(3) The Church of St. Thomas of Canterbury (Plates
32–35) stands in a churchyard between the Market
Place and the R. Avon. The walls are partly of ashlar and
partly of flint and rubble with ashlar dressings; in places
they are rendered; occasionally brickwork has been used
for repairs. The roofs are lead-covered. (fn. 1)
There is no mention of St. Thomas's in Bishop
Richard Poore's grant of 1228 and presumably it was at
that time numbered among the churches and chapels
to be built (ecclesias et capellas constructas et construendas) in Salisbury, but ten years later a chapel is
spoken of and in 1248 'the church of St. Thomas of
Sarum' is mentioned. (fn. 2) About 1448 the chancel collapsed; a document of that date records its length as
40 ft., 4 ins. (fn. 3) The present Chancel, rebuilt soon after
1448 to the original width, but extending further W.
than the recorded length, retains at the E. end a
weathered ashlar plinth, a stretch of flint walling and
two small ashlar buttresses, all of 13th-century origin.
Arcaded corbel-tables of 13th-century style now seen in
the N. and S. chapels are at too low a level to be in situ.
Their unworn condition shows that they have been
protected from the weather since an early date, probably
by the roofs of added aisles; after 1448 they were reused
as internal corbels to support the chapel roofs. There is
some reason to think that the 13th-century church was
cruciform (plan, p. lii). The present chancel is just
long enough to accommodate the original chancel together with a square crossing, suggesting that at the
rebuilding of 1448 the former crossing was taken into
the chancel. The respond, capital and springing of an
early 14th-century arch, exposed by the removal of later
masonry at the N.W. corner of the S. chapel, remain
from an arch which spanned the presumed S. transept.
Large archways at the W. ends of the N. and S. chapels
have 14th-century responds. The arches have been
rebuilt and the openings widened, but the 14th-century
responds still remain, those on the outside re-sited to
suit the width of the 15th-century chapels; originally it
seems that these openings were in the W. walls of the
transept. A 14th-century door jamb built into the S. wall
of the S. chapel indicates the length of the former
transept. The South Tower was being built in 1400; (fn. 4) its
position suggests that plans had already been made for
the widening of the nave. When the chancel was rebuilt
after the disaster recorded in 1448 the roof of the
North Chapel was provided by William Ludlow (fn. 5) and the
South Chapel was rebuilt by William Swayne. (fn. 6) Also
about the middle of the 15th century the Nave was
rebuilt and lengthened westwards, perhaps extending
over an area where there had formerly been a N.—S.
thoroughfare, linking Castle Street and High Street. (fn. 7)
Flanking the 15th-century nave are wide North and
South Aisles, that on the S. extending to the tower so
that the lowest storey of the tower forms a South Porch.
On John Lyons's engraving dated 1745, (fn. 8) in which the
ground plan of the church and two perspective views are
presented, a N. doorway and porch are seen immediately
opposite the S. tower; the porch is also seen in a drawing
of 1805. (fn. 9) In 1835 the N. doorway was replaced by a
window and the porch was demolished, leaving only the
stair turret which had given access to a room over the
porch. The three-storeyed Vestry wing was added early
in the 16th century. Restorations in 1819 revealed a
large 15th-century painting of the Last Judgement above
the chancel arch. In 1865–70, under the direction of
G.E. Street, the galleries were removed, the chancel was
rearranged and new seating was provided. (fn. 10)
The Church of St. Thomas of Canterbury
The nave and aisles afford a good example of medieval architecture at the beginning of its latest phase,
with the masonry reduced as far as possible to tracery,
whether glazed or blind. The highly enriched 15th-century timber roofs are noteworthy, and the contemporary 'Doom' painting is a rare survival.
Architectural Description — Below the 19th-century
E. window the E. wall of the Chancel is faced with 13th
century knapped flint interspersed with a few rough ashlar blocks. Most of the original ashlar plinth has a 15th-century moulded capping, but the steeply weathered
13th-century capping remains at each end. The corners
of the chancel are defined by small 13th-century ashlar
buttresses capped by 15th-century weathering. The E.
window has five transomed lights with curvilinear
tracery and is of the late 19th century. Benson &
Hatcher (engraving opp. p. 588) show a four-light
window with vertical tracery of 15th-century style, but
John Buckler (1805) agrees with John Lyons in showing
a five-light opening. (fn. 11) Above the window is a low 15th-century gable with a moulded string-course. The N.
and S. sides of the chancel have uniform 15th-century
arcades with moulded four-centred arches rising from
piers and responds in which attached shafts with foliate
capitals and moulded bases alternate with hollowchamfers. Some capitals have undercut carving with fruit,
animals and birds as well as foliage; one on the S. has
two shields charged with merchant's marks as illustrated:
WL probably stands for William Lightfoot; (fn. 12) IW may be
for John Wyot. Another capital has angels bearing a
scroll inscribed 'Jhon Nichol John Nichol John the
founder of this peler wt. a part of this arche & Jhne the
wif of the seyde John' (Plates 35, 42). Above, each side
of the chancel has six square-headed clearstorey windows, each with three trefoiled-headed lights; externally
they have plain labels and between them are small
weathered buttresses with diagonal pinnacles; Lyons's
engraving of 1745 shows crocketed finials, but these
have gone. The chancel arch is two-centred and of two
orders, the inner order with ogee and roll-mouldings, the
outer order with hollow-chamfers. The inner order
springs from angel corbels. On the W. side the outer
order continues on the responds; on the E. it dies into
the N. and S. walls. Adjacent, in the S. wall of the
chancel is the blocked square-headed upper doorway of
a former rood-loft. A segmental-headed recess on the N.,
now blocked, may be associated with a former pulpit
The mid 15th-century roof of the chancel has seven
stout moulded king-strut tie-beam trusses braced with
moulded and traceried quadrant braces to oak wall-posts;
these stand on carved stone corbels, two on the E. with
crowned heads, two on the W. with shields, the others
representing angels bearing musical instruments. The
mouldings on the underside of the tie-beams continue
on the braces. At the centre of each tie-beam is a carved
wooden boss; one depicting a woman's head is probably
14th-century work and perhaps was salvaged from the
earlier roof. The moulded principals support purlins and
ridge-pieces and these carry hollow-chamfered rafters
with run-out stops. Cusped tracery fills the spaces
between the tie-beams and the principals.
The E. wall of the North Chapel is faced externally
with ashlar chequered with knapped flint; the plinth has
ogee-moulded capping; the flat roof has a low weathered
parapet. The E. window has four trefoil-headed lights
(the inner pair ogee-headed) with vertical tracery in a
four-centred head under a hollow-chamfered label with
plain stops. The doorway to the vestry has a moulded
four-centred head with continuous jambs, stone panelled
responds with a traceried intrados, and a moulded square
label with bishop and king stops; the carved stone
spandrels below the label have quatrefoils with leaf
centres. In the upper part of the N. wall a small square-headed loop communicates with the room above the
vestry. The N. windows of the chapel are each of three
cinquefoil-headed lights under a two-centred outer head;
vertical tracery fills the space over the centre light, and
the side lights have quatrefoil tracery lights and
mouchettes. Externally above each window is a hollow-chamfered label with defaced head-stops. The buttress
between the windows is of three weathered stages. On
the S. side of the chapel, the wall above the chancel
arcade has a stone corbel-table in the style of the 13th
century with chamfered two-centred archlets springing
from ogee-moulded brackets and supporting a hollow-chamfered string-course. The origin of this feature is
uncertain, but it probably capped the walls of the
original church and was reset at its present level in the
15th century, when the chancel was rebuilt. The stonework is crisp and it cannot have been exposed for long
externally. The corbel-table supports one side of the
15th-century chapel roof. At the W. end of the chapel
is a wide two-centred arch of two chamfered orders
springing from hollow-chamfered responds with
moulded and enriched capitals and chamfered bases.
The responds are of the 14th century, but that on the
N. appears to have been moved in the 15th century from
its original position, presumably to widen the archway;
the arch voussoirs are larger than is normal in 14th-century work and the thin N. buttress is evidently a 15th-century feature. It thus appears that the 14th-century
aisle was narrower than the present one.
The 15th-century roof of the N. chapel, of five bays,
is almost flat and rests on four cambered main beams,
heavily moulded and mitred to similarly moulded wall-plates. Moulded longitudinal beams divide each bay into
four compartments; each compartment is sub-divided
by a rafter into two square panels closed with boarding;
moulded cross-fillets attached to the boarding further
subdivide each panel into four parts. The intersections of
each main beam with the central longitudinal beam and
with the side wall-plates are masked by wooden shields
borne by carved angels (in many cases the wings have
gone); the intersections of the cross-fillets are masked by
foliate bosses. The larger beams are enriched with colour
in diagonal bands and many of the shields are painted
heraldically: (fn. 13) from E. to W., i Stourton, ii France
quartering gules a lion passant or, iii Audley, iv?
Willoughby, v Bourchier, vi argent a fess gules impaling
Ludlow, vii Hungerford; others blank, missing or inaccessible.
The South Chapel is nearly uniform with that on the
north. The E. window has five gradated trefoil-headed
lights and vertical tracery in a four-centred head; the
lower part is blocked with brickwork. As on the S. side
of the N. chapel, the N. side has a corbel-table of 13th
century style above the 15th-century arcade. An opening
in the masonry in the N.W. corner of the chapel reveals
the remains of an earlier arch of two chamfered orders
springing from a polygonal respond with a roll-moulded
and hollow-chamfered capital; it appears to be of the
late 13th or early 14th century and its impost lies 4 ft.
below that of the 15th-century arcade. It has been suggested (p. lii) that this arch spanned the opening to a
former S. transept. The S. wall has windows and
buttresses generally similar to those of the N. chapel; externally the labels have carved head-stops. The second
window from the E. has been blocked in the lower part
to accomodate a late 19th-century S. doorway with a
four-centred head and a stone hood. Beside the third
buttress from the E. is the jamb of a 14th-century doorway with an ogee moulding ending at a broach stop; the
opening is now blocked, but it is shown as a doorway on
Lyons's engraving of 1745. If our conjectures about
earlier plans are correct the opening will have been
formed in the S. end of the original S. transept. The W.
end of the S. chapel has an archway uniform with that
of the N. chapel. In the arch, many small 14th-century
voussoirs are seen together with larger ones which attest
the 15th-century enlargement of the opening. The S.
buttress is of the 15th century.
The S. chapel roof (Plate 47) closely resembles that
of the N. chapel. Black-letter inscriptions painted on the
sides of the main beams ask for prayers for the souls of
William Swayne (mayor 1454, 1477), Chrystian his wife
and James his father. Carved angel busts at the intersections of the main beams and the central longitudinal
beams bear shields painted with-i Five Wounds, ii
indecipherable, iii argent a cross gules, iv pelican vulning,
v Swayne's merchant mark, vi and vii emblem of Trinity,
viii-x azure a chevron between three pheons or
William Swayne's merchant mark
painted in roof of S. chapel.
The Nave (Plate 34) has uniform N. and S. arcades
with two-centred arches of three orders; the moulded
inner and outer orders rest on attached shafts with
undercut foliate capitals and moulded polygonal bases;
the wave-moulded intermediate orders continue on the
piers. At the E. end the inner orders spring from head-corbels and the outer orders die into the wall; at the W.
end there are shafted responds. Above the arches,
internally, the N.and S. clearstorey walls are of panelled
stonework, each bay having six transomed trefoil ogee-headed panels surmounted by vertical tracery within an
elliptical-headed casement-moulded surround. Between
the bays, attached wall-shafts with shield capitals
support the woodwork of the roof. In each bay the four
middle panels of the upper height are perforated and
glazed, forming clearstorey windows with trefoil ogee-headed lights and vertical tracery. Externally the clearstory windows have elliptical labels; between the
windows diagonally-set pinnacles resting on worn
head-corbels continue upwards, passing through hollow-chamfered stringcourses to terminate in embattled
parapets with continuous moulded coping. Lyons's engraving shows crocketed finials, but these have gone. At
the E. and W. ends of the clearstorey wall, small
two-stage buttresses rise above the end-walls of the aisles.
