Upton Scudamore

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Victoria County History

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Elizabeth Crittall (Editor)

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1965

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78-89

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'Upton Scudamore', A History of the County of Wiltshire: Volume 8: Warminster, Westbury and Whorwellsdown Hundreds (1965), pp. 78-89. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=16080 Date accessed: 01 October 2014.


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UPTON SCUDAMORE

THE parish of Upton Scudamore divides the urban districts of Westbury and Warminster. The parochial status of the districts of Norridge and Thoulstone, which lie to the west of the village of Upton, was doubtful. Each contained a free chapel to which tithes belonged in the Middle Ages. Thoulstone chapel apparently belonged to Warminster in 1341, (fn. 1) and the permission of Warminster was needed to annex it to Upton c. 1437. (fn. 2) Norridge was apparently claimed as part of Warminster in the 16th and early 17th centuries. (fn. 3) The agriculture of the manor of Norridge was closely connected both with Warminster and Corsley, (fn. 4) and the tithes of about 170 a. in it belonged to the impropriate rectories of those places. (fn. 5) When both Norridge and Thoulstone were reckoned part of Upton, the parish was almost 5 miles long and in most places not more than a mile wide; its area was 2,461 a. (fn. 6) In 1884 Hisomley Farm, a small detached part of Upton, was transferred to Westbury, and Upton Cottage and Smallbrook Mill, also detached pieces, to Warminster. At the same time small pieces of Warminster and Corsley, locally in Upton, were added to the parish. (fn. 7) In 1934 the western end of the parish was transferred to the newly formed parish of Chapmanslade. This reduced the area of Upton to 2,359 a. (fn. 8)

In the east of the parish the chalk downs of Salisbury Plain rise to a height of 650 ft., but here a broad valley of greensand runs into them east of the road from Westbury to Warminster, which roughly bisects the parish from north to south. The part west of the road occupies the flat top of a greensand ridge some 400 ft. above sea-level which forms the watershed between the valleys of the Bristol Avon to the north and the Wylye to the south. At the northern boundary of the parish is a deep combe in which are the springs of the Biss, a tributary of the Avon. The village of Upton stands about ¼ mile west of the main road; its position is distinctive, for it is on a low mound rising from the greensand ridge, so that it commands extensive views of the surrounding countryside in all directions save the east. The site was attractive to prehistoric man, for early Iron Age material has been found south of the church, while the church itself appears to be on or near the site of a Roman building. (fn. 9) In the 14th century the village was of a good average size and prosperity, assessed at 108s. in 1334 and with 85 poll tax-payers in 1377. (fn. 10) There were apparently 191 adults in the parish in 1676. (fn. 11) In 1801 the population of the whole parish was 409; ten years later it was only 314, and if the figures are accurate this considerable decline can only be accounted for by the inclosure of the parish. It had grown again to 392 by 1831, and did not begin to decline significantly until the decade 1871–81. By 1901 it was 236, and has not since then been much above 200. (fn. 12) The inhabitants have always been chiefly concerned with agriculture, although there was probably some domestic cloth-working done until the decline of the industry in the early 19th century.

In the early 18th century the village of Upton was almost on the main road from Bath and Frome to Salisbury. This road entered the parish at Dead Maids as at present, but continued directly east from Thoulstone to near Upton by a route now marked only by a green lane. At its eastern end a turnpike gate stood in 1773, and still in 1838. (fn. 13) Just before it reached the village, the road turned south to join the present road from Upton to Warminster at the parish boundary. (fn. 14) The northern part of this stretch also remains as a green lane, but the southern part is lost.

At the inclosure of the parish in 1807 the village of Upton consisted chiefly of about ten farmhouses, the Angel Inn, the rectory, and a few cottages. The ancient site of the manor house is near the church in a field called Court Furlong; in the early 18th century 'plain marks of a considerable fabric' could be seen there. (fn. 15) It has usually been assumed that the site was marked by a rectangular enclosure in the north-west corner of the field, but recent excavation has failed to confirm this, and it now seems more likely that the house stood on the site of the cow yard west of the church. (fn. 16) In 1471 a tenement called 'le Garyet' stood on the site. (fn. 17) The later site of the manor farm is marked by the house now called Temple Farm after the Temple family of Bishopstrow, which leased and later owned the demesnes from the mid-17th century. The brick house probably dates from that time. It is of two stories and attics, the symmetrical front having 3 gables with stone copings and finials, and a central porch of two stories with round-arched doorway. At the attic story stone-mullioned windows remain, but below they have been replaced by sash windows. This was probably done in the early 19th century, when the front of the house was hung with shaped tiles and a kitchen wing was added at the back, perhaps replacing part of the earlier house. Inside is an original fireplace with four-centred arch and some contemporary oak panelling. Behind the house the large thatched barn, and granary on staddle-stones, are probably of the same date as the house.

Manor Farm, although it is so called, represents the homestead site of the considerable freehold which in the Middle Ages was held of the lords of Upton by the Park family. (fn. 18) In 1482 a new tenant was ordered to rebuild a kitchen and repair the rest of the house. (fn. 19) The stone house incorporates a single-storied open hall of two bays probably of the 15th century. The timbers of its roof, some smoke-blackened, are largely original, and include an arch-braced collar-beam truss and curved wind-braces supporting the purlins. It was probably when the Seaman family became tenants of the farm in the early 17th century that the house was extended by the addition of gabled side wings and a stone entrance arch and porch at the west end of the hall. It was perhaps at this time also that the hall was divided into two floors and a chimney inserted near its centre; one of the upper rooms has a plaster barrel ceiling of the period. East of the entrance doorway a two-light window with cusped lights and a carved head in late 15thcentury style has been reset.

The houses now called Millard's Farm and Keyford were both farmhouses in 1807; both are timber-framed buildings and Keyford has a thatched roof. Several other farmhouses date from the 18th century, after the manorial lands had been sold as several freehold farms. A good example is the house just south of the Angel Inn, which formerly belonged to the Heytesbury Hospital farm. It is of brick with stone quoins and stone mullioned windows and is dated 1723. In 1807 the Angel Inn stood opposite its present site, where a row of cottages now stands. Nearby is the former Baptist chapel, built in 1850 and used since 1920 as a dwelling-house. The large 19th-century rectory stands at the southern entrance to the village, and on the opposite corner is the former school, used as a dwelling-house since it was closed in 1925.

In 1807 there were few cottages in the village, and this is still true to some extent, although several council houses have been built since the Second World War. At inclosure, however, the outer parts of the parish were more populous than they are now. At Fulmoor Common just north of Norridge Wood stood five cottages, which have all since disappeared. In the north-west part of the parish at least seven houses formerly at Row and near Chapmanslade have gone, and six or seven more were in Biss Bottom, north of the village. Most of these must have been built on waste land, probably from the 16th century onward. At Norridge, however, still lay a hamlet which existed in the Middle Ages. In 1377 there were 16 poll-tax payers there, (fn. 20) and 7 or 8 cottages still remained in 1807. Some of these were burnt in the late 19th century, and others remained, derelict, until a few years ago. The hamlet was reduced to the farmhouse and two cottages until a few more houses were built after the Second World War. In 1333 the manor house of Norridge consisted of a hall with various chambers, a chapel, a kitchen, and a dovehouse. (fn. 21) It may have stood on what appears to have been a moated site just west of the present farmhouse. In 1572 the house consisted of nine rooms: hall, parlour, buttery, two kitchens, and four rooms over. The hall had then just been lofted over. (fn. 22) The present farmhouse is partly of stone rubble and partly timber-framed; it appears externally to be of the 17th century, but has been much altered. Nearby the owner of the farm, Mr. J. Meinl, has built a house with a colonnaded portico, designed by R. Vallis of Frome c. 1960. (fn. 23)

Thoulstone had 22 poll-tax payers in 1377. In 1428 it had fewer than ten households, (fn. 24) and in the later 16th century there were about seven houses there. (fn. 25) By 1807 there were only three farms; one, the Breach Farm, which lay south of the sharp bend in the road, has since disappeared. Of the other two, that south of the road is a large brick building of the late 18th century, while the one on the other side displays the Gothic taste of a few years later.

The works of the Trowbridge Water Company were established at Biss Bottom in 1873, despite some objection from the parish. (fn. 26) They are invisible from the village, but the water tower raised near the main road in 1906 is a prominent landmark. It was given in memory of John Baron, a former rector, to provide a supply for the village. (fn. 27)

MANORS.

