Middle division
Wyton

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Victoria County History

Publication

Author

G H R Kent (Editor), K J Allison, A P Baggs, T N Cooper, C Davidson-Cragoe, J Walker

Year published

2002

Supporting documents

Pages

169-172

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'Middle division: Wyton', A History of the County of York East Riding: Volume 7: Holderness Wapentake, Middle and North Divisions (2002), pp. 169-172. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=16143 Date accessed: 21 August 2014.


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WYTON

THE hamlet of Wyton, almost 5 km. south-east of Swine village, was formerly favoured for country residence by the well-to-do of Hull, which city now lies only c. 3 km. away to the south-west. The name Wyton, meaning the 'women's farm', is Anglian. (fn. 9) Of 792 a. (321 ha.), (fn. 10) Wyton was added to Ganstead and Bilton civil parishes and a little of Preston in 1935 to form a new civil parish of Bilton. (fn. 11)

Wyton had 35 poll-tax payers in 1377 (fn. 12) and 12 houses assessed for hearth tax in 1672. (fn. 13) At 86 in 1801, Wyton's population fell in the mid century to 46 in 1871, recovered to 80 in 1881, but then fell to 64 in 1901. Numbers then increased sharply to 105 in 1911 and stood at 111 in 1931. (fn. 14)

WYTON hamlet. Professional and commercial families of Hull began to live at Wyton in the 18th century, (fn. 15) and by the mid 19th the hamlet comprised half a dozen houses in ornamental grounds grouped along the north side of the Hull-Aldbrough road. (fn. 16) Merchants lived in two of the houses and a clergyman's widow in a third in 1891, (fn. 17) and the larger houses continued to be occupied mostly by business people from Hull in 1994. (fn. 18) Wyton Lodge, built by Thomas Ward, a Hull merchant, to designs by J. B. and William Atkinson of York in or soon after 1837, (fn. 19) is a grey-brick villa with a pedimented entrance and round-headed sashes to the first floor; its gatehouse remains as Wyton Cottage. Red House, formerly Wyton Villa, dates from the end of the 18th century but has been greatly altered. Also of the 18th century are Wyton Abbey and Wyton Hall. (fn. 20) Most of Wyton was designated a conservation area in 1991. (fn. 21) In the mid 20th century the built-up area of Bilton was extended into Wyton by the building of bungalows along the Aldbrough and Preston roads. The district council added a pumping station at Wyton c. 1970. (fn. 22)

There was a licensed house at Wyton in the 1770s. (fn. 23)

MANOR AND OTHER ESTATES.

Four carucates of sokeland at WYTON belonging in 1066 to Morkar's manor of Mappleton had passed to Drew de Bevrère by 1086 (fn. 24) and were later part of the Aumale fee. In the earlier 14th century 1½ carucate there was held of the Crown as successor to the counts of Aumale as 1/28 or 1/36 knight's fee. (fn. 25)

Most of Wyton was held by a family of that name. Adam of Wyton, tenant of the family's holding at South Skirlaugh, (fn. 26) presumably also held Wyton, before W. of Wyton (fl. mid 13th century) and Henry of Wyton, tenant in the 1280s. The estate at Wyton descended from Henry (d. by 1305) to his son John, (fn. 27) sole or joint lord of Wyton in 1316, (fn. 28) and from John (d. 1349) to his son John (d. 1352). The last John left as heirs his daughters Isabel and Christine. In the mid 14th century the holding at Wyton comprised nearly 2 carucates of demesne and 1¼ carucate held by the Wytons' free tenants. (fn. 29) The descent is thereafter uncertain. The estate perhaps passed to the Constables, who were recorded as mesne lords from the 16th century. (fn. 30)

The tenants in demesne by the 16th century were the Brighams. Thomas Brigham (d. 1542) was succeeded in Wyton manor by his son George, and George (d. 1576) by his nephew Francis Brigham (d. 1597). In 1543 the estate comprised only 6 bovates and 50 a. and was held of the Constables' manor of Burton Constable as 1/6; knight's fee. (fn. 31) The manor continued to descend in the Brighams, (fn. 32) passing to John Brigham (d. 1710), his son Roger (fn. 33) (d. by 1742), and Roger's son William (fn. 34) (d. 1767). William's widow Ursula and brother Gerard (fn. 35) sold Wyton manor with 268-a. in Manor farm to Christopher Bramley, a Leeds salter, in 1768. (fn. 36) Bramley (d. in or soon after 1802) left his son Christopher almost 100 a., which he sold to T. E. Upton in 1805 and which was later Wyton Holmes farm. (fn. 37) Most of Bramley's estate passed, however, to his grandson Thomas Bramley (d. 1804), who devised his interest to Ann Almond for life. (fn. 38) She married Horsfall Scholefield in 1805, (fn. 39) and as his widow had a mansion house and c. 220 a., mostly in Wyton, in 1822. (fn. 40) She later married John Green (d. by 1825) and Thomas Clubley. (fn. 41) Mrs. Clubley (fl. 1853) was probably succeeded by John Bramley. (fn. 42) William Raines evidently bought the manor, manor house called Wyton Abbey, and 197 a. at Wyton and 28 a. at Ganstead in 1865. (fn. 43) He died in 1874, and Wyton Abbey and the 197 a. were sold to Anthony and Matthias Nornabell. (fn. 44) The manor itself remained with Raines's heirs. (fn. 45) Susan Nornabell, widow, had succeeded by 1899, (fn. 46) and in 1906 H. M. Nornabell sold the estate to Richard Richardson. (fn. 47) Richardson (d. 1929) was succeeded in turn by his son W. H. Richardson (d. 1965) and grandson W. H. Richardson, who still had most of the land in 1995. (fn. 48)