At the W. end of the nave stout buttresses of four
weathered stages retain the thrusts of the arcades. The
W. doorway has a moulded two-centred head and continuous jambs in a square-headed surround with quatrefoils in the spandrels. Flanking the doorway, internally,
are two heights of panelled stonework, the panels having
cinquefoil two-centred heads and hollow-chamfered and
roll-moulded tracery. The W. window is of seven
transomed lights with cinquefoil heads in each height;
above, vertical and curvilinear tracery fills the casementmoulded two-centred head. The two-centred head only
appears externally and an elliptical transom divides the
true lights of the window from false lights in the pointed
upper part. Above the window, the embattled parapet
forms a low gable with a cross finial.
The nave roof has six king-strut tie-beam trusses with
moulded and cambered ties, enriched above and below
with brattishing and on the sides with spaced bosses;
inverted brattishing below each tie-beam continues on
segmental braces which rise from wooden wall-shafts
with moulded capitals. Other segmental timber braces
springing from the same wall-shafts outline the
surrounds of the clearstorey windows and support wall-plate cornices enriched in the same way as the tie-beams.
The heavily moulded principal rafters are of equal size
with the purlins, ridge-beams and intermediate rafters,
forming eight large panels in each bay; moulded secondary rafters and purlins divide each panel into four
parts. The triangles between the principals, the king-posts and the tie-beams contain cusped and crocketed
wooden tracery. At the centre of each tie-beam, facing
E. and W., and at the centre of the wall-plate cornice
in each bay, the roof is embellished with a carved
wooden angel bearing a shield or a scroll; many shields
are charged with sacred emblems carved in relief. The
intersections of the moulded timbers are covered by
wooden bosses, foliate and heraldic. Centrally in the
second bay from E. a shield is carved in relief with the
arms of Courtenay quartering Redvers; nearby, on the
N. wall-plate, is a carved shield-of-arms of Hungerford.
The windows of the North Aisle are approximately
uniform with those described in the N. chapel, but taller
and of four instead of three lights; the middle window
replaces the former N. doorway, abolished in 1835.
Each window has a moulded label with defaced stops;
above is a hollow-chamfered string-course and a low
parapet with roll-moulded capping. The stair turret
between the second and third bays originally gave access
to a chamber over the former porch; at the foot of the
stair is a doorway with a chamfered 'Tudor' head. The
square-set buttresses between the other bays are each of
three weathered stages, as also is the diagonal buttress at
the N.W. corner. Part of the E. side of the former N.
porch has been formed into a buttress of two weathered
stages; in it the doorway of the former porch chamber, a
square-headed opening with a moulded label, now has
ogee-headed tracery and is used as a window. The stair
continues above this level in an octagonal turret to give
access to the aisle roof; the W. side of the turret rests on
a 19th-century squinch supported on a corbel carved to
represent the head and shoulders of a bishop. The W.
wall of the N. aisle, rendered externally, has a window
uniform with those on the north. The nearly flat
wooden roof of the aisle, extensively restored, is similar
to that of the N. chapel and externally the lead covering
is continuous. Inside, the roof has seven bays. Carved
angel bosses at the intersections of the main members
and at the centre of each bay of the N. and S. wall-plates
bear shields with the following painted charges: from E.
to W., i gules, two keys in saltire or; ii a page of writing;
iii sable, a cross paty; iv gules, a harp or; v, vi and vii
quarterly France and England; viii Bourchier; ix See of
Salisbury; x gules, a cross argent; xi uncharged; xii gules,
in a border azure semy of crosses paty, three lions
passant or; xiii Five Wounds; xiv Beauchamp; xv Fitzalan
quartering Matravers; xvi emblem of Trinity; xvii as v;
xviii Stourton; xix argent, a chevron gules; xx Edward
the Confessor; xxi Montacute quartering Monthermer;
xxii Fitzalan; xxiii Audley; xxiv Bourchier; xxv Neville;
xxvi argent a chevron sable; xxvii gules a chevron sable;
xxviii argent a cross gules.
The South Aisle is similar to that on the N. In the
middle bay the lower part of the S. tower forms the S.
wall. Above the S. doorway a blocked window of three
trefoil-headed lights in a chamfered square-headed surround formerly opened into a chamber over the porch.
In the next bay, a blocked doorway to the tower vice
has a hollow-chamfered two-centred head; above is a
blocked window of two square-headed lights. The four
large S. windows in the S. aisle are uniform with those of
the N. aisle, as also is the W. window and the buttresses.
The roof, uniform with that of the N. aisle, has painted
shields charged as follows: from E. to W., i indecipherable; ii ?Fitzgerald; iii St. George; iv Gorges; v sable a
chevron between three lilies argent, quartering ermine;
vi gules a chevron between three catherine wheels or;
vii argent a chevron between three roses gules; viii argent
a fess between three moorhens; ix indecipherable; x
argent a cross gules; xi perhaps Brereton; xii Audley;
xiiiargent a chevron gules; xiv Ludlow; xv Clifford
(checky, a fess); xvi Clifford (barry); xvii sable a chevron
ermine between three hurdles argent; xviii Hungerford;
xix Fitgerald; xx argent a chevron gules; xxi as xii; xxii
argent a bend engrailed sable; xxiii ? Talbot; xxiv gules
six drops argent; xxv gules a pallium azure impaling
argent a chevron gules; xxvi argent a chevron gules; xxvii
Stourton; xxviii Beauchamp.
The Vestry, of two storeys and a cellar, has ashlar
walls and a lead-covered roof. The plinth of the E. wall
is uniform with that of the N. chapel; the wall-head has a
hollow-chamfered string-course and a low gabled coping.
The ground storey has a window with three trefoil-headed lights in a casement-moulded square-headed
surround; the upper storey has a similar window of two
lights without casement moulding. The N. wall has
modern upper windows of one and two lights; the N.W.
corner is splayed in the upper part and contains a square-headed niche. The W. wall has a modern doorway near
the N. end, a four-light window (as before) in the ground
storey, and a similar three-light opening above. An external stair goes down to the cellar doorway, which has
a four-centred head of three recessed orders under a
hollow-chamfered label; beside it is a square-headed
window with double-chamfered jambs. Inside, the
ground-floor vestry is lined with oak wainscot with
fielded panelling in two heights; it was installed in
1734. (fn. 14) The centre mullion of the W. window has a detached hollow-chamfered shaft which supports two
four-centred rear-arches. The upper room has a fireplace
surround with a hollow-chamfered four-centred head
and continuous jambs with splay stops. The cellar is said
to have contained a beam with an inscription naming
William Swayne (cf. S. chapel roof), (fn. 15) but this was not
necessarily in situ.
The South Tower, of four stages, has a moulded
plinth, weathered string-courses between the stages, and
an embattled parapet above a moulded string-course
with gargoyles (Plate 32). The parapet is decorated with
trefoil-headed stone panelling. The three lower stages
have angle buttresses with weathered offsets, except that
the lower parts of the northern buttresses are omitted or
have been removed where they would otherwise obtrude
into the S. aisle. The stair turret at the N.E. corner ends
at the top of the third stage; its S.E. doorway, with a
chamfered two-centred head, is of the 19th century. The
lowest stage of the tower forms the South Porch and has
a S. archway with a restored two-centred, double ogeemoulded, casement-moulded and hollow-chamfered
head, and continuous jambs ending in run-out stops
above hollow-chamfered plinths; the moulded label has
square stops. Inside, the porch is vaulted, with hollow-chamfered wall, diagonal and ridge ribs rising from angle
shafts with moulded caps and cylindrical bases. Foliate
bosses cover the junctions between the wall and ridge
ribs. The centre of the vault has a circular bell-way. On
the N., an archway with a roll-moulded and hollow-chamfered two-centred head and continuous jambs,
perhaps of the 18th or early 19th century, opens into
the S. aisle. The second stage has E. and W. windows,
each of one trefoil-headed light with blind spandrels
under a square label. On the S. a similar window of two
cinquefoil-headed lights is flanked by cinquefoil-headed
niches with shafted jambs, each shaft having a foliate
corbel and a crocketed finial. The ashlar of the W. wall
retains the outline of the steeply pitched roof of a house
which formerly stood in the angle between the tower
and the S. wall of the aisle; it appears in Buckler's S.W.
view of the church. (fn. 16) The third stage has a single-light S.
window uniform with those on E. and W. in the second
stage. Each side of the top stage has a belfry window of
two cinquefoil-headed lights with a cusped tracery light
under a two-centred head, with a hollow-chamfered label
with head stops. The lower part of each main light is
closed by a stone slab pierced with quatrefoils; the upper
part has wooden louvres, except on the E. where the
upper part of the window is masked by a clockface (see
fittings). The steep lead roof, in the form of a hexagonal
pyramid, has a metal finial and wind-vane. Within the
belfry each corner of the tower has a two-centred squinch of four chamfered orders, suggesting
that a stone spire was originally intended.
Fittings - Bells: eight; 1st–4th by R. Wells of
Aldbourne, 1771, M. Bailey, T. Ogden, churchwardens;
5th given by John Windham, 1683, recast by Wells 1771;
6th and 7th as 1st–4th; tenor by Abraham Rudhall of
Gloucester, 1716, Nathl. Sturidg, Tho. Hales, churchwardens, Wm. Naish, mayor. Clock-bells: two, by I.W.,
1581, Symon Nelle, Willym Yonge church wardens,
Robart Ellyt mayor, with monogram SN.
Benefactors' Tables: In vestry, above cornice of 18th-century panelling, records of benefactions from 17th
century onwards, probably painted in 19th century.
Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In chancel, in floor-slab
on N., (1) of Elizabeth Eyre, 1612, plate with verses in
Roman capitals (concealed by choir-stalls); (2) of Robert
Eyre, 1638, similar to foregoing; on S., (3) of John
Webbe, 1570 (Plate 48), with black-letter inscription on
margin, male and female figures in attitude of prayer,
two smaller brasses of children, three shields-of-arms
(Webbe quartering Abarough, Webbe impaling Abarough,
and Webbe quartering Abarough impaling Wylford) and
indent for fourth shield. In N. chapel (4) inscription-plate of John and Catherine Baylye, 1600, with shield-of-arms of Merchant Adventurers of Hamburg impaling
Baylye; (5) inscription-plate of Dorothea Ballard, 1709.
In S. chapel, reset on N. screen, (6) of William Viner,
1680, inscription-plate and shield-of-arms of Viner.
Indents: In chancel, on N., (1) for two rectangular
plates, 26 ins. by 17 ins. overall. In N. aisle, on top slab
of table-tomb (see monument (2)), indents (2) for two
figures bearing scrolls, two groups of children, one shield,
one rectangular panel, four corner roundels and continuous margin strip in moulded edge of slab, mid 15th
century, all filled in and partly obliterated by later
inscriptions; on floor-slab No. 10, indent (3) for plate,
2½ ins. by 13 ins., surmounted by figure 11½ ins. high.
In S. aisle, near W. end, (4) for plate, 3 ins. by 8 ins.;
adjacent (5) for plate, 4½ ins. by 20½ ins.; at S. doorway,
(6) for plate 2¼ ins. by 11 ins., and shield 4½ ins. high.
Chairs: In chancel, one, of oak, with turned legs,
panelled back, shaped armrests, early 17th century. In
vestry, ten uniform oak chairs with turned legs, leather
seats and backs, mid 17th century.
Chests: In N. chapel, of oak, with iron straps and
handles, 19th century. In S. aisle, of oak, heavily bound
with ten strap-hinges, two hasps and staples, and end
lifting-handles (Plate 53), early 16th century. In vestry,
of oak with panelled sides, late 18th century.
