures spanning the openings of the N. and S. arcades, 1735–6, erection said to have been supervised by James Gibbs, part of testamentary gift of William Worts (died 1709). At W. end of nave, to organ-gallery, artificial stone front with arcading of ogee cinquefoil-headed panels and quatre-foiled spandrels, on cove with flanking moulded corbels, probably a remnant of the gallery built in 1819 from the designs of William Wilkins and, for the rest, demolished in 1863.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—in N. wall, (1) tomb-recess with attached jamb-shafts with moulded caps and bases, moulded flat two-centred arch and label with head-stops, early 14th-century, restored; (2) of William Butler, physician, 1617–8, alabaster wall-monument (Plate 13) with half-length figure of man in civil dress with ruff and turban, one hand on book, one on skull, in round-headed recess with obelisks and flanking putti on pedestals, one with a crutch, the other with foot on skull, on the crowning cornice a mutilated shield-of-arms of Butler in a wreath between two urns, erected by John Crane, physician, who died 1652; reset, altered and restored, (see B.M.. Cole MSS. IX. 28. for original state). In N. chapel—on N. wall, (3) of Gerrard Herring, 1703, woollen-draper, Mary his wife, 1715, and William his brother, 1722, square white and grey marble wall-tablet with gadrooned shelf on foliated corbel, cornice and painted shield-of-arms above of Herring impaling Linford. In S. chapel—on E. wall, (4) of Elizabeth and Ann, daughters of John and Sarah Mortlock, 1831 and 1838, marble wall-tablet with urn; on N. wall, (5) of Mary Turner, 1800, daughter of Mr. Hopkins, bookseller, black and white marble wall-monument; on S. wall, (6) of John Mortlock, 1775, and Sarah his wife, 1800, black, white and coloured marble wall-monument with side pilasters, pedimented entablature and shield-of-arms of Mortlock, inscription contained in wreath of foliage. In nave— on W. wall, (7) of Joseph Cooks, 1796, and Mary his wife, 1791, wall-tablet of limestone with circular inscription-panel and cherub-heads and foliage in the spandrels; (8) of Anne Theodora, wife of Charles Claydon, 1833, marble wall-tablet, by Tomson & Son, Cambridge; (9) of Elizabeth Story, 1727–8, Edward her husband, [1693], and Edward, M.B., Fellow of Magdalene College, their son, [1710], marble cartouche with smaller crowning cartouche containing painted shield-of-arms of Story impaling (unidentified 76); (10) of Thomas D'Aye, 1681, and Susanna and Anna his wives, alabaster wall-tablet with carved drapery frame and cartouche containing the arms of Day; (11) of Joseph Banks, Esther his wife, Mary their daughter and Samuel their grandson, son of Samuel and Lydia Banks, white marble oval wall-tablet, c. 1800; (12) of John Burrell, 1805, and other members of his family, 1812–51, marble wall-tablet. In N. aisle—on E. wall, (13) of John Crane, physician, 1652, black and white marble wall-tablet with heavy cornice and supported on consolebrackets linked by fruit garland; against N. wall, (14) of Henry Balls, 1802, and Sarah his wife, 1778, and three children, double slab with shaped top and cherub-heads. In S. aisle—on E. wall, (15) (Plate 18) of William Finch, merchant, 1762, black and white marble tablet with console supports linked by flowergarland, broken pediment and cartouche with shield-of-arms of Finch; on S. wall, (16) of Jane, daughter of Swann Hurrell, 1838, marble tablet. In tower—on E. wall, (17) (Plate 18) of John Warren, 1608, square limestone wall-tablet with carved and moulded frame, repaired in 1618, and 1632 and recut after 1840; (18) of Elizabeth, wife of Gilbert Woollard, jun., 1794, and others; (19) of Gilbert Woollard, 1795, and Joanna his wife, 1788; (20) of Joseph Stuart, 1831, and others; (14) and (18–20) are headstones from churchyard, recut and painted in modern times. In churchyard—on N. wall of N. aisle, (21) of Elizabeth Goodall, 1814, stone wall-tablet with pediment; (22) of Moses Horne, Julian his wife and four children, 1658, stone wall-monument with garlands and cherub-heads. N. of the church are headstones to the following—(23) Benjamin Jeffs, 1785, and Mary his wife, 1770, double headstone carved with cherub-heads and wreaths; (24) illegible, similar to (23); (25) Thomas Adams, 1771, and Mary Adams, 1798. Floor-slabs: fifty-two, many partly hidden, of the 18th and early 19th century, without ornament unless otherwise described. In N. chapel—(1) Martha and Elizabeth Thurlborn, 1733 and 1736, reused brass-indent (1); (2) William Bland, 1765, and two children; (3) Richards Reynolds, 1809; (4) Sarah Steers, 1833; (5) M. T. Steers, 183.; (6) Clemency (Robinson), wife of John Coverley, 1790, and John Coverley, 1811; (7) Susannah Eliza, wife of John Smith, 1833; (8) William Bland, 1821, and Mary Ann Morton his sister, 1844. In nave—(9) Elizabeth Lamborn, 1759; (10) James Day, 1758; (11) T. N.; (12) infant son of Sam. and Eliz. Crosley, 17.5, Samuel Crosley, 1763, Elizabeth Crosley, ...., and another; (13) John Carter, 1706; (14) Ann ......, 1731; (15) .... Skinner, 1710–1; (16) John We(st?), 1744–5; (17) Samuel Frost, 1809. In N. aisle—(18) Dalby Mart, goldsmith, 1734–5, and Ann (Alpha) his wife, reused brass-indent (7); (19) John Gibson, 1767, and Jane his wife, 1756, reused brass-indent (8); (20) Thomas, Mary and William Smith, ....; (21) John Ogle, 1734–5, and others; (22) Ann, daughter of Mary Goodall, 1717, and others; (23) John ......, ....; (24) Russell Plumptre, M.D., 1793 [Regius Professor of Medicine], and Frances his wife, 1786; (25) [Thomas] Nicholson, ...., and another, 1700; (26) Eliz. Laughton, 1735–6, and others; (27) Charles Bottomley, 1823, and others; (28) Charles Bottomley, 1737; (29) William Yates, Attorney-at-law, 170.; nearby are several slabs now illegible; (30) Eliz. Lamborn, 1727. In S. aisle—(31) William H ...., reused brass-indent (11); (32) John Rey ......, reused brass-indent (12); (33) Elizabeth, wife of John Gib ...., 17 .., and Eliz. his second wife, 1744; (34) Francis H[icks?], 17 .., Mary Hicks, 17..; (35) Edith, wife of John Smith, 1801; (36) G[eorge?] Webb, 1703; (37) William Peete Musgrave, 1817; (38) John Rudston, 1616, with long Latin inscription; (39) Ann Haselum, 1762, and another earlier; (40) .... Shut .., . .99; (41) Sime[on] Lord(?), 1764, and Ann Lord, 1779, and four others. In tower—(42) Deborah, 1761, and William Thurlbourn; (43) William Sykes, 1779, and others later; (44) Ann Crosley, 1786; (45) John Clack, 1746, Mary his wife, 1757, and William Steers, clerk of the parish, 1802; (46) William Finch, merchant, 1731; (47) W. F[inch, 1762]. In churchyard—between S. porch and gate, (48) Francis, son of Robert Scawen, 1669–70; (49) Sarah H[o?]wood, 17.3; (50) Dorothy (Plumptree) Ward, 1793, and others; (51) name illegible, 1700, with traces of achievement-of-arms; (52) .... as Rogers.

Niches: two very similar, in E. wall of chancel, flanking altar, each with fluted and pinnacled side-standards supporting cinque-foiled ogee head with sub-cusping, crockets and finial, moulded sill on corbel carved with foliage and supporting modern sculpture, remains of cusped panelling on back wall, 14th-century with much modern restoration including whole head of N. niche. Organ and Organ-case: On W. gallery, organ, three-manual, by Father Bernard Schmidt, 1698, rebuilt by William Hill & Sons, 1870; organ-case (Plate 22) with three groups of pipes appearing through openings in pierced and elaborately carved panelling divided and flanked by four towers of pipes supported on corbels carved with cherubs' heads and acanthus foliage and with tall crowning entablatures, the entablatures to the two taller central towers continuous and with scrolled side-supports, late 17th-century; Bowtell says it was bought from 'St. James's parish London', but, whilst confirmatory evidence for the case is lacking, the organ was made for St. Mary's.

Pall (Plate 68): of Florentine black cut velvet on a gold ground, the pile almost wholly decayed, with the Royal arms of Henry VII and the Tudor rose and portcullis embroidered in silk and silver-gilt thread on linen and applied on crossed bands of wine-coloured velvet, early 16th-century, by Indenture 20 Nov. 1504 (Univ. Archives) the University undertook to keep anniversaries for Henry VII in St. Mary's; now exhibited in the Fitzwilliam Museum. Panelling: In S. chapel— door-case and lobby of painted pine with plain panelling, mid 18th-century. In arches at E. end of N. and S. aisles. two lengths of oak panelling, each of three bays and in two heights, the lower height with round-headed panels, one a door, divided and flanked by panelled pilasters with carved caps continued across as the base-members of the upper height of panels; the upper panels, divided and flanked by scrolled upright brackets, having moulded eared framing, scroll-pediments with shells and flanking half-round turned and carved balusters with flamefinials, early 18th-century and reconstituted, being composed of six sides of the pulpit (Plate 33) reputedly by James Essex, sen., erected in the centre of the nave c. 1736 and removed in 1863. In N. and S. galleries—on E., N. and S. walls, panelled dado with plain panels in ovolo-moulded framing, 18th-century with modern renewals. In tower—in ringing-chamber, quantity of linenfold panelling in three and five heights with carved frieze containing foliage and small heads, 16th-century with some modern work. Piscinae: In S. wall of chancel, double piscina with two two-centred and moulded arches with pierced trefoil cusping springing from a central column and attached jambshafts with moulded caps and bases, one quatrefoil and one sexfoil dishing in sill, early 14th-century, sill modern. In S. aisle, towards E. end of S. wall, with trefoiled opening in square head with carved spandrels, late 15th-century, sill modern. Plate: includes a pair of alms-dishes with the dateletter for 1681, given by Thomas King and Thomas Daye in that year, a spoon with pierced bowl and handle, with the mark for 1850, and eight pewter plates, four dated 1736 and with the name Capsey, two similar but unmarked, and two with gadroon borders. Pulpit: see under Panelling. Recess: At foot of stair in S. chapel, with chamfered jambs and square chamfered head, perhaps a lamp-niche, 16th-century, head modern.

Seating: In N. and S. chapels, nave, tower and N. and S. aisles, twenty-three benches (Plate 32) with poppy-heads carved with foliage, scroll-decoration under seats, early to mid 17th-century. In N. aisle—in Consistory Court at W. end, oak canopy to throne of the Chancellor of the diocese, with panelled standard flanked by pilasters with moulded bases and caps and roses carved on the shafts, coved entablature with modillions, and sounding-board with dentil-cornice, mid 17th-century. In galleries—at E. end of each, box-pew and reading-desk, seat with rounded and panelled back facing W., mid 18th-century. Sedilia: In S. wall of chancel, with half-round jamb-shafts with moulded caps and bases, flat two-centred arch with cinque-foiled ogee cusping, moulded and pierced, and moulded label with modern head-stops, early 14th-century, restored. Stairs: at W. end of N. and S. aisles and leading to galleries, of oak, with close strings, turned balusters, moulded handrails, square newels with moulded caps and, against the walls, panelled dados with moulded dado-rails, probably contemporary with the aisle-galleries, 1735–36. Table: In S. chapel, of oak, with turned legs on pedestals, plain stretchers, frame with ball-ornament, mid 17th-century, made up with modern work. Miscellanea: In tower—in ringing-chamber, painted ringers'-boards dated 1779, 1788 (Plate 59), 1790, 1791, 1793, 1797 and others later. In tower-stair—on jambs of loop-light level with bell-chamber floor, stone carved with the date 1607 and initials of the minister and churchwardens, G W [George Watts], I W and M F [John Warren and Marmaduke Frohock]. In bell-chamber—on window-splays, numerous scratchings, of initials, dates, 17th and 18th-centuries and later. On S.W. buttress of tower, incised circle, the datum-point cut in 1732 from which miles were measured along the roads from Cambridge (see Milestones, Monument (83)).

(54) Parish Church of St. Mary the Less stands on the W. side of Trumpington Street. The walls are of rubble, mostly ashlar-faced both inside and out in the five eastern bays and repaired in places in brick; the dressings are of Barnack stone and clunch. The roofs are covered with Collyweston stone slates and lead. The church, until 1352 called St. Peter without Trumpington Gates, is of pre-Conquest foundation as evidenced by the survival of late Anglo-Saxon fragments of interlacement. The earliest surviving structural work is of the 12th century to which date belong the remains of the West Tower.