A hall at Wyton was mentioned in 1352, (fn. 49) and the lord of the manor's brother, Henry Brigham, was living in a house with 10 hearths, probably the manor house, in 1672. (fn. 50) The house in which William Brigham (d. 1767) lived was evidently rebuilt in the later 18th century, probably by Christopher Bramley; it is of three storeys under a pantiled roof. Ann Scholefield lived there in 1822, (fn. 51) but by the mid 19th century it was used as a farmhouse. (fn. 52) Called Wyton House in the earlier 19th century and Wyton Abbey by 1865, (fn. 53) it was sold with a little land in 1967, (fn. 54) and in 1994 was used as a nursing home.

William Raines had built Wyton Hall by 1788 on land allotted at inclosure in the early 18th century, (fn. 55) and in 1794 he enlarged his holding at Wyton to c. 130 a. by purchase. (fn. 56) He (d. 1798) was succeeded by his son William (d. 1833), (fn. 57) who sold the Wyton Hall estate to William Meadley in 1810. (fn. 58) Meadley's devisee sold it in 1830 to R. M. Craven, (fn. 59) who already owned Red House, (fn. 60) and William Raines, son of William (d. 1833), bought both properties in 1852. (fn. 61) Raines also bought Wyton Lodge in 1856 (fn. 62) and the manorial estate and a farm with 182 a. at Wyton in 1865. (fn. 63) He (d. 1874) was succeeded by his sisters Fanny Raines (d. 1892) and Anne Atkinson (d. 1896), who held as joint tenants, (fn. 64) and then by his cousins Sarah Dunn and Emma Inman (fl. 1904). (fn. 65) After the death in 1948 of Maud Dunn, the estate, comprising Wyton Hall, Hall Farm, c. 300 a. at Wyton, and some 20 a. in Preston, was sold to T. H. Swift in 1949. (fn. 66) Swift (d. 1961) was succeeded by his partner H. A. Swift, who sold Wyton Hall and Southfield, formerly Hall, Farm with 98 a. to J. L. Caley in 1971; after a further sale, Mr. Swift retained 134 a. in 1994. (fn. 67) Wyton Hall with c. 25 a. was bought in 1990 by Charles Marr. (fn. 68)

Raines's house was evidently enlarged and remodelled soon after Meadley bought it in 1810, a third storey and a Doric porch being added and stucco applied to the brickwork. Arcaded, red-brick outbuildings, including a stable block, remain at Wyton Hall, as well as the ha-ha of its small park. After standing empty, (fn. 69) the house has been restored by Mr. and Mrs. Marr.

By 1190 Thornton abbey (Lincs.) had been given land and grazing at Wyton, (fn. 70) and in 1535 a Hedon chantry had land there. (fn. 71) Trinity House, Hull, bought the 45-a. Manor, formerly Glebe, farm at Wyton and Preston in 1937 and sold it in 1945. (fn. 72) The trustees of Ann Watson's charity of Sutton on Hull bought the 195-a. Wyton Holmes farm in 1924 (fn. 73) and, apart from small plots sold in the mid century, still owned it in 1994. (fn. 74)

The rectorial tithes and dues of Wyton were bought by John Ramsden in 1681, (fn. 75) and they later descended with Bilton manor. (fn. 76) The Revd. William Dawnay, viscount Downe, was awarded a rent charge of £201 10s. 6d. for the Wyton tithes in 1842. (fn. 77)

ECONOMIC HISTORY

COOMMON LANDS AND INCLOSURE. Wyton had two open fields, North and South fields, (fn. 78) until they were inclosed in or shortly before 1710. (fn. 79) A pasture was stinted for cattle in the earlier 14th century, (fn. 80) and Wyton Holmes and West croft were recorded as common pastures from the mid 16th, when the Holmes was grazed with the fallow field. Those pastures had evidently once been part of the tillage: West croft included a butt in 1556, (fn. 81) and in 1718 eleven 'lands' in Wyton Holmes were conveyed, 'together with the gates, whins, or furze thereunto appurtenant'. (fn. 82) In 1717, when the pasture also supported sheep and horses, the stint in Wyton Holmes was, almost certainly anachronistically, tied to the number of bovates held; ½ gate in winter and a whole gate in summer and autumn were then enjoyed for each bovate. (fn. 83) Wyton Holmes was inclosed by agreement in 1763. There were then 41 gates in the 69-a. pasture. William Brigham received 42 a. and William Raines 16 a., and two other allotments, of under 10 a., and a rent charge were awarded. (fn. 84) Some common pasture may have remained, a cowgate being recorded in West croft in 1768. (fn. 85)

