Secular Buildings, Etc.
Cambridge Castle Arms
(77) Cambridge Castle, motte, remains of bailey
and Edwardian and Civil War defensive earthworks,
stands on the highest ground adjacent to the city centre,
on a spur called Castle Hill, some 300 yds. N.N.W. of
Magdalene Bridge. For evidence of Roman occupation
of the site see Monument (14). No pagan Saxon
remains have been found; later Saxon finds include a
number of important carved stones (see below). In
1068 William I gave orders for a castle to be raised at
Cambridge (Ordericus Vitalis, Hist. Ecc. (ed. A le
Prevost, Paris, 1835–55), II, Bk. IV, Ch. IV, 185; this
passage was probably derived by Orderic from William
of Poitiers, and, if so, is contemporary). Domesday
Book states that twenty-seven houses were demolished
to make way for it. Of motte and bailey type, this is
the earliest structure of which parts survive.
A general reconstruction was undertaken by Edward
I when the bailey appears to have been remodelled in a
roughly rectangular form orientated diagonally N. and
S. with the S. angle adjacent westward to the 11th-century motte. The evidence of the original accounts,
later maps and surveys of the site and ill-recorded finds
made in the 18th and early 19th centuries indicate the
building in stone of a curtain-wall, a S.W. gatehouse
with barbican opposite across the moat, towers at the
E., N. and S. angles of the defences, the first probably
to be identified with the postern, and on the motte, and
a great hall in the N.W. part of the bailey. The whole
was completed between 1283 and the king's death, a
chapel first mentioned in the Pipe Rolls of 1 Ed. II
being built or rebuilt probably during the same period.
Edward I's expenditure upon it was £2,525 (W. M.
Palmer, Cambridge Castle). It was, it seems, largely
surrounded by wet moats; a moat also skirted the N. of
the motte to separate the last from the bailey.
An inquest in 1367 into the defective state of wall,
towers and houses, and the extensive alienation of stone
from here for College buildings in the 15th and 16th
centuries show the progress of deterioration, although
as late as 1585 attempts were still being made to retain
the curtain-wall; by 1606 the S.W. gatehouse was the
only complete building left, being preserved by its
use as a prison. This is the state shown in Fuller's view of
Cambridge of 1634. Lyne's and Braun's views, of 1574
and 1575, are too stylised for reliable evidence and show
improbably complete buildings, for, though a bridge
leading to the S.W. gatehouse survived into the reign
of Elizabeth I, in 1590 the castle was described as 'old
ruined and decayed'.
In 1643, Cambridge being the headquarters of the
Eastern Counties Association, the bailey works were
reconstructed as a bastioned trace fort; fifteen houses
were cleared and a brick barracks built on the site of
the old great hall. In 1647 the new defences were
slighted, but the three bastions, to E., N. and W.,
remained (see William Custance's map of Cambridge,
1798); the W. bastion was removed in 1811. The
gatehouse again and the barracks were retained as prison
buildings. Between 1802 and 1807 a new octagonal
County gaol designed by G. Byfield was built, the
surface of the bailey lowered and levelled, and the moat
N. of the motte filled in with building debris.
In 1842 the S.W. gatehouse was pulled down to make
way for the Court House designed by T. H. Wyatt and
D. Brandon (Plate 298), which itself was demolished
in 1954. In 1932 a new Shire Hall was built on the site
freed by the demolition of the County gaol.
Cambridge, Key Map Showing the Position of Monuments in the Centre of the City
The much mutilated earthworks of Cambridge
Castle, apparently mainly of the Norman and Civil
War periods, with little of the Edwardian castle
certainly distinguishable, are in poor condition. The
motte is of interest for the traces of a berm below the
summit perhaps marking the site of an apron-wall
round the keep (see Sectional Preface p. lix).
The Motte (N.G. 44575919), a truncated cone in shape, is
200 ft. in diam. at the base, 34 ft. across the top, and rises 33 ft.
above modern ground level on the N., 53 ft. on the S. The N.
base is about 70 ft. above O.D. It covers some two-thirds of an
acre. Paths are cut into the sides and original features are not
certainly identifiable, but on the S. some 9 ft. below the top a
narrow terrace begins and curves downward to the E., where
it is 10 ft. wide, then rises again towards the N.; it is shown
clearly as a level berm in plans and elevations of 1785 (B.M.
Add. MSS. 6735, 65, 68) and indicated in Fuller's view of 1634.