The rest of the Church was rebuilt between about the years 1340 and 1352 when it was finished and rededicated. It served for long as the chapel of Peterhouse and is attached to the College by a gallery S. of the chancel approached by a staircase and crossing over a gateway. The five E. bays belong to the rebuilding and the intention was to have a sixth bay of rather wider span, as is indicated by the form of the buttresses between the fifth and sixth bays. This would have given more clearance to the earlier tower-arch and the plan would then have resembled the choir and ante-chapel plan more fully developed in some of the Oxford college chapels. In the 15th-century the existing sixth bay was built, but continuing the lines of the main side-walls; at the same time the tracery of the side-windows, at the least on the N., was altered (the windows are shown in Cole's sketch of 1743), and about the middle of the century a S. porch was added by John Leedes, bursar of Peterhouse, died 1455. Two chantry-chapels were built to the N. and S. of the church, by Thomas Lane and probably by Henry Horneby, both Masters of Peterhouse; the altar in Lane's chantry was consecrated in 1443, many years before his death; Horneby died in 1517–8. The South Vestry, originally of the 14th century, was very largely rebuilt and an upper storey added about 1487, when the chapel of John Warkworth, Master of Peterhouse, was consecrated; in spite of some ambiguity it appears that the chapel and the vestry were the same structure.

The pulpit alone survives of a refitting of 1741. The church was restored in 1856–57 under Gilbert Scott and in 1876 and 1891; probably in 1876 the former Jacobean roof was removed. At some uncertain date the tower, shown standing in Cole's view, fell or was demolished and in 1892 the Parish Room and the lower part of a new Tower were built; the South Chapel was built in 1931 from the designs of T. H. Lyon.

The church is an imposing and spacious mid 14th-century building, being of some architectural pretension and without structural division from end to end. The 14th-century vaulting of the bone-hole, in part of brick, is of interest. Among the fittings, the font, the fontcover and the pulpit are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Church (Plate 289) (100 ft. by 27¾ ft.) is structurally undivided. The 14th-century E. window, with restored mullions and tracery, is of six cinque-foiled ogee lights with flowing tracery in a two-centred head with labels, shafted splays and moulded rear-arch. In the N. wall are six windows; the three easternmost and the fifth are of the 14th-century, restored and similar in detail to the E. window; each is of four cinque-foiled lights with modern tracery in a two-centred head; the tracery is copied from that surviving in the S. windows. A similar window in the fourth bay is blocked externally in red brick; below it are the blocked 15th-century doorway and tomb-arch of the former Lane chapel; the doorway has splayed jambs and moulded four-centred head and the tomb-arch a septfoiled and sub-cusped head with carved cusp-points and foliated spandrels under a moulded four-centred arch. The buttresses outside show indications of the E. and W. walls of the Lane chapel but are now finished like the other buttresses. The sixth and westernmost window is presumably of the 15th century although the restored tracery is of 14th-century character; the internal walling in the same bay is of clunch and partly restored.


Parish Church of St. Mary the Less

Parish Church of St. Mary the Less

In the S. wall are six windows; the three easternmost and the fifth are similar to those in the N. wall but the first is blocked in its lower part and the second extends only about a yard below the springing; these are original arrangements. Below the second is a 14th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head, which has a high two-centred rear-arch and shafted splays with moulded capitals. In the fourth bay is a blocked window of similar outline to the others and below it are the two early 16th-century openings to the former Henry Horneby chapel; the doorway and the partly restored tomb-arch are broadly copies of those opposite in the N. wall except that the tomb-arch is semi-elliptical and has over the apex a trefoiled panel formerly in the spandrel of an ogee label with the finial now destroyed. The fifth window retains much of the original tracery. The 15th-century westernmost window is of four cinque-foiled lights with restored vertical tracery in a two-centred head; the wall in the same bay is of clunch, partly exposed internally. The 15th-century S. doorway has splayed jambs and two-centred head with a label. In the W. wall is a 15th-century window, heightened and almost entirely renewed, of three cinque-foiled ogee lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head.

The West Tower (8¼ ft. by 9¼ ft.) was of the mid 12th century but only part of the E. wall and the tower-arch of this date remain; the rest of the ground-stage is modern and the superstructure has not been completed. The S.E. quoins of the E. wall are visible internally and externally the same wall is of small pebble-rubble. The semicircular tower-arch is of two square orders on the E. and the responds have quirked and chamfered imposts; the N. wall of the church impinges on the arch and is finished with a half-arch of one splayed order. Above the tower-arch is a square-headed doorway. Reset in the S.W. angle of the tower are some 12th-century stones including one with cheveron-ornament.

The Staircase-room (12¼ ft. by 12 ft.) S. of the chancel, has in the E. wall a 14th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head. Flanking the doorway are two 14th-century windows both of one trefoiled light and opening into the vestry. The 15th-century doorway to the bone-hole beneath the vestry has rebated jambs and four-centred head. In the N. wall is a rough recess, probably a lamp-niche, and in the S. wall is a modern doorway. The staircase up to the gallery to the College is supported on a half-arch and has a raking parapet with an old moulded coping. In the W. wall is a partly restored 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head. The Gateway (12 ft. by 15 ft.) adjoining on the S., formerly a way of access to Peterhouse and the churchyard, has had the E. half destroyed by an 18th-century extension to Peterhouse. On the W. the greater part of the walling is a 15th-century completion or rebuilding in red brick with stone dressings of the 14th-century structure. The W. archway, two-centred and of two continuous stop-chamfered orders, has been renewed except for the 14th-century lower courses of the responds. Though now built up, the W. jamb of the S. doorway to the College survives in situ. Only the mutilated N. and W. wall-ribs and N.W. head-corbel of the mediaeval vault of the gateway remain. On the first floor is a much restored 15th-century window of two lights with a trefoil in a segmental head. The storey above is a late 18th-century addition in yellow brick. The gallery contains no ancient features.

The Vestry (15 ft. by 11¾ ft.), probably the Warkworth Chapel, is of the late 15th century and has, in the E. wall, two windows, both of two pointed lights in a square head with a label. In the S. wall is a similar window but of two cinque-foiled lights, much restored and without a label. The room above has in the E. and S. walls a restored window similar to the windows below. The vaulted Bone-hole below the vestry has a small opening in the E. wall with a square head. The 14th-century brick vault is of four quadripartite bays with chamfered clunch ribs and stone springers, a central octagonal pier with chamfered base and moulded cap and wall-corbels tapered to a point below.

Fittings—Bell: one, by Tobias Norris of Stamford, inscribed 'Non sono animabus mortuorum sed auribus viventium, 1608'. Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In chancel—(1) of [John Holbrook, 1436, Master of Peterhouse and Chancellor], lower part of figure in academical dress and part of inscription, indents of scroll, marginal inscription and Evangelist-symbols at angles; (2) three-quarter figure in academical dress and cap, indent of inscription, c. 1500. In churchyard—E. of chancel, (3) of Rev. Thomas Chubb Holmes, 1846, inscription-plate on cruciformgabled stone tomb. Indents: In nave, (1) of small figure and inscription-plate, reused as floor-slab (8); (2) of inscription-plate on earlier coffin-lid. Coffin-lid: In nave—tapering slab with remains of inscription in Lombardic capitals, 13th or early 14th-century, with later brass-indent. Font (Plate 8): of freestone, bowl octagonal with square octofoiled panel on each face enclosing shields painted later, probably in the 17th century, with arms of the University, See of Ely, City of London (twice), Cambridge town, and Peterhouse, (two blank), and moulded underside with foiled panels, stem octagonal with ribs or shafts at angles and panel of window-tracery, of alternating designs, on each face, late 14th-century. Cover: of oak, octagonal, with moulded base with frieze-panels enriched with foliage and flowers and shields at the angles carved with the date and initials, 1632, W.C., I.B., I.D., ogee-shaped capping with scrolled ribs at the angles carved with foliage and terminal griffins' heads rising to a ball-finial on a small octagonal pedestal with half-balusters on the sides.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments etc: N. wall, (1) of [Thomas Lane, 1473, Master of Peterhouse], chantry-chapel (see Architectural Description above); (2) of the Rev. Godfrey Washington, 1729, minister of the church and Fellow of Peterhouse, white marble wall-monument with broken pediment and achievement-of-arms of Washington; (3) of Tayler Harwood, 1834, and Ann his wife, 1840, marble tablet, by Swinton; (4) of Richard, 1839, and Eliza., 1843, children of Bernard and Mary Harwood, marble tablet, by Swinton; (5) of Samuel Banks, 1788, and Lydia his wife, 1793, white and grey marble tablet with cornice; S. wall, (6) of Agnes, daughter of Gilbert Ainslie, D.D., Master of Pembroke College, and Emily his wife, 1844, and Montague their son, 1853, marble tablet, by Denman; (7) of [Henry Horneby, 1517–8, Master of Peterhouse], chantry-chapel (see Architectural Description above); (8) of Thomas Hide, 1777, grey and white marble wall-monument with side-pilasters, urns, obelisk and cherub; (9) of Thomas Southwell, 160(7?), wall-monument with double arched recess with side-pilasters supporting entablature, cresting, achievement-of-arms of Southwell quartering Witchingham, Fastolfe, Tendering and Holbrooke, and two shields of Southwell and Field, erected by Theophilus 'Feild'; on W. wall, (10) of Mary, wife of Edmund Law, D.D., Master of Peterhouse and Bishop of Carlisle, 1762, Edmund, 1758, Mary, wife of the Rev. James Stephen Lushington, 1768, Elizabeth, 1767, and Christian, 1773, their children, and Capt. Edward Christian, 1758, and Dorothy Christian, 1758, white and coloured marble tablet with cornice and broken pediment; (11) of John James Hopwood, 1842, marble tablet, by Kelsey; (12) of the Rev. Thomas Veasey, 1839, Fellow of Peterhouse and minister of the church, white marble tablet in Gothic frame; (13) of Thomas Pearne, Fellow of Peterhouse, 1827, marble tablet, by T. Tomson; (14) of William Elborne, 1824, and Sarah his mother, 1825, marble tablet; (15) of Sarah, wife of William Elborne, 1790, oval white marble tablet; (16) of Margaret Colville Borthwick, 1829, marble tablet, by T. Tomson; (17) of John James Ibbotson, 1831, marble tablet; (18) of Lydia (Amphlett), wife of John Hollingworth, minister of the parish, 1831, with shield-of-arms of Hollingworth impaling Amphlett, by T. Tomson; (19) of William Elborne, butler of Peterhouse, 1772, marble tablet; (20) of John Rickard Barker, barrister, 1843, and his mother Elizabeth (Turner), wife of the Rev. James Barker, 1847, marble neo-Greek tablet with shield-of-arms of Barker, by Denman, London; (21) of the Rev. James Barker, 1850, rector of Westley, marble neoGreek tablet. In churchyard—E. of chancel, (22) of Ann, wife of Edward Wythie, 1703–4, pedestal-monument with gadrooned capping and part of pyramid with cherubs, skull, etc.; on N. side, (23) of Robert Goude, 1710–1, and others, carved headstone. On S. wall of parish-room, (24) of Richard Thur ......, 1659, panel with incomplete inscription. (See also Brass (3)). Floor-slabs: In church, (1) of George Steward, son of A. H. Steward, 1804; (2) (Plate 18) of Samuel Sandys, 1676, Fellow of Peterhouse, with achievement-of-arms of Sandys; (3) of Sarah (Thompson), widow of Robert Drake, 1713, with lozenge-of-arms of Thompson; (4) of Daniel Michell, 1687, with achievement-of-arms of Michell; (5) of John James Ibbotson, 1831; (6) of Dorothy, wife of Richard Comings, 1800 (?); (7) of Dorothy Antrobus Comings, 1797, Richard Comings, 1799, and Thomas Comings, 1807; (8) of Elizabeth Margitson, 1765, reused Brass-indent (1); (9) of John Rant, 1719, Ann his first wife, 1695–6, and Jane his second wife, with achievement-of-arms of Rant; (10) of Edward Rant, 172., with achievement-of-arms of Rant; (11) of Lydia Hollingworth, 1831; (12) of Sarah, daughter of Thomas Long and Susannah his wife, 1794; (13) of Joseph Storey, early 18th-century; (14) of Margaret Colville Borthwick, 1829; (15) of R.W., 1701, with skull and cross-bones; (16) of Ann, daughter of Thomas and Ann Hide, 1773; (17) of John Rickard Barker, 1843; (18) of Thomas Halstead, 1814.