In 1086 the largest of the three holdings mentioned in Upton was held of Alfred of Marlborough's fief. (fn. 28) By 1100 Alfred's castle of Ewyas in Herefordshire had passed, with other of his lands, to Harold, son of Ralph, first Earl of Hereford. (fn. 29) Upton formed part of these lands, and was held of the honor of Ewyas until the 14th century. (fn. 30) The lordship of the honor descended to Harold's grandson Robert (II) de Ewyas, whose daughter and heir Sibyl married Robert de Tregoze. Her grandson John left two daughters and coheirs, and the barony was divided. The fee at Upton fell to Sibyl who married William de Grandison. (fn. 31) Their son John de Grandison, Bishop of Exeter, conveyed the overlordship of certain fees in Wiltshire, including Upton, to his nephew Sir John de Montagu, whose son John succeeded to the earldom of Salisbury in 1397. (fn. 32) From that time the overlordship descended with the earldom to Margaret, Countess of Salisbury; (fn. 33) on her attainder and execution in 1541 it passed to the Crown, and when the manor was regranted to Walter Hungerford in 1552, it was to be held directly of the king. (fn. 34)

A certain Ralph was tenant of this holding under Alfred of Marlborough in 1086, (fn. 35) but nothing is known of him. He may, however, have been ancestor of the Scudamore family. It has been said that a Walter Scudamore was lord of Upton in the reign of Stephen, (fn. 36) and in the mid-12th century Robert de Ewyas, lord of the honor, granted the whole vill of Upton Scudamore to Godfrey Scudamore; the use of the suffix in the grant implies that the family had some previous interest there. (fn. 37) By it Godfrey was bound to do the service of one knight at the castle guard of Ewyas Harold. In 1166 he held five fees of the honor of Ewyas in Wiltshire. (fn. 38) He was probably dead by 1190, (fn. 39) and was succeeded by a Peter Scudamore who held the five fees in the early 13th century. (fn. 40) He forfeited all his possessions in 1216, but regained them in the following year. (fn. 41) By 1222 he had been succeeded by Godfrey Scudamore, (fn. 42) who held the property until at least 1262. (fn. 43) By 1267 his son Peter Scudamore had succeeded him. (fn. 44) He died c. 1293, (fn. 45) leaving a daughter Alice, wife of Adam Bavant. (fn. 46) Shortly before his death, however, he had granted Upton to his nephew Walter, (fn. 47) who died in 1318 and was succeeded by his son, another Peter. (fn. 48) In 1338 Roger Bavant, grandson of Alice, brought an action against Peter Scudamore to recover the manor. (fn. 49) The suit seems to have lasted for many years, and was not finally ended until 1358, when John, son of Roger Bavant, released his claim to Sir Walter Scudamore, son of Peter. (fn. 50)

Peter was still living in 1339, but his son Walter had succeeded by 1347, and was alive in 1360. (fn. 51) He had a son Peter, who settled the manor on himself and his wife in 1368, (fn. 52) and died c. 1382. (fn. 53) His widow, Joan, remarried Sir Robert Corbet, who still held Upton in 1412. (fn. 54) Peter's heir was his only daughter Katharine, who married Sir John Reynes and had a son Thomas. (fn. 55) Thomas died in 1417, holding Upton by permission of his father, (fn. 56) and leaving a son John who died without issue in 1421. Sir John's other son Ralph was apparently childless, and the heir to the property was William Street of Meldreth (Cambs.), son of Sir John's daughter Cecily. (fn. 57) After the younger John's death, Sir John obtained a grant of Ralph's right, (fn. 58) and re-settled the property on himself and his second wife Alice. (fn. 59) In 1426 they conveyed the manor to feoffees, (fn. 60) to whom William Street released his right in 1428. (fn. 61) Sir John was then dead. (fn. 62) His feoffees were perhaps charged with the payment of his debts, for in 1435 the manor of Upton was taken in execution and delivered to two of his creditors. (fn. 63) By then the feoffees had already sold the reversion of it after Alice's death to Sir Walter Hungerford. (fn. 64)

Sir Walter, later styled Lord Hungerford, died in 1449. Upton passed to his son Robert and thence to his grandson, another Robert, who was attainted in 1461 for his part on the Lancastrian side, and executed in 1464. (fn. 65) The manor remained in the king's hands until 1474, when it was granted to Richard, Duke of Gloucester. (fn. 66) When Richard obtained the throne in 1483 he granted it to John, Duke of Norfolk, who was killed at Bosworth. (fn. 67) By this time the heir to the Hungerford property was Mary, Lady Botreaux, grand-daughter of Robert, Lord Hungerford and Moleyns, being the only daughter of his elder son Sir Thomas Hungerford. Upton was among the properties which Margaret, Lady Botreaux, widow of Robert, 2nd Lord Hungerford (d. 1459), had directed by her will to remain in the male line of the family. On the restoration of the house of Lancaster, therefore, it came to Sir Walter Hungerford, younger brother of Sir Thomas. (fn. 68) He died in 1516 and was succeeded successively by his son Edward and grandson Walter, later Lord Hungerford of Heytesbury; the latter was attainted and executed in 1540, and his property was again forfeited to the king. (fn. 69)

In 1544 Upton was among many manors granted to Queen Catherine Parr. (fn. 70) In 1552, however, it was restored to Sir Walter Hungerford, (fn. 71) who died in 1596 leaving as his heir male his half-brother Edward. (fn. 72) He too died without issue, but had adopted as heir his great-nephew Edward Hungerford, heir to the Down Ampney Hungerfords, and son of one of the female coheirs of Sir Walter (d. 1596). (fn. 73) Sir Edward died in 1648 and his estates passed to his half-brother Anthony Hungerford of Blackboughton (Oxon.). On his death in 1657 he was succeeded by his son Sir Edward Hungerford, 'the spendthrift', (fn. 74) who sold Upton in 1684 to Sir Stephen Fox. (fn. 75)

Sir Stephen Fox sold the manor in lots in 1689, (fn. 76) and the manorial rights seem to have lapsed. The demesne farm had been let to the Temple family of Bishopstrow since 1662 and was sold to Peter Temple in 1689. (fn. 77) It descended in the same way as the manor of Bishopstrow until the present century. (fn. 78)

A HISTORY OF WILTSHIRE

Before the Conquest Tous held 2½ hides in Upton, which by 1086 had passed to Ernulf of Hesdin. (fn. 79) The overlordship of this land passed in the same way as Ernulf's estate at Great Chalfield to the Earls of Salisbury, (fn. 80) and it was held of the earl in 1242–3, when it was described as a knight's fee in NORRIDGE. (fn. 81) A moiety of the manor of Norridge was said to be held of the Earl of Salisbury in 1333, the remainder being held of the lords of Upton. (fn. 82) The land held under the earls descended with the title, (fn. 83) but the tenure has not been found mentioned later than the early 15th century. (fn. 84) The tenure under the lords of Upton was still marked by the payment of a chief rent in the 17th century. (fn. 85)

Rainbold was tenant under Ernulf of Hesdin in 1086. (fn. 86) In the early 13th century the 2½ hides of his holding were in dispute between Ralph FitzWilliam and Thomas de Cormeilles; Ralph asserted that Roger, his grandfather, held the land in 1189, while Thomas claimed to hold in right of his wife Alice, according to a division made between her and her sisters. (fn. 87) Ralph seems to have lost, for in 1229 he relinquished his right to Godfrey Scudamore and William Bastard and Alice his wife. (fn. 88) Nothing more is known of a direct Scudamore interest in the estate. William Bastard held it in 1242–3; (fn. 89) his wife Alice was probably the same who had been wife of Thomas de Cormeilles. It was perhaps from the issue of her two marriages that the two families, who in the early 14th century contested the ownership of the manor, descended. It was said in 1289 that John de Cormeilles held a knight's fee in the hundred of Warminster, (fn. 90) and in the same year he held land in Norridge of the Prioress of Studley (Oxon.). (fn. 91) In 1313, when this or another John presented to the chapel of Norridge, which was appurtenant to the manor, the presentation was disputed by Walter Gascelyn and Annice his wife. (fn. 92) In 1315 John le Warrener and Joan his wife and John de Bassingbourne and Christine his wife released their right in the manor to Walter Gascelyn. It is not clear who they were, for John de Cormeilles put in his claim then, (fn. 93) and was still maintaining it in 1318. (fn. 94)

Walter Gascelyn seems, however, to have made his claim good, and died holding Norridge in 1333. (fn. 95) His son William died in 1346 leaving as heir his sister Julia, wife of Geoffrey de Stawell. (fn. 96) After Geoffrey's death in 1362, his son Matthew succeeded to Norridge, (fn. 97) and sold it in 1368 to John Lye, subject to a life interest which Sir Peter Scudamore held, apparently by lease. (fn. 98) Nicholas Lye died possessed of the manor c. 1420, leaving a life estate to his widow Elizabeth. (fn. 99) She still held it in 1440, when Nicholas's son John settled the reversion on his marriage with Joan Newburgh. (fn. 1) This or another John held the manor under Edward IV, (fn. 2) and was dead by 1482 leaving a son John, (fn. 3) probably Sir John Lye, who died c. 1523, leaving several daughters and coheirs. (fn. 4) Norridge was evidently assigned to Anne, wife of Sir James Worsley of Appuldurcombe in Godshill (I.o.W.). (fn. 5) Norridge remained in the Worsley family for several generations, descending in the same way as Appuldurcombe (fn. 6) to Sir Robert Worsley, who in 1690 married the daughter of Thomas, 1st Viscount Weymouth. (fn. 7) Two years later Sir Robert sold the manor to his father-in-law, and it descended from that time with the Longleat estate. (fn. 8) The manor house is mentioned above. (fn. 9)

LESSER ESTATES.