Clocks: In tower (modern movement), with square
wooden dial with moulded border, probably 18th
century, with added churchwardens' inscriptions of
1843; below, two small wooden striking jacks representing men in late 16th-century armour, probably
1581 (cf. Bells). In vestry, oak longcase clock by Francis
Shuttleworth, Salisbury, 18th century.
Communion Table: Oak, with bulbous turned legs,
Door: In doorway from N. chapel to vestry, of oak
with four-centred head and six fielded panels, 1734.
Fonts: Loose in S. porch, circular stone bowl with
roll-moulded base, 13th century; octagonal stone shaft
with panelled sides, 16th century; moulded base, 19th
Glass: In N. chapel, in tracery of E. window, some
original stained glass in situ, also reset fragments, 15th
century; in N. windows, in mouchette openings of
tracery, 15th-century leaf patterns; in heads of lateral
lights and tracery quatrefoils, 15th-century foliage. In S.
chapel, in cusped heads of E. window, fragments of
canopy finials; in tracery lights, fragmentary shields
with merchant marks, an irradiated figure and other
fragments, 15th century. Reset in second S. window
from E., formerly in vestry, St. Christopher, perhaps
St. Francis, St. Thomas of Canterbury, fragmentary,
Hatchments: Seven with shields-of-arms: Spooner
impaling Burt; Long; Hawes impaling Hawkins; Long
impaling Blackall (bis); Powell quartering Priaulx, with
inescutcheon of Burrough; Hayter impaling Egerton;
18th and 19th century.
Images: In niches in S. elevation of tower, (1) Virgin
and Child, emblem of the See of Salisbury, (2) St.
Thomas of Canterbury, patron; 15th century. Reset in
easternmost buttress of S. chapel, (3) ogee cinquefoil-headed recess enclosing relief of Crucifixion with St. Mary
and St. John; late 14th or early 15th century.
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel,
at W. end of N. wall, (1) of William Wroughton, 1770,
and Dorothy (Musgrave) his wife, 1799, variegated
marble tablet in shaped surround (Plate 50), with arms
of Wroughton impaling Musgrave.
Unidentified merchant mark on table-tomb in N. chapel.
In N. aisle, reset at E. end (Lyons shows it centrally
in W. part of N. chapel), (2) Purbeck marble table-tomb
(illustrated on p. lvii) with moulded top, panelled sides.
six blank shields and two with a merchant mark, plinth
with quatrefoil enrichment; top originally with brasses
(see Indents); mid 15th century. Inset in top slab of
foregoing and partly masking indents, alabaster inscription-panels of (3) Thomas Chafin, 1679, and (4)
Thomas Chafin Markes, 1727.
In N. chapel, on E. wall, (5) of Thomas Ray, 1670,
and Margaret his wife, 1682, marble cartouche with
baroque surround and arms of Ray impaling an unidentified coat; on N. wall (6) of John Gough, 1709/10,
slate panel in marble surround representing draped archway in architectural surround (Plate 52), arms of Gough
on tympanum; (7) of Sara Hersent, 1741, marble tablet
in classical surround; (8) of Sir Alexander Powell, 1748,
Catherine (Willes) his wife, 1772, and others of the same
family, marble monument by R. Earlsman, with obeliskshaped finial, urns and cartouche-of-arms (obliterated)
impaling Willes (Plate 50).
In S. chapel, reset in N.E. corner (Plate 49), (9) of
Christopher Eyre , with two kneeling figures in
double aedicule with three Corinthian columns under
entablature and cresting with shield-of-arms of Eyre and
of Eyre impaling Smithies; in S.E. corner, (10) of
[Thomas Eyre] and Elizabeth (Rogers) his wife, 1612,
painted monument erected c. 1624 resembling foregoing
and formerly also in chancel, with kneeling figures in
double aedicule between obelisks; above, shield-of-arms
of Eyre flanked by urns; below, figures of eleven
children and three infants.
Below the foregoing monuments and occupying the
full width of S. chapel, monument (11) of Sir Robert
Eyre (Plate 45), authorised by Vestry in 1724, (fn. 17) consisting of low platform (presumably containing burial
vault) with ashlar front of fielded panels between
panelled pilasters and with moulded capping surmounted
by wrought-iron screen, richly worked with scrolls and
leafwork, with shaped central gates, eight scrolled uprights, shields-of-arms of Eyre, and a central cresting
with arms of Eyre quartering Lucy; top of vault patterned with slate and ashlar; behind, N., E. and S.
walls of S. chapel lined with oak wainscot with round-headed panels between fluted pilasters supporting
moulded cornices; large central panel with Corinthian
pilasters and scrolled broken pediment enclosing carved
swags and cartouche-of-arms of Eyre quartering Lucy;
Ionic lateral pilasters with smaller pediments. Also in S.
chapel, on S. wall, (12) of Thomas Harrington, 1828,
marble tablet by Osmond.
In nave, on N. respond of chancel arch, (13) of
Richard Earlsman, 1831, marble tablet by Cave; on S.
respond, (14) of Joan Popple, 1572, marble tablet
(1826) by Osmond. In S. aisle, reset on S. wall, (15) of
Humphrey Beckham, 1671, oak panel with biblical
scenes carved in high relief (Plate 47); on W. wall, (16)
of members of the Long family, 1723–1824, marble
tablet by Osmond with shield-of-arms of Long.
In churchyard, 8 paces S. of 3rd buttress of S. chapel,
(17) of Ann, 1785, and Benjamin Banks, 1795 (maker of
musical instruments), flat stone.
Floor-slabs: To the number of 133, few if any in situ,
include the following: In chancel, (1) of John Webbe,
1570, see Brasses (3). In N. chapel, (2) of Mary (Ray)
Barnaby, 1724, slate, with long inscription neatly
carved; (3) of John Powell, 1737, and his daughter
Catherine, 1757, Purbeck with bold lettering and sculptor's signature Mitcherd; (4) of Catherine Powell, 1772,
also by Mitcherd. In S. chapel, near S. wall, (5) of
Thomas Hawker, 1636, and his wife; (6) of John
Conant, 1653, 'orthodox and faithfull minister of this
parish'; (7) of Mary Viner, 1682, small slate slab. In
nave, near W. doorway, (8) of Henry Long, 1727,
Purbeck marble with shield-of-arms of Long. In N. aisle,
(9) of Lieut. Francis le Breton, R.N., 1798, Purbeck
marble with bold lettering; (10) of Margaret Hele,
1672, Purbeck marble, with indent for antecedent brass,
also with inscription of Richard Eyre, 1725. In S. aisle,
reset (1975) near E. end, (11) of Jane Eyre, 1695, and
(12) of Elizabeth (Chester) Eyre, 1705, two similar
black slate slabs with richly carved cartouches-of-arms
and moulded margins; near S. doorway, (13) of Anne,
1683, and Richard Minifie, 1706, also Anne (Minifie)
Knight, 1709, double slate slab with two shields-of-arms
(Knight quartering Page, Minifie and Stoning).
Organ: In N. chapel, by Samuel Green, 1792, in
panelled wood case with gothic enrichments, given by
George III to Salisbury Cathedral and transferred, with
some alteration, in 1877. Previously, a large organ by
Thomas Swarbrick, 1739, had been at the W. end of the
nave. (fn. 18)
Paintings: In nave, on E. wall, Last Judgement (Plate
35), late 15th century; whitewashed 1593, discovered
1819 and re-whitewashed; exposed and restored 1881; (fn. 19)
at base, on N. of chancel arch, nimbed figure in canopied
niche, perhaps St. James; on S., in plainer niche, mitred
figure with crosier, perhaps St. Thomas of Canterbury or
St. Osmund. In S. chapel, on N. wall, above arcade, three
late 15th-century panels (Plate 43) depicting Annuncia
tion, Visitation and Adoration; background painted to
simulate red hangings powdered with garter badges and
vases of lilies. In vestry, reset on E. wall above panelling,
part of biblical scene on canvas, probably remains of a
large 'Transfiguration' by Douglas Guest, 1809. (fn. 20)
Rainwater Heads: On S. wall of S. chapel, 1682; ditto
S. aisle, 1682; on S. wall of chancel clearstorey, 1748;
ditto nave clearstorey, 1751, with city badge (eagle).
Royal Arms: In S. aisle, formerly over chancel
arch, panel (6 ft. by 6 ft.) in moulded surround with
arms of Elizabeth I (Plate 56); probably 1593 (Swayne,
Screens: In E. bay of chancel, on N. and S., of
stone, each with four trefoil-headed panels with carved
spandrels enclosing blank shields; above, coved cornice
with four angel busts carrying scrolls and upper frieze of
quatrefoils; late 15th-century. In S. chapel, in E. bay, see
Stalls: In chancel, four, of oak with moulded tops and
shafted sides; misericords with foliate carving, two with
heads (Plate 46), 15th century.
Sundial: On tower, near top of S. elevation, painted,
with large wrought-iron gnomon, perhaps 1672. (fn. 21)
Table: In vestry, of oak, with circular drop-leaf top
and eight legs, late 17th century.
Miscellanea: Mace-rest, of wrought-iron painted and
gilded, with central cresting repainted with arms and
cypher of George III, and side plaques with civic emblems, 1643. (fn. 22) Textile (2ft. 10 ins. by 4 ft. 6 ins.),
velvet with gold and silver embroidery (Plate 53); at
centre, Annunciation, above (?) T E C with crosier,
surround powdered with fleurs-de-lis, seraphim and
double-headed eagles, 15th century.
For fittings formerly at St. Edmund's, moved to St.
Thomas's in 1973–5, see Monument (5).
(4) St. Martin's Church, in the S.E. quarter of the
city, has walls of flint and rubble with ashlar dressings,
and tile-covered roofs; the tower and spire are of ashlar.
At the Domesday Survey of 1086 the bishop's estate
in Salisbury comprised the greater part of the Hundred
of Underditch. Valued at £47 a year it included the site
of the present cathedral, Stratford and Milford, and it
nearly surrounded the king's holding which included the
castle. (fn. 23) No church is mentioned in Domesday, but in
1091 when Bishop Osmund set aside part of the episcopal property for the endowment of the cathedral
canons he included 'the church of Sarum with its tithes
and other possessions'. (fn. 24) In the context this can only
mean the church of the manor, identified as St. Martin's
in an episcopal charter of 1228 which refers to 'the
church of St. Martin of our manor of Salisbury'. (fn. 25)
The earliest structural remains yet identified are
foundations, perhaps of a South Transept, excavated
in 1956 just S. of the present S. aisle; they are dated c.
1100 by associated pottery. (fn. 26) Also of an early date is an
obliquely-set flint and rubble wall at the W. end of the
present nave and S. aisle. An inclined creasing course in
this wall suggests a former roof (Plate 36), but its significance is not altogether certain and there is no proof
that the wall was originally part of the church building.
The obliquely-set wall is pierced by an early 13th-century doorway with a two-centred head under a roll
moulded label; the rebates show that it was the entrance
to a building on the site of the present tower and
porch. (fn. 27)
St. Martin's Church
The long Chancel is datable by style to the first half
of the 13th century. Early in the 14th century the West
Tower was built, the lower part of its E. side incorpor
ating the oblique wall with its 13th-century doorway. A
14th-century doorway at the N. end of the oblique wall
shows that this wall then served as the W. end of the
Early in the 15th century work began on the North
and South Chapels and on the reconstruction of the
Nave with North and South Aisles. The chapels opened
off the chancel through archways with four-centred
heads, but as work proceeded westwards the design was
changed and loftier two-centred arches continued the
same alignment in the arcades flanking the nave. The
oblique wall at the W. end of the church with its 14th-century nave doorway was retained, but a new W. window was provided.
Before the middle of the 16th century a transverse
arch was erected to mark the division between nave and
chancel, its responds being set against the piers of the
nave arcade at the point where the design of the arches
changes. Below the chancel arch was a roof-loft, but this
has gone (the present rood-screen is modern) and there
only remains the turret stair inserted in the wall at the
S.W. corner of the S. chapel. The West Porch and adjoining Parish Room are of the 16th century; the latter is
sometimes called the Chapel of Corpus Christi.