Niches: Five; below and flanking sill of E. window externally, three, middle niche with projecting shelf on attached shaft, flanking niches with tall vaulted canopies, much defaced, and pedestals with embattled capitals, 15th-century; flanking E. window internally, two, largely modern but incorporating 14th-century fragments in the vaulted canopies and crocketed spires, some with original colouring. Piscinae: In chancel— see Sedilia. In vestry— in S. wall, recess with hollow-chamfered jambs and pointed head, quatre-foiled dishing to drain, 14th-century. Plate: includes a flagon and a cup given by Alice Palmer, 1630, both with shield-of-arms of Palmer impaling Bradley, remodelled 1870 and with the date-mark for that year, a cup given as the foregoing but remade 1891, and the shield-of-arms reset under the foot, a paten given in 1690 and remade in 1891, a paten given by Mrs. E. B. (Elizabeth Brown) in 1630 and remade in 1876, a paten with the mark for 1685 given by Elizabeth Brown, a small cup and paten with embossed foliage ornament and the mark for 1824 on the cup only, and an alms-dish with the mark for 1713, given in that year. Pulpit and Sounding-board (Plate 34): of oak, hexagonal, with enriched plinth-moulding and cornice, eared and enriched panel on each face, one with the rayed letters I.H.S. in marquetry, one side probably a door refixed, panelled standard flanked by fluted Composite pilasters, hexagonal sounding-board with enriched entablature, frieze carved with bay-leaves and marquetry soffit; bought for the church in 1741, on later panelled base. Royal Arms: In Staircase-room—in carved frame, Hanoverian, formerly over the screen; according to Cole, writing in 1743, given by Valentine Ritz, a German painter (B.M., Cole MSS. ii, 49). Screen: Reset on W. wall, two hinged leaves of door only, close lower panels, upper panels with trefoiled and traceried heads, 15th-century; until 1857 the remains of the screen stood between the third and fourth bays. Sedilia: In first window-recess in S. wall and divided by continuations of the mullions from the window above into four bays, including piscina, with two-centred heads and vaults, the last now cut back, with restored or modern seats and sill to piscina, wall below divided into same number of bays by wallshafts with moulded bases, 14th-century, much mutilated and with modern restorations. Sundial: On S.W. face of S.W. diagonal buttress, scratch-dial. Miscellanea: Reset in S. wall of parish-room, outside,—two stone fragments with late pre-Conquest carving: (a), 2¼ ft. by 6 ins., with panel of interlacement; (b), about 1½ ft. by 10 ins., with two panels of interlacement.

(55) Parish Church of St. Matthew stands towards the E. of the city, nearly 7/8 m. due E. of the church of Great St. Mary. It is a building of 1866 with an octagonal nave and contains the following:—

Fittings—Communion Table, of oak, with turned legs of columnar form and plain stretchers, late 17th-century, top supported on added early 18th-century console-brackets; said to be from Trinity College Chapel. Table: in chancel, with turned legs of columnar form, moulded stretchers, upper framing masked on one side by fascia carved with jewel-ornament, mid 17th-century, top modern; said to have come from the church of All Saints. Miscellanea: In chancel, at each end of W. tie-beam, cherub-heads carved in wood, late 17th or early 18th-century. In nave, over N.E. windows, two carved wood figures of angels blowing trumpets, late 17th or early 18th-century; all said to be from an organ-case once in Ely Cathedral.

(56) Parish Church of St. Michael stands on the E. side of Trinity Street near Gonville and Caius College. The walls are of rubble with dressings of Barnack and other freestone; the roofs are covered with Westmorland slates. The appropriation of the church was granted by John Hotham, bishop of Ely, to Hervey de Stanton's new foundation of Michael House, March 1324–25. At his death in 1327 de Stanton charged his executors with the completion of the church, which he was rebuilding to serve as a collegiate parish church. A surviving roll of Michael House accounts ('Custos domorum') at Trinity College assigned to 1326 records the expenses incurred in erecting a chancel, no doubt of the present building. The Church is almost entirely of this period and has been little altered. Cole's sketch of 1745 shows it much as it is now except that the lead-covered timber spire then existing was taken down and the roof covered with slate under a faculty of 1818. After a fire in 1849 the church was restored (1849–50) by Gilbert Scott; the North Porch, of 1850, replaces an ancient feature.


The Parish Church of St. Michael

The Parish Church of St. Michael

The church is of importance as a closely-dated mediaeval building of one period. Further, it is of outstanding interest for the adjustment of the normal liturgical arrangement to meet collegiate requirements, the chancel predominating in size over the nave. Among the fittings, the 14th-century sedilia, piscinae and remains of the screen to the S. chapel are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (53½ ft. by 23½ ft.) has a restored E. window of 14th-century character of five trefoiled lights with tracery in a segmental-pointed head with labels; the soffit of the arch has a random decoration of stars in relief. In the N. wall is a 14th-century doorway with moulded jambs and two-centred head; above it is a string-course with a head-stop at the W. end. Further W. is a 14th-century arcade of two bays with two-centred arches of three chamfered orders, the middle one hollow-chamfered; the arches spring from an octagonal pier and semi-octagonal responds with moulded caps and bases; the stonework has been painted with stencil patterns in the mid 19th-century. In the S. wall is an arcade and string similar to that on the N. and a squint with a pointed loop as opening. The chancel-arch is similar to the arcades but taller and with simpler base-mouldings.

The North Vestry (15½ ft. by 11 ft.) has a blocked E. window not visible externally. In the N. wall is a two-light window similar to that in the N. chapel next described.

The North Chapel (36¼ ft. by 10¾ ft.) has, in the N. wall, two restored 14th-century windows; the first is of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a segmental-pointed head with labels, the internal label having head-stops; the second is similar but of two lights. The moulded sills are continued and, with those of the other windows lighting the body of the church, returned round the inside of the building as a string except in the chancel. Across the W. end is a 19th-century arch sprung from the side-walls.

The South Chapel (54 ft. by 10¾ ft.) has a partly restored 14th-century E. window (Plate 290) of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head with labels. In the S. wall are three partly restored 14th-century windows; the two more easterly are of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with labels and internal head-stops, one missing; the third is of three trefoiled ogee lights with cusped spandrels in a square head and with a label. The doorway close E. of the second window has a moulded rear-arch but is of the mid 19th century externally. At the W. end is a 19th-century arch similar to that of the N. chapel.

The Nave (Plate 291) (37 ft. by 24 ft.) has a 14th-century N. arcade of two bays similar in detail to the chancel-arch. In the S. wall is a single arch similar to those on the N. The stonework of these arches has not been painted. In the W. wall is a window, largely unrestored (Plate 290), of four trefoiled lights with branching tracery in a segmental-pointed head with labels with head-stops, those on the outside being of the mid 19th century.

The North Aisle (10¾ ft. wide) has in the N. wall a window similar to the westernmost window in the N. chapel but with mid 19th-century stops to the internal label. The N. doorway has moulded jambs, two-centred arch and label with 19th-century stops. In the W. wall is a window of two trefoiled ogee lights with curvilinear-tracery in a two-centred head with labels and head-stops; the external stops are of the 19th century.

The South Aisle (10¾ ft. wide) has, in the S. wall, a window similar to the corresponding window in the N. aisle.

The South-west Tower (11¾ ft. square) is of three stages with angle and diagonal buttresses, a stair-turret projecting on the S.E. and a plain parapet. The ground stage has in the E. and N. walls a two-centred arch of three continuous chamfered orders with chamfered bases. In the S. wall is a mid 19th-century doorway. In the W. wall is a window similar to that in the S. aisle and with 19th-century stops to the external label. The second stage, has in the S. and W. walls, a window of one pointed light with a label. In each wall of the bell-chamber is a restored window of two trefoiled lights in a two-centred head with a plain spandrel.

The Roofs of the chancel and nave have been extensively restored; they are of king-post type and may incorporate some 14th-century timbers. The chancel roof and lean-to roofs of the chapels were painted in the mid 19th century with repetitions of the sacred monogram and stencilled leaf-patterns in red, white and black.

Fittings—Bells: four, 1st, 2nd and 3rd, by Christopher Graye, 1683; 4th by Charles Newman and with the names of the churchwardens, 1684. Bell-frame old. Brass Indents: In S. chapel—(1) of inscription-plate. In N. aisle—(2) of small figure of priest and inscription-plate, 15th-century. Under tower—(3) much worn and cut in two, of inscription-plate and marginal inscription-fillet, possibly also canopy and shield; (4) of small demi-figure and inscription-plate, 15th-century; (5) of inscription-plate; (6) of inscription-plate, in Floor-slab (16). Glass: In S. aisle—shield-of-arms of Warenne, 15th-century, in modern setting; below, Stuart Royal arms (Plate 53), late 17th-century, recently damaged, formerly in E. window, and fragments, 15th-century and later. In tower—in W. window, shield with symbol of the Trinity with four suns, and a rose-en-soleil, 15th-century, in modern setting.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) of Robert Leeds, 1680, small rectangular stone tablet. In S. chapel—on E. wall, (2) of Edmund Parry, 1803, black and white marble wall-tablet with urn; (3) of Harry Brereton Passingham, 1833, black and white marble wall-tablet with pedimental head carved with Greek honeysuckle ornament, by Tomson; (4) of Humphrey, son of David and Catharine Parry of Crichel, Dorset, 1797, marble wall-tablet; (5) of [? Edward Parker, 1649], small clunch wall-tablet much damaged and worn, originally painted and gilded; on N. wall, (6) of John Horatio, son of Digby Legard, 1819, white marble wall-tablet; lying loose, (7) of [Edward Dod], 1636, framed and painted rectangular wood panel (23 ins. by 21 ins.) with Latin epitaph, shield-of-arms of Dod quartering Edge and Wollaston with a crescent for difference, and the crest of Dod twice, much damaged and with modern repairs. In nave—on W. wall, (8) of Richard Hovell, 1791, Mercy his wife, 1787, James their son, barrister, 1805, and Ann Triston their daughter, 1814, white marble wall-tablet; (9) of John Bowtell 'respectable bookbinder of this town', 1813, black and white marble wall-tablet, by Tomson, set up by the Governors of Addenbrooke's Hospital; (10) of William Coe, 1831, D.L., Ann his wife, 1821, and Peter and Anne Wedd, their son-in-law and daughter, 1823 and 1849, black and white marble altar-shaped walltablet with shield-of-arms of Smyth, by R. Brown, London, erected by their daughter Mrs. James Smyth; (11) of John Shepard, B.D., 1819, Pro-Chancellor of diocese of Ely, minister of this church, white marble wall-tablet with shield containing the Pascal Lamb on a wreath; (12) of Samuel, son of Samuel and Anna Forlow, 1782, square white marble wall-tablet. In N. aisle—on N. wall, (13) of Thomas Verney Oakes, [surgeon], 1818, stone wall-tablet. In tower—on W. wall, (14) of Rev. Clement Francis, A.M., 1829, Fellow and tutor of Gonville and Caius College, black and white marble tablet, by Tomson; (15) of John Daniel Hamilton Coles, 1835, black and white marble wall-tablet, by Tomson & Son, Cambridge; (16) of Elizabeth (Smythe), widow of William Arthur Irwin, 1834, black and white marble wall-tablet with casket, all surrounded by palm wreath, by Tomson; (17) of Charles Maxey, 1837, and Sophia (Hodson) his wife, 1844, black and white marble wall-tablet, by Tomson; (18) of Francis, 1812, and Ann Hodson, 1804, and twelve children listed and dated, white marble inscription-tablet with urn on pedestal carved with Cross and palm-branch, all against black marble backing with two-centred head, by T. Tomson. In churchyard—W. of porch, (19) of William Page, 1806, and others, pedestal with urn. On aisle wall beside (19), (20) of George Francis Joseph, A.R.A., 1816, stone tablet.

Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) of Peggy Smith, niece of the Master of Gonville and Caius College, 1786; (2) of Thomas Green, A.M., 1787, librarian of Trinity College and Woodwardian Professor; (3) of [Dorothy] Bousfield, 1766, and others; (4) of Samuel Forlow, 177(1 ?), Ann his widow, 1806, and others, much worn; (5) of Thomas Hart, 1783, and Rebecca his wife, 181.; (6) of William Coe, 1831, and Ann his wife, 1821, Peter Wedd, 1823, and Ann his wife, 1849; (7) of Ann Daw and Sara Ellis, sisters, 1799, and their mother Catherine Emly; (8) of Ann, second wife of Samuel Forlow, 1762, and Samuel her son; (9) of Margaret, widow of Joseph Smith of Coltishall, Norfolk, 1804, and her daughter, 1791; (10) of Laurence Dundas, 1818. In N. chapel—(11) of [Thomas Yorke], alderman, [1756], and others later; (12) of Richard Hovell, 1787. In S. chapel—(13) of Sarah, 1730–1, and Conyers Middleton, D.D., 1750, on same slab added later John Case, M.B., 1699–1700, Senior Fellow of Gonville and Caius College; (14) of William Henry, fifteenth child of Francis and Ann Hodson, 1795, and others later; (15) of Charles Robert, seventeenth son of Francis and Ann Hodson, 1812, and others; (16) of Thomas Sharpe, 1788, Mary his wife, 1801, and Susan their daughter, 1799, slab with Brass-indent (6); (17) of John, son of Francis and Ann Hodson, 1789; (18) of James Bennet, 1763, Ann his wife, 1764, and Sibilla their daughter, 1763; (19) of Rev. C. R. Francis, 1829; (20) of Francis Hodson, 1812, and thirteen of his eighteen children. In N. aisle—(21) of Ludovic, eldest son of Joseph Williams of Jamaica, 1741; (22) of Thomas Burrows, 1767, Alice his wife, 1757, and Elizabeth their daughter, 1825. In S. aisle—(23) of W. Bond, 1832, Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, rector of Wheatacre, Norfolk; (24) of Edward Rogers, 1824, Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, barrister of the Inner Temple; (25) of Frances Eliza Pears (?), 1819. In tower—(26) of John Mack, 1798; (27) of William Bell, 1795.

Niches: In S. chapel—two, of clunch, flanking the E. window, with trefoiled and septfoiled sub-cusped openings and carved spandrels in ogee moulded heads with crockets and foliage finials, panelled side-standards with canopies and crocketed pinnacles, all under straight moulded embattled cornices, the N. niche with spandrels carved with foliage and a shallow cornice, the S. with rose-trees in the spandrels and a deep cornice studded with roses, moulded sills resting on corbels carved with half-angels holding books, 14th-century, lower portions much abraded. Paving: see Miscellaneous. Pictures: In N. aisle—on E. wall, large framed full-length portrait on canvas of Charles I in ermine-lined cloak and cape, with globe, reversed crown and inscription 'Mundi calco [coronam] splendidam at gravem' at feet, kneeling at altar on which is a book and crown of thorns, in background a scene of storm and shipwreck, attributed to Philippe Fruytiers, given to the church c. 1660, much restored 1881. In nave—on S. wall, Adoration of the Shepherds, painting on canvas, English, late 18th-century, in contemporary carved gilt frame. Piscinae: In N. vestry—in S. wall, with chamfered jambs and cinque-foiled head, sex-foiled dishing to drain, 14th-century. In S. chapel—in S. wall, with moulded jambs, cinque-foiled head and moulded label, round dish to drain, contemporary with the building, c. 1327. See also under Sedilia. Plate: includes two cups with the date letter for 1839 given in 1840, a late 17th-century paten with illegible marks, an alms-dish of 1821 given in 1822 by John Deighton, and an alms-dish of 1839 given in 1840.

Screen: Between chancel and S. chapel—stone doorway (Plate 27), probably remaining fragment of a stone screen, with jambs chamfered on the S. side and square on the N. rebated for a door, the opening with moulded ogee head, crocketed on the S. and with a crocketed label with head-stops on the N. and foliage finials, flanked on the S. by square standards with canopied and crocketed pinnacles and on the N. by walling with restored embattled coping, on the W. are remains of a moulded jamb and arch-springer of a second opening, 14th-century and with some restoration. Seating: In chancel—oak stalls, sixteen on the N., fourteen on the S., and six on the W. divided by a central gateway, with flat moulded and shaped tops, moulded and shaped divisions with stylised foliate-scrolled armrests and attached shafts below with moulded caps and bases, late 15th-century, misericordes mostly plain but some with carving of figures, animals and flowers probably 19th-century, gate of two leaves containing blind tracery-panels, mid 19th-century; the stalls are said to be from Trinity College Chapel. Sedilia and piscina (Plate 27): In chancel—in S. wall, in four bays, the piscina occupying the easternmost, divided and flanked by weathered and buttressed standards with embattled caps and canopied and crocketed finials, the trefoiled ogee opening in each bay with carved spandrels under a moulded and crocketed ogee head with foliage finial, 14th-century, restored and with 19th-century painting. Miscellaneous: green-glazed tile from the Bawsey kiln, with stamped geometrical pattern, and other shaped tiles, 14th-century, now in the Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology.

(57) Parish Church of St. Paul stands on the E. side of Hills Road. The walls are of red brick with blue brick diapering and dressings of limestone; the roofs are slate-covered. The church was built, probably on an aisled-hall plan of five bays with only a shallow sanctuary, in 1841 to the designs of Ambrose Poynter and licenced the following year. The form of the building was condemned in a critique in the Ecclesiologist (I, 9, 67). The aisled Chancel was added in 1864 and the North Vestry built at the same time incorporating parts of an earlier vestry; designs by H. G. Elborne for a scheme closely similar to the existing additions are preserved in the church. In 1893 the galleries over the N. and S. aisles were removed and North and South Transepts to the designs of Temple Moore added. In 1931 the fittings were rearranged. The building is in the Tudor style, and the exercise of severe economy is evident in the design of the interior.

The revived early 17th-century style for the fittings of 1841 is of interest.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (32½ ft. by 25¼ ft.) is of 1864. The stone chancel-arch is probably all of the same date, for the destroyed sanctuary was lit by a further clearstorey window in continuation of each of the existing ranges, as appears on the S. in J. B. Harraden's view of the exterior of 1842 (W. Day and L. Haghe litho.).

The Nave (61¼ ft. by 25¼ ft.) has arcades of five bays in the N. and S. walls with moulded four-centred arches springing from octagonal piers and semi-octagonal responds without caps; the mouldings are run in plaster and stop at the springings. The embattled clearstorey has ten windows on each side, each window being of two four-centred lights in a square head.

The North and South Aisles (11¼ ft. wide) have embattled parapets. In each aisle, W. of the late 19th-century transepts, which occupy the two E. bays, are three windows of three four-centred and transomed lights in a square head; the westernmost lights on both sides open into small storerooms behind partitions.

The West Tower (16 ft. by 15¾ ft.) is in three stages, with diagonal buttresses, an embattled parapet and corner-turrets. The tower-arch is moulded in plaster and two-centred. In the N. and S. walls are doorways with moulded jambs, four-centred openings and cusped spandrels in square heads. The W. window is of three cinque-foiled and transomed lights in a four-centred head. On each face of the second stage is a round clock-face of slate in a square stone frame, one with the date 1841 cut in the spandrels. In each wall of the third stage is a three-light window with a four-centred head.


The Parish Church of St. Paul

The Parish Church of St. Paul

The panelled Roof of the nave is divided into ten bays by plain tie-beams supported on shaped brackets and each bay is divided into four main and eight subsidiary panels by plain longitudinal beams. The lean-to roofs of the aisles have trusses with plain tie-beams and a turned post in the centre of each.

Fittings—Bell: one, by Mears, London, 1843. Clock: in tower, inserted in 1843. Font: of limestone, hexagonal, straight-sided bowl with moulded top and lower edge and carved scroll-work in each face, square tapering stem with panelled sides and moulded base, on low square pedestal, probably 1841, in early 17th-century style. Gallery: across W. end of nave, supported on a timber arcade of three bays with turned columns on tall plinths and four-centred arches with panelled spandrels and turned pendants at the apices, 1841, in early 17th-century style. Panelling: In chancel, across E. wall and with short returns on N. and S. walls, a length of moulded panelling above a plain plank dado divided into bays by pilaster-strips carved with jewelled arabesques, with a frieze containing shaped brackets, arabesque and jewel-ornament, and a crowning dentil-cornice, 1841(?), reset and with modern painting and gilding, all in early 17th-century style; this may belong to the alterations of 1893. Plate: includes a set of a cup, stand-paten and flagon, presented by members of the University in 1842, with the date-letter for 1841, the cup with rounded bowl, octagonal stem with knop and flared foot, the paten with moulded rim, the flagon with scrolled handle and shaped lid surmounted by a cross.

(58) The Church of St. Peter stands on the S.W. side of Castle Street. The parish is now amalgamated with that of St. Giles. The walls are of flint rubble and stone with some Roman and later brick; the dressings are of Barnack and other freestone. The roof is tilecovered. The church formerly consisted of a chancel, nave, S. porch and W. tower, and is so shown in Cole's sketch of 1742. By 1760 it was very dilapidated and in 1781 much of it was pulled down, the W. part of the nave and the W. tower only being left standing. These, with reused material incorporated, form the present building. The W. parts of the N. and S. walls of the Nave, in pebble rubble, appear to date from the 14th century; the 12th-century N. doorway and the early 13th-century S. doorway have been reset. The West Tower and spire were built early in the 14th century.

The 12th-century font has unusual decoration.

Architectural Description—The Nave (25 ft. by 16 ft.) has an early 19th-century E. window and above it is a reset head-corbel. In the N. wall is a 12th-century doorway, now blocked, with a semicircular arch and hollow-chamfered imposts; further W. is a 15th-century window of two cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head. Reset in the S. wall is an early 13th-century doorway with a semi-elliptical head of two moulded orders; the jambs each have two shafts with water-leaf capitals and weathered bases, but one shaft of the E. jamb has been replaced in wood; the outer face of the doorway projects beyond the main wall-face.


The Church of St. Peter

The Church of St. Peter

The West Tower (7¼ ft. square) and spire were built early in the 14th century; the tower is of three stages with a moulded parapet. The tower-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the outer continuous on the E. and the inner springing from attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The W. window is of two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in a two-centred head with labels. The bell-chamber has, in each wall, a window of one pointed light. On the W. wall, below the parapet, are two carved gargoyles. The octagonal spire is of ashlar; it has, in the E. and W. sides, a trefoiled light in a defaced crocketed gable and, in the N. and S. sides, rather higher, a smaller light of similar character; at the base of the S. side is a doorway with an ogee head set in a gable.

Fittings—Bell: one, by Richard Bowler, 1603. Font: (see p. cxxix) square to circular bowl carved at the corners with tritons holding up their double tails to form a loop-pattern round the lower part of the bowl, with trefoiled spandrels in the top surface, modern circular stem and original moulded base, 12th-century. Monuments: In tower, (1) of Thomas Smith, 1696, also of Thomas and Isabell his parents, Mary his sister, Sarah his wife and Sarah their daughter, stone tablet with drapery and cherub-head; (2) of Thomas Smith, J.P., 1759, formerly mayor, stone wall-monument with carved flowers, foliage and scrolls forming frame. In churchyard—S.W. of church, (3) of John Wood, 1813, and Mary Ann his daughter, 1816, table-tomb with fielded side and end panels and shaped corner-pieces. Weather-vane: pierced with initials A.P. for Andrew Perne, (1553–89), formerly on Peterhouse, blown down, and preserved by the Rev. William Cole. Miscellaneous: In churchyard—W. of tower, drum-stone of mediaeval pier.

(59) Parish Church of St. Andrew, Cherry Hinton, stands towards the N. end of the village, to the S.E. of Cambridge. The walls of the chancel are of clunch and Barnack stone, with the E. wall rough-cast; the aisles are of flint-rubble and the W. tower of clunch, all with freestone dressings. The roofs are lead and tilecovered. The earliest structural remains are the responds of the tower-arch of c. 1200. The Chancel was built in the second quarter of the 13th century and the arcades of the Nave are of the third quarter of the same century. The North and South Aisles were in all probability rebuilt in the 15th century when the South Porch was added. The North Vestry was added in the 16th century and the West Tower, with the exception of the responds of the tower-arch, was rebuilt about the same time. Between 1880 and 1886 the building was drastically restored, first by Gilbert Scott who rebuilt the nave, N. and S. aisles and S. porch re-using much of the old material, then by J. T. Micklethwaite, who restored the chancel more conservatively.