Leading N.E. from the motte the bank of the Bailey, 5½ ft.
high on the inside, 8 ft. across the top, with a drop of 15 ft.
to a modern wall on the outside, extends for some 40 yds. to
where it is abruptly cut away down to the mutilated remains
of the E. bastion of the Civil War defences. From the latter
work a bank, 3½ ft. high inside and 4 ft. outside above the scarp
of the old ditch, leads N.W. for some 40 yds.; it is then cut
back. The N. bastion 50 yds. further on preserves more clearly
the angularity of the Civil War earthwork, but is much cut
into on the N. and W. The defences on the N.W. and S.W.
are destroyed except for traces of the bailey bank branching
N.W. from the motte. The total area enclosed was some 4
acres. (McKenny Hughes in C.A.S. Proc. VIII (1893), 173, and
IX (1894–8), 348; W. H. St. J. Hope in ibid. XI (1905), 324;
W. M. Palmer in ibid. XXVI (1923), 66, and Cambridge Castle
(1928); J. W. Clark and A. Gray, Old Plans of Cambridge,
The Carved Stones (Plate 28) referred to above were, except
one, discovered 'under the ramparts of the bailey on the S.E.
side of the gatehouse' early in the 19th century and included
part of a wheel-cross head, five complete graveslabs and parts
of two others, and a number of gravestones designed to stand
upright. A sixth graveslab was found some yards outside the
rampart. The gravestones and five slabs were lost, but drawings
of them by the Rev. T. Kerrich exist (B.M. Add. MSS. 6735,
50–1, and Archaeologia XVII (1814), 228). The rest are in the
Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology in Cambridge. They
are of the late 10th or early 11th century and as follows:
(i) wheel-cross head, diam. 14½ ins., with part of shaft, total
height 17½ ins., thickness 4½ ins.; head with small central
bosses, arms linked by plain ring and with marginal moulding
continued down shaft, this last with interlace on front and
back and key-ornament on the one surviving side; (ii) graveslab, broken across the middle, 65 ins. long, tapering from
19¼ ins. to 11½ ins. and 3 ins. to 4½ ins. thick; with symmetrical
cross with U-shaped ends to longitudinal shaft, that at the head
enclosing an incised cross, and four panels of interlacement;
(iii) part of graveslab, 40 ins. by 18½ ins. and 4½ ins. thick;
with incised wheel-headed cross and panels of interlacement
flanking the shaft; (iv) part of graveslab, 31 ins. by 22 ins. and
5½ ins. thick; with upper part of cross enriched with interlacement, the ends of the horizontal arms returning vertically
upwards, with interlaces on the sunk field flanking the shaft
(C. Fox in C.A.S. Proc. XXIII (1920–4), 15).
(78) King's Ditch, boundary and defensive ditch to
S. and E. of the old town, possibly late pre-Conquest and
remodelled in the 13th century, shows only scanty surface remains. The name, loosely used in mediaeval times,
by the 16th century was generally applied to the ditch
shown in Richard Lyne's map of Cambridge of 1574,
the course of which is traceable in the modern streetplan of the city. The ditch branched from the Cam near
Mill Lane, ran along Pembroke Street, across the site of
the old Botanic Gardens, where the University Laboratories now stand, along St. Tibb's Row and Hobson
Street, across the Fellows' Garden of Sidney Sussex
College and along Park Street to rejoin the river nearly
opposite the Pepys Building of Magdalene College
(Richard Lyne's map in J. W. Clark and A. Gray, Old
Plans of Cambridge etc. (1921)). The ditch N. of the river
is described separately below.
The only surface remains consist of a slightly sunk area in the
Fellows' Garden at Sidney Sussex College W. of a scarp
running S.E. from the squash court. Along Park Street a ditch
was open within recoverable living memory at the end of the
19th century (C.A.S. Procs. XI, 252), though a survey of 1629
shows that the King's Ditch was then little more than a sewer,
nowhere wider than 5¼ ft. nor deeper than 2½ ft. (C.A.S.
Procs. XI, 251).
Knowledge of the course and nature of the work was increased in the later 19th century by observation of builders'
excavations. Those for the Pitt Press extensions in 1893
revealed a substantial ditch, dated by pottery finds to the late
Saxon period, that ran along the N. side of Mill Lane. Some
25 yds. N. of, and parallel to, the foregoing was another ditch
at least 10 ft. deep in which mediaeval pottery was found; here
no Saxon ware was recorded (C.A.S. Procs. VIII, 255; C. Fox
in Prehist. Soc. of E. Anglia Procs. IV, 227–30; T. Lethbridge
in V.C.H. Cambs. I (1938), 329). Further to the N.E., excavations for the University Laboratories showed only a single
ditch, which appeared to be mediaeval. Probably a prolongation of this was exposed in 1892 along the W. side of Hobson
Street and in this area the earlier ditch was again found, but
here inside the later alignment, an opposite topographical
relationship to that found in the Mill Lane area (C.A.S. Procs.
Historically, the town was 'enclosed' in 1215 (Rot. Lit. Claus.
1204–1224 (1833), 234). In 1267 Henry III caused ditches to be
made around the town, with a walk 8 ft. wide alongside
(Ecclesie de Bernewelle Lib. Mem. (ed. J. W. Clark), 122;
Liberate Rolls 52 Henry III, M. 6, quoted by H. Cam in C.A.S.