In the 17th or 18th century the 13th-century chancel
was given a lower ceiling and an elliptical arch was
placed at its W. end, in line with the E. walls of the N.
and S. chapels. In 1838 this elliptical arch was removed,
a 'gothic' arch of plaster and lath was put in its place
and the chancel ceiling was replaced by a timber and
plaster wagon roof. The E. window of the chancel was
inserted in 1849 (fn. 28) in place of one which appears to have
been of the 15th century. (fn. 29) In 1886 the church was extensively restored and the plaster arch of 1838 was replaced by one of oak. (fn. 30)
Architectural Description — The gabled E. wall of the
Chancel (Plate 31) is built of small flints mixed with
some rubble and has original scaffolding holes outlined
in rubble; at the base is a chamfered plinth. The window
of 1849 has three gradated lancets; above is a circular
loop with cusping. The original ashlar angle-buttresses on
the N.E. are of one weathered stage; those on the S.E.
have two weathered stages and are of the 14th century.
The N. wall, of flint and rubble, has three chamfered and
rebated lancet windows with moulded labels and stiff
leaf stops. Ashlar at the W. extremity of the wall may
suggest the re-entrant angle of a former N. chapel.
Inside, the lancet windows have hollow-chamfered rear-arches with labels as on the outside; below the window
sills is a restored roll-moulded string-course. The S. wall,
similar in build to the E. and N. walls, has restored
lancet windows of one and two lights, as described, and
a two-stage 15th-century buttress. On the W. is an original doorway with a chamfered two-centred head, partly
restored, chamfered jambs and a roll-moulded label; the
roll moulding is repeated transversely on the E. label-stop; that on the W. is covered by the wall of the S.
chapel. Inside, the S. chancel windows have rear-arches as
on the N. and the sills have a roll-moulded string-course
which also forms a label over the segmental-pointed
rear-arch of the S. doorway.
The W. bay of the chancel has early 15th-century
four-centred N. and S. arches, each with two ogeemoulded orders rising from hollow-chamfered and
shafted responds with moulded caps and bases. The N.E.
respond has small head-stops in the hollow-chamfers; the
N.W. respond, originally a free-standing column, is
masked by the N. respond of the chancel arch. The E.
respond of the S. arch rests on a shafted bracket with a
carved head-corbel; the S.W. respond is similar to that on
the N.W. The 16th-century chancel arch is two-centred
and of two ogee and roll-moulded orders separated by a
casement-moulding; it springs from hollow-chamfered
and shafted responds with polygonal caps and bases.
In the Nave (Plate 39), the W. face of each respond of
the chancel arch, masking the shafting of the former
nave columns, has two heights of ogee-headed stone
panelling. The upper panel on the S. contains a bracket
for an image. Plain ashlar above the panels suggests the
level of the 16th-century rood-loft. The N. and S.
arcades are nearly uniform, with two-centred arches of
two ogee-moulded orders rising from hollow-chamfered
and shafted piers similar to those in the W. part of the
chancel. Polygonal shaft-caps and bases in the S. arcade
suggest that that side was built after the N. side, where
most but not all of these features are circular. The
oblique W. wall, of flint and rubble with ashlar dressings,
has a 14th-century doorway with a chamfered two-centred head and continuous jambs, and a double roll-moulded label with head-stops. The upper part of the W.
wall contains a restored 15th-century window of five
transomed cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery
in a two-centred head (Plate 36).
The nave has a 16th-century wagon roof of eight bays
with moulded ribs springing from carved wooden corbels
on moulded cornices; the corbels represent angels,
demons etc. in various attitudes. Leaf-bosses cover the
intersection of the ribs. The regular spacing of the E. bay
suggests that the wagon roof is later than the inserted
The North Aisle (including the North Chapel) has
two-stage buttresses of ashlar and flint. The E. window
has four cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery
and a cusped roundel in a two-centred head; the hollow-chamfered rear-arch springs from male and female head-corbels. The four N. windows are uniform, each having
three cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery in a
four-centred head. The hollow-chamfered rear-arches
spring from corbels carved to represent heads of monks,
priests, ladies, a queen, a king and a pope (Plate 42). The
N. doorway has a chamfered two-centred head and continuous jambs with rounded stops. In the W. wall, a
window uniform with that on the E. opens above the
roof of the adjoining building; its two-centred rear-arch
has male and female head corbels. The richly decorated
late 15th-century wagon roof has moulded ribs with leaf
bosses at the intersections; the moulded wall-plate
cornices have hollow-chamfers with spaced flowers and
carved enrichment above (Plate 44). Alternate crossribs rest on polygonal oak wall-shafts with moulded
caps and bases; these stand on stone brackets carved to
represent male, female and grotesque heads, one with
eye-glasses (Plate 42). The intervening cross-ribs spring
from oak brackets.
The South Aisle (including the South Chapel) has
ashlar buttresses of two weathered stages. The E.
window has four cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical
tracery in a two-centred head with a label. The five S.
windows are uniform, each having three cinquefoil-headed lights and tracery as described; the hollow-chamfered two-centred rear-arches die into the splayed
jambs. The polygonal rood-vice turret, not integral with
the adjacent buttress, has a weathered head and a
chamfered plinth; on the W. side of the buttress the
upper part of the turret rests on a grotesque corbel.
The lower doorway of the vice has a four-centred
rebated and roll-moulded head and mitred spandrels in
a chamfered square surround; the upper doorway has a
chamfered four-centred head. The W. end of the aisle
(Plate 36) is formed mainly of the E. side of the 14th-century tower, itself incorporating the remains of the
earlier oblique flint wall with its 13th-century doorway.
In 1886, when the masonry was restored, several fragments of 12th-century carving were exposed and reset;
their provenance is unknown. The 13th-century doorway has a chamfered two-centred head and continuous
jambs, and a roll-moulded label with returned stops. In
adapting the earlier flint wall to form the base of this side
of the 14th-century tower the masonry was provided with
inclined creasing, bonded to the ashlar of the tower.
The inclination of the creasing stones suggests a roofline and has led to the hypothesis of a 14th-century
aisle, but the evidence is inconclusive. The 16th-century
wagon roof, similar to that of the nave, was extensively
restored in 1886.
The West Tower (Plate 36) has diagonal N.W. and
S.W. buttresses of three weathered stages and a similar
square-set buttress on the S.E.; the windows are in
three storeys, but the walls are without offsets. The
base has a weathered plinth and the top has a plain
parapet with a moulded string-course and coping. In the
lower storey the N. side has an inserted doorway with a
rounded head; the E. side comprises the antecedent wall
with the 13th-century doorway already described; the S.
and W. sides have small trefoil-headed loops with
moulded labels. In the middle storey the N., S. and W.
sides have taller loops. In the upper storey the same sides
have each a belfry window of two trefoil-headed lights
with a cusped tracery light in a two-centred head with a
moulded label. Above the W. belfry window is a small
loop. The octagonal spire, of ashlar 7½ ins. thick at the
base, has weathered broaches, roll-moulded arrises and
moulded stringcourses defining four stages. Unlike the
cathedral spire (see Salisbury, II) it has no internal
The West Porch and Parish Room (Plate 36) have ashlar walls with moulded stringcourses and modern parapets. The N.W. corner has a weathered single-stage buttress. The flat roof lies below the sills of the W. windows
of the nave and N. aisle; old pictures show that the roof
was formerly pitched and tiled. The room has N. and W.
windows of three cinquefoil-headed lights with square
labels continuous with the stringcourses. The W.
doorway of the porch has a two-centred head of two
hollow-chamfered orders and continuous jambs; a
small ogee-headed niche beside the S. jamb was probably
for a stoup. A narrow ogee-headed window immediately
to the S. resembles those of the W. tower and has
probably been reset. The wall which divides the porch
from the parish room is of uncertain date; it contains a
tomb recess with a moulded elliptical head probably of
the early 16th century, but not in situ; reset within it is
a 15th-century table-tomb. Recess and tomb were drawn
in 1811 by J. Buckler. (fn. 31) The walls of the parish room are
lined with modern woodwork. Below is a 19th-century
Fittings — Bells: eight; treble and 2nd modern; 3rd
and 4th by Mears, 1842–3; 5th and 6th by Richard
Flower or Florey of Salisbury, William Smith and
Walter Pope churchwardens, 1675; 7th by John Wallis,
1582, 'Be mec and loly to heare the word of God'; tenor
by John Wallis and John Danton, 1624, 'Call a solemne
assemblie gather the people'.
Brasses and Indents. Brasses: In S. aisle, on S. wall,
of John Sebastian Carpenter, 1632, plate (13½ ins. by
21 ins.) with inscriptions in Latin, Greek and English
and representation of the commemorated, kneeling. In
N. aisle, in paving slab near W. end, of M. Godwin, 1785.
Indents: In S. aisle, near W. end, Purbeck marble floor-slab with indents for two rectangular plates. In W. porch,
on top of table-tomb, indents for two figures and rectangular plate, 15th century.
Chairs: pair, mahogany, with plain legs, leather-covered seats, shaped arm-rests and serpentine 'ladder'
backs, 18th century. Chests: two, one iron-bound and
painted externally with rosettes, with complicated and
highly enriched lock mechanism inside lid, probably late
16th century; another of cast iron with panelled sides,
1813 (old vestry book).
Communion Table: In chancel, of oak, incorporating
carved bulbous turned legs and chip-carved rail, 17th
century, made up with modern work.
Cross: In churchyard, octagonal stone shaft with
spurred foot, mediaeval; finial and pedestal modern.
Doors: In W. doorway of W. porch, of oak planks
with cover-fillets, iron ring-handle and scalloped
scutcheon, early 16th-century. In N. doorway of N.
aisle, doors as described, late 15th century. In parish
room, to closet, two reused oak pew doors with shaped
tops and fielded panels, 18th century.
Font: (Plate 41) of Purbeck marble, octagonal, with
two trefoil-headed panels on each side, moulded central
shaft, eight plain corner shafts, hollow-chamfered plinth,
and chamfered base; mainly 13th century.
Hatchments: In N. aisle (1) of H.P. Baker, 1794; (2)
of John Fuller, 1777; (3) of Mary Thomas, 1781. In S.
Aisle, (4) of John Batt, 1723; (5) of ....... Gooding;
(6) of Edward Baker, 1796; (7) of Jane (Phipps) Baker,
Hour-glass: mounted in brass, inscribed 'St. Martin
Images, see Niches.
Inscriptions and Scratchings: In chancel, on E.
respond of N. arch, 'Westbury', cursive, 15th century. In
N. aisle, on 3rd pier of N. arcade, 'WS 1675'. On E. jamb
of N. doorway, outside, 'TI MR 1631'. In tower, on
2nd-storey window jamb, '1535 TS'; 'IS 1627 September the 17'. On N. face of tower, below parapet, '....aird
.... churchwardens'; on N.W. tower buttress, 'this spire ....
the year of 1794'. (On p. 167 Baker records 'This spire
was repaired in the year of our Lord 1791: T. Adams J.