Among the freehold estates held of the lords of Upton Scudamore in the Middle Ages the chief was held by a family called Park (de Parco). Simon Park held ⅓ knight's fee of Godfrey Scudamore in 1242–3. (fn. 10) Walter Park was active by about 1270, (fn. 11) and was engaged in lawsuits in Upton later in the century. (fn. 12) He was still alive in 1307. (fn. 13) The next probable holder was Walter, son of William Park, who occurs in 1332 and 1334. (fn. 14) He was dead by 1347, when his son John was at variance with his overlord, Walter Scudamore, over the payment of a relief. It was found that John held his lands of Scudamore by a rent of 40s. (fn. 15) He was soon succeeded by a Nicholas Park, to whose brother and heir Walter the estate had passed by 1352. (fn. 16) From that time it was held by a succession of men called Walter Park. (fn. 17) One died in the early 15th century, leaving a widow Alice, who remarried John Osebarn, and a son Walter. (fn. 18) The younger Walter was dead by 1447, and Alice Park, a free tenant in 1450, was probably his widow. (fn. 19)

By 1471 the property had fallen into the hands of the lords of Upton, perhaps by escheat; (fn. 20) the demesne lands with the house called 'Parkescourte' were held as a customary holding of the manor of Upton in the late 15th century. (fn. 21) They remained a separate farm, which in 1542 had been let to Christopher Eyre, local bailiff of the Hungerford family. (fn. 22) Three virgates were apparently added to the farm then; in 1582, when it was in hand, it consisted in all of over 200 a. (fn. 23) In 1606, when it was let to William Seaman, it was called Acres Farm. (fn. 24) It must have been the same property as that which was bought by the Seaman family when the manor was broken up in 1689. (fn. 25) It descended to Lionel Seaman, Archdeacon of Wells, who died in 1760. (fn. 26) By his wife Jane, daughter of Edward Willes, Bishop of Bath and Wells, he had an only son Lionel, who died unmarried in 1783, (fn. 27) and two daughters, who held the land jointly for many years. Mary Seaman never married; her sister Jane married the Revd. William Somerville of Dinder (Som.) and survived her sister, dying in 1830. (fn. 28) The farm then passed to Francis Willes, their cousin, son of the elder Jane Seaman's brother William. (fn. 29) His daughter Margaret Sophia married W. A. Mackinnon of Acryse Park, Kent, who still held the farm at his death in 1903. (fn. 30)

In 1205 the king confirmed to the Abbot of Waverley (Surr.) a virgate of land in Norridge, and certain land in Corsley given by Walter Giffard. (fn. 31) Seven years later Thomas de Cormeilles, who claimed the manor of Norridge, acknowledged that he owed rent to the abbot for these lands. (fn. 32) No more is known of them, but in 1536 the rent was still paid, for it was granted with other Waverley property to Sir William FitzWilliam. (fn. 33)

In 1496 William Champion of Croscombe (Som.) was licensed to grant a small estate in Norridge and Thoulstone to the Guild of St. Anne in Croscombe church. (fn. 34) It consisted of three closes and a few acres of field land, and was held by the guild until the dissolution of chantries. (fn. 35) In 1548 it was granted to Sir John Thynne, (fn. 36) and descended with the Longleat estate. (fn. 37)

The property which formed the endowment of the Scudamore and Park chantries in Upton church was appropriated in the 15th century to the use of the Hungerford chantry, later hospital, at Heytesbury. (fn. 38) It consisted in 1833 of a farm of 96 a., and was retained by the hospital until the present century. (fn. 39)

Giles Powell was a free tenant of the manor in 1525. (fn. 40) In 1582 Roger, son of Christopher Powell, held a virgate of land called Palmer's freely of the lord of the manor by a rent of 7s. (fn. 41) He still held it in 1609; (fn. 42) in 1638 Christopher Hill died seised of it, and was succeeded by his son Stephen. (fn. 43) In the late 18th century this land was held by William Bayly, who paid the rent to Lord Bath. (fn. 44) It descended in the same way as Middleton in Norton Bavant to J. B. O. Bayly, (fn. 45) who in 1838 held a farm of some 77 a., the house of which lay south of the road from the village to the Warminster road. (fn. 46)

Several farms which probably became freeholds only at the break-up of the manor in the late 17th century may be briefly mentioned. In 1582 Robert Green held three virgates in right of his wife Alice, daughter of Richard Escott. (fn. 47) In 1737 Philip Ballard of Bratton devised lands called Green's, which probably once formed part of the property, in trust for his son Jonathan, who died c. 1741. (fn. 48) By 1773 they were held by William Tree, whose name survives in Tree's Farm; after his death c. 1801 the farm passed to John Pearce. (fn. 49) His family held it until 1849, when it was sold to the trustees of the Stockton Almshouse, as Green's Farm of 67 a. (fn. 50) Early in the 20th century it was held by W. H. Laverton. (fn. 51) Another holding formerly Green's was held in 1773 by Lord William Seymour, third son of Edward, 8th Duke of Somerset (d. 1757), At Lord William's death in 1800 it passed to his widow Hester, and after her death in 1812 to Edward Seymour, their son. By 1821 it was held by Peter Awdry of Seend, whose first wife had been their daughter. (fn. 52) Awdry's son Ambrose held the farm in 1838. (fn. 53) This holding was farmed from the house adjoining Tree's Farm to the east. Another farm was apparently originally two virgates held in 1582 and 1609 by Christopher Carpenter. (fn. 54) In the early 18th century it consisted of about 60 a. and was held by the Keyford family, (fn. 55) which had probably bought it at the sale of the manorial lands. In 1773 it was still held by that family, but by 1780 it had passed to the Seamans, (fn. 56) and subsequently descended in the same way as Manor Farm. (fn. 57)

In 1582 William Escott held a virgate in Upton which included closes called Pilton's and Lokyer's. He still held it in 1609, but it subsequently passed to a family called Daniell, (fn. 58) which probably bought the freehold in 1689. In the early 18th century Elizabeth, daughter of Christopher Daniell, married William Barton, (fn. 59) and took the estate to him. The same lands were settled on their son William in 1731. (fn. 60) Daniel Barton held them in 1773, and was succeeded by William Clerk Barton (d. c. 1794) and then by William Kington Barton (d. 1801). For some years they were held by his widow's second husband, William Waldron, but in 1819 they were settled on Barton's only daughter, Louisa Margaret, when she married Stephen Flower Knight of Semington. In 1844 Knight sold the farm to James Chapman, and parts of it were later added to the Longleat and Temple estates. (fn. 61) In 1807 the farmhouse of this holding stood just south of Millard's Farm, (fn. 62) but has now disappeared.

In 1437–8 John Ewyn and John Colston paid a rent of 2 lb. of wax to the lords of Upton. (fn. 63) In 1472 Richard Ewyn of Bower Chalke, son of John, sold lands in Thoulstone, Upton, and Chalcot, once of William his grandfather, to Thomas South. (fn. 64) In 1487–8 the lord of the manor released a rent of 12s. 6d. charged on these lands, then described as in Thoulstone, to Robert South. (fn. 65) They probably later passed to the lords, for in 1582 Agnes Sainsbury held a copyhold of some 75 a. in Thoulstone which included lands called 'Ewens'. (fn. 66) In 1609 William May held this farm and also another virgate in Thoulstone called Taylors. (fn. 67) In 1630 Laurence Kington was admitted as tenant of these lands. (fn. 68) It was probably a descendant of his who bought the freehold at the sale of the manorial lands. The farm, on the north side of the road at Thoulstone, evidently descended in the Kington family, who acquired the rectory of Norridge in 1736. From that time it passed in the same way as the rectory. (fn. 69)

In 1572 the manor of Norridge included several small holdings at Thoulstone. (fn. 70) These too must have later been held by the Kington family as leaseor copyholders; in the mid-18th century, after the manor had passed to the Thynne family, John Barter held lands late Kington's at a rack rent. Other lands, some formerly part of Norridge Farm, were later added to them, and the holding was called Thoulstone Farm; (fn. 71) the house was that which stands on the south side of the road there.

Clear Wood belonged to Peter Scudamore c. 1290. (fn. 72) It was not sold with the part of Norridge Wood belonging to the manor, for in 1569 Sir Walter Hungerford obtained a declaration from some old inhabitants that Clear Wood, which contained four coppices, was distinct from Norridge Wood. (fn. 73) By 1682, however, it had been added to the Thynne estate; it then contained 63 a. (fn. 74)

ECONOMIC HISTORY.