Procs. XXXV, 49–50). The Liberate Rolls also refer to compensation for houses that were pulled down to make way for
the ditch and walk. In 1268 the watercourses were ordered to
be opened and the 'great ditch' cleaned (Cal. Pat. Rolls. 1266–
Thus the evidence, material and historical, seems to indicate
that a pre-Conquest ditch was partly recut and partly superseded in the 13th century, divergences of alignment occurring
demonstrably at least in the Mill Lane and Hobson Street
The ditch N. of the river Cam, most often referred to as the
'ditch called Cambridge' ('le Kynges ditch' in a conveyance of
1592), now without surface remains, was possibly a stream
canalised. It had an angular course; by reconstruction from
the positions of narrow pieces of land belonging to the town
(A. Gray in C.A.S. Procs. IX, 61) it branched from the Bin
Brook S.E. of Merton Hall (Monument (103)), ran N.W.
to turn sharply to the N.E. just short of the Hall, passed
under Castle Street some 30 yds. S.E. of the Northampton
Street junction, continued some 70 yds. into the Master's
Garden of Magdalene College and then turned and passed
W. of the Pepys Building of the same College to rejoin
the Cam; the natural course of the stream seems to have
continued E. to rejoin the river some yards further downstream
(F. G. Walker in C.A.S. Procs. XV, 181–91).
The ditch has been assigned to the 7th century as affording
a bridgehead for the town S. of the river (A. Gray, Dual Origin
of the Town of Cambridge (1908), 14–15; H. Cam in C.A.S.
Procs. XXXV, 38–9), but a date contemporary with that of
the ditch S. of the river may reasonably be conjectured.
About the beginning of the 13th century it seems to have
been navigable as far as the church of St. Giles, then standing
S.E. of the position of the present church (Monument (52))
(Ecc. de Bernewelle Lib. Mem., 98–9). It had lost significance
by 1278, for then in a perambulation of the castle bounds it
was called 'vetus fossatum' and crossed, not followed (ibid.
167–8; A. Gray in C.A.S. Procs. IX, 63–6).
(79) Hobson's Conduit, also known as Hobson's
River and Cambridge New River, includes a fountain
and culverts etc., formerly and still in part supplied by
the Conduit, and bridges over this last. The fountain
stands at the conduit-head by the S.E. corner of the
junction of Trumpington Road and Lensfield Road; the
culverts etc. above and below ground distribute fresh
water from the conduit-head to different places in the
old town; and the position of the bridges is given below.
The proposal to flush the foul King's Ditch (Monument
(78)) with water brought in from Vicar's Brook was
broached in a letter of 21 Nov. 1574 from Dr. Perne,
Vice-Chancellor, to Lord Burghley and in the legend
on Richard Lyne's map of Cambridge of the same year
in Dr. Caius' De Antiquitate. Perne's further letter of
18 Jan. 1574–5 submits practical schemes to the Chancellor (S.P., Dom., Elizabeth, 12, 103, no. 3, 1575).
The Lord of Trumpington Manor agreed to the
diversion of water across the common fields by deed of
26 Oct. 1610, in which the watercourse is described as
newly and lately made. This was the New River by
which the water was brought from S. of Cambridge
to the conduit-head and thence into the King's Ditch at
the junction of Trumpington Street and Pembroke
Street. A computation of levels, though necessarily
approximate, seems to show that this could have
scoured effectively only the westward length of the
Ditch, to Mill Pit, and to explain the reason for completion, presumably before the S. range of Ivy Court of
Pembroke College was begun in 1659, of a branch
watercourse leading N.E. from approximately opposite
the church of Little St. Mary to nearly opposite Free
School Lane; the discharge of water further to the E.
with increased fall may thus have been devised to scour
the eastward and northward lengths of the Ditch. The
N.E. branch continued to be the source of water-supply
to the Old Botanic Garden until 1842.
Drinking-water was piped from the conduit-head to
a new Fountain in Market Hill in 1614. The fountain was
removed to the present position at the conduit-head in
1856, but the fountain that replaces it is supplied from
the same source. In 1631 a third supply was drawn from
the conduit-head for Emmanuel College and Christ's
College; it now feeds the ponds and swimming-pools
in the grounds there.
The cost of the scheme of 1610 was borne jointly by
the town and the University. Thomas Hobson, carrier,
(died 1630–1) and Samuel Potto (died 1632) left
properties as endowments for the upkeep of the waterworks. The New River is now administered by
Trustees. For a detailed history and description see
W. D. Bushell, Hobson's Conduit: The New River at
Cambridge, etc. (1938).
Hobson's Conduit is of much interest as an early 17th-century utility supplying water for drinking, street
cleansing and scouring the drains, though now a visual
rather than a practical amenity. The open runnels in
Trumpington Street and St. Andrew's Street are survivals of the open watercourse. The Fountain of 1614,
rather later and much simpler than that at Trinity
College, is a rare and pleasing survival.