Lectern: (Plate 53) of brass, with eagle and turned
pedestal, feet gone, second half of 15th century. (fn. 32)
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel,
on N. wall, (1) of Richard Earlsman, 1831, tablet by
Cave; (2) of William Ludlow of Clarendon, and his
daughter Anne, 1749, Purbeck marble tablet with enriched surround and shield-of-arms (Plate 51); (3) of
Bennet Swayne, 1748, and Thomas Swayne, 1747,
grey and white marble monument (Plate 50) with sarcophagus, urns, shield-of-arms, portrait medallion,
cherubs and festoons; on S. wall, (4) of John Chester
Pern Tinney, 1832, tablet by Osmond; (5) of Daniel
and Edward Hales, 1645, small black marble tablet
with emblems of mortality and shields-of-arms of Hales
and Hales impaling Gantlet; (6) of Mary Thomas, 1781,
marble tablet with scroll cresting (Plate 51). In N. aisle,
(7) of Joseph and Jane Willis, 1772, 1777, slate tablet
with marble surround (Plate 51); (8) of Edward
Hinxman, 1807, and others of his family, marble tablet
by Osmond; (9) of Henry Chester, 1786, and his wife
Hetty, 1812, small tablet with arms; (10) of Henry
Hinxman, 1829, and others of his family, sarcophagusshaped tablet with shield-of-arms and crest, by Osmond;
(11) of James Bartlett, 1768, and others of his family,
marble tablet with pediment (Plate 52). In S. aisle, (12)
of Edward Baker, 1796, and his wife Jane (Phipps),
1800, marble wall monument with urn, and arms of
Baker impaling Phipps, by King of Bath (Plate 51); (13)
of Thomas Snow, 1776, and Elizabeth Tatum, 1798,
marble tablet (Plate 51); (14) of Mary Edgar, 1770, slate
tablet in marble surround (Plate 51); (15) of John, 1803,
and Margaret Blake, 1812, marble tablet with shield-of-arms; (16) of Laetitia Lee, 1800, marble tablet with
arms of Lee impaling another coat, by Reeves of Bath;
(17) of Goldwyer family, 1748–1812, marble tablet
with shield-of-arms and crest. In W. porch, reset in recess
in N. wall, (18) Purbeck marble table-tomb with arcaded
sides and hollow-chamfered capping, top with indents
for brasses, 15th century. In churchyard on S., several
headstones and table-tombs, 18th century; 40 paces S.
of the tower, (19) stone coffin-lid with hollow-chamfered and roll-moulded sides and cross carved on
top, defaced, probably 13th century; 40 paces S. of
nave, (20) of William Garlick, 1796, and others, table-tomb with carved panels and moulded top.
Floor-slabs: In chancel, 10 reset slate and Purbeck
marble slabs include: (1) of Catherine Egerton, 1743,
and Elizabeth Grevile, 1745, with lozenges-of-arms of
Egerton and Grevile (Plate 50); (2) of Ann (Goddard)
Reaves, 1754, with lozenge-of-arms of Goddard; (3)
of Sarah Slater, 1797, with lozenge-of-arms of Slater;
(4) of Rev. Peter Terry, 1727, and his wife Mary, 1739,
with arms of Terry impaling Prince; (5) of John Greenhill, 1674, with arms of Greenhill impaling another
coat. In nave and aisles, 46 reset inscribed slabs of slate,
marble and Purbeck marble, ranging from 1645 to 1839
include: (6) of Thomas Hancock, 1725, with arms and
crest; (7) of William Wastfield, 1735, with arms and
crest; (8) of John Rolfe, 1735, with arms and inescutcheon, impaling another coat; (9) of William Goldwyer, 1748, with arms; (10) of Edward Windover,
1645, with arms; (11) of Elizabeth Payne, 1734, with
arms of Payne and inescutcheon. In N. aisle, at W. end,
(12) of Purbeck marble with worn black-letter inscription, orate pro natu Johannis ..... Jacob ....., probably early 16th century.
Niches: In N. chapel, in E. wall, with square head and
rebated jambs, containing hollow-chamfered shelf;
probably 15th century. In S. aisle, in S. wall, with
moulded stone surround and coupled cinquefoil head
with miniature vaulting, containing Annunciation with
two standing figures in alabaster, discovered and restored
1886. (fn. 33)
Piscinae: In chancel, in S. wall, with double roll-moulded trefoil head and continuous jambs, shelf, and
plain sill with quatrefoil basin, 13th century (Plate 40).
In S. chapel, in E. wall, with trefoil head in ogeemoulded square surround, with plain shelf and moulded
corbelled sill with octagonal basin, late 15th century
Plate: Elizabethan silver cup and cover-paten (Plate
54), without assay or maker's mark, but similar in
design to 'Gillingham' series, (fn. 34) inscribed 'Ex dono
Gulielmi Wickham episcopi Vintonia' (Wm. Wickham,
1595). Two patens, one inscribed 'Christopher Horte
Thomas Chiffinch church wardins of St. Martins Anno
Domini 1620'. Stand-paten by Gabriel Sleath, 1728.
Silver flagon, 10 ins. high (Plate 55), with assay mark of
1669 and inscription 'This flagon belongeth to the
Parish Church of St. Martins in Sarum, William Antrum,
William Ginaway, Churchwardens 1670'. Silver-gilt dish,
18 ins. diam. (Plate 54), with repoussé border; assay
mark of 1662 and maker's mark DR with pellets above
and below (punch with serrated outline); central shield-of-arms of Edward Hyde, Lord Clarendon, surrounded
by donor's inscription of Alice Denham, 1686. (fn. 35)
Pulpit: Formerly in St. Martin's (fn. 36) now in modern
church of St. Mark, of oak, much restored, with tapering panelled base and five panelled sides with cusped
arcading and brattishing (Plate 46), late 15th century.
Royal Arms: Of Elizabeth I, painted on panel (Plate
56). Of James I, of carved and painted wood, with arms
in garter, crowned, flanked by lion and unicorn carved
in the round; probably 1605. (fn. 37)
Stoups: Externally on W. wall of porch, with hollow-chamfered ogee head under weathered hood and with
continuous jambs ending in broach stops, bowl replaced
by weathered ashlar, probably 14th century, reset. In
nave, beside W. doorway, with chamfered four-centred
head and continuous jambs, chamfered sill and quatrefoil bowl, early 16th century.
Sundials: On S.W. buttress of S. aisle, inscribed hora
porrigit, with bronze gnomon, 18th century; on S.E.
buttresses of chancel and S. aisle, two mediaeval scratchdials.
Miscellanea: Reset in S. aisle, in W. wall, two carved
stones, probably 11th century; in S. wall, carved stone
four-petalled flower, similar to examples in Cathedral
Close wall reputed to be from Old Sarum; externally in
the E. wall of S. aisle, carved mediaeval fragments.
St. Edmund's Church
(5) St. Edmund's Church, in the N.E. quarter of the
mediaeval town, was the church of St. Edmund's College,
founded by Bishop Walter de la Wyle in 1269 for a
provost and thirteen priests whose duties included the
service of a parish. (fn. 38) Of the 13th-century building
nothing is seen. In the 15th century a large aisled
chancel was built, the N. aisle containing a Chapel of St.
John and the S. aisle a Lady Chapel. (fn. 39) The 15th-century
aisled chancel still exists as the present nave; the will of
Wm. Mercer (d. 1407) probably refers to it when it
mentions the newly built church of St. Edmund. (fn. 40) As the
15th-century chancel is flanked by aisles the 13th
century church may well have been cruciform, with a
central tower and four aisleless arms; the main compartment of the 15th-century chancel would thus have
replaced the original chancel while the chancel aisles
would have extended E. from the transepts. John
Speed's map of Salisbury (Plate 1) shows the church
with a nave, a central tower, a S. arm and a wide chancel.
In 1653 the central tower collapsed and it was
resolved 'that the E. end of the church now standing
shall be repaired' while the W. end 'which is now likely
to fall, be taken down in convenient time'. (fn. 41) It is
probable that the walls then taken down included the
remains of the 13th-century building. By 1656 the
Tower had been rebuilt in the original position and the
W. ends of the former N. and S. chapels had been closed
with new walls; the 15th-century E. end thus became a
Nave with North and South Aisles. There is no clearstorey. A chancel built in 1766 (fn. 42) is known from a
drawing by J. Buckler, (fn. 43) and from the plan in Benson &
Hatcher (opp. p. 592); it was demolished in 1865 to
make way for the present Chancel with North and South
Chapels. (fn. 44) The lower storey of the North Vestry dates
from 1766 and the upper storey from 1809, (fn. 45) but the W.
wall of the vestry incorporates mediaeval masonry. The
Burial Chamber on the E. of the vestry was added before
1833 (Reform Act map); above it on the first floor is
an additional vestry room. In 1973 the church became
redundant and was converted to secular uses. Many of
the movable fittings were transferred to St. Thomas's
(3), but the present inventory records things as they
were c. 1970.
The walls of the building are mainly of Chilmark
ashlar. The nave and aisle roofs are tiled. The tower is
a noteworthy example of the survival of the mediaeval
style in the middle of the 17th century (Plate 33).
Architectural Description – Reset in the E. walls of
the 19th-century N. and S. chapels are two 15th-century
windows, probably transferred in 1865 from the E. ends
of the aisles. Each window is of five transomed lights
with cinquefoil two-centred heads in each height and
with vertical tracery in a two-centred outer head. The
chancel windows are of 1865.
The chancel arch of 1865 stands approximately in
the same position as that of 1766. The 15th-century
chancel, now the Nave, has N. and S. arcades with uniform two-centred arches, each of two hollow-chamfered
orders resting on piers and responds in which attached
shafts alternate with hollow-chamfers; the shafts have
moulded capitals and bases. Narrow arches at the E. end
of each arcade appear to be of 1865.
The North Aisle (formerly St. John's Chapel) has five
uniform windows, each of four trefoil-headed lights
with vertical tracery. The main tracery lights have upper
and lower cusping; the four-centred outer heads have
moulded labels with head-stops; the rear-arches are segmental-pointed. The easternmost window is masked externally by the vestry building, but it is seen inside;
below is a doorway with a double ogee-moulded four-centred head and continuous jambs with broach stops.
The N. wall has a plain weathered parapet with a chamfered string-course and two worn gargoyles. Each of
the four 15th-century N. buttresses has a double plinth
and three stages with weathered offsets. The N.W. angle
buttresses are of 1656 and have three weathered stages
somewhat taller than those of the N. buttresses; their
hollow-chamfered plinths are continuous with those of
the W. wall and the tower. The W. doorway of the N.
aisle has a wave-moulded and hollow-chamfered two-centred head, continuous jambs and a moulded label
with square stops; it opens in a plain ashlar projection
with a moulded cornice. Above, the W. window has five
cinquefoil-headed lights with vertical tracery in a two-centred outer head; the tracery appears to be mediaeval
and presumably is reset.
The South Aisle (formerly the Lady Chapel) has
windows, buttresses and parapet similar to those on the
N. An angel is carved on the S.E. corner of the parapet
and the string-course has three worn gargoyles. The doorway below the easternmost window has a moulded label
and continuous jambs ending in run-out stops. The W.
doorway has a double ogee-moulded, casement-moulded
and hollow-chamfered two-centred head flanked by
panelled and cusped spandrels, and continuous jambs
with run-out stops; it is of the 15th century and reset.
As in the N. aisle the doorway is set in an ashlar projection of 1656 with a moulded cornice. Above is a
five-light window uniform with the W. window of the N.
The West Tower (Plate 33) has three stages defined
by moulded stringcourses; at the base is a hollow-chamfered plinth; at the top is an embattled parapet
above a string-course with classical mouldings and corner
gargoyles; the corners have pinnacles with crocketed and
foliate finials (one missing). The tower buttresses are
similar to the N.W. and S.W. angle-buttresses of the
aisles, but taller. The N.E. corner of the tower has a
plain stair turret. The tower arch, two-centred and of
three chamfered orders with continuous jambs, was
'raised' in 1865 and appears to be wholly of that date. (fn. 46)
In the lower stages the N. and S. walls have square-headed windows of two trefoil-headed lights with cusped
tracery lights under moulded labels with eroded stops.
The W. doorway is similar to that of the S. aisle and
must be reset 15th-century material; flanking the doorway are single-light windows with cusped tracery. Above
is a W. window of four trefoil-headed lights with tracery
similar to that of the N. and S. windows of the aisles; the
two-centred head has a moulded label with head stops.
The middle stage has no openings in the E., W. and S.
sides; the N. side has a square-headed window of one
light. In the top stage each face of the tower has a belfry
window of two trefoil-headed lights with a quatrefoil
tracery light in a two-centred head; above is a moulded
label with head stops; the lower part of each window has
a stone closure slab pierced with quatrefoils.