There was land for 6 ploughs on the main holding at Upton in 1086; land for two of these was in the demesne, and 9 villeins and 22 bordars held the remainder. (fn. 75) Apart from this little is known of agriculture in the village before the 15th century. In 1351 the lord of the capital manor let pasture for 240 sheep on Odyngdon, later called Upton Cow Down; they were to be folded on his arable land. (fn. 76) In 1377 an agreement for the maintenance of five ploughs shows that the demesne arable was still farmed. (fn. 77) By 1438 Odyngdon, for which a rent of 106s. 8d. had formerly been paid, was in hand again and used for the pasture of the lord's sheep. (fn. 78) Between then and 1454, and probably for some years before and after that period, Upton was one of the group of Hungerford manors in Wiltshire and Somerset which were carefully organized for the production of wool. (fn. 79) The number of sheep sheared on this manor was generally over 500, and in 1451 reached 721. All the pastures and downs of the manor were used for their feed; the rest of the demesne was let in small parcels except for a few acres of meadow which were mown to provide hay for the sheep in winter. The sheep were folded on parts of the arable land, which could then be let at a higher rate than the rest. The costs of this kind of farming must have been small; the only payments recorded were the wage of the shepherd and of men at shearing time, the cost of necessaries such as hurdles and tar, and the wages of men to mow the meadows and carry the hay to the downs. Leases of parcels of demesne arable and meadow land could bring in as much as £18 a year. Rents of assize brought in rather more than this, and sales of timber and underwood often brought £6 or £8. (fn. 80)

This intensive sheep farming was not resumed when the Hungerford family recovered the manor in 1485, (fn. 81) for the demesne was immediately let as a whole to John Hill at a rent of £12. He also held the demesne of the estate which had formerly belonged to the Park family, which he had occupied for some years. (fn. 82) The Hill family still held the demesne farm, then called Odyngdon Farm, c. 1530, (fn. 83) and half of it in 1582. The other half was then held by Christopher Cabell, and the whole was called Kinton's Farm. It included a pasture called Perry's Breach and 192½ a. of arable land. Park's Farm held by Christopher Eyre included 24 a. of inclosed meadow and pasture and 124 a. of arable land, but was held with three virgates which added another 91 a. to its area. In 1582 the customary holdings of the manor in Upton amounted, apart from cottages and small closes, to 16½ virgates; these were divided between 11 copyholders in holdings varying between 4 virgates and ½ virgate. (fn. 84) By 1609 the two halves of the demesne farm had been re-united, and the number of larger copyholders had been reduced to 10 by the anexation of a single virgate to a larger holding. (fn. 85) Such concentration of holdings must have given rise to the several farms into which the manorial lands were divided when they were broken up in 1689. (fn. 86) Thus the farm held by the Keyford family in the 18th century was identical with the two virgates held by Christopher Carpenter in 1582, (fn. 87) and the three virgates held by Robert Green then were still distinguished as Green's Farm in the 19th century. (fn. 88) The demesne farm of the manor was sold to the Temples of Bishopstrow in 1689, (fn. 89) and let by them at rack rents from at least 1717. After inclosure it amounted to over 450 a., and was let at £340 in 1824. (fn. 90)

Little is known about the layout of the fields of Upton before the 16th century. A number of furlong names are recorded, and there was an East Field in 1341. (fn. 91) In 1582 the arable lands of holdings in Upton lay in East, South, and West Fields, and in the Garston, which lay north of the village between the Warminster road and the lane to Biss Bottom. (fn. 92) The total extent of the arable at that time was probably not greatly different from that at the inclosure of the parish in 1805, (fn. 93) when it covered the open hollow between Upton Cow Down and the Warminster boundary and extended westward to surround the crofts of the village and join the lands of the holdings in Norridge and Thoulstone. In 1582 the South and East Fields of Upton followed a two-year course, (fn. 94) and the division of the rectory glebe into two parts in 1608 probably indicates that this was still the course for the whole of the arable land. A century later the same glebe was classified into East Field, West Field, and 'other fields', (fn. 95) and at the inclosure more than half a dozen fields and furlongs were named on the award. This no doubt reflects a more elaborate course, but nothing is known of it.

The demesne arable land lay in many pieces in the 15th century, (fn. 96) but improvement by the exchange and consolidation of strips had begun in 1582, when at least 30 a. in the Garston, and perhaps all the farm lands, had already been divided off. Much had also been done on Park's Farm, for the 124 a. belonging to it was divided into only 20 pieces, some as large as 20 a. This was a strong contrast to the three virgates held with Park's, where 84 a. were divided into over 90 pieces, (fn. 97) or the rectory glebe, where in 1608 22½ a. lay in 33 pieces. The glebe still lay in many pieces in 1705. (fn. 98) In 1582 the inclosure of common field land in Upton had not begun, for the only closes mentioned were crofts adjoining the village houses and inclosures of land, probably formerly waste, at Chalcot. (fn. 99) It had indeed made little progress by the time of the inclosure of the parish in 1805. Inclosed land not subject to common rights lay mainly round the village and west of it toward Norridge Farm, and few inclosures had been made in other parts of the fields. Those which were still subject to common were included in the allotments made by the award. (fn. 1)

The dearth of streams in Upton must have always made meadow land scarce and no commonable meadows seem to have existed; what little meadow there was lay in small inclosures about the village or near the Biss. (fn. 2) The commons on the other hand were in 1582 extensive and important. Beside the unsown field, which was used for cattle from the breach and sheep from Martinmas, the downs provided much pasture. Odyngdon, or Upton Cow Down, provided 200 a. of summer pasture for cattle and was several to the farmer of the demesne for his sheep for the rest of the year. The tenants had 60 a. of sheep pasture in Tenantry Down for the whole year, and another 100 a. in Ridgeway Down for the winter, partly shared with the farm flock. The farmer of Park's could keep 273 sheep in Whiteway Down and Durtley Hanging all the year, and had winter common for them in High Hook in Warminster; in addition he had spring pasture in Warminster Hill Field every second year. The stints of the Upton customary tenants amounted to 970 sheep. For cattle and horses, the tenants of Upton had common at the rate of 5 beasts to a virgate in all the extensive commons belonging to Norridge, including Norridge Wood, Clear Wood, Norridge Down, and Fulmoor Common. (fn. 3)

For a century before inclosure Upton had been divided into several freehold farms of considerable size. The extent to which this had modified the course of the fields, their division into strips or the common rights over them is not known, although we have seen that there had not been extensive inclosure. In 1805 all the commonable land of the parish was allotted; in Upton village there were about eights farms, varying from about 50 to 450 a. in size. Although inclosure must have resulted in an increase in permanent grass, the parish remained predominantly arable. In 1838 there were 1,368 a. under the plough compared with 1,024 a. of pasture which included 530 a. of downland. (fn. 4) In 1905 out of a rather smaller area there were 1,050 a. of arable land and 1,148 a. of pasture. (fn. 5)

In 1333 the demesnes of the manor of Norridge consisted of 103 a. of arable land and small quantities of meadow, pasture and wood, and free and customary tenants paid just over £4 in rents. (fn. 6) The demesnes were still farmed in 1389, when 57 qr. of wheat, 63 qr. of barley and 5 qr. of oats were winnowed. (fn. 7) By 1468 the house and demesnes were let at farm. (fn. 8) In 1572 William Cabell, the lessee, held a farm which comprised some 27 a. of meadow, 50 a. of pasture, 15 a. of wood, and 140 a. of arable land. Most of the arable lay in the North and South Fields of Norridge, but some lay in Thoulstone Field. The farmer had common on Norridge Down for 260 sheep all the year, and in Norridge Wood and Clear Wood for his oxen and horses, besides certain rights in the fields of Upton and Warminster. Besides this large farm, Cabell held two smaller ones, a house near Norridge Farm called the Crosshold, and over 50 a. and a rowless tenement in Upton called Barn Close and about 40 a. The rest of the manor consisted of two holdings at Norridge, of 60 a. and 25 a., and four small holdings at Thoulstone. (fn. 9) Norridge Down, which lay south of Clear Wood, ceased to be used as a common pasture in 1698, another indication of the dominance of the farm in the economy of Norridge. William Seaman, the lessee, broke it up and sowed it with oats, and in 1739 it was producing good corn crops. (fn. 10) By 1750 part of the farm which lay in Thoulstone had been subtracted from Norridge Farm, which was then held at a rack rent of £130. Later in the century part of Clear Wood had been grubbed up and added to it. (fn. 11)

At inclosure much of the western part of the parish, stretching from Norridge Farm to Chapmanslade, consisted of old inclosures, many of which had existed in the 16th century. Commonable arable land lay north of the Bath road surrounding Hedge Croft Wood. It was divided into Thoulstone Field, Cold Castle Field, and Norridge Hill. On the parish boundary north of Norridge Wood lay Norridge Common. By that time the Longleat estate in the parish consisted of only two farms, at Norridge and Thoulstone. (fn. 12)

In 1267 Peter Scudamore obtained a grant of a weekly market and a yearly fair at Upton, (fn. 13) but nothing is known of either being held.

Mills belonged to two of the holdings at Upton in 1086. (fn. 14) That of the capital manor may have been Smallbrook Mill which, although it lay beyond Warminster, was in Upton Scudamore parish until the 19th century. (fn. 15) It paid a chief rent to the manor of Upton in the 14th century, and was no doubt once Scudamore property. Its history is dealt with below. (fn. 16) A mill at 'Biss sub Clyve', no doubt Biss Bottom, existed in the late 13th century, (fn. 17) but no more is known of it.

CHURCH.