The course of the New River, culverts and pipes and the
positions of the dipping-holes are described by W. D. Bushell
(op. cit.); the former are indicated on the accompanying
diagram. The structures only, excepting brick culverts and
piping largely concealed, are described below. At the source of
Vicar's Brook, 'Nine Wells', in Great Shelford parish, is an
obelisk set up in 1861. As the Brook approaches Cambridge
the channel has been artificially improved to a width of 13 ft.
at the top, between 8 ft. and 9 ft. at water-level, and a depth of
4 ft.. About ¼ m. N. of Long Road the entirely artificial
channel, the New River of c. 1610, leads off across Empty
Common, under Brooklands Avenue, and alongside Trumpington Road to the conduit-head at Lensfield Road corner
where is an overflow to the sewers. N. of Brooklands Avenue
the channel, 20 ft. wide and 2½ ft. deep, is raised in an embankment for some 300 yds. Spillways carry surplus water to
Vicar's Brook to the W. and the pond in the Botanic Garden
to the E.
The Fountain is a hexagonal building (8 ft. diagonal and
approx. 19 ft. high), of ashlar painted, raised on a 19th-century cast-iron platform straddling the watercourse (Plate
259). It has a high moulded plinth and a full entablature with
deep frieze and elaborate pierced cresting; from behind the
last rises a domical ogee roof with fir-cone finial. The sides
between plinth and entablature are divided into two heights
by a continuous moulded string; in the lower height is a semi-circular shell-headed niche in each face; in the upper are
inscription-panels in the E. and W. faces and vents of geometrical design in the other four. The renewed, and amended,
inscriptions read: (E.) 'Thomas Hobson Carrier between
Cambridge and London a great Benefactore to this University
Town. Died January 1st 1630 in the 86th yeare of his age';
(W.) 'This structure stood upon the Market Hill and served
as a Conduit from 1614 to 1856 in which year it was re-erected on this spot by Public Subscription'. The main cresting
has putti holding gilded balls at four corners, a lion and a
unicorn at the others, and between them on the W. side the
Hanoverian Royal arms with lion and unicorn supporters, on
the other sides plain shields in strapwork framing.
N. of the conduit-head the channel as far as Addenbrooke's
Hospital has been enclosed and the water piped, though part
of the open channel, with modern lining, survives in the
Hospital forecourt. Thence two open runnels continue down
each side of Trumpington Street to the sewer by Pembroke
College; they have modern stone linings, though formed from
the former single watercourse probably late in the 18th century
after the decision in 1789 to widen the street.
The supply to Market Hill is now piped throughout and also
the more north-easterly supply as far as Emmanuel College.
There the main stream is carried in a covered brick culvert into
the College grounds, but surplus water is discharged into the
open gutters of St. Andrew's Street and runs into the sewer by
Four Dipping-holes survive under paving-stones, in Regent
Terrace, before Emmanuel College, in Drummer Street and
at the N.E. end of Milton's Walk.
Between Brooklands Avenue and Lensfield Road are four
cast-iron Bridges and the W. bank of the river is bounded by
cast-iron railings. The bridge to the Botanic Garden is of a
single span of about 20 ft., of flattened arch form with pierced
spandrels, the University arms in the middle and the ironfounder's name and the date, Hurrell, 1850, (Swann Hurrell
succeeded his uncle Charles Finch, ironfounder of Market Hill,
in 1847). The cast-iron handrails have moulded standards and
two plain rails to each side; on the W. are iron gates hung
between the larger W. standards and flanking railings, all with
spear-headed uprights. The bridge at Brooklands Lodge
(Monument (20)) is similar to the foregoing but without the
shields-of-arms and the gates and with the ironfounder's name
and the date obscured. The two bridges N. of Bateman Street
are again similar to the first, without the gates, but the date is
1851. The mid 19th-century Railings, as far as the later enclosure round the Fountain, are similar to the bridge handrails
but with elbowed stays.
(80) Garret Hostel Bridge carries Garret Hostel
Lane, between Trinity College and Trinity Hall, over
the Cam. It is of ashlar and cast-iron. William Chadwell
Mylne was the designer. Tenders were invited on 3rd
July 1835 (Cambridge Chronicle), and it was built by
1837. The contract was with the Butterley Iron Company, for £960 19s. 6d. (ibid. 26 Feb. 1836). The bridge
is recorded to have been rebuilt six times before, in
1591, 1626, 1646, 1769, 1814, 1821. The 1769 reconstruction was by James Essex; of brick and timber, it
was known as the Mathematical bridge. Until then,
Trinity Hall and the town had been responsible for
upkeep, but the former paid half the cost of this
reconstruction to obtain future exemption.
Garret Hostel Bridge shows a horizontal use of the
Gothic idiom, with an effect of breadth and dignity.
The bridge (Plate 38) is of a single depressed four-centred
span of cast-iron between ashlar-faced piers. The ramped
approaches are revetted in gault brick. On each side the arch
has sunk spandrels and had, until recently, a heavy archivoltmoulding with a lion's mask at the apex. The cast-iron
cambered parapet is elaborated with a succession of pierced
trefoiled triangles. The faces of the piers contain sunk cusped
(81) Magdalene Bridge, or Great Bridge, carries
Bridge Street over the Cam, immediately S.E. of
Magdalene College. It is of ashlar and cast-iron and
carries a plate inscribed 'Arthur Browne Archt. 1823'.