The lower storey of the W. part of the North Vestry
was mainly built in 1766, but the southern part of
the W. wall remains from the 15th century; above the
head of the modern doorway is a weathered and hollow-chamfered string-course. John Buckler shows a singlestoreyed building in this place with a window of 15th-century form in the N. wall. The upper storey was added
in 1809 and has two N. windows, each of three lights
with plain intersecting tracery in a two-centred head.
Nineteenth-century head-corbels flank each opening
at springing level, but there are no labels. A straightjoint divides the N. wall of the vestry from that of the
added burial chamber. In the lower storey the burial
chamber has a doorway with a four-centred head; above
are two windows uniform with those of the room over
the vestry. Reset at the N.E. corner of the burial
chamber is a stone carved to represent an angel; it is
similar to the one in the parapet of the S. aisle and no
doubt comes from a corresponding position in the N.
aisle parapet. The S.E. corner of the burial chamber has
another worn mediaeval carving.
Fittings – Bells: eight; 1st and 2nd 1884; 3rd, 5th,
7th and tenor by William Purdue and Nathanial Bolter,
August 1656, with inscriptions of Richard Grafton,
'friend to the worke', John Percevall, churchwarden,
John Stricland, minister, and William Stone, mayor;
4th by Wells, Aldbourne, 1773, 'Mr Wilkins churchwarden'; 6th be Mears, 1846. Bell-frame c. 1656.
Brackets: In nave, two, reset at W. end on N. and S.,
stone angel busts with scrolls, 15th century (Plate 42).
Brass and Indents. Brass: In tower on N., plate (9 ins.
by 6 ins.) of Henry Dove, 1616, mayor, with verses, city
shield and dove crest. Indents In S. aisle, Purbeck
marble floor-slab with indents for male and female
figures, double canopy and four shields (Plate 48),
probably 15th century. In churchyard, 3 paces N. of
tower, Purbeck marble floor-slab with indents for figure
with inscription and for four shields, probably 15th
Chairs: two, oak, with 'pointed' backs with
cinquefoil-headed panels and reeded borders, reeded
arm-rests and legs, early 19th century.
Chest: Oak, with panelled front and ends, late 18th
Cupboard: Deal, painted white, incorporating panel
inscribed '1697, George Fort, William Staples, churchwardens'; ventilation holes in door suggest cupboard for
Clock: In tower, by James Phillips, donor Wadham
Communion Tables: two, with turned legs and
moulded rails, 17th century.
Font: Purbeck marble, with octagonal bowl with two
shallow trefoil-headed recesses in each face, 13th century; moulded central shaft with eight plain surrounding
shafts, restored; chamfered octagonal base, modern.
Glass: Panel (8 ins. by 12½ ins.), loose, Swiss,
1617. (fn. 47)
Hatchments: nine, (1) Wyndham impaling Hearst,
1736; (2) Ivy? impaling Hearst, 18th century; (3)
Wyndham impaling Penruddock, 1788; (4) unidentified
impaling Eyre, c. 1780; (5) Whitchurch? impaling
Francis, probably 1822; (6) Hawes, 1820; (7) Wyndham
quartering Hearst, impaling Slade, 1844; (8) Wyndham
quartering Campbell, 1845; (9) as (8), 1846.
Inscriptions etc.: On tower, below W. parapet, 'John
Hilary, John Perceval, churchwardens'; on jamb of W.
belfry window 'James Berber 1762'; on N. of central
W. doorway, scratched dove; over W. doorway, on oval
cartouche with segmental pediment, 'The Lord did
marvelously preserve a great congregation of his people
from the fall of the tower in this place upon the sabbath
day being June 26th 1653' (Plate 20).
Mace-stand: Mahogany, with shaped legs with
acanthus enrichment supporting Corinthian columns and
segmental pediment; above, double-faced achievement of
royal arms (1714–1801) carved in the round (unicorn
on reverse of lion and vice versa), painted and gilded,
mid 18th century (Plate 56).
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel
on N., (1) of Herbert Hawes, 1837, tablet by Osmond.
In nave on N., (2) of Wyndham family, 1668–1868,
marble tablet, probably 19th century. In N. aisle, (3) of
Sydenham Burrough, 1782, Francis Powell, 1746, Anna
Powell, 1825, marble tablet by Croome; (4) of Robert
Cooper, 1778, and others of his family, marble tablet by
Osmond; (5) of Anne and John Baskerville, 1749, 1761,
and Thomas and Mary Baskerville, 1781, 1768, pair of
alabaster monuments with architectural surrounds; (6)
of Elizabeth White, 1833, tablet by Osmond; (7) of
John Wych, 1805, and others, oval plaque by Brown. In
tower, (8) of Marshall Hill, 1707, marble wall-monument
with architectural surround (Plate 52) and shield-of-arms
of Hill. In churchyard, 30 paces N. of tower, (9) worn
stone table-tomb inscribed 'Here lieth the body of Mr.
Peter ....., 164 ..'; adjacent, (10) stone table-tomb
with moulded top and panelled sides, inscription indecipherable, 1649. Floor-slabs: In nave, five slate slabs
of members of Long family, 1724–1787, with shields-of-arms of Long and other coats. See also Indents, s.v.
Niches: In N. and S. chapels, reset on E. walls,
remains of eight, with vaulted and canopied recesses,
mediaeval. In S. aisle, with imitation vaulting and
moulded pedestal for image, hacked back to wall-face,
Piscina: Reset in S. chapel, with moulded cinque
foil head, stone shelf at half height and octagonal bowl,
Plate: includes silver gilt paten (Plate 55), 6 ins. diam.,
with date letter 1533 and maker's mark T.W., inscribed
in black-letter on rim 'benedicamus patrem et filium
cum sancto'; also large silver alms-dish with maker's mark
G.S., assay mark 1734 and donor's inscription of Edith
Naish, 1734 (Plate 55).
Recess: In S. aisle, with moulded four-centred head
and continuous jambs, early 15th century.
Royal Arms: see Mace-stand.
Woodwork: Incorporated with modern choir-stalls,
carved oak bench-ends, 15th century; built into organ
case, oak panels carved to represent window tracery etc.
and two with linenfold decoration, 15th century.
St. Lawrence's Church, Stratford-sub-Castle
(6) St. Lawrence's Church, Stratford-sub-Castle, has
walls of flint, rubble and ashlar, and tiled roofs (Plate
38). Although patched and refaced, the N. and S. walls
of the Chancel are of 13th-century origin and probably
represent the Chapel of Stratford mentioned in 1228; (fn. 48)
there is also a fragment of a 13th-century piscina. The
14th-century chancel arch predicates a nave of that date,
and the record of consecration in 1326 (fn. 49) probably refers
to this part of the building; nevertheless the Nave, Tower
Arch and South Porch are of the 15th century. Three
nave buttresses were rebuilt in 1583–4. (fn. 50) In 1711 the
West Tower was rebuilt, using the 15th-century plinth
and tower arch. Drawings by J. Buckler, c. 1808, in
Devizes Museum (fn. 51) show the church very much as it is
today. Restorations were undertaken in 1904 and
further repairs date from 1926 and later. The church,
very well maintained, is interesting for the many periods
represented in its structure and especially for the continued use of a 'mediaeval' style in 1711. Many fittings
Architectural Description — The E. end of the
Chancel was rebuilt during the first half of the 15th
century and has masonry of banded flint and ashlar
with ashlar dressings. The N.E. and S.E. buttresses are
each of two weathered stages. The E. window has three
cinquefoil-headed lights and vertical tracery in a two-centred head. The N. wall has a square-set buttress as
described and a 15th-century window of three
cinquefoil-headed lights. The original masonry is hidden
by 15th-century refacing, but the 13th-century origin of
the wall is attested internally by the widely splayed
reveal of a former window. The S. wall has a window
and a buttress unform with those on the N.; a tall
square-headed window at the W. end retains the rebated
E. jamb of a 13th-century lancet; its W. jamb and square
head are of the 17th century. The 14th-century chancel
arch, built with small voussoirs, is two-centred and of
one lightly chamfered order springing from hollow-chamfered abaci on chamfered responds; in the N.
respond the W. chamfer rises from a convex stop.
The N. wall of the Nave is reported to have been
'rebuilt' in 1656, (fn. 52) but the wall cannot have been wholly
renewed as little more than £8 was spent and an earlier
roof remains in situ. Externally the wall is of chequered
flint and ashlar and the E. part has a chamfered plinth.
All five buttresses are of ashlar and of two stages with
weathered offsets; the 1st and 3rd are plain and probably of 1656; the 2nd and 4th have wave-moulded
weathering and are of the 15th century; the 5th is of the
18th century. In the eastern bay is a 17th-century
window of three square-headed lights; the adjacent 15th-century window has cinquefoil-headed lights in a square-headed surround; the blocked N. doorway has a lightly
chamfered 'Tudor' head; the two western bays have
18th-century windows uniform with those of the tower.
The S. wall of the nave has two original windows with
cinquefoil-headed lights; the S. doorway, probably of
the 16th century, has a chamfered segmental head and
continuous jambs. All the S. buttresses are of two stages
with moulded plinths and weathered offsets; the three
which were rebuilt in 1583–4 are identified on the W.
of the porch by their uniformity and superior masonry.
The Tower is of two stages and has walls of flint and
squared rubble with ashlar dressings. The ogee-moulded
plinth survives from the 15th century. The ashlar N.W.
and S.W. buttresses have two weathered stages and do
not continue into the upper stage of the tower. The base
of the upper stage is defined by a weathered and hollow-chamfered string-course. The embattled parapet has a
moulded string-course, moulded coping and angle pinnacles with finials serrated to suggest crockets. A plain
square turret adjoining the N. side of the tower was
probably built for a staircase, but the lower part is now a
vestry. The tower arch is two-centred and of two deeply
chamfered orders dying into the responds. The W.
doorway has a lightly chamfered 'Tudor' head upon
which is carved in large Roman letters ERECTED ANNO
1711; above, in the lower stage, is a window with two
chamfered round-headed lights in a square surround;
above this and below the string-course is the inscription
THO. PITT ESQ. BENEFACTOR. The upper stage of
the tower has two storeys. The lower of these has a W.
window uniform with that of the lower stage and, on the
S. side, a square clock-face. On W. and S. the belfry
storey has two-light openings as before, but with louvres;
the N. and E. sides have louvred belfry windows of one
The South Porch is single-storeyed; its flint walls
with ashlar dressings are continuous with the S. wall of
the nave. The E. side has a small square-headed window.
The S. doorway of the porch, with rebated jambs and a
chamfered segmental head, is of the 18th century.
The Roof of the chancel has a wagon ceiling with
moulded wooden ribs, probably of the first half of the
15th century; the wall-plates are masked by fascia
boards with classical mouldings. Fifteenth-century
wooden bosses cover the intersections of the ribs and the
longitudinal members; two of them represent human
heads and the others foliage. More elaborate bosses reset
at the springing of the transverse ribs (Plate 47) include
a mermaid, a king's head, birds, IHS, a collared bear, a
man's head and a double eagle. The nave roof, also of
wagon form, probably dates from later in the 15th
century, but many members have recently been renewed. The wall-plate has double ogee mouldings. The
rib intersections are masked by bosses, mostly foliate,
but three have heads. At the springing of each transverse
rib the wall-plate bosses (Plate 47 centre) are carved with
grotesque or human busts, praying or carrying emblems,
some of them heraldic.
Fittings- Bells: two; treble inscribed Prays God I.W.,
1594; tenor by R. Wells, Aldbourne, 1767,l. Blake, W.
Randall churchwardens. Bell-frame: of oak, 1711.
Chairs: In chancel, pair, with turned legs and fiddle
backs, mahogany, walnut and elm, late 17th century.
Chests: Three; one of elm with a locking compartment at one end, mediaeval, with 17th-century oak lid;
one of oak with panelled sides, early 17th century; one,
in vestry, with drawers, oak, early 18th century.