Norman work still remaining shows that there was a church at Upton Scudamore in the 12th century. The advowson of the rectory was annexed to the manor until the mid-14th century. (fn. 18) In 1352 Walter Scudamore granted it to a canon and two vicars of Wells Cathedral, in return for a payment of 40 marks and the inclusion of his family in the prayers offered there. In 1357 Sir Peter de Grandison, Scudamore's overlord, licensed the grantees to assign the advowson to the Dean and Chapter of Wells. (fn. 19) William de Cudeworth, a vicar choral of Wells, was instituted as rector in 1361, (fn. 20) and the church seems to have been destined for the support of the college of vicars choral then recently organized there. (fn. 21) Canons of Wells were still presenting to the church in 1395, (fn. 22) but between then and 1428 the advowson was evidently regained in some way by the lords of the manor, for Walter, Lord Hungerford, presented at the later date. (fn. 23) Successive lords continued to present until the break-up of the manor in 1689. In 1701 Sir Stephen Fox gave the advowson to his nephew, Richard Barry, who had been rector since 1691. (fn. 24) After the death of his son Richard, rector from 1749 until his death in 1766, it was sold, subject to the life interest of his son Richard, who succeeded him as rector and died in 1779, to the John Michel Foundation in Queen's College, Oxford. (fn. 25) The college still retained the living in 1962.

There was a vicar at Upton Scudamore in the mid-13th century (fn. 26) and until the sale of the advowson to the Dean and Chapter of Wells many of the rectors seem to have presented vicars to serve for them. (fn. 27) When it was held by the chapter the church may have been appropriated. Early in Elizabeth I's reign the Hungerfords were treating the rectory as though it were impropriate and making leases of it to laymen. (fn. 28) In 1582, however, Thomas Hickman, the rector, evidently took his patron to law and must have been successful in regaining all the profits of the rectory. (fn. 29) The church was valued at £8 in 1291, (fn. 30) and at £16 6s. 11d. clear in 1535. (fn. 31) In 1582 it was reckoned to be worth £40 a year, (fn. 32) and in 1634 £100. (fn. 33) About 1770 the glebe and tithes were let at £200 a year. (fn. 34) In 1835 the average income was £456, (fn. 35) which by 1864 had increased to £520. (fn. 36) When the tithes were commuted in 1838, the rector owned those of all but about 419 a. of the parish. Of the remainder 23 a. had been exempted from tithes under the Warminster Inclosure Award; the tithes of 77 a. belonged to the Dean and Chapter of Salisbury as part of Warminster rectory, of 92 a. to the Prebendary of Luxfield in Wells Cathedral, and of 227 a. to the former free chapel of Norridge. For his tithes the rector was allotted a rent-charge of £490, of which £10 represented the tithes of the glebe when it was let. The Chapter of Salisbury received £50 and the Prebendary of Luxfield £35. (fn. 37) When the advowson was conveyed to the Dean and Chapter of Wells 2 a. of land were included; (fn. 38) this probably represents an augmentation of the glebe belonging to the living. In 1608 the glebe was reckoned at 23½ a. and in 1705 at 28 a. (fn. 39) After the inclosure of the parish it amounted to 23¾. (fn. 40)

In 1311 John, parson of Upton Scudamore, was pardoned for breaking out of prison in Dorset because he had done good service in Scotland. (fn. 41) Adam of Usk, chronicler and canon lawyer, held the living from 1387 to 1393, but probably never resided, for he was at Oxford at that time. (fn. 42) Thomas Hickman, rector from 1579, was soon at variance with his parishioners. Several of them were brought before the Privy Council for bringing a malicious action against him at Quarter Sessions; they had evidently complained of his Puritanism, but the Council approved of 'his finding fault with sundry Papistical abuses by them used in the said parish, worthy of reformation'. (fn. 43) In spite of this the parishioners continued to complain to the bishop of Hickman's practices, such as making them receive the sacrament standing and wear their hats in church, and not himself wearing the square cap and surplice. It was rumoured, too, that he had the benefice by simony, and by 1585 he had been excommunicated. (fn. 44)

The 17th and 18th centuries were notable for long incumbencies; between 1628 and 1850 only seven rectors held the living. William Seaman, 1628–80, was head of a family which held a farm in the parish on lease (fn. 45) and there is little doubt that he resided. The Barrys, of whom father, son, and grandson served the cure successively between 1691 and 1779, also seem to have lived in the village, although the second of them held benefices in Dorset and Gloucestershire in plurality. (fn. 46) Thomas Owen, 1779–1812, was a man of some learning who translated classical works on agriculture into English. (fn. 47) Upton was his only benefice and he resided on it. In 1783 he held morning and afternoon services on Sundays with a sermon at the former, and administered the sacrament four times a year to about 40 people. (fn. 48) Henry Barry, 1812–50, is the only known absentee rector, for he himself served the living of Draycot Cerne and employed a curate at Upton. (fn. 49) John Baron, 1850–85, published works on theological and antiquarian subjects, but is chiefly remembered for his part in the production of Scudamore organs, which is described below. (fn. 50) He held morning and afternoon services on Sundays, both with sermons; communion services were held at the major festivals and monthly, and about 25 people attended. One assistant curate was employed. (fn. 51) A Sunday School had about 18 pupils in 1851. (fn. 52)

In 1331 Peter Scudamore was licensed to give lands in mortmain to found a chantry in Upton church. (fn. 53) When he granted his Warminster property to his son three years later, he reserved an estate of over 40 a. there to endow it. The gift was not, however, made until 1349, when Walter, Peter's son, conveyed the land in Warminster to a priest to celebrate daily in Upton church for the souls of the Scudamore family. (fn. 54) When the manor passed to the Hungerford family, licence was obtained in 1442 to use the endowment of this chantry for the Hungerford chantry at Heytesbury. (fn. 55) The later history of the property is described above. (fn. 56)

An inquisition in 1359 found that it would be no damage to anyone to allow Walter Park to grant 60 a. in Upton to found a chantry in the church there. (fn. 57) Nothing more is known of this chantry; it is probable that the lands given for its support were, like those of the Scudamore chantry, appropriated for the Heytesbury chantry in the 15th century. (fn. 58)

In the mid-16th century there were 2 a. of land in the fields of Upton which had been given by an unknown donor for the maintenance of a lamp in the church. (fn. 59) It was probably the same 2 a. the profits of which it was said in 1582 had been employed on the repair of the church time out of mind. (fn. 60) In 1783 it was said that there were 4 a. which had been left before the Reformation for that purpose. (fn. 61) At the inclosure of the parish an allotment of 2½ a. was made to the churchwardens. In 1903 the rent of the allotments for which it was used amounted to about £7 a year and was used for church expenses. (fn. 62) In 1885 Sophia Mary Baron gave two cottages at Biss Bottom to the churchwardens. They were sold for £100 in 1890 and the income from that sum has since then been used for church expenses. (fn. 63)

The church of ST MARY THE VIRGIN stands south of the village, and consists of nave, chancel, north aisle, and porch, and a square western tower. The dedication is mentioned in 1331. (fn. 64) The oldest remaining work is the Norman surround of the north doorway, (fn. 65) which is of the late 12th century; a 15th-century arch has been inserted in it. In the north wall of the nave is a small pointed lancet of which the head is not original; this may once have been Norman, while at the west end of the same wall 'long and short' quoins have been preserved. The circular Norman font is decorated with bands of saw-tooth and lozenge ornament. (fn. 66) These are the surviving remains of a church which probably consisted only of a nave and chancel. In the late 13th or early 14th century a small aisle or chapel of two bays was added north of the nave; in its east wall is an original window of three graded and cusped lancets. The chancel was probably rebuilt in the 15th century. The chancel arch of this time remains, and a square-headed east window of the period existed until 1855. The tower was rebuilt in 1750, and retains a round-headed window of that date at the belfry stage. According to Hoare, the remainder of the church was also rebuilt at this time. (fn. 67)

By the mid-19th century the church had become 'an offensive charnel house', with 'all sorts of deformities and material obstructions to worship'. Under the direction of G. E. Street it was extensively remodelled in the 13th-century style. The chancel was entirely rebuilt, and so was the south wall of the nave, which incorporates a built-in arcade to allow for the future addition of a south aisle. A gallery at the west end of the nave was removed, plaster ceilings in the nave and aisle were replaced by the present roofs, and a north porch was added. The west door and lower window of the tower were renewed, the pinnacles taken off, and an external frame was built on the tower to hold the bell, which had previously been almost inaudible at the rectory. The churchyard was extended on three sides, and a stone wall replaced the dead hedge and rotten palings which had surrounded it. (fn. 68)

In the north aisle are two effigies of knights, probably members of the Scudamore family (fn. 69) ; one is probably of the late 13th century and the other about 100 years later. (fn. 70) The church also contains several monuments dating from the late 17th century onwards. There were three bells in 1553 and the same number in 1750, when two were sold to pay for the work then done on the church. The remaining one, dated 1614, was recast in 1882, and two new bells were then added. (fn. 71) In 1553 a chalice of 11½ oz. was left for the parish, and 15 oz. of silver taken for the king. The plate consisted in 1963 of chalices of 1652 and 1878, a paten of 1733, and a flagon of 1883. (fn. 72)