Browne is said to have been the contractor and one
Bevan the structural engineer (Cambridge Business Man,
7 March 1918). The main sections were cast in Derby,
the rest in Cambridge. The town contributed £150 and
the University £600 towards the cost of £2,350.
The crossing is of considerable antiquity (see Monument (78)). The lands listed for pontage between 1236
and 1752 show that only landowners W. of the Cam
were liable for upkeep of the bridge. The mediaeval
record is one of repeated dilapidations and repairs, or
rebuildings. The last timber bridge was replaced in 1754
by one in stone designed by James Essex.
Magdalene Bridge is the earliest cast-iron bridge in
Cambridge. It is of interest for the linear decoration
deriving from the 18th-century Gothic revival.
The bridge is of a single span built up of eight longitudinal
cast-iron vertical sections between ashlar abutments. The lower
edges of the sections are shaped to stilted semi-ellipses, the
spaces between being filled with sheet-iron to form a solid
panelled soffit. To each side, the spandrels contain fan-tracery
decoration and the moulding at road-level is enriched with
small trefoiled arcading. The open railings have bands of
quatrefoils along the foot and trefoils below the handrails; the
railings on the N.E. stop against ashlar piers with sunk quatre-foiled panels on the face and surmounted by wrought-iron
lamp-standards; those on the S.W., which originally stopped
against adjoining houses, now end in solid iron panels.
(82) Silver Street Bridge, or Small Bridge, carries
Silver Street over the Cam immediately S.W. of Queens'
College. Of cast-iron, brick and stone, it was built in
1841 in replacement of one of timber described as
dilapidated in the Cambridge Chronicle of 5 August 1836.
The iron span was cast by Charles Finch at his Market
Hill foundry (Cambridge Business Man, 7 March 1918).
A panel with his name said to have been on the S. side
is no longer visible. The total cost was £1,956 15s.
The bridge (Plate 38) is generally similar to Magdalene
Bridge (Monument (81)) but the spandrels on both sides have
ribbed panels enclosing shields-of-arms of the town supported
by seahorses and with a castle above. The soffit is in six ribbed
and panelled bays. Projecting upstream from the abutments
are iron-faced cutwaters decorated with panels with two-centred heads. The approaches are bounded by short lengths
of brick parapet-walling between pairs of stone piers; two of
the S. piers support cast-iron lamp-standards. The bridge is
strengthened with later iron ties.
(83) Milestones etc. are in the positions described
below. From a bequest of Dr. William Mowse, Master
of Trinity Hall 1552–3, supplemented by his executor
Robert Hare, the latter bought the manor of Walpole
as an endowment for the upkeep of highways in and
about Cambridge. The estate was conveyed to the
College in 1599. Within the present City, the surviving
Milestones (i–iii) described below were set up under the
Walpole Trust. In 1725 the first five miles along the old
London Road were measured from the S.W. buttress
of Great St. Mary's church by William Warren and
small milestones set up; in 1726 the work was continued
another five miles, and in 1727 another six to the Angel
in Barkway. The total cost, with Woodward providing
the stones and cutting the lettering, was £9 16s. defrayed
apparently by Warren. In 1728 the first stone was
replaced by Milestone (i) at a cost of £5 8s., out of the
Trust fund. In 1729 the second and third stones were
replaced by Milestone (ii) and (iii) of Portland stone
for £2 18s. 6d. each. John Woodward seems to have
been the mason again employed. In 1732 the datum
mark was cut on Great St. Mary's church (see Monument (53), Miscellanea). For details of Milestones continuing beyond the City boundary, Warren's Book (ed.
A. W. W. Dale, 1911), 264–8. (C.A.S. Communications
IV (1876–80), 268, IX (1894–8), 304.)
Milestone (i), beside Trumpington Road opposite the junction of Brooklands Avenue, a tall rectangular stone with inset
rounded head, is carved with the arms of Trinity Hall impaling
Mowse (damaged), a pointing hand and the inscription in
Roman capitals '1 Mile to Great Saint Maries Church Cambridge', 'A D' with an illegible date . 'Cambridge' has
been obliterated and recut. Milestone (ii), beside Trumpington
Road approx. 715 yds. N.E. of Trumpington church, retains
traces only of a shield of the arms of Trinity Hall; it was dated
1729. Milestone (iii), beside the Hauxton Road approx. 1050
yds. S. of Trumpington church, is similar to (i) but with a
shield of the arms of Trinity Hall and marking the third mile;
the date  is buried.
Stone Wall-tablets, two, set one above another in the streetfront of no. 8 Castle Street, are inscribed 'Godmanchester
Turnpike Road ends here' with an arrow, and 'To the Horseshoe Corner Godmanchester 14 miles', late 18th or early 19th-century.
Court House, see Monument (77).
(84) Guildhall stands on the S. side of Market Hill.