Clock: In W. tower, 1711.
Coffin-stools: One, of oak, with shaped rails and
turned legs, c. 1600; another, large, of elm, crudely
made, perhaps 17th century.
Communion Rails: Of oak, with turned balusters and
moulded rails, c. 1711.
Doors: In tower archway, oak, incorporating pierced
panels with trefoil-headed openings; 15th century. In S.
doorway, with fielded panels and round head; in porch
doorway, with iron-spiked top; in W. doorway, similar
to that in S. doorway; all of pine, c. 1711.
Font: Purbeck marble, originally square, but sawn
into an octagon, with shallow arcading on two original
faces and circles on a third; 12th century. Pedestal,
cylindrical with moulded octagonal cap and base, probably 17th century.
Gallery: At W. end of nave, wooden, with fielded
panelling above wooden pillars with modern elliptical
arches; late 18th century.
Hour-glass bracket: wrought-iron, probably 1652 (ch.
Inscriptions and Scratchings: On jamb of S. doorway,
initials and dates from 1619; on jambs of porch door
way, from 1728; in tower on W. window, 'I. Borough, C.
warden, 1711'; on jamb of N. doorway, 16. . .
Monuments and Floor-slabs. Monuments: In chancel,
on N. wall, (1) of Anne (Halswell) Bowreman (sic),
1630, wall-monument with segmental broken pediment,
emblems of mortality and cartouche-of-arms of Bowerman impaling Halswell; (2) of Anne, daughter of Andrew
Bowerman, D.D., 1652, small marble tablet; on S. wall,
(3) of Josiah Nisbet of Nevis, M.D., 1781, marble wall-monument by H. Hunter, with pediment and shield-of-arms of Nisbet; (4) of Joseph Webb of Nevis, 1779,
monument similar to foregoing. In nave, (5) of Harriet
Sarjeant, 1831, and others of same family, sarcophagusshaped tablet by Osmond. In churchyard, 10 paces E. of
chancel, (6) of James Townsend, 1679?, table-tomb with
panelled sides, scroll-work on pilasters, shields on ends,
and moulded top and base (illustration below); one
shield with arms of Townsend, another with arms of
Davies. Floor-slabs: In chancel, (1) of Sara Young, 1652;
(2) of Andrew Bowerman, 1655; (3) of John Duke,
1670, and Avis his wife, 1687; (4) of Elizabeth Duke,
1692; (5) of Bridget, wife of Bishop Earle, 1696, with
lozenge-of-arms of Earle impaling another coat; (6) of
Jane Arny, 1650. In nave, (7) of Elizabeth Bewde, 1662;
(8) of Catherine Tompson and her son John, both 1702.
Paintings: In nave, over chancel arch, fragment of
scroll border in red below illegible black-letter inscription; in porch, over S. doorway of nave, fragment of
black-letter inscription and red border; both probably
late 16th or early 17th century.
Piscinae: In chancel, two; one on N., presumably
reset, with chamfered trefoil head grooved for shelf,
13th century, lower part restored; one on S., with chamfered two-centred head, jambs grooved for shelf, and
round basin, probably 14th century, W. half restored.
Plate: Set of silver cup, flagon, paten and alms-dish engraved with sacred emblems and cartouches-of-arms of
Pitt, with crescent for difference; London assay marks,
Pulpit: Oak, octagonal (Plate 46), with panelled and
arcaded sides in two heights, with chip-carving and
other enrichment, also enriched sounding-board with
turned pendants, early 17th century; stairs 19th century.
Reredos: Oak, with lower zone of fielded panelling in
two heights between Corinthian pilasters, circular central
panel with delicately carved and undercut foliate enrichment, and entablature with broken segmental pediment;
above, E. window surrounded with moulded oak architrave flanked by fielded panels and round-headed tables
of decalogue; at top, frieze of foliate scroll-work surmounted by cartouche flanked by foliate swags; early
Royal Arms: Over S. doorway, of Queen Anne (Plate
56), carved in full relief; given by Thomas Pitt, 1713 (ch.
wdns. recds.); colour renewed.
Screen: Below chancel arch, of oak (Plate 44), 18th-century assemblage of 15th-century pieces including
stout, moulded and casement-moulded beam with foliate
bosses, pierced cinquefoil-headed arcading with tracery,
and lower panels with cusped and sub-cusped cinquefoil
heads below frieze of fretted tracery. Central opening
with panelled pilasters and semicircular arch, 18th
Seating: In chancel, low box-pews with fielded panelling, oak, 18th century. In nave, 19th-century assemblage of late 17th-century panelling from former box-pews.
Tables of Decalogue: see Reredos.
Miscellanea: Carved stonework of 12th century,
probably from Old Sarum (Monuments (1)-(2)), built
into S.E. nave buttress and N. wall of nave; also one
loose arch voussoir.
St. Lawrence's Church
Monument of James Townsend.
(7) St. Clement's Church, Fisherton Anger, was demolished in 1852, but some of its fittings were transferred to St. Paul's church, erected in the same year, 350
yds. to the north. Views of the former church are
preserved in Salisbury Museum and in Devizes Museum. (fn. 53)
There is a description of c. 1824 by Sir S. Glynne. (fn. 54) Part
of the old churchyard remains as a garden. Ashlar
angle-buttresses of three stages with weathered offsets in
the S.W. tower of St. Paul's include masonry brought
from St. Clement's. (fn. 55) Other masonry from the old church
is said to be incorporated with the arches and piers at St.
Fittings (in St. Paul's unless otherwise stated)-Bells:
eight; 3rd by Robert Beconsall, inscribed 'Gev God the
glory, R.B., 1616'; 4th and 6th by T. Mears, 1832; 5th
by T. Mears, 1842; 7th by John Wallis, inscribed 'Prayse
the Lord, I.W., 1609'; others modern.
Benefactors' Tables: Reset in tower, (1) of John
Nowes of Lee, wooden panel with painted inscription
and shield-of-arms of Nowes, 1819; (2) of General
George Michell, plain wooden panel, 1831; (3) of John
Woodward, 19th-century wooden panel with painted
architectural border; (4) of Edmund Lambert, plain
19th-century wooden panel.
Book: Incomplete copy of Foxe's Book of Martyrs,
Chest: For registers, cast-iron, panelled, with lionmask bosses; 'Bramshaw Foundry, 1813'.
Font: Round stone bowl with roll-mouldings above
and below, on cylindrical pedestal with roll-moulded and
chamfered plinth (Plate 41), 13th century.
Monuments: In chancel, on N. respond of chancel
arch, (1) of Richard Kent, rector, 1692, and his wife
Margarett, 1711, small white marble cartouche with
scrolled surround and acanthus enrichment. In nave,
at W. end of S. wall, (2) of Martha, 1801, and William
Moulton, 1803, marble tablet surmounted by sarcophagus and urn, with arms of Moulton impaling
another coat; at W. end of N. wall, (3) of Sarah d'Oyly,
1800, and others later, marble tablet by Mitcherd,
Fisherton. In N. aisle, on S. wall, (4) of Amelia Calder,
1830, marble tablet with lozenge-of-arms of Calder
impaling Michell, by Osmond; on W. wall, (5) of Thomas
Atkinson, 1838, and his wife Charlotte, 1845, marble
tablet by Osmond. In S.W. tower, on S. wall, (6) of
William Boucher, 1676, and others of his family, white
marble tablet with broken pediment enclosing
cartouche-of-arms of Boucher, erected late in the 18th
century and subsequently inscribed 'Removed from
old church. Osmond, Sarum'; on N. wall, (7) of John
Woodward, 1828, marble tablet by Osmond. In St.
Clement's churchyard, (8) of Joseph Turner, 1833,
table-tomb with panelled sides; (9) of Robert, 1814,
and Thomas Askew, 1831, table-tomb with reeded
pilasters; (10) of Louisa Mitcherd, 1827, headstone
'carved by John and Mary Mitcherd, her parents';
(11) of Mary Keene, 1841, tomb-slab with lozenge-of-arms of Keene impaling another coat.
Plate: includes pewter flagon inscribed 'the pot of
Fisharton Anger church: George Heely, John Marchant,
churchwardens, 1660', also two pewter patens inscribed
'Fisherton Parish', with maker's stamp of John Ingles,
Royal Arms: Above chancel arch, on ogee-headed
wooden panel in moulded frame, painted arms of George
(8) St. Andrew's Church, Bemerton, about 1½ miles
W. of the city, has flint and rubble walls with ashlar
dressings, and tile-covered roofs. Consisting of a Nave,
with a small South Porch and a wooden Bellcote, the
building appears to have originated during the second
half of the 14th century, but it has been extensively
altered. It was restored c. 1630, (fn. 56) c. 1860 and in 1895. (fn. 57)
Two drawings by J. Buckler, 1808, are in Devizes
Museum. (fn. 58)
The building is notable for its association with the
poet George Herbert who had the benefice from 1630
until his death in 1632.
St. Andrew's Church, Bemerton
Architectural Description- The E. window is of
three gradated lancet lights in 13th-century style,
inserted c. 1860. The N. wall, rebuilt c. 1860, includes
a blocked square-headed doorway with a round-headed
rear-arch; it is of uncertain origin but probably of 1860.
The S. wall has at the E. end a 14th-century window of
two trefoil ogee-headed lights with a chamfered
segmental rear-arch. Adjacent on the W. is a small rectangular opening with a chamfered and rebated ashlar
surround, probably of the 17th century. Further W.
is a well-proportioned 14th-century window of two
trefoil ogee-headed lights with a quatrefoil tracery light
in an ogee head; an oak beam serves as a rear-arch. The
S. doorway has a chamfered two-centred head with
continuous jambs; it may be partly original, but the
large stones composing the head suggest 17th-century
restoration. Near the W. end of the S. wall is a very worn
window of one chamfered, square-headed light with an
oak lintel internally. The S.W. angle of the nave is of
ashlar. The W. window, probably of the late 14th
century, has two trefoil-headed lights and a quatrefoil
tracery light in a two-centred head under a hollow-chamfered label with head-stops.
The roof includes five pairs of trussed rafters, perhaps
of the 17th century; other trusses were renewed c. 1860
and in 1895. The louvred Bell-cote over the W. gable is
probably of c. 1800, (fn. 59) but it no longer retains its original
form (cf. Buckler drawings); the sides are tile-hung.
The Porch, of timber on a stone plinth, is of the
late 19th century.
Fittings - Bell: inscribed A B D C E F G,
probably from a Reading foundry, c. 1550.
Door: In S. doorway (Plate 46), of oak, with upright
planks masked externally by moulded fillets simulating
nine panels, and with an enriched rounded head; ? 1630.
Monuments: In nave, on N. wall, (1) of G[eorge]
H[erbert], 1632, modern tablet; (2) of John Norris,
1711, slate tablet flanked by white marble Ionic pilasters
and surmounted by cartouche-of-arms of Norris impaling
Goddard; (3) of Anna Maria (Paulet) Piggot, 1851,
marble tablet in form of paper scroll by T. Gaffi; (4) of
John Hawes, 1787, and others of his family, oval tablet
in architectural surround of variegated marbles with
shield-of-arms of Hawes impaling Hawkins; (5) of
Margaret, 1820, and Herbert Hawes, 1837, sarcophagusshaped tablet by Osmond. On S. wall, (6) of William
Coxe, 1828, and his wife Eleanor, 1830, marble tablet in
moulded frame by Osmond.
Plate: includes two silver communion cups, one with
cover-paten the other without, neither dated, probably
late 16th century; silver paten with simple incised
scroll-work on rim, no assay mark, maker IF, probably c.
1700; silver paten with pie-crust rim, Irish assay mark,
no date, probably late 18th century.