Upton Scudamore church was the scene of an experiment in organ building which had some influence on mid-Victorian builders. At the restoration of the church in 1855–9 John Baron found himself unable to afford an organ, and so devised a design for a small organ with only one manual and no pedals, based on medieval models. He employed Nelson Hall, an organ-builder living in the village, to make the instrument, and G. E. Street, the architect for the restoration, designed the case. The idea was taken up by other churches both on account of its cheapness and the small space needed. Hall soon moved to Warminster, and supplied churches in several parts of the country before his early death in 1862. Many more Scudamore organs, as Baron called them, were built by Henry Willis, the celebrated London builder. (fn. 73)

There was a chapel at Norridge in the reign of Edward I. (fn. 74) Peter Bolymer was Rector of Norridge in 1306, (fn. 75) and in 1311 was described as parson of the chapel. (fn. 76) Institutions to this chapel are recorded between 1313 and 1521, the patrons being the lords of the manor of Norridge. (fn. 77) It was perhaps the chapel in the manor house there, mentioned in 1333. (fn. 78) In 1428 it was not taxed because of the small number of inhabitants. (fn. 79) In 1531 it was let to Richard Hill, apparently a layman, although the incumbent, William Hill, was a clerk described as well-learned, and holding only one other small benefice. The income of 52s. 6d. clear came from 25½ a. of land and the tithes of certain furlongs in the manor of Norridge. The chapel was covered with tiles and contained one bell. (fn. 80) It was dissolved as a free chapel, and the property was let to John Stockman for 21 years in 1555. (fn. 81) The reversion of the lease was granted to Richard Middlecott of Bishopstrow, clothier, in 1562. (fn. 82) The property was sold by John Middlecott to John Sainsbury in 1572. (fn. 83) From that time the descent is obscure until in 1655 William Whitaker bought ¼ share of the parsonage from a number of interested parties, (fn. 84) and left it at his death ten years later to his daughter Anne, wife of Anthony Kington. (fn. 85) In 1662 Elnathan Holwey acquired a half share from John Holwey and Richard Clase, (fn. 86) and in 1697 Edward Buckler bought the other quarter, again from several parties. (fn. 87)

In the early 18th century Norridge parsonage was held in 3 parts; half belonged to the Holwey family, a quarter to Edward Buckler of Bristol, and a quarter to Lawrence Kington. In 1734 Buckler bought the Holwey share, and two years later sold all his interest to Anthony Kington, son of Lawrence, who thus obtained the whole. (fn. 88) Anthony Kington's daughter, Elizabeth, married John Gallimore Hulbert who held the parsonage until c. 1799. It then passed to another Anthony Kington, perhaps brother of Elizabeth, who died c. 1805. (fn. 89) His death again left several parties interested, whose shares passed c. 1820, probably by sale, to S. F. Phelps, a Warminster attorney. (fn. 90) In 1838 the impropriator was John Norris Clark of Trowbridge. He owned the great and small tithes of 227 a.; he also owned the freehold of 97 a. of these lands, and the tithes on them were extinguished by the award. Most of the rest of the land titheable to Norridge formed part of Norridge Farm. The parsonage glebe amounted to 23½ a., which was apparently free of tithe. (fn. 91)

Although the chapel must have been near Norridge Farm, its exact site is unknown. It was completely gone by 1783, (fn. 92) and probably long before then. The only vestige remaining is a stone panel with a carving of the crucifixion which is built into the wall of a cottage; it is thought to be of the 13th or 14th century.

There was a chapel at Thoulstone in the reign of Edward I. (fn. 93) In 1320 there was a dispute between Roger Bavant and Peter Scudamore over the advowson, (fn. 94) which was annexed to the manor of Upton Scudamore. (fn. 95) In 1341 it was described as a free chantry worth 5 marks. (fn. 96) In 1428 it was not taxed because there were fewer than 10 inhabitants. (fn. 97) It was apparently annexed to the church of Upton about 1440 at the instance of Walter, Lord Hungerford. (fn. 98) The chapel may have stood in Chapel Close, which adjoins Thoulstone Farm on the south. This close was later part of the glebe of Upton church. (fn. 99)

NONCONFORMITY.

There were two sectaries in Upton Scudamore in 1662, (fn. 1) but in 1669 and 1676 there were said to be none. (fn. 2) A man who objected to infant baptism lived in the village in 1683, (fn. 3) and a century later there was one Presbyterian family. (fn. 4) A building was licensed for Baptist worship in 1798, (fn. 5) but no permanent congregation grew up. (fn. 6) In 1841 another building was licensed (fn. 7) ; this was probably also for Baptists, for in 1850 there were enough in the village for the Warminster congregation to build a chapel there. It provided 100 sittings, and a congregation of 60 attended in 1851, when afternoon and evening services were held on Sundays and the minister from Warminster preached on Thursday evenings. (fn. 8) The chapel fell out of use in 1907 and was sold in 1920, the proceeds going toward paying off the debt on the Warminster chapel. (fn. 9) It still stood in 1963, and was used as a dwelling house.

SCHOOLS.

There was a school in Upton Scudamore in 1818, but it was said to be of little use. (fn. 10) Six fee-paying children attended a school in 1833 (fn. 11) and five years later between 20 and 30 children were being taught by a mistress in her own cottage. (fn. 12) Grants towards building a new school were made by the state and the National Society in 1839. (fn. 13) By c. 1858 some 40 or 50 children were being taught by a mistress, trained at Salisbury Diocesan Training College. The older boys at this date went to school in Warminster. (fn. 14) In 1864 there was besides the day school an evening school two nights a week in winter; it was successful in teaching boys to read, write, and cipher, 'but not much in Christianizing or civilizing them'. (fn. 15) In 1871 there were the National School for about 28 children and a private school for 18 children. (fn. 16) The National School had an average attendance of 43 in 1903–4. (fn. 17) In 1917 it had dropped to 34, and in 1925 the school was closed. (fn. 18) It still stood in 1963, and was used as a dwelling house.

CHARITIES.

John Neat, by his will proved in 1844 left £150, the income from which was to be paid on Christmas Eve to 5 old men and 5 old women, regular attenders at Upton church. (fn. 19) Mary Ann Wheeler gave £200 in 1878 and a further £50 in 1908 to provide small sums of money, or food and clothing, for 6 poor men or women, who also had to be regular churchgoers. (fn. 20) The income from both these charities amounted in 1962 to just over £12 and was given away to between 6 and 10 people. (fn. 21)