It is a building of 1936–7, but reset in the wall on the
first floor of the E. wing is the foundation-stone of the
Guildhall previously on the site found during the
excavations for the new foundations.
The Corporation insignia, plate and chest are described below together with the weights and measures
kept here, at the Weights and Measures Office, and at the
The Foundation-stone is tall and narrow and inscribed with a
long Latin inscription, 'Faxit Deus haec nova Gilda Aula
Communitatis Villae Cantabrigiae, in ipsissimo Loco veteris
jam periclitantis et ruinosae, posita', etc., the date 1782 and the
name of the architect, James Essex.
Corporation insignia and plate etc. (Plate 45): (i) Great Mace,
4½ ft. long, given by Samuel Shepheard of Exning, M.P., in
1710; silver-gilt, with assay-mark for 1710, maker's mark PY;
of normal mace form with close-crowned bowl-shaped head,
pierced scroll-work terminal figures linking the last to the first
knop on the shaft, middle knop and shaped knop at end;
embossed decoration on the head including the crowned arms
of Queen Anne with lion and unicorn supporters and the
initials A R and, round the sides, crowned rose, thistle, fleur-de-lys and harp and the arms of the town, all alternating with
terminal figures flanked by the initials A and R; knops with
embossed acanthus decoration; see (vii) below. (ii–v) Maces,
set of four, 3½ ft. long, with assay-mark for 1723, maker's
mark crowned P; all alike and generally similar to (i) but with
the arms of George I and initials G. and R. and the end knops
shaped to include two cartouches, one inscribed 'The Gift of
Tho. Bacon Esq. Tho. Nutting Mayor 1724', the other with
the arms of Bacon. (vi) Mace, 10½ ins. long, of copper-gilt,
c. 1630; open-crowned bowl-shaped head, the top missing and
the crown much damaged, divided by moulded ribs into four
panels containing respectively the initials C and R, a crown
and a rose modelled in relief; the shaft divided into four lengths
by moulded bands; the flanges of pierced card-cut scroll-work,
one broken. (vii) Mace-rest for (i) above, 1 ft. 10½ ins. tall,
silver-gilt and bronze; with assay-mark for 1710, maker's mark
a circle of five pellets, crowned and with P Y below; plate,
with U-shaped top and embossed with an achievement of the
arms of Queen Anne, mounted on a turned bronze stem with
cylindrical end to fit in a socket; with red cords with two large
and two small tassels knotted to the stem. (viii) Tankard, 10 ins.
high, with assay-mark for 1762 and maker's mark C T W W
in a circle; shaped bowl and lid with scrolled handle and pierced
thumbpiece; engraved by W. Stephens with the achievement-of-arms of the town and a list of the donors, 1763. (ix) Coffeepot, 10¾ ins. high, silver, with gadrooning, engraved with the
achievement-of-arms of the town and the arms of Halsted and
inscribed 'Gift of Thomas Halsted Esq. Mayor in 1767
Elected Alderman 1765 resigned 1775'. (x) Beaker, 47/8 ins. high,
with assay-mark for 1762, maker's mark JS; with nearly
straight sides and moulded foot, engraved with the arms of the
town and of Purchas and inscribed 'Gift of John Purchas
Alderman Sept. 29 1759'. (xi) Beaker, 3¾ ins. high, otherwise
similar to (x) but with the arms of Norfolk impaling Spencer
and inscribed 'Gift of Wm. Norfolk Alderman Aug. 16 1759',
with scratching beneath 'the cup and all the stoyps were
e[n]graved by W. Stephens 1762'. (xii–xix) Salts, set of eight,
2¼ ins. high with assay-marks for 1764; with shallow rounded
bowl on moulded stem and flared moulded foot; six given by
Alderman James Burleigh, 1764, two by William Mott, 1764.
(xx–xxvii) Spoons, set of eight, 85/8 ins. long, with assay-marks
for 1799; plain, inscribed 'Cambridge Corporation'. (xxviii–
xxix) Spoons, two, generally similar to the foregoing but
marks illegible; inscribed 'Gift of John Newling Alderman,
Jan. 11 1763' and 'G. W. Hattersley 1915'. (xxx–xxxi) Spoons,
two, generally similar to the foregoing but with assay-marks
for 1813, given by Edward Goode.
Spear, 5 ft. 3¾ ins. long, with iron head and wood shaft with
much-worn painting of the arms perhaps of Queen Anne and
of the town and illegible inscription. Staff, 5 ft. 6½ ins. long, of
wood painted with the arms of Queen Victoria and of the
town, 'Rd. Foster Esq. Mayor' and '1839'; others in the Folk
Museum are in better preservation. Halberds, pair, with
pierced blades, tassels, and polished wood shafts, perhaps 17th-century.