Cherry Hinton, the Parish Church of St. Andrew

Cherry Hinton, the Parish Church of St. Andrew

The 13th-century arcaded treatment of the chancel is remarkable. The rebuilt nave and, among the fittings, the piscinae, sedilia and floor-slabs are of note. The second bell is the oldest in the city and some 15th-century benches survive.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (45 ft. by 21½ ft.) has a mid 16th-century E. window, partly restored externally, of five cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label; the whole of the upper part of the E. wall containing the window was rebuilt probably in the 15th century. In the N. wall are eight 13th-century lancet windows with moulded labels with mask-stops, mostly weathered away; they are grouped in four pairs with two-stage weathered buttresses between and, internally, are incorporated in a 13th-century wall-arcade of thirteen bays with detached freestone shafts with moulded caps, bands and bases and moulded cinque-foiled arches with a continuous moulded label shaped to the heads. The shafts stand upon a shelf with moulded edge 1¼ ft. below the window-sills. The two easternmost lights have been blocked, excepting one head, by the later vestry. The early 16th-century doorway to the vestry has chamfered jambs and a four-centred moulded head. The arrangement of the windows and wall-arcade of the S. wall (Plate 294) is similar to that of the N. wall. The 13th-century S. doorway, below the fifth light, has a two-centred arch of two moulded orders with a label, the inner order is continuous, the outer springs from detached jamb-shafts with moulded caps and bases, all much restored externally; the moulding of the segmental-pointed rear-arch is continuous. The chancel-arch is of the third quarter of the 13th century and has been rebuilt; it is two-centred and of three hollow-chamfered orders with responds comprising grouped shafts with fillets, moulded caps and bases.

The North Vestry (12 ft. by 10¼ ft.) was added early in the 16th century. The original E. window has been more or less restored and is of two four-centred lights in a square head.

The Nave (65¾ ft. by 21¾ ft.) has a rebuilt 13th-century N. arcade of five bays with two-centred arches of two moulded orders with moulded labels. The piers are quatre-foiled on plan with small keel-mouldings between the shafts and have moulded capitals and modern bases; the responds are formed as half-piers. The S. arcade is similar to the N. arcade.

The North Aisle (8¾ ft. wide) has been rebuilt. The parapet is perhaps entirely of 15th-century masonry reused and has three beast-head gargoyles. The E. window and the four windows in the N. wall are similar and of 15th-century character, of three lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The N. doorway is entirely modern.

The South Aisle (8¾ ft. wide) is generally similar to the N. aisle but the parapet is modern and the windows have four-centred heads.

The West Tower (12 ft. by 11½ ft.) is of three stages, with a moulded plinth, embattled parapet and diagonal western buttresses in three stages stopping half way up its second stage. The responds of the tower-arch are of c. 1200 and have attached keel-shafts at the E. angles with plain caps, chamfered abaci, much worn moulded bases and chamfered plinths; abaci and plinths are both continued round the responds; the depressed four-centred arch is of two chamfered orders and, with the tower, is of the 16th century. The W. window, of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a moulded label, is largely modern. In the S. wall of the ringing-chamber is a plain rectangular light with chamfered opening. Each wall of the belfry contains a 16th-century window of two four-centred lights in a square head with sunk spandrels.

The South Porch (11¼ ft. by 11¾ ft.) has been rebuilt. In each side-wall is a window of 15th-century character with two cinque-foiled lights in a square head with a moulded label. The entrance arch is two-centred and of two orders, the outer continuous and the inner hollow-chamfered and springing from attached shafts with moulded caps and bases; it is of 15th-century character.

The Roof of the chancel is of c. 1500, restored. It is of low pitch and in four bays; the moulded and cambered tie-beams have small curved braces, except against the end walls where they have larger braces and wall-posts. Each bay is divided into eight panels by moulded principal rafters, ridge and purlins; the common rafters are laid flat and they and the boarding are left exposed; the wall-plates are embattled. The Roof of the N. aisle is of c. 1500 in origin but rebuilt, with some of the original timber reused. It is of lean-to type, in five bays, with curved braces and wall-posts below the principals. Each bay is divided into four panels by a moulded principal rafter and purlin; the S. wall-plate is supported on shaped corbels; the corbels supporting the wall-posts are embattled and carved with half-angels holding shields-of-arms, on the N., of St. George, Lisle, See of Ely, Avenell, and on the S., of (unidentified 77), Harvey (?), Peterhouse (old), and Balsham. The Roof of the S. aisle is generally similar to that of the N. aisle but extensively renewed and with modern corbels.

Fittings—Altar: In S. aisle, stone slab with moulded edge and remains of incised crosses, mediaeval, reset on modern stone base in 1930. Bells: five, 1st 1727 with names of churchwardens, Walter Serocold and Francis Ellard; 2nd inscribed 'Ave Maria' in Lombardic letters, with 'Magn' on the shoulder and stamp of queen's head, 14th-century; 3rd inscribed 'Omnis populus terre jubilate Deo' in black-letter, 15th-century; 4th, 1853; 5th, by T. Mears, 1828. Bier: In tower, of oak, with turned legs, shaped top rail at each end, handles missing, late 17th or early 18th-century. Brass Indents: In chancel, (1) much defaced Purbeck marble slab for inscription-plate, and perhaps demi-figure of priest; (2) large Purbeck slab, mostly concealed by pews, of lozenge-shaped plate and marginal inscription. Churchyard Cross: of Barnack (?) stone, with square to octagonal moulded base, stump of square to octagonal shaft with defaced ball-flowers or heads and pyramidal stops on alternate faces of octagon, 14th-century. Coffin-slab: In tower, refixed in W. wall, tapering slab with sunk circular panel containing carved head of a man and tips of hands in prayer, carved rosette on each side and foliated central stem below, c. 1200; the upper part is more crudely cut than the foliation and suggests later re-use of the slab. Doors: To vestry, (1) with four-centred head, of planks, battened and with applied ribs forming four vertical panels, nail-studded, early 16th-century, restored. In S. doorway, (2) in two leaves, lattice-framed, with two-centred head and four vertical panels with restored traceried heads, 15th century, with 17th-century wood lock. Font: circular stone bowl with plain tapering sides, late 12th or early 13th-century, on cylindrical stem substituted in 1811 for five small shafts.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In N. aisle—on N. wall, (1) of Edward, eldest son of William Wise, early 17th-century, clunch tablet partly hidden by pews. In W. tower— on N. wall, (2) of Francis Wise, 1589, rectangular clunch walltablet with achievement-of-arms of Wise impaling Hutton; (3) of Mary, second daughter of Rev. Walter Serocold, 1837, white marble tablet with lozenge-of-arms of Serocold quartering Letwood, by Theakston, Pimlico; (4) of Ann, eldest daughter of Rev. Walter Serocold and widow of Rev. William Pearce, Dean of Ely, 1835, white marble round walltablet with bolection-moulded frame and lozenge-of-arms of Pearce with a scutcheon of the arms on Monument (3), by Theakston, Pimlico; (5) of the Rev. Edward Serocold Pearce Serocold, only son of Dr. Pearce, 1849, white marble tablet with pediment and shield-of-arms of Serocold and Pearce quarterly quartering Letwood and Little, impaling Vansittart, by H. Weekes; on S. wall, (6) of Captain Walter Serocold, R.N., only son of Rev. Walter Serocold, 1794, killed at siege of Calvi in Corsica, white marble tablet with naval trophies of war and shield-of-arms of Serocold quartering Letwood, signed by J. Flaxman; (7) of Rev. Bewick Bridge, B.D., F.R.S., 1833, white marble tablet with anthemion ornament in pediment, by Tomson & Son, Cambridge; (8) of Georgiana Elizabeth, daughter of George Smith, wife of Edward Serocold Pearce, 1828, white marble classical altar-shaped tablet with base and pediment carved with spray of lilies and honeysuckle and shield-of-arms of Pearce quartering Serocold and Letwood impaling Smith, by Theakston, Pimlico. In churchyard—several 18th and early 19th-century headstones carved with foliage scrolls and cherub-heads, the following with legible inscriptions—S. of chancel, (9) of Henry Headley, 1779; (10) Mary Headley, 1796, by Wiles, Cambridge; (11) Henry Headley, 1814, by Wiles, Cambridge; (12) Dickman Headley, 1753; (13) Mary wife of Henry Headley, 1760; (14) Jone wife of Henry Headley, 1714; (15) members of Emson family, table-tomb, 1838; S. of S. aisle, (16) Elizabeth wife of William Mason, 1702 (?), and (17) of William Mason, 1713, both with emblems of mortality; (18) Daniel North, servant to Walter Serocold, 1759; (19) Mary Rook, 1830, with portrait medallion, broken. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) of Walter Serocold, J.P., 1747, black marble slab with achievement-of-arms of Serocold; (2) of Abigail, youngest daughter of William 'Wattson' of Hull and widow of Walter Serocold, 1734, black marble slab with achievement-of-arms of Serocold impaling Watson; (3) of William Watson of Hull, 1721, 'he beautified this chancel and erected this altar' and endowed the hospital in Hull built by his brother Thomas, Lord Bishop of St. Davids, black marble slab with achievement-of-arms of Watson; (4) of Henrietta, daughter of Rev. Walter Serocold and wife of Rev. George Borlase, 1792, and Henrietta their infant daughter, black marble slab with achievement-of-arms of Borlase impaling Serocold; (5) of Rev. George Borlase, S.T.B., 1809, Casuistical Professor of Divinity, Principal Registrary of the University, black marble slab with shield-of-arms of Borlase impaling Serocold in chief and Holmes (?) in base; (6) of Rev. Walter Serocold, 1789, black marble slab with cartouche containing arms of Serocold with a scutcheon of pretence of Marshall; (7) of Mary, wife of Rev. Walter Serocold, 1782, black marble slab with cartouche of arms as on (6); (8) of Henry Hudson, 1838, and Frances King wife of his third son, Philip Samuel, 1841, stone slab; (9) of Edward Serocold Pearce, 1828, black marble slab.

Paintings: In chancel, on upper part of E. wall, N. of window, head and part of figure of bishop, possibly rising from grave, S. of window, remains of figure, 15th-century, much damaged and faded; on E. responds of N. and S. arcades of chancel, traces of polychromy, 15th-century. In N. aisle—on N. wall, framed oil-painting on canvas of the Virgin and Child with cherubim and figure of St. Simon Stock receiving the scapular from the Virgin, 17th-century, Spanish, formerly in Peterhouse Chapel. Piscinae: In chancel (Plate 27)—in S. wall, in two bays, with arches of two moulded orders, the inner trefoiled and the outer two-centred and enriched with dog-tooth ornament, triple central shaft and coupled side-shafts with moulded caps and bases, all under a moulded label mitred round the heads and within a rectangular moulded surround, one octofoiled and one sex-foiled dishing to drain, 13th-century. In S. aisle, with stop-chamfered two-centred head and quatre-foiled dishing to drain, 13th-century, reset and much restored. Plate: includes a cup (Plate 24) and cover-paten without date-letter but the paten with engraved date 1569, two stand-patens with the dateletter for 1707, given by Richard Cooke, D.D., vicar, and a brass alms-dish with repoussé ornament and inscription, S. German, early 16th-century, much worn. Recess: in chancel, in E. wall, large, rectangular, mediaeval. Screen: in chancel-arch, of oak, with central opening with cinque-foiled sub-cusped two-centred head, pierced quatre-foiled spandrels and tracery above, on each side two bays with modern boarding below and open paired lights above a horizontal band of pierced trefoils and quatrefoils, the lights divided by a moulded central mullion and with traceried heads, 15th-century restored, with modern carved cornice and brattishing and buttresses flanking the central bay supporting a modern stiffening arch on the W.; some traces remain of original colouring and inscriptions, including 'S. Maria Magdalene'. Seating: In N. aisle, against N. wall, on raised platform, five short oak benches (Plate 26) with moulded top rails and wall-rail all carved with paterae, shaped ends with moulded borders carved with paterae, poppy-heads carved with foliage and figure with modern head, late 15th or early 16th-century with some restoration. Sedilia (Plate 27): In chancel, in S. wall, in three bays with stepped chamfered seats, detached shafts with moulded caps and bases and two-centred moulded arches with moulded label with mask-stops, 13th-century. Weather-vane: On W. tower, of wrought-iron with scrolls, 19th-century.

(60) Parish Church of St. Andrew, Chesterton, (Plate 280) stands towards the S.W. of the village, to the N.E. of Cambridge. The walls are of rubble and flints with dressings of freestone and some clunch; the interior is faced mostly with clunch. The spire is of ashlar and the roofs are covered with slates and lead. The church was given by Henry III, early in his reign, to the Papal Legate, Cardinal Gualo, who bestowed it on his new foundation of canons regular, the church of St. Andrew, Vercelli (Papal confirmation 1224: Cal. Pap. Letters i, 97). The house was deprived of it in or shortly before 1440 when the appropriation was given by Henry VI to King's Hall. Subsequently unsuccessful efforts were made to obtain restitution.