Footnotes

1 Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 170.
2 See p. 89.
3 E 301/58 no. 76; Early Stuart Tradesmen (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), 18; Daniell, Warminster, 181; Longleat MS. 8845; W.A.S. Libr., Devizes, Everett MSS. Pedigrees i. 88.
4 See p. 86.
5 W.R.O. Tithe Award.
6 Ibid. The following maps were used: O.S. Maps 1/2,500 Wilts. XLIV. 15, 16, XLV. 9, 13, LI. 3, 4 (all edns.); 1/25,000, ST 84.
7 Census, 1891.
8 Census, 1951.
9 From an interim report on excavations carried out by Mr. J. W. G. Musty, in 1962, kindly supplied by him.
10 V.C.H. Wilts. iv. 302, 311.
11 W.N. & Q. iii. 537.
12 V.C.H. Wilts. iv. 359. pl. 7; W.R.O. Tithe Award.
13 Andrews and Dury, Map (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), pl. 7; W.R.O. Tithe Award.
14 Halliday, Information, f. 99; Q. Sess. and Ass. 1736 (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), 62.
15 M. Gibson, View of the Ancient and Present States of the Churches of Door, Home Lacy, and Hempstead (1727), 57.
16 Report as in n. 9 above.
17 S.C. 2/209/63.
18 See p. 82.
19 S.C. 2/209/64.
20 V.C.H. Wilts. iv. 311.
21 Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 95.
22 Longleat MS. 8860.
23 Local inf.
24 V.C.H. Wilts. iv. 311, 314.
25 W.R.O. 442/1; Longleat MS. 8860.
26 Printed Mins. of Evidence on proceedings on 36 and 37 Vic. c. 134 (copy penes West Wilts. Water Bd.); V.C.H. Wilts. vii. 150.
27 Wilts. Times, 31 Aug. 1962.
28 V.C.H. Wilts. ii, p. 142.
29 Herefordshire Domesday, ed. Galbraith (P.R.S. n.s. xxv), 111.
30 e.g. Bk. of Fees, 725; Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), ii. 276.
31 I. J. Sanders, English Baronies, 43; Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 110.
32 E 329/207; Cal. Pat. 1364–7, 312; Complete Peerage, s.v. Grandison and Salisbury.
33 E 326/8993.
34 See below.
35 V.C.H. Wilts. ii, p. 142.
36 M. Gibson, View of the Ancient and Present State of the Churches of Door, Home Lacy, and Hempstead (1727), 55, which refers to deeds then extant.
37 Gibson (op. cit. 56) had seen an original of the grant; a copy is in W.R.O. 490, Hungerford Cart. f. 111.
38 Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 245.
39 Pipe R. 1190 (P.R.S. n.s. i), 122.
40 Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), 153.
41 Rot. Litt. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i. 285, 300.
42 Ibid. 513.
43 Bk. of Fees, 712, 725; C.P. 25(1)/251/20/23.
44 Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, 73; for the relationship, see Visitation of Hunts. (Camd. Soc. 1st ser. xliii), 82.
45 Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1242–1327 (Index Libr.), 194.
46 Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Warminster, 77.
47 Visitation of Hunts. (Camd. Soc. 1st ser. xliii), 82, a deed of after Oct. 1289 because Ric. de Combe was sheriff.
48 Cat. Anct. D. v. A 13410.
49 G. Wrottesley, Pedigrees from the Plea Rolls, 37; Rot. Parl. i. 408; the dispute had probably begun by 1320: see below p. 89.
50 W.R.O. 490, Hungerford Cart. ff. 117–8.
51 Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 220–2.
52 W.R.O. 490, Hungerford Cart. f. 116 v.
53 C 136/28/2.
54 Cal. Close, 1392–6, 181; 1405–9, 443; Feud. Aids, vi. 532.
55 Visitation of Hunts. (Camd. Soc. 1st ser. xliii), 83; W.R.O. 490. Hungerford Cart. f. 125 v.
56 C 139/20/34.
57 C 139/33/36; cf. Visitation of Hunts. (Camd. Soc. 1st ser. xliii), 88 where he is called Henry Street.
58 Cal. Close, 1419–22, 255.
59 C.P. 25(1)/256/60/40; Cal. Close, 1419–22, 211.
60 C.P. 25(1)/257/61/19; C.P. 25(1)/257/61/31.
61 Cal. Close, 1422–9, 412.
62 W.R.O. 490, Hungerford Cart. f. 124 v.; Feud. Aids, v. 273.
63 W.R.O. 490, Hungerford Cart. ff. 120–1.
64 Cal. Close, 1429–35, 56 (1430).
65 Complete Peerage.
66 Cal. Pat. 1467–77, 466.
67 Ibid. 1476–85, 359.
68 Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Heytesbury, 109; Sir John Maclean, Deanery of Trigg Minor, i. 357–60; Complete Peerage; C 1/80/45.
69 Maclean, op. cit. 360–1; Complete Peerage.
70 L. & P. Hen. VIII, xix (1), p. 83.
71 Cal. Pat. 1550–53, 438–9.
72 C 142/306/159.
73 C 142/306/160.
74 Collinson, Somerset, iii. 356.
75 C.P. 25(2)/747/Trin. 36 Chas. II.
76 For other parts of the manor, see pp. 83–84.
77 W.R.O. 132, Deeds of the Upton property.
78 See p. 6; the manor house is mentioned above, p. 79.
79 V.C.H. Wilts. ii, p. 140.
80 Ibid. vii. 59.
81 Bk. of Fees, 710.
82 Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 95.
83 i.e. unlike the manors of Trowbridge and Aldbourne: V.C.H. Wilts. vii. 129.
84 Feud. Aids, v. 274; Cal. Close, 1405–9, 458.
85 W.R.O. 442/2.
86 V.C.H. Wilts. ii, p. 140.
87 Cur. Reg. R. 1201–3, 243, 305; 1203–5, 83; 1220, 5–6, 285; 1221–2, 13; Bracton's Note Bk. ed. Maitland, iii. 411.
88 C.P. 25(1)/250/8/12.
89 Bk. of Fees, 710, 719; for Bastards holding land in Upton a century later, see Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 221.
90 J.I. 1/1006 m. 55d.
91 Feet of F. 1272–1327 (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), 31.
92 Phillipps, Wilts. Inst. i. 13.
93 Feet of F. 1272–1327 (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), 92.
94 Cal. Close, 1313–8, 547.
95 Feud. Aids, v. 212; Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 95.
96 Glos. Inq. p.m. 1302–58 (Index Libr.), 312.
97 Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 317, 326.
98 W.R.O. 492, Deed Stawell to Lye; C.P. 25(1)/255/ 51/33.
99 C 138/48/60; Cal. Close, 1419–22, 95. In 1428 it was said that the land was late of Rich. de Penlegh, but it is not known why: Feud. Aids, v. 274.
1 B.M. Harl. Ch. 53. C. 11; Longleat MSS. 8836, 8838–9.
2 S.C. 2/209/63.
3 Longleat MS. 8839.
4 S.C. 2/208/68; C 142/42/153; Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Downton, 4; Hutchins, Hist. Dors. iv. 144; P.C.C. 18 Bodfelde.
5 Longleat MSS. 8840–3; Berry, Hants Genealogies, 134.
6 V.C.H. Hants, v. 171.
7 G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, i. 66–7.
8 Longleat MSS. Parcel XXVII, Title Deeds of Manor
9 See p. 80.
10 Bk. of Fees, 712; see also C.P. 25(1)/250/9/11, C.P. 25(1)/251/13/46, and B.M. Add. Ch. 26695, 26698.
11 B.M. Add. Ch. 26702.
12 Plac. Abbrev. (Rec. Com.), 189; Cal. Close, 1288–96, 404.
13 B.M. Add. Ch. 26706.
14 Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 220, 222.
15 W.R.O. 490, Hungerford Cart. f. 118 v.
16 Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 222–3.
17 C.P. 25(1)/255/50/18 (1362); B.M. Add. Ch. 40046 (1388); Rot. Parl. iii. 258 (1389); B.M. Add. Ch. 26718 (1417), 26719–20 (1440–2).
18 Feud. Aids, v. 274; Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 222.
19 S.C. 2/209/62; S.C. 6/1061/14; Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 225.
20 S.C. 2/209/63.
21 S.C. 2/209/64.
22 L. & P. Hen. VIII, xvii, p. 60.
23 W.R.O. 442/1.
24 Ibid. 442/2.
25 See p. 81.
26 Foster, Alumn. Oxon. 2nd ser. iv. 1270.
27 Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Warminster, 52; Burke, Landed Gent. (1846), ii. 1263.
28 W.R.O. Land Tax Assessments and Inclosure Award; Burke, op. cit. ii. 1262–3.
29 W.R.O. Land Tax Assessments and Tithe Award; Burke, op. cit. ii. 1592.
30 Burke, Landed Gent. (1906), ii. 1094; Kelly's Dir. Wilts. (1903).
31 Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 161.
32 C.P. 25(1)/250/3/40.
33 L & P. Hen. VIII, xi, p. 88.
34 Cal. Pat. 1494–1509, 78.
35 Longleat MS. 8850; Somerset Chantries (Som. Rec. Soc.), 311.
36 Cal Pat. 1548–9, 52.
37 Longleat MS. 7031.
38 See p. 87.
39 W.A.M. xliv. 258; Endowed Char. Wilts. (1908), pp. 202, 224
40 S.C. 2/208/70.
41 W.R.O. 442/1.
42 Ibid. 442/2.
43 Ibid. 490, Court Bk. 1628–41.
44 Longleat MSS. Rental 1775.
45 See p. 50.
46 W.R.O. Land Tax Assessments and Tithe Award.
47 Ibid. 442/1.
48 W.N. & Q. iii. 527, 529.
49 W.R.O. Land Tax Assessments.
50 Ibid. Tithe Award; Endowed Char. Wilts. (1908), p. 669; J. Baron, Reasons against Alienation of Property of Stockton Almshouse in Upton Scudamore, 1877 (copy in Wilts. Tracts cviii).
51 W.R.O. Tithe Award, Altered Apportionment.
52 W.R.O. Land Tax Assessments; Burke, Land. Gent. (1846), i. 39; Hoare Mod. Wilts. Mere, 132.
53 W.R.O. Tithe Award.
54 Ibid. 442/1–2.
55 Ibid. 78, Settlements of 1713 and 1719.