Chest (Plate 46), of oak, 5¾ ft. by 2¼ ft. by 2½ ft. high,
covered with sheet-iron, repaired, and iron-bound, the lid in
two halves with two locks and hasps and eight hasps for
locking-bars. Probably the new chest for the charters etc. made
by Otte in 1531; 3 cwt. of iron, eleven iron plates and a
thousand nails cost £1 9s. 4d. The total cost was £10 10s. 4d.,
which included carriage to London and back. (Cambridge
Borough Docs. I (ed. W. M. Palmer, 1931) xlii).
Weights and Measure Standards: (i) Bushel Measure, of bronze,
10½ ins. high over all, 1 ft. 6¾ ins. internal diam., 81/8 ins.
internal depth, weight 69½ lbs., straight sided, with two
facetted handles, three feet and band of lettering in Roman
capitals with the name and titles of Queen Elizabeth interspersed with crowned initials E R, rose, portcullis, fleur-delys, and date 1601. (ii) Gallon Measure, of bell-metal, 75/8 ins.
high, 17 ins. internal diam., 8¼ internal depth, with one handle,
engraved with the achievements of the Stuart Royal arms and
the town, 1646. (iii) Set of CupWeights, 4 lb. to two 1 drams,
fitting one inside another, the largest with a lid engraved with
the arms of the University, 1822. (iv) Set of Winchester
Measures, of bronze, ½ bushel, peck, ½ and ¼ peck, quart, the
first three each with two handles, engraved 'University of
Cambridge 1823'. (v) Imperial standard Yard and Bed, engraved 'University of Cambridge 1824', by Bate. All the
foregoing Standards are obsolete. (vi) Set of Measures, gunmetal, bushel to ½ gill, the first seven with handles, and
engraved with the University arms and 'University of Cambridge 1824'; the three small Measures engraved only with
'University of Cambridge 1824'. (vii) Set of spherical
Weights, brass, 56 lb. to ½ dram, seven of the large weights
engraved 'University of Cambridge 1824', by Bate. All the
Standards in (vi) and (vii) are marked with Exchequer marks
and Board of Trade Standards Department marks. They are
still used by the city as local standards.
(85) Railway Station stands just over 1 mile S.E.
of Great St. Mary's. It is of one and two storeys.
The walls are of gault brick with stone and stucco
dressings; the roofs are slate-covered. Originally the
Eastern Counties Railway Station, it was designed by
Sancton Wood and opened on 29 July 1845. The building was then symmetrical on plan and in elevation; an
open-arcaded way on the E. matched that which survives on the W. and trains drew up in the former,
vehicles in the latter (Railway Chronicle, 2 Aug. 1845,
with sketch). To supplement the single narrow platform,
about 1850 a timber island-platform reached by bridge
and subway was added on the E. This was removed in
1863 and the E. arcaded way demolished to give the
necessary space for the present scheme of a single wide
platform with N. and S. train-bays; at the same time
offices were added N. and S. of the building that remained (Cambridge Chronicle, 21 Nov. 1863). In 1893,
with the removal of the Newmarket line take-off to
Coldham's Lane, the platform was lengthened; it was
lengthened again in 1908, to 1,515 ft., and again subsequently to 1,650 ft. In 1908 also more offices were added,
partly in the S. end of the W. arcaded way. Encroachment upon this last has continued; the booking-hall etc.
now occupies the whole of the five middle bays and a
bicycle-store the four S. bays.
The Station is of interest as an early railway building
and notable for the application of an Italianate style to
new and entirely functional architectural requirements,
with original and distinctive result.
The W. front of the original station (Plate 298) contains a
continuous arcade from end to end and has a heavy unbroken
crowning entablature; the roof does not show. The arcade
consists of fifteen round-headed arches, all originally open, with
square brick piers, moulded plinths, imposts and archivolts.
The four N. bays remain unaltered, with dwarf walls from pier
to pier. The entablature has an architrave enriched with small
plain roundels and a frieze with raised metopes alternating with
shaped brackets under the wide overhang of the cornice. In the
spandrels between arcade and entablature are original roundels
containing modelled and painted arms, from the N., of St.
Catharine's and King's Colleges, Trinity Hall, Pembroke
College, Peterhouse, Cambridge town, Osborne quartering
Godolphin for Francis Osborne, 7th Duke of Leeds (High
Steward of Cambridge), Charles Philip Yorke, 4th Earl of
Hardwicke (Lord Lieutenant), Percy quartering Lucy for
Hugh, 3rd Duke of Northumberland (Chancellor), Lord
Lyndhurst (High Steward of the University), the University,
Clare, Gonville and Caius, Corpus Christi and Queens'
Colleges. Behind the arcade part of the original back-wall
remains. On the ground floor the four N. bays have round
windows; on the first floor are sash-hung windows in the five
bays towards each end; all have stucco architraves. In the
fifth and eleventh bays are open luggage-entrances with
The N. end has an archway to the W. returned from the
arches on the W. front, but rather larger, for the passage of
vehicles, with continuous moulded imposts and flanked on the
E. by a small plain archway for foot-passengers. Close E. of the
latter is the addition of 1863 with the wall rising to the height
of, and capped by, a return of the impost-mouldings just
described. The same arrangement, reversed, of archways was
repeated originally on the E., for trains and foot-passengers;
both these arches have been destroyed, but a large panel with
stucco frame remains in the wall-space above impost-level
flanked now only by the large W. arch. The main entablature
is returned from the W. front. The roundels, as before, contain
the arms of Magdalene and Christ's Colleges.