A mid 13th-century church with aisled nave stood on the site of the present building and of it there remain the chancel-arch, except the 19th-century capitals, the lower parts of the responds of the S. nave-arcade and parts of the splays of the E. windows of the aisles. Early in the 14th century a general rebuilding of the Nave and aisles was begun; this extended to the present nave-arcades, the whole of the South Aisle and the three E. bays of the North Aisle, followed by the addition of the West Tower. In the 15th century the Chancel was rebuilt, the N. aisle was completed on an alignment with the work of the previous century, the North Porch and the clearstorey were added and a staircase inserted in the blocking of the W. window of the tower. A North Vestry was built early in the 16th century. The chancel was restored in 1842–44, the spire in 1847 and a general restoration took place in the second half of the same century. In 1934 the vestry was considerably enlarged and an Organ-chamber added.

St. Andrew's, though much restored, is a good example of a parish church of some size largely of the 14th century. It contains an important 15th-century painted Doom, now badly faded. Among the fittings, the sedilia, piscina and carved bench-ends are noteworthy.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (29½ ft. by 18½ ft.) was rebuilt in the 15th century but all the windows have been completely restored. The E. window is of five lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The window in the N. wall is of three lights with vertical tracery in a four-centred head; a second window further W. has been destroyed except for the four-centred head, which remains over a modern opening to the organ-chamber. The doorway to the vestry is of the early 16th century and has a plain four-centred head; the doorway further W., originally external, is of the 15th century, with chamfered jambs and four-centred head with a moulded label with carved head-stops. In the S. wall are two windows similar to that in the N. wall. The walls are plastered inside and cement-rendered outside and there may be blocked windows in the E. bays of the N. and S. walls. The mid 13th-century chancel-arch is two-centred and of two chamfered orders; the responds are semi-octagonal with moulded capitals and chamfered bases.


Chesterton, the Parish Church of St. Andrew

Chesterton, the Parish Church of St. Andrew

The Nave (71¼ ft. by 19½ ft.) has N. and S. arcades both of seven bays and of the early 14th century excepting the bases of the S.E. and S.W. responds, which are of the 13th century. The arches are two-centred and of two wave-moulded orders with octagonal piers and semi-octagonal responds with moulded caps and bases to the 14th-century work; the 13th-century bases are chamfered, and of clunch, whereas the lower courses of the piers are of freestone, with clunch above. E. of the N. arcade are the remains of the entrance to the former rood-loft stair. The 15th-century clearstorey has seven windows on each side, of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head, all much restored and entirely modern externally; over the easternmost window on the S. is an original brick relieving arch. The walls have restored embattled parapets continued over the E. gable and modern parapet-strings with old gargoyles.

The North Aisle (17¼ ft. wide) has an embattled parapet and a parapet-string with one old and two modern gargoyles. In the E. wall is a restored 15th-century window of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a label, now opening into the modern organ-chamber; just to the S. is the S. splay of a destroyed window, probably of the 13th century and to a narrow earlier aisle, and across the S.E. corner is a 14th-century doorway with chamfered jambs and shouldered head to the former rood-loft stair. The three E. bays of the N. wall are divided and flanked by early 14th-century two-stage buttresses. In the E. bay are the splays and springers of the rear-arch of an early 14th-century window, now blocked and with the upper part of the head cut off at the present wall-head. The five windows further W. have three cinque-foiled lights in a square head and are of 15th-century origin but much restored internally and entirely modern externally. At the W. end of the wall is a reset early 14th-century doorway with jambs and two-centred head of two orders, the inner wave-moulded and the outer chamfered. In the W. wall is a 15th-century three-light window similar to that in the E. wall and almost completely restored.

The South Aisle (14¼ ft. wide) is divided externally into bays by three-stage buttresses; it has continuous moulded strings outside and inside below the windows and a moulded cornice supporting a restored embattled parapet; the gargoyles, excepting one much weathered at the W. end, are modern. In the E. wall is a wholly restored window of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head with a label; to the N. of it is the N. splay of a destroyed window, perhaps of the 13th-century and to a narrow earlier aisle. In the S. wall are six windows; the easternmost is of c. 1330–40 with two trefoiled ogee lights with a quatrefoil in an ogee head with moulded internal and external labels, all completely renewed externally but internally original and of clunch; the remaining windows are also much restored, they are of 15th-century origin and of three cinque-foiled lights in a four-centred head. The doorway of c. 1340 in the westernmost bay has a two-centred head of two continuous moulded orders, the inner wave-moulded and the outer chamfered, with a label; the inner order of the head is a modern restoration. In the W. wall is a 15th-century three-light window, again much restored.

The West Tower (11¼ ft. square) is of the end of the first quarter of the 14th century and of three stages with angle-buttresses, a tall plinth, an embattled parapet with gargoyles and an octagonal spire. The plinths of the E. buttresses are splayed inwards presumably to clear the W. windows of the earlier and narrower aisles. The tower-arch is two-centred and of three orders with a moulded label on the E. with carved head-stops of a beast and a man; the two outer orders on the E. have wave mouldings and the innermost has a double-roll moulding; on the W. all are chamfered; the responds have attached shafts with fillets and moulded capitals and bases. The W. window has a two-centred head; in the 15th century it was blocked and a staircase inserted in the blocking and lit by three small loop-lights. The doorway to the stair has chamfered jambs and a moulded four-centred head; the lower steps rise in the thickness of the blocking, turn, and continue up as a circular vice, the extra thickness of wall to contain it being obtained by projecting a semi-hexagonal bay into the tower on the W. and supporting the projection on moulded corbelling rising from a carved lion's mask. The ringing-chamber has in both the N. and S. walls an original window, partly restored, of one cinque-foiled light in a two-centred head with a label; in the W. wall is a small recess with a two-centred head perhaps contrived in the blocking of a former window. The outline of a former nave roof of very steep pitch remains across the external face of the E. wall. In each wall of the belfry stage is an original window of two trefoiled ogee lights, the E. and W. with a quatrefoil, the N. and S. with a sexfoil in a curvilinear triangle, in a two-centred head with a label continued across the walls as a string. The Spire has rolls at the angles and a restored finial; in the S. face is a doorway with two-centred head under a gable opening on the parapet, and on the opposite face an inscribed panel with the date of a restoration, 1847. In each of the cardinal faces, a third of the way up, is a stone dormer-window of two trefoiled lights with a quatrefoil under a crocketed gable with side-shafts and finials; higher, in each of the intermediate faces, is a similar dormer but of one trefoiled light; all these are more or less restored.

The North Porch (8 ft. by 11¾ ft.) is of the 15th century, with diagonal buttresses in two stages and an embattled parapet; the buttresses have original but much weathered masks carved on the string-course at offset level and modern pinnacles. The entrance has shafted jambs and a four-centred arch in a square head with panelled spandrels and a moulded label carved with head-stops of a king and a bishop, all largely modern except the stops. On the inside of the E. wall are three cinque-foiled panels in square heads with foliated spandrels; the middle panel is pierced to form a window and completely restored except for a short length of original clunch dressing in the S. reveal. The W. window is of two cinque-foiled lights in a square head with foliated internal spandrels and a moulded label with carved head-stops, almost wholly restored except the label and stops.

The tie-beam Roof of the chancel, of late 15th-century design, was extensively restored in 1842–44. It is of very low pitch and in three bays. The trusses have short king-posts on the ties with longitudinal curved braces to the ridge and are supported on wall-posts and curved braces; against the walls the tie-beams are omitted and the principal rafters are so supported and braced. Each bay is divided into eight panels by principal rafters, ridge and purlins with bosses at the intersections carved with roses and human masks. All the main timbers are moulded and the wall-posts stand on semi-octagonal and embattled stone corbels with half-angels holding shields, all more or less mutilated. The tie-beam and queen-post Roof of the nave has a history similar to that of the foregoing, but is almost wholly of 1842–44. It is in seven bays; the ties are cambered, supported on wall-posts and stiffened with curved braces; the queenposts have curved braces forming four-centred arches. Each bay is divided into eight panels with foliated bosses at the intersections of purlins and principal rafters. The wall-plates are carved with paterae and the stone corbels supporting the wall-posts are embattled and carved with half-angels holding shields, etc., mostly recut, as follows—on the N., (a) blank shield, (c) arms of Naylor(?), (d) book, (e) arms of Page (?), (g) blank shield; on the S., (a), (c), (e), (g) blank shields, (b) scroll.

The Roofs of the N. and S. aisles are of the late 15th century, also very extensively restored in the 19th century. The N. aisle has a lean-to beam roof divided into seven bays by moulded principals with curved braces and wall-posts; two purlins and intermediate principals divide each bay into six panels; the wall-posts rest on semi-octagonal embattled corbels carved with half-angels holding scrolls and shields, two with the arms respectively of Naylor(?) and Page (?), mostly recut. The roof of the S. aisle is generally similar to that in the N. aisle, but with one purlin and foliated bosses at the intersection of principals and purlin; the corbels, again much recut, are carved with, on the N., (a) head and shoulders of a grotesque, (b) half-angel with pipes, (c) as (a), (d) demi-grotesque playing gittern, (e) grotesque head, (f) as (a), (g) head and shoulders of grotesque man with tooth-ache, (h) demigrotesque; on the S., (a) demi-grotesque, (b) woman's head, (c) angel's head, (d) half-angel holding shield, (e) head of bearded man, (f) crowned half-figure, (g) grotesque head, (h) demi-demon. The 15th-century couple Roof of the porch is of low pitch and in two bays, with wall-posts and curved braces forming four-centred arches, with modern solid filling in the spandrels below the principal rafters; the corbels below the wall-posts are modern.

Fittings—Bells: six; 1st inscribed 'Sonoro sono meo sono Deo', 1612, by Richard Holdfeld; 2nd, inscribed 'God save thy Church', same date and maker; 3rd, inscribed 'Cantabo laudes tuas Domine', 1606, with the name Richard Covington, perhaps a churchwarden; 4th, 166., by Christopher Graye; 5th, 1825, by William and John Taylor, Oxford. Benefactors' Board: In tower—list of charities painted on boards in moulded frame, 1729. Brass Indents: In N. aisle, (1) of inscription-plate, see Floor-slab (5). In tower, (2) of figures of man and woman and inscription-plate, late 15th-century. Chairs: In chancel and vestry, three, of oak, two with fielded panels in the backs and scroll-work above and below, turned legs and stretchers, late 17th-century, one with solid back containing enriched round-headed panel, shaped arms and turned legs, early 17th-century. In vestry, pair, of mahogany, with carved and interlaced splats, mid 18th-century with some repair. Churchyard Cross: N. of church—octagonal to square base only, with square socket for shaft, mediaeval. Coffin-lids: In churchyard, three coped slabs with foliated crosses much weathered, 13th or early 14th-century. Communion Rails: In S. aisle, of oak, reused panel from a set of rails with elaborate pierced carving of three cherub-heads in festoons of fruits and flowers, with moulded capping and base, late 17th-century. Doors: In doorway in N. wall of chancel, battened plank door with four-centred head, applied hollow-chamfered mouldings and strap-hinges, nail-studded, 16th-century with some repairs; similar door to tower-stair, with modern repairs. Font: plain octagonal stone bowl with moulded under-edge, octagonal stem and octagonal to square base, on modern step, 13th-century. Glass: In S. aisle —E. window, some canopy-work in heads of main lights, perhaps 15th-century. Lockers: In N. wall of chancel and N. aisle, two, rectangular rebated recesses, mediaeval.

Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on S. wall, (1) of Rev. George Adam Browne, 1843, rector, ViceMaster and Senior Fellow of Trinity College, acting Provincial Grand Master of Freemasons, Cambridge, white marble walltablet with pediment and masonic emblems; (2) of William Clapham, 1766, Jane his wife, 1779, oblong slate tablet; (3) of Anna Browne, widow, 1821, white marble eared tablet on black marble pedimented backing, by T. Tomson, Cambridge; (4) of Anne, widow of William Wiles, 1849, white marble sarcophagus-shaped tablet on black marble backing, by Swinton, Cambridge; (5) of William Wiles, 1827, late of Pidley Lodge, Huntingdon, tablet generally similar to (4) and by the same maker. In N. aisle—in N. wall, (6) tomb-recess with moulded ogee head and chamfered jambs, 14th-century; (7) of William Wragg, 1829, Mary his wife, 1866, and Anne Maria their child, 1832, white marble pedimented tablet, by Wiles, Cambridge; (8) of John, son of William and Hester Wragg, 1823, Isabell, daughter of John and Sophia Wragg, 1824, and others later, similar to (7) and by the same maker; (9) of William and Hester Wragg, 1804 and 1808, similar to (7) and (8); (10) of Sophia Olivia, daughter of William and Elizabeth Wragg, 1847, white marble tablet. In S. aisle—on S. wall, (11) remains of tomb-recess with moulded ogee head, 14th-century; (12) of Sir Brodrick Chinnery, 2nd Bt., of Flintfield, Cork, 1840, who erected the monument, and Diana Elizabeth his wife, 1824, white marble tablet with urn and weeping willow, by T. Tomson, Cambridge; (13) of Abraham Kaye, 1823, Susan his wife, 1829, and Ann Bracken her sister, 1821, white marble tablet with plain side-pilasters and cornice, erected to his parents and aunt by John Kaye, D.D., Bishop of Lincoln. In churchyard—N. of church, (14) of Frances, daughter of George Brigham, 167(2?), headstone carved with cherub-head, skulls and drapery and, on reverse, skeleton in round-headed panel; (15) of F.B., 1711; (16) of George Brigham, 1712; (17) of Alice, wife of William Wootton, 1713; (18) of William Wootton, 1712; (15–18) all headstones carved with cherub-heads, emblems of mortality and scrolled foliage, (17 and 18) with footstones. Floor-slabs: In chancel—(1) of Samuel Burton, LL.B., son of Zakariah Burton of Subsey, 1712, of grey marble with cartouche containing shield-of-arms of Burton impaling (unidentified 78). In organ-chamber—(2) of George Taylor, 1707. In N. aisle—(3) of William Wragg, 1829; (4) of John Wragg, 1823, and others; (5) of William Wragg, 1804, and Hester his wife, 1808; (6) of Ann Edwards, 1782. In nave—(7) of Mary, 176., and Christopher Benstead, 177., of grey marble; (8) of Richard Berry, LL.D., 1723, Senior Fellow of St. John's and benefactor to the library there, of grey marble with Latin inscription; (9) of Priscilla (?) Watson, 1683, grey marble; (10) of Richard Langley, 1724, Doctor of Theology and Law, son of Edward Langley of Hipperholme, grey marble, with shield-of-arms of Langley impaling (unidentified 78) in a cartouche; (11) of Jonathan Johnson, 1742; (12) of [Jonathan] Dickman, 1727(?); (13) of Alice, wife of John Dann, 1700, and Alice his second wife, 1705; (14) of Harry Pearce, c. 1800; (15) of George, 1803, and Catherine Pearce, 1820. In S. aisle—(16) of Sir Brodrick Chinnery, Bt., 1840, and Diana Elizabeth his wife, 1824, with winged cherubs' heads in corners; (17) of Thomas ....on, 176.; (18) of Frances (Brackenbury) Sanzter, early 19th-century; (19) of A.B., 1821, A.K., 1823, S.K., 1829.

Paintings: In nave—over chancel arch and easternmost arches of N. and S. arcades, Doom (Plate 292), much damaged and faded, on E. wall by the haunches of the arch, the dead arising and, above, eight kneeling figures presumably of the Apostles at the feet of the Almighty, but all the upper part is now destroyed; demons carrying away the damned remain clear on the S. wall and the mouth of Hell was probably here, late 15th-century. (See also under Miscellanea.) Piscinae: In chancel —in S. wall, with cinque-foiled and sub-cusped opening in a two-centred arch with sunk spandrels bringing the head to a square, small chamfered shelf just above the springing, quatre-foiled dishing, 15th-century, discovered during the restoration of 1894 and matching the sedilia. In S. aisle—in S. wall, splayed recess with modern lintel, two drains with octofoiled and quatre-foiled dishings, 14th-century. Plate: includes a large paten on three feet with date-letter for 1701, given in 1705 by Thomas Smith, B.D., vicar, Fellow of Trinity, a paten with date-letter for 1717, given by John Wilson, D.D., vicar, 1749, a flagon with date-letter for 1748, given by Richard Walker, D.D., a cup with date-letter for 1746, and a paten with dateletter for 1812, given by Mrs. Sarah Lonsdale. Pulpit: of oak, hexagonal, the sides in two heights of panels, the upper enriched with carved round-headed arches framing lozenges, with enriched frieze and simple cornice, early 17th-century, on modern stand.

Recess: In N. aisle—in N. wall, recess with pointed head, mediaeval. Royal Arms: In tower—on N. wall of ground stage, painted on boards in moulded frame, with initials of James II. Seating: In chancel, nave and aisles, twenty-one oak benches (Plate 26), with moulded rails and ends with armrests, hollow-chamfered ogee tops and poppy-heads, on the armrests carved crouching beasts, including lion, stag, antelope gorged with a crown, buck, goat, wyvern, dog, griffin, dragon, most of the poppy-heads foliated but some carved with figures (Plate 26), two with two eagles, two with standing men, head of one modern, a priest holding a staff (?), his head modern, mid 15th-century with repairs and reconstructed with modern seats. Sedilia: In chancel—in three bays divided by small buttresses in two weathered stages with moulded plinths, arched openings similar to that of piscina but in square moulded heads with sunk cusped spandrels, vaults with stylised ribs radiating from central rosettes and with small bosses at the extremities carved with human and beasts' heads, partitions between bays pierced with trefoil-headed loops in chamfered recesses, early 15th-century, discovered during the restoration of 1894. Stoup: In porch—defaced bowl on pillar with cap and necking, mediaeval, much damaged. Miscellanea: Loose in N. aisle—architectural stone fragments including a voussoir with a roll-moulding between two bands of dog-tooth ornament, 13th-century, and a piece of moulded clunch, 15th-century. In the Fitzwilliam Museum—stone tablet, 14½ ins. by 10 ins. by 2½ ins., now broken, painted and partly incised with three-quarter length figure of female saint, perhaps St. Sythe (Plate 68), in blue cloak lined with red over purple dress, holding in right hand a small scythe, in the left a loaf (?), and standing under a septfoiled ogee arch, background strewn with small fleurs-de-lis, early 14th-century, said to have been found in 1842 in the blocking of a window.

The Churchyard-wall on the E., incorporating some reused material, may in part be a mediaeval structure.

(61) Parish Church of St. Mary and St. Nicholas, Trumpington (Plate 295), stands W. of the village, to the S. of Cambridge. The lower parts of the walls are chiefly of Barnack stone with some Ketton and Ancaster stone; the greater part of the rest of the walls is of clunch refaced externally in the 19th century with Bath stone and with small areas of rubble and flint. The roofs are lead and tile-covered. The existence of an aisled nave earlier than that of the present building is indicated by the respond-base of late 12th or early 13th-century date remaining in situ at the W. end of the S. arcade; the existing W. responds are also of the 13th century, and contemporary with them are the lower parts of the responds of the tower-arch, the walls of the tower to a height of 3 ft. to 4 ft. and the western walls of the aisles. Later again in the 13th century the Chancel, with a N.E. sacristy since destroyed, was rebuilt. A general rebuilding of the remainder of the church was undertaken in c. 1330, a terminus ante-quem being given by the tomb of Giles de Trumpington (monument (6)), ob. between 1327 and 1332, which is inserted in the E. arch of the arcade between the N. aisle and the N. chapel. To this period belong the Nave and clearstorey, the North and South Aisles excepting the W. walls, the North and South Chapels, Porches and the completion of the West Tower. There were restorations in 1822, 1851, 1853, 1861 and 1876, and during the last the present nave roof replaced one put up in the restoration of 1822. The Vestry was rebuilt on old foundations in 1912.

The church is a fine example of a building of the second quarter of the 14th century, with clearstoreylights set above the piers of notably lofty nave-arcades. Among the fittings, the Trumpington tomb is noteworthy and the Trumpington brass is amongst the earliest and finest in the country. Some fragments of 13th and 14th-century glass survive.

Architectural Description—The Chancel (37½ ft. by 16½ ft.) has an early 14th-century E. window of five trefoiled lights with geometric tracery in a two-centred head with moulded external and internal labels and shafted splays with moulded capitals and bases; the external label has carved head-stops, the inner label continues as a wall-string; the window has been restored externally except the reveals and the lower part of the head. In the apex of the E. gable is a round quatre-foiled light, probably of the early 19th century, blocked on the inner face. In the N. wall are two late 13th-century windows, almost completely restored externally, each of two trefoiled lights with a trefoil and tracery in a two-centred head with labels with mask-stops; the E. and W. external stops are covered respectively by the second buttress and the E. wall of the N. aisle, and the W. internal stop by the chancel-arch. The doorway, further E., is of the 13th century and originally opened into a N.E. sacristy; it has roll-moulded jambs and a two-centred head with a label. Externally the first two buttresses represent the stubs of the E. and W. walls of an annexe and between them are three shaped corbels which formerly supported the wall-plate; above is the weathering of the former roof. This low building formed a chapel or, more probably, a sacristy contemporary with the 13th-century chancel. In the S. chancel-wall are three late 13th-century windows and a 14th-century 'low-side' window, all much restored externally and with modern mullions; the first is of three uncusped lights with intersecting tracery in a two-centred head with a moulded label; the second and third are similar to those in the N. wall, with a modern external recess with a multifoiled cusped head and old chamfered jambs and sill below the second, and the third with a sill raised in the 14th century to allow for the insertion below it of a 13th-century doorway moved eastward to make room for the 'low-side'. This reset doorway has jambs and two-centred head of two chamfered orders with a label. The 'low-side' window is rectangular with a chamfered surround.

The Nave (Plate 293) (59¼ ft. by 18¼ ft.) has a N. arcade of c. 1330 of five bays with two-centred arches of two double-ogee moulded orders with moulded labels, with headstops to the nave and continuous on the aisle side, and piers with double-ogee moulded attached shafts with moulded capitals and bases. The E. respond is of the same date, and similar to a half-pier. The W. respond is of the 13th century and a semi-quatrefoil in section with a contemporary base and a 14th-century cap. The S. arcade is similar to the N. arcade but the base of the 13th-century W. respond rests on the late 12th-century base of a former respond of semicircular form. The 14th-century clearstorey has in the N. wall a range of four quatrefoil lights in moulded circular surrounds; in the S. wall are four trefoiled ogee-headed lights with two-centred and chamfered rear-arches and moulded external and internal labels. All the clearstorey-windows are completely restored externally.


Trumpington, the Parish Church of St. Mary & St. Nicholas

Trumpington, the Parish Church of St. Mary & St. Nicholas

The North Aisle (9 ft. wide) has in the E. wall a window of c. 1330 of three cinque-foiled ogee lights in a two-centred head with shafted splays and labels, partly restored externally. In the eastern part of the N. wall is a 14th-century arcade of two bays opening into the N. chapel; the arches are two-centred and of two moulded orders carried on a shafted pier and responds with moulded capitals and bases; The E. bay has been in part blocked by a later canopied tomb. Further W., the N. doorway is of the 14th-century and restored externally; it has jambs and two-centred head of four wave-moulded orders, moulded splays and segmental-pointed rear-arch with a moulded label; the label is continued from the arcade on the E. and, on the W., carried down to form a string below the windows. The two windows in the western length of the wall are of the 14th-century, of three trefoiled ogee lights with net and curvilinear tracery in two-centred heads with moulded rear-arches, labels and shafted splays with moulded caps and bases. In the W. wall, below a blocked window, is a 16th-century doorway to the vestry, with chamfered jambs and three-centred head, inserted in the 14th-century blocking of an original opening.

The South Aisle (8½ ft. wide) has an E. window similar to the corresponding window in the N. aisle, much restored and with modern mullions and tracery. In the eastern part of the S. wall is a 14th-century arcade of two bays opening into the S. chapel; the arches are two-centred and of two moulded orders, the inner wave-moulded, the outer chamfered, with a moulded label; the pier and responds are shafted, with moulded capitals and bases, and the lower part of the E. respond, which is much damaged, has a square inner order rebated for a screen. The S. doorway is of the 14th century completely restored externally except the lower part of the E. jamb; the internal moulded splays and the pointed segmental rear-arch with moulded label are original. The two windows further W. are similar in date and design to those opposite and again entirely restored externally. In the W. wall are traces of a blocked window-opening; this last is curtailed by the present S. wall of the aisle, indicating that the earlier aisle was rebuilt narrower in the general 14th-century reconstruction.

The North Chapel (27¼ by 12 ft.) has a restored 14th-century E. window of three trefoiled ogee lights with tracery in a two-centred head with moulded labels; only the shafted splays with their caps and bases and the internal label are original. In the N. wall are two three-light windows similar to the N. and S. windows in the aisles, completely restored externally; below the second is an original 'low-side' window, now blocked, with a surround of two wave-moulded orders. The doorway in the W. wall is of the 14th century, much restored, with jambs and two-centred head of two wave-moulded orders, a segmental-pointed rear-arch and a moulded internal label continued as a string below the N. windows.

The South Chapel (26½ ft. by 12 ft.) has an E. window similar to that in the N. chapel and almost entirely modern. The two windows in the S. wall are of 14th-century design but renewed except perhaps for the splays and rear-arch. The window in the W. wall is of two lights and of 14th-century origin but again only the splays and rear-arch are original.