Miscellanea: Oak panelling with chip-carving, perhaps
17th century, incorporated in modern chest. Iron-strap-hinges on shutter to small S. opening, perhaps 17th
(9) St. George's Church, Harnham, has walls mainly
of flint with ashlar dressings, but partly of ashlar and
partly of brick, and is roofed with tiles. The church of
Harnham is mentioned in a document of c. 1115. (fn. 60) The
Chancel and Nave are of the early 12th century and
retain N. windows and a N. doorway of the period. The
original chancel arch was narrower than at present and
was flanked on N. and S. by side altars backed by round-headed recesses. The surviving portion of the S. recess
shows that it was originally about 4 ft. wide. In the
13th century new windows were inserted in the S. wall
of the chancel and in the nave. Early in the 14th century
the chancel arch was rebuilt, larger than before, and the
side altars were removed to make room for the wider
opening. Also in the 14th century the South Chapel was
built and the S. doorway was made; probably this is the
chapel of Holy Trinity for which provision was made in
1349. (fn. 61) A porch outside the original N. doorway has
angle buttresses of 14th-century form, albeit rebuilt;
they suggest that the porch was intended from the
outset to act as the base of a North Tower. In the 15th
century the chancel roof was rebuilt and the tower was
completed. The tower of this date no longer exists, but
it appears in a view by J. Buckler (Plate 11). (fn. 62) Shortly
before 1835 the 15th-century tower was rebuilt, partly
in stone and partly in brick chequered with knapped
flint. (fn. 63) In 1873 extensive restorations by William
Butterfield included the rebuilding of the E. end of the
chancel, the W. wall of the nave and the nave roof. The
N. porch, at the base of the tower, was turned into a
vestry and a new porch was provided on the S. of the
The church retains interesting 12th-century features
and a painting of c. 1260. The 14th-century chancel arch
is well proportioned.
St. George's Church, Harnham
Architectural Description — The modern E. window
of the Chancel has two trefoil-headed lights under a
quatrefoil in a two-centred head; that depicted by
Buckler appears to have been of similar form. The N.
wall, mainly of flint, has a narrow 12th-century window
with a round head and wide splays. The re-entrant angle
between the N. wall of the chancel and the E. wall of the
nave is of ashlar, much of it original. The S. wall has two
13th-century lancets with chamfered surrounds, wide
internal splays and segmental-pointed rear-arches; the
E. window is set higher than that on the W. to accomodate a contemporary piscina below the sill.
The late 15th-century wagon roof has moulded wall-plates and ogee-moulded ribs with foliate or mask bosses
at the intersections. At the springing of the major ribs,
busts project horizontally from the wall-plates.
The 14th-century chancel arch (Plate 37) is two-centred and of two wave-moulded orders springing from
triple-shafted responds with moulded caps and bases; the
bases are set on high plinths. The N. respond has been
extensively restored, but that on the S. is original; its
base rests on the mensa of a 12th-century altar. Tooling
on the W. face of the respond suggests the removal of a
fourth shaft. Beside the respond, the S. part of a shallow
recess for the original side altar is exposed, the N. part
truncated by the 14th-century masonry. The corresponding N. recess has gone.
Externally, the E. wall of the Nave is of ashlar. The
flint N. wall contains a late 13th-century window of one
trefoil-headed light with plate tracery in a two-centred
head; the tracery comprises a quatrefoil and pierced
spandrels. Adjacent on the W. is a round-headed 12th-century window similar to that of the chancel, but
wider. Further W. is a 12th-century doorway (Plate 38)
with restored plain jambs and square head under an
original round-headed recessed tympanum; the voussoirs
of the round head rest on original capitals with hollow-chamfered abaci; the shafts and bases have been
restored. The S. side of the nave has, at the E. end, a
modern squint to the S. chapel; further W. is a 14th-century archway of two chamfered orders, the inner
chamfer dying into the responds, the outer chamfer
continuous and ending in broach stops. The S. doorway
is of 14th-century origin, but restored; it has a chamfered two-centred head and chamfered jambs with
broach stops. The W. wall has an ashlar plinth chequered
with knapped flint-work above a single course of ashlar;
the upper part of the wall is of brick. The plain ashlar
at the base is perhaps of the 14th century; the rest of the
W. wall is of 1873.
The North Tower has stout N.E. and N.W. buttresses
of two stages with weathered offsets rising no higher
than the ground storey. Similar buttresses drawn by
Buckler in 1803 were probably of 14th-century origin,
but the present buttresses, N. doorway and E. window
are 19th-century work. Above the ground stage, the
tower of c. 1835 has brick walls chequered with
The South Chapel is faced externally with ashlar. The
E. wall has a window of three gradated trefoil-headed
lights with a segmental-pointed rear-arch. The S.
windows, each a pair of trefoil-headed lancets, differ
from Buckler's drawing which shows square-headed
openings. The W. wall contains a wide squint of
uncertain origin, with chamfered jambs and lintel; the
splayed reveals support a cambered and ovolo-moulded
Fittings (including items in late 19th-century Church
of All Saints)- Altar: In nave, in recess on S. of chancel
arch, chamfered mensa on ashlar pedestal, central and
two S. consecration crosses preserved, N. part cut away,
Bells: Two; 1st modern; 2nd by Clement Tosiear,
1692, Richard Baxter and James Samells churchwardens.
Chairs: Two, of oak, with moulded and carved
framework and cane panels, late 17th century. One (in
All Saints) of oak, with turned legs, chip-carved
stretchers and highly enriched back panel with scroll
cresting, early 17th century.
Chests: Oak bible-box with chip-carving and initials
MW, 17th century. (In All Saints) oak chest with chipcarving on stiles, 17th century.
Communion Table: In S. chapel, of oak, with turned
legs and chip-carving on rails, 17th century.
Font: Plain round stone bowl on roll-moulded stem,
Inscriptions and Scratchings: Externally on N.E.
quoin of chancel, fleur-de-lis and Here Lyeth . . . . .; on
W. wall of S. chapel, dates and initials from 1810; on E.
jamb of S. doorway, I H D and crosses, perhaps 17th
Monuments: In nave, on W. wall, (1) of Maria, 1791,
and Ann Kirkman, 1799, marble tablet with architectural ornament; (2) of Maria Kirkman, 1805, tablet
uniform with the foregoing. In churchyard, N. of
chancel, (3) of Thomas Ingland, 1709, headstone; (4) of
Mary, 1810, and James Precey, 1822, headstone with
foliate enrichment; (5) of Sarah Precey, 1787, and
William Precey . . . . ., headstone; (6) of Ann White,
1797, and (7) of John White, 1815, pair of shaped
headstones with foliate enrichment.
Painting: In recess above side altar on S. of chancel
arch, Resurrection with fragmentary kneeling figure with
vase and (r) nimbed figure, in dark red outline, c. 1260
(Tristram, Eng. Med. Wall Painting, XIII cent., 552).
Piscinae: In chancel, on S., hollow-chamfered trefoil-headed recess (Plate 40) with shallow circular basin and
roll-moulded corbel; 13th century. In S. chapel, restored
ogee trefoil-headed recess with double ovolo-mouldings
ending in broach stops, with scalloped bowl and
octagonal stepped corbel; 14th century (Plate 40).
Screen: In archway to S. chapel, of oak, with
panelled lower zone, arcaded and columned upper zone,
and strapwork frieze (Plate 44); early 17th century.
Sundial: On S.W. corner of S. chapel, with hole for
gnomon, probably mediaeval.
(10) St. Osmund's Church, designed by A.W.N. Pugin
and built in 1847–8 has flint walls with ashlar dressings
and roof coverings of slate and of tile (Plate 38). The
original building comprised Chancel, Nave, South Aisle,
South Chapel, S.W. Tower and Vestry. The N. aisle and
the N. chapel were added in 1894.
St. Osmund's Church
Fittings include a carved stone Altar in the S. chapel,
with a hollow-chamfered mensa enriched with foliate
bosses, set on a square pedestal with a panelled front
composed of quatrefoils enclosing fleurs-de-lis; 19th
Glass: in chancel and S. chapel windows, by Hardman
(Builder, Oct. 7, 1848); that in the S. chapel presented
Monument: in churchyard, of John Peniston, 1848,
tomb-slab with foliate cross.
(11) St. John's Chapel, Ayleswade Bridge, now a
dwelling, has rendered rubble walls with ashlar dressings, and a slate-covered roof. The building dates from
c. 1240 and was founded by Bishop Bingham at the
same time as the Bridge (17) and adjacent Hospital (26).
Benson & Hatcher (1843) refer to the conversion of this
building into a house as 'recent' (p.49, note) but
chimneystacks and walled-up windows depicted by
Buckler show that changes had already been made c.
1808. (fn. 64) The dwelling is now three-storeyed, the steep
mediaeval roof-pitch having been altered and the walls
heightened since Buckler's time, but probably during the
first half of the 19th century. Shortly before 1914 the
lower part of the building, now containing cellars, was
to some extent restored. (fn. 65)
St. John's Chapel
Architectural Description -Of the three original
gradated lancet windows in the E. wall, the middle one is
blocked by a chimneybreast and its position is merely
outlined externally. The two lateral windows, fitted with
modern casements, have chamfered two-centred heads
under roll-moulded labels with returned stops. Inside,
they have widely splayed jambs and hollow-chamfered
segmental-pointed rear-arches. A square-headed doorway
inserted below the southern E. window has an 18th-century panelled door-case and acanthus consoles supporting a flat hood, but the woodwork does not appear
in Buckler's drawing and presumably comes from elsewhere. The N. wall retains the greater part of four
original lancets with sills at a lower level than those on
the E.; two have been altered to receive modern casements and two are bricked up. They have wide splays,
stepped sills and hollow-chamfered rear-arches as on the
east. Below the sills, part of a roll-moulded interior
string-course survives. The S. wall retains the sills and
splays of four corresponding lancets and traces of a
former string-course, hacked away. The most easterly
window sill contains the plain circular bowls of an
original double piscina. The W. wall, largely masked by
19th-century alterations, originally had three openings at
ground level. The nothernmost, a doorway with a
two-centred head of two chamfered orders under a
roll-moulded label and with continuous jambs in which
the outer order ends at broach stops, is well preserved;
the threshold lies some 8 ft. below the level of the
present road. The central and southern openings have
been blocked, but the remains of chamfered surrounds
indicate former windows with sills some 4 ft. above the
doorway threshold; the window heads are obliterated.
Inside, the early 19th century house has simple
joinery of the period, including two chimneypieces
with neo-classical ornament. Reset in the lower storey
is a well preserved 13th-century head corbel (Plate 42).
Fragments of 13th-century glazed floor tiles with
geometric patterns and of mediaeval window glass are
also preserved. A fragment of 13th-century leaf carving
is built into a modern wall near the W. doorway.
(12) Methodist Church, in Griffin Chequer, has brick
walls and slate-covered roofs and was built in 1811. (fn. 66)
The site had been leased by the congregation in 1758
and in the following year John Wesley preached in 'the
new chapel in Church Street', (fn. 67) but of this building
nothing remains. In 1835 the building of 1811 was
extended westwards and vestries were added. In 1870
the W. front was rendered; further alterations to the
facade were made early in the present century. Internally, the chapel has galleries on four sides and there are
windows in two storeys; the lower ones are segmental-headed and those of the gallery have round heads. In the
N. elevation the disposition of the original windows in
three bays can be seen; one of them has been blocked
and replaced by a smaller opening a little further W.;
another is masked by an addition. Further W., upper and
lower windows uniform with the original openings have
been added to light the 1835 extension. The N. end of a
cement plat-band which decorated the W. facade of
1811 remains in the N. elevation.
Inside, the gallery is supported on wooden columns
with Roman-Doric capitals, probably of 1811, but the
cast-iron parapet is late 19th-century work. The ceiling
has late 19th-century enrichment.
Fittings — Monuments: (1) of Richard Earlsman,
1831, black marble tablet by Cave; (2) of Joseph Sanger,
1846, sarcophagus-shaped tablet.
Pulpit: mainly of c. 1870, incorporates wooden
pilasters and front panel, probably from a pulpit of
Presbyterian Meeting House, see Monument (356).
Primitive Methodist Chapel, see Monument (481).