56 W.R.O. Land Tax Assessments.
57 See p. 83.
58 W.R.O. 442/1–2.
59 Genealogists' Mag. ix. 360.
60 W.R.O. 194, Settlement, 1731.
61 Ibid. 132, Deeds of the Farm; ibid. Land Tax Assessments and Tithe Award, Altered Apportionment.
62 Ibid. Inclosure Award.
63 S.C. 6/1061/10.
64 Antrobus D. before 1625 (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), 27.
65 S.C. 6/Hen. VII/919.
66 W.R.O. 442/1.
67 Ibid. 442/2.
68 Ibid. 490, Hungerford Court Bk. 1628–41.
69 Ibid. Land Tax Assessments and Tithe Award; see p. 89.
70 Longleat MS. 8855.
71 Ibid. Rentals.
72 Visitation of Hunts. (Camd. Soc. 1st ser. xliii), 82.
73 B.M. Add. Ch. 40080.
74 Longleat MS. 10652.
75 V.C.H. Wilts. ii, p. 142. The agricultural history of Norridge and Thoulstone is mentioned separately later in this section.
76 Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 221. See also Visitation of Hunts. (Camd. Soc. 1st ser xliii), 83. For the identity of the downs see Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Westbury, 55.
77 Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 221.
78 S.C. 6/1061/10.
79 See V.C.H. Wilts. iv. 19-25.
80 S.C. 2/209/62–4; S.C. 6/1061/10–18.
81 See p. 81.
82 S.C. 6/Hen. VII/918; S.C. 2/209/63; see above, p. 83.
83 C 1/642/15.
84 W.R.O. 442/1.
85 Ibid. 442/2.
86 See p. 81.
87 See p. 83.
88 Ibid.
89 See p. 81.
90 W.R.O. 132, Leases of the Farm, and Valuation, 1824.
91 Ibid. 490, Hungerford Cart. ff. 111, 114 v., 115 v., 116 v.
92 Ibid. 442/1 and Inclosure Award.
93 Ibid. Inclosure Award, hereafter in this section used without specific reference.
94 Ibid. 442/1.
95 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Glebe Terriers, 1608, 1705; W.R.O. 109, Deed Sturges and Pearce to Matravers, 1750 gives W., S.W., S.E., and N.E. Fields and other furlongs.
96 S.C. 2/209/62.
97 W.R.O. 442/1; the wording of the survey is ambiguous.
98 Sar. Dioc. R. O. Glebe Terriers, 1608, 1705.
99 W.R.O. 442/1.
1 e.g. Ponton's and Upthorn's Tynings in the allotment in Hay Furlong Field made to Green's Farm: Endowed Char. Wilts. (1908), p. 669.
2 W.R.O. 442/1.
3 Ibid.
4 W.R.O. Tithe Award.
5 Information supplied by Bd. of Agric. 1905.
6 Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 95.
7 Longleat MS. 8852.
8 Ibid. 8855.
9 Ibid. 8860.
10 E 134/13 Geo. II/Mich. 5.
11 Longleat MSS. Rentals.
12 W.R.O. Inclosure Award.
13 Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, 73.
14 V.C.H. Wilts. ii, pp. 142, 150.
15 See p. 79.
16 See p. 115.
17 Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 219.
18 Phillipps, Wilts. Inst. i. 3, 17, 23, 38.
19 W.R.O. 490, Hungerford Cart. ff. 121v.–122v.; Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 245–6.
20 W.R.O. 490, Hungerford Cart. f. 123.
21 Reg. Ralph of Shrewsbury (Som. Rec. Soc.), ii. 765; V.C.H. Som. ii. 167.
22 Phillipps, Wilts. Inst. i. 81.
23 Ibid. i. 118.
24 Queen's Coll. Oxon. MSS. 5F. 16a; Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Warminster, 50; Foster, Alumn. Oxon. 1st ser. i. 79.
25 Queen's Coll. Oxon. MSS. 5F. 22; Hoare, op. cit. 52. For the foundation see J. R. Magrath, The Queen's College, ii. 104–8.
26 Sar. Chart. and Doc. (Rolls. Ser.), 319.
27 Phillipps, Wilts. Inst. i. 2, 26, 44, 54; Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 219. Wm. Burgoyne, instituted in 1330, was described as perpetual vicar: Tropenell Cart. ed. Davies, i. 301.
28 W.R.O. 490, List of Deeds, 1651.
29 Acts of P.C. 1581–2, 344.
30 Tax. Eccl. (Rec. Com.), 181.
31 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), ii. 103.
32 W.R.O. 442/1.
33 W.R.O. 490, Rental 1633–4.
34 Ibid. Sale Particular.
35 Rep. Com. Eccl. Rev. H.C. 54, pp. 852–3 (1835), xxii.
36 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Vis. Queries, 1864.
37 W.R.O. Tithe Award.
38 Ibid. 490, Hungerford Cart. ff. 121 v.–122 v.
39 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Glebe Terriers.
40 W.R.O. Inclosure Award.
41 Cal. Pat. 1307–13, 394.
42 Emden, Biog. Reg. Oxon. iii. 1937; Chronicon Adae de Usk, ed. Thompson; D.N.B.
43 Acts of P.C. 1581–2, 269, 292, 324, 328, 334, 337, 344.
44 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Ep. Vis. 1583 and 1585; V.C.H. Wilts. iii. 35; see also Sess. Mins. (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), 123.
45 See p. 83.
46 R.F. Scott, Admissions to St. John's, Cantab. iii. 13, 111, 540.
47 D.N.B.
48 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Vis. Queries, 1783.
49 Rep. Com. Eccl. Rev. (1835), pp. 852–3.
50 W.A.M. xxii. 349–51.
51 H.O. 129/10/260; Sar. Dioc. R.O. Vis. Queries, 1864; Warminster Miscellany, April 1859.
52 H.O. 129/10/260.
53 Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 74; Cal. Pat. 1330–34, 185.
54 W.R.O. 490, Hungerford Cart. ff. 115v., 118v. For the earlier history of this estate, see p. 105.
55 W.A.M. xxvii. 242.
56 See p. 83.
57 Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 258.
58 See p. 83.
59 E 301/58 no. 95.
60 W.R.O. 442/1.
61 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Vis. Queries, 1783.
62 Endowed Char. Wilts. (1908), p. 731.
63 Ibid. p. 733; Char. Com. Accts. File G. 45.
64 Cal. Pat. 1330–4, 185.
65 There is a drawing of the church before restoration by Buckler in W.A.S. Libr. Devizes.
66 W.A.M. liii. 469.
67 Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Warminster, 51.
68 J. Baron, Report on the Partial Restoration of Upton Scudamore Church, 1858 (Copy in Wilts. Tracts cv); Warminster Miscellany, Dec. 1859.
69 J. Baron, Scudamore Organs (1862), 112.
70 Pevsner, Wilts. (Buildings of England), 484.
71 Walters, Wilts. Bells, 223–5; Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Warminster, 51.
72 Nightingale, Wilts. Plate, 97.
73 J. Baron, Scudamore Organs(edns. of 1858 and 1862); Warminster Miscellany, Oct. 1858, April 1862; inf. kindly supplied by Mr. Peter Madeley of Devizes.
74 Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 219.
75 Cal. Pat. 1354–8, 167.
76 Feet of F. Wilts. 1272–1327 (W.A.S. Rec. Brch.), 80.
77 Phillipps, Wilts. Inst. passim; Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Warminster, 107; see above, p. 82.
78 Wilts. Inq. p.m. 1327–77 (Index Libr.), 95.
79 Feud. Aids, v. 297; V.C.H. Wilts. iv. 314.
80 Valor Eccl. ii. 104; W.A.M. x. 298; E 301/56 no. 36, 58 no. 76.
81 Cal. Pat. 1554–5, 166.
82 Ibid. 1560–3, 234.
83 C.P. 25(2)/239/14 & 15 Eliz. I Mich.
84 C.P. 25(2)/609/1655 Mich.
85 W.N. & Q. iv. 114.
86 C.P. 25(2)/744/14 Chas. II Trin.
87 C.P. 25(2)/889/9 Wm. III Mich.
88 E 134/13 Geo. II/Mich. 5; C.P. 43/607 rot. 184. Lawrence Kington was of Pond Close in Corsham: W.R.O. 194, Barton Settlement, 1731.
89 Misc. Gen. et Her. 2nd ser. iv. 306; W.N. & Q. iv. 510; W.R.O. Land Tax Assessments.
90 W.R.O. Land Tax Assessments.
91 Ibid. Tithe Award.
92 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Vis. Queries, 1783.
93 Hist. MSS. Com. Hastings, i. 219.
94 Reg. Martival (Cant. and York Soc.), i. 147.
95 Cal. Close, 1419–22, 255; see above, p. 81.
96 Inq. Non. (Rec. Com.), 170.
97 Feud. Aids, v. 297; V.C.H. Wilts. iv. 314.
98 Hoare, Mod. Wilts. Warminster, 15.
99 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Glebe Terriers, 1608, 1705.
1 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Chwdns.' Pres. 1662.
2 G. L. Turner, Orig. Records of Early Nonconformity, 121; W.N.& Q. iii. 537.
3 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Chwdns.' Pres. 1683.
4 Ibid. Vis. Queries, 1783.
5 G.R.O. Retns. of Regns.
6 W.R.O. Retn. of Nonconformist Meetings, 1829.
7 Ibid. Certs. of Dissenters' Meeting Houses.
8 Ibid.; Gunn, Nonconformity in Warminster, 61; H.O. 129/10/260.
9 Char. Com. Files 89246 and G. 45.
10 Digest of Returns to Cttee. on Educ. of Poor, H.C. 224 (1819), ix (2).
11 Educ. Enq. Abstract, H.C. 62 (1836), xliii.
12 Nat. Soc. files.
13 Ibid.
14 Acct. of Wilts. Schools, H.C. 27 (1859 Sess. 1), xxi (2).
15 Sar. Dioc. R.O. Vis. Queries, 1864.
16 Return relating to Elem. Educ. H.C. 201 (1871), lv.
17 List of Schools under Admin. of Bd. 1903–4 [Cd. 2011], H.C. (1904), lxxv.
18 Bd. of Educ. List 21, 1919; Char. Com. File 79294.
19 Endowed Char. Wilts. (1908), p. 731.
20 Ibid. p. 732; Char. Com. File 30565.
21 Char. Com. Accts. File G. 45.


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