The S. end is identical in arrangement with the N. end, but
the large W. archway is blocked to the springing and the small
W. archway covered by later additions. The arms are of
Jesus and St. John's Colleges.
The E. side comprises the back wall of the former E.
arcaded way. On the ground floor are square-headed doorways
and sash-hung windows, all with stucco architraves and
cornices and with the window-sills continued as plat-bands;
some have been blocked, altered or removed. The same design
is continued across the extensions of 1863. The first floor was
remodelled in the same year.
(86) Public Library, in Wheeler Street, between the
Guildhall and Peas Hill, is a late 19th-century building.
Reset in the Central Junior Library is a fireplace formerly
in the house of John Veysy, which stood at the corner of
Petty Cury and Market Hill. A second fireplace from
the same place at Madingley Hall is dated 1538 and has
the arms of the Grocers' Company.
The fireplace is of clunch with stop-moulded jambs and four-centred arch in a square head. The inner mouldings are enriched with carved paterae, the initials H V and a lion's mask,
the outer with paterae, 'K Veysy' and 'Veysy' thrice, and the
spandrels with a bird and the initial V in one, stylised foliage
in the other. Over the arch is a crested frieze of tracery panels,
partly defaced, with the monograms IV and KV. Early to mid
(87) Addenbrooke's Hospital stands on the E. side
of Trumpington Street, E. of the Fitzwilliam Museum.
Part of the original building of 1740 survives incorporated in the 19th-century and modern extensions of the
Hospital. John Addenbrooke (died 1719) left £4,500 to
found a hospital; land was bought in 1728 and building
began twelve years later. In 1766 the hospital was transferred from the Trustees to a Court of Governors. A
colonnade across the front and two wings designed by
Charles Humfrey and in part paid for by John Bowtell
were completed by 1825 at a cost of over £4,000
(Cambridge Chronicle 9 May, 26 Sept., 10 Oct. 1823,
7 Jan. 1825). The hospital at this stage is shown in C. H.
Cooper, Memorials of Cambridge III, pl. facing p. 149.
In 1833 tenders were invited for two additional wards
designed by Mr. Walter, architect to the hospital (Camb.
Chronicle 17 April, 3 May, 4 Oct. 1833). Unspecified
new buildings were completed in 1845 (ibid. 4 Jan.). In
1863 Matthew Digby Wyatt, in competition with A.
Salvin, P. C. Hardwick and W. M. Fawcett, was
appointed the architect for extensive alterations. For
reasons of economy he proposed to make maximum use
of the existing buildings and replied to charges of
ugliness in his designs that he would be delighted to
remedy it 'at an extra cost of from one to several
thousand pounds according to the style adopted and the
materials I might be permitted to make use of'. The
building committee rejected a proposal to demolish all
the old buildings and Wyatt then worked up a plan
proposed by Dr. Humphry, one of the surgeons, for
extending and heightening them; he prepared alternative designs for the elevations from which the committee
made their selection in December 1863. Tenders for the
works were invited and in May 1864 the contract was
let to Messrs. Thoday & Clayton for £10,975. The work
was finished in 1866. Further extensive additions have
since been made. See also No. 13 Fitzwilliam Street
The fragmentary and much-altered original buildings
of Addenbrooke's Hospital surviving are of little
architectural significance; interest lies in their connection with a forerunner of those acts of private
munificence that created and maintained the voluntary
Architectural Description—The surviving walls of the
Hospital of 1740, of two storeys with a basement, form the
rectangular block close behind the present main entrance. The
front wall has been removed down to ground-floor level. The
E., N. and S. walls are of red brickwork, the first being divided
into three bays and with the middle bay projecting 9 ins.; the
ground floor of the S. bay has been cut away. The original
windows are sash-hung, except the two small round windows
towards the E. end of the S. wall. Two walls, probably
original, running E. and W. divide the interior equally into
three; for the rest, no evidence of the internal arrangement
survives; the staircase in the middle is modern. Two short
cross-walls some 14½ ft. to N. and S. of this original block are
perhaps remnants of the S. and N. walls respectively of the
wings of 1823–5.
The W. Entrance-gates with short lengths of railing to each
side are of scrolled and foliated wrought-iron and flanked by
rusticated stone piers with cornices; extending thence to
similar piers at the N. and S. ends of the street front are iron
railings with standards with turned finials. All are of the 18th
The N. Boundary-wall of the site is of brick. It is of the 16th
and 17th centuries, repaired and patched. Part is concealed by
later sheds, part incorporated in the N. wall of the John
Bonnett Memorial Laboratories and part, reduced to a dwarf
wall, stands free behind the staff hostel in Fitzwilliam Street.