The West Tower (14 ft. by 13½ ft.) belongs largely to the period of extensive rebuilding of the church in the first half of the 14th-century though the lower weatherworn courses of the walls and of the responds of the tower-arch are of the 13th century. It is of two stages externally and three storeys internally, with a plinth, angle-buttresses in four weathered stages on the N., S. and W. walls, and an embattled parapet with gargoyles on the parapet-string in the centre of each face. The parapet is of split-flint rubble; the rest of the tower has been refaced with modern ashlar and the dressings and features externally are for the most part modern. The 14th-century tower-arch is two-centred and of three continuous moulded orders on the E. and two on the W., the inner order being in the form of three shaped shafts; the latter are built up upon 13th-century responds, similar to the W. respond of the N. nave-arcade, left standing to a height of 5 ft. In the thickness of the N. wall is a small closet with a two-centred barrel-vault pierced for a bell-rope, a recess with two-centred head in the W. side and a modern opening to the tower in the S. wall replacing an earlier opening; it is entered from the vestry through an original doorway with chamfered jambs and two-centred head with a label with mask-stops. The W. doorway has jambs and two-centred head of two moulded orders with a label with decayed head-stops, shafted splays with moulded caps and bases and segmental-pointed rear-arch with a label with mask-stops. The W. window is of three cinque-foiled lights with tracery in a two-centred head with moulded labels; the inner order of the reveals and the tracery are modern. High up in both the N. and S. walls is an external recess with moulded jambs and cinque-foiled head with a label; above each recess and lighting the second storey is a single-light window with moulded jambs and trefoiled head with a label. In each face of the belfry is a window of two uncusped lights with a pierced spandrel in a two-centred head with a label.

The North Porch (7¼ ft. by 6¼ ft.) has been rebuilt except for the lower part of the E. jamb of the entrance; the entrancearch is two-centred and of two continuous wave-moulded orders. The South Porch (8 ft. by 2 ft.) has also been almost completely rebuilt; only the plinth and lower part of the E. jamb of the entrance are old.

The Roof of the chancel is ceiled in plaster and of multiple canted form. It is divided into three bays by moulded wood ribs, each bay being sub-divided by diagonal ribs and a central longitudinal rib, with restored bosses at the intersections; the main bosses, at the intersection of the diagonal ribs, are carved with a man's head in a quatrefoil, a grotesque face and a man's face. The roof has been reconstructed early in the 19th century, with the original 15th-century ribs and bosses reused.

Fittings—Bells: six; 5th, inscribed 'Celi det munus qui regnat [Trinus] et Unus', mid 15th-century, perhaps cast at Bury St. Edmunds; 6th, inscribed 'Cum cano busta mori cum pulpeta vivere desi' (disce) and 'Omnia fiant ad gloriam Dfi' (Dei), 1749, by J. Eayre. Benefactors' Tables: In N. aisle— painted on boards in black and gilt frame, benefactions of William Austin, tailor, of Trumpington, 1679. In S. chapel— on S. wall, charity of Thomas Allen, 1681, inscribed on black marble tablet in enriched bolection-moulded stone frame with pediment supported on reused 14th-century head-corbels, one of a woman with square head-dress. Brasses and Indents: see Monument (6). Chest: In tower, of deal, with domed top, iron straps, two rings at each end, lock and two hasps, late 15th-century. Coffin-lids: four, in S. aisle, and fragment of a fifth on outside of S. wall of chancel below a modern canopy, with foliated crosses carved in low relief, 13th or early 14th-century. Communion Table: with turned legs of Tuscan columnar form with pedestals, frame enriched with carved jewel-ornament, and moulded stretchers, early 17th-century. Crosses: Under tower-arch—freestone base only of standing-cross with square socket for shaft, octagonal to square with broaches and moulded free sides, on the square faces the following inscription in black-letter 'Orate pro animab[us] Joh[ann]is Stokton et Agnetis uxoris ei[us]', W. side illegible, late 15th-century, removed to the church from a position in the village opposite the Red Lion Inn. John Stokton was alive in 1450 and dead by 1475. Churchyard-cross: N. of church—base and part only of shaft, base square with chamfered upper edge, shaft octagonal to square with slight taper, 14th or 15th-century. Door: to tower staircase, of oak planks with three wrought-iron strap-hinges, 14th-century.

Font: of clunch, octagonal, straight-sided bowl, each face containing a quatre-foiled panel enclosing blank shields, Tudor roses and a patera, moulded under-edge with head corbels at the corners, of a king, a bishop, a bearded man with long hair, two of men with caps and wings, two of women with simple head-dresses, a woman with netted hair, octagonal pedestal with roll-mouldings at the angles and window-light panelling in each face, spreading base twice chamfered and with grotesque heads carved in low relief on the upper chamfer, late 15th-century style, probably entirely recut in mid 19th-century. Glass: In E. window—in centre light, fragments including parts of towered canopy, black-letter inscription, border of vine leaves on a red ground, crown, fleurs-de-lis, drapery and some grisaille, 14th-century. In N.W. window of chancel—in tracery light, white tricorporate leopard on red field in triangular panel (Plate 54), perhaps for Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, (1245–1296), 13th century, and fragments of grisaille; in main lights, two reset panels containing respectively the full-length figures of St. Paul in robes holding book and sword on a red ground and St. Peter wearing mitre (?) and vestments on a red ground inscribed with his name in blackletter, both in canopied niches with cusped heads under crocketed gables and with pinnacled side-standards, 14th-century, damaged and patched with 15th-century fragments, above and below the panels are reset borders of blue with gold leopards' heads, towers, white oak leaves, etc., fragments of grisaille and two larger roundels containing leopards' heads, 14th-century. In N. aisle—in head of centre light of E. window, panel with bishop in niche with cinque-foiled ogee head, possibly c. 1800, and incorporated in grisaille glass of some distinction, 1853; in tracery of E. window of N. wall, shield-of-arms of Trumpington (Plate 54), 14th-century. Hatchment: In N. chapel—on W. wall, with shield-of-arms of Pemberton with a scutcheon of pretence quarterly Baron and Bentham, for the Rev. Jeremy Pemberton, 1800, painted on boards in a frame painted with skulls and hour-glasses. Lockers: in exterior of N. wall of chancel, formerly in N.E. sacristy, two, rectangular, now blocked, mediaeval.


Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel—on N. wall, (1) of Mary, wife of John Hailstone, vicar, 1838, white marble tablet with slate backing, by Tomson & Son, Cambridge; (2) of John Hailstone, 1847, vicar, Woodwardian Professor, white marble tablet with pediment and slate backing, by Tomson & Son, Cambridge; (3) of Mrs. Isabella Telford, 1843, similar to (1) and by the same maker; on S. wall, (4) of John, second son of Christopher Anstey, 1819, one of H.M. Commissioners for auditing public accounts, white and black marble tablet with enriched cornice, draped urn and shield-of-arms of Anstey with a scutcheon of Senior; (5) of Helen, widow of John Anstey, 1837, white and grey marble sarcophagus-shaped tablet, by Denman, London. In N. aisle—see under (6). Between N. aisle and N. chapel—in E. arch partly blocked to receive it, (6) table-tomb (Plate 294) with Purbeck marble slab and brass under ogee arch; tomb-chest with freestone plinth and clunch sides with arcading of ogee cinquefoil-headed panels with blank shields in the spandrels, S. face damaged by insertion of two memorial-tablets, to Thomas Pytcher, 1[577], and William Pytcher, 1614; slab with indent of marginal inscription-fillet and brass of man in mail armour and surcoat, with ailettes and knee-cops, sword slung in front, shield on left arm, head resting on conical-topped great helm chained to waist, feet on dog, shield charged with the arms of Trumpington, ailettes and shields on sword-scabbard with the arms of Trumpington differenced with a label, this last perhaps cut later; arch above of clunch with multiple-shafted jambs with moulded caps and bases standing on tomb-chest, moulded ogee head, cinque-foiled and sub-cusped with carved foliagediapering in all the spandrels, and moulded label, with headstops of a king, a man and two women, rising to a string below the embattled parapet of the blocking which finishes in an ashlar weathered tabling; tomb-chest and arch, probably of Giles de Trumpington (ob. between 1327 and 1332), 14th-century; brass and slab reset, probably of Roger de Trumpington (ob. 1289), c. 1300, apparently appropriated by a later member of the Trumpington family, who amended the arms. In S. aisle —on S. wall, (7) of George Riste, J.P., 1761, alderman of Cambridge, conservator of River Cam, white marble tablet with cornice and grey marble obelisk flanked by urns, on the obelisk a laurel wreath and cartouche containing monogram, erected by his brother-in-law and sister, Joseph and Anne Bentham; (8) of M.D., 1815, stone tablet. In N. chapel—on E. wall, (9) of George, son of Thomas and Mary (Pike of Meldreth) Pitchard, 1650, grey marble slab from table-tomb, with shields-of-arms of Pitchard and of Pike impaling Gore; on N. wall, (10) of Sir Francis Pemberton, P.C., 1697, Judge of King's Bench and Common Pleas, who married Anna, daughter of Sir Jeremy Whichcote, Bt., white and black marble wall-cartouche (Plate 16) with framing of carved drapery, cherub-heads, winged skull, and flaming urn, with shield-of-arms of Pemberton impaling Whichcote, monument reputed to have been brought here from Highgate parish church in the 19th century. In churchyard—near cross, (11)......, 1719, headstone, top shaped to cherub's head, with emblems of mortality, scrolls and foliage; S. of church, (12) of John Hailes, 1756, headstone, inscription in cartouche, with cherub-heads, scrolls and foliage; (13) of William Stacey, 1729, headstone with Corinthian side-columns, curved top with cherubs in the tympanum; (14) of Thomas Bland, 1807, and Mary his wife, 1816, headstone with low-relief carving of flowers and fine lettering and three other headstones to members of the Bland family; (15) of Joseph Harris, 1842, neo-Greek pedestal monument. Floor-slabs: In nave—(1) of John Maris, 1830, and Mary his wife, 1832; (2) of Richard Maris, 19th-century; (3) of William [Maris], 19th-century; (4) of James Dobson, 1759; (5) of J. Hodges, 1812, In S. chapel—(6) of Thomas Allen, 1692; (7)......, wife of Richard Baron, 1680(?).

Piscinae: In chancel—with two trefoiled pointed openings and a sunk trefoiled spandrel in a two-centred head with continuous moulded label returned as a sill, each recess with shelf and quatre-foiled dishing to drain, late 13th-century; in exterior of N. wall, formerly in N.E. sacristy, with two-centred roll-moulded head and shafted jambs with moulded caps and bases much damaged, two square dishings to drains, 13th-century. In N. chapel—with trefoiled ogee head and plain dishing, 14th-century. In S. chapel—with cinque-foiled ogee opening in two-centred head with a label, stone shelf and sex-foiled dishing to drain, 14th-century. Plate: includes a cup with conical bowl and knop on stem, with date-letter for 1661, given by Herbert Thorndike in 1672, a paten given by the donor of the cup and with the same maker's mark, R.A. over a star, but without other marks, a flagon with the dateletter for 1833, given by Mary Hailstone in 1836, and a 17th-century pewter plate given by H. Thorndike. Pulpit: of oak, octagonal, with moulded plinth enriched with prism-ornament, deep entablature of slight projection with shaped dentils and triglyph-like brackets in the frieze, in each face one recessed panel in moulded and dentiled framing, early 17th-century, on late 19th-century arcaded pedestal-base, given by Thomas Allen in 1677, and originally at Emmanuel College.

Scratchings: In lobby to ringing-stage of tower, acrostic in 15th-century lettering, 'Dimidium pauli totum per: ultima quantas Me facit hic stare mea racio sit tibi quare' (i.e. pauper-tas); in ringing-chamber, on W. wall, 'Raiphel' and 'Michaell', 15th or 16th-century. On lead of tower-roof, scratched view of Ely cathedral, by Dobson Clarke, 1731, also scratched outline of his hand. Screen: Under chancel-arch— base only of wood rood-screen, with central opening and of two bays on each side divided by buttressed standards, with moulded base and plinth carved with quatrefoils enclosing roses and deep top-rail carved with grape clusters and vine tendrils, each bay sub-divided into two panels with flowing tracery in two-centred heads and with flowers, fruit and foliage in the spandrels, 15th-century with modern repainting. Stoup: In N. aisle, by N. door, small recess with moulded surround, mediaeval, much damaged. Miscellaneous: In churchyard—in S.E. corner, two three-light windows with net and intersecting tracery respectively, 14th-century, from S. wall of S. chapel, which now contains modern copies.