WOODLAND. There may have been a wood at Wyton until 1826, when more than 700 trees and saplings lay there awaiting sale, (fn. 86) and 9 a. of woodland remained there in 1842. (fn. 87)

LATER AGRICULTURE. In the mid and late 19th century Wyton had 5-6 farms, 2 of which in 1851 were of over 150 a. Fewer farmers were recorded c. 1900 but there were again 5 in the 1920s and 1930s, 3 of them with larger holdings. (fn. 88) Cowkeeping there was recorded from the late 19th century, and Glebe farm was evidently a dairy unit. (fn. 89)

TRADES. Non-agricultural employment may have included brickmaking, a Brick close being recorded in 1733, (fn. 90) and there was more recently a joinery workshop (fn. 91) and a garage, which was trading in 1994.

MILL. A mill at Wyton was recorded in the 1340s (fn. 92) and may have stood north of the hamlet adjoining Thirtleby, where Mill close was named in 1856. (fn. 93)

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

Poorhouses were maintained at Wyton, (fn. 94) where 3 people were relieved permanently and 1 occasionally in 1802-3, and where 9-16 were on occasional relief between 1812 and 1815. (fn. 95) Wyton joined Skirlaugh poor-law union in 1837, (fn. 96) and the township, later civil parish, remained in Skirlaugh rural district until 1935. As part of Bilton civil parish, it was then included in the new Holderness rural district and at reorganization in 1974 was taken into the Holderness district of Humberside. (fn. 97) In 1996 Bilton parish became part of a new East Riding unitary area. (fn. 98)

CHURCH

There was a chapel at Wyton by 1525, when the curate serving it had £4 a year, (fn. 99) all or most of which was probably received from the rectory of Swine as a stipend; such a stipend was mentioned in the 1540s and again in the mid 17th century, when its value was £3 6s. 8d. (fn. 1) Until its suppression, there was a chantry in the chapel, endowed with a house and a little land at Wyton. (fn. 2) The curacy of Wyton was held from the late 16th century with that of neighbouring Bilton, and in the mid 17th century also with Swine vicarage. Wyton chapel was in disrepair by 1663, when it was closed and parishioners at Wyton ordered to attend Swine church instead. The chapel was demolished soon afterwards; (fn. 3) it presumably stood in Chapel close, between Wyton Abbey and the street. (fn. 4)

ROMAN CATHOLICISM

The Brighams and up to half a dozen others at Wyton were cited as papists in the 17th century. (fn. 5) Henry Brigham of Wyton (d. 1738) was a Benedictine monk, and it was presumably on the family's estate there that the Benedictines conducted a mission early in the 1740s. (fn. 6)

PROTESTANT NONCONFORMITY

The Wesleyan Methodists built a chapel at Wyton c. 1840. (fn. 7) As Wyton Methodist church, it was extended in or soon after 1957 (fn. 8) and was still used in 1995.

EDUCATION

In 1871 children from Wyton attended Bilton school. (fn. 9)

Footnotes

9 P.N. Yorks. E.R. (E.P.N.S.), 52.
10 O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVII (1855 edn.).
11 Census, 1931 (pts. i-ii).
12 P.R.O., E 179/202/60, m. 53.
13 Hearth Tax, 61.
14 V.C.H. Yorks. iii. 494; Census, 1901-31.
15 For this para., K. J. Allison, Hull Gent. Seeks Country Residence 1750-1850 (E. Yorks. Loc. Hist. Ser. xxxvi), 48-9. T. Jefferys, Map of Yorks. (1772).
16 O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVII (1855 edn.).
17 P.R.O., RG 11/4787; RG 12/3948.
18 Inf. from Mrs. C. Marr, Wyton, 1994.
19 B.I.H.R., Atkinson-Brierley papers 32;.
20 Below, manor.
21 Inf. from Devt. Dept., Holderness B.C., 1991.
22 R.D.B., 1586/225/206; 1660/239/214.
23 E.R.A.O., QDT/2/9.
24 V.C.H. Yorks. ii. 265.
25 Cal. Inq. p.m. iv, p. 179; ix, p. 291.
26 Above, S. Skirlaugh, manors.
27 Kirkby's Inquest, 373; Cal. Inq. p.m. iv, pp. 179-80, 355.
28 Feud. Aids, vi. 164; above, Ganstead, manor.
29 Cal. Inq. p.m. ix, pp. 291-2; x, p. 8.
30 H.U.L., DDGE/6/19; below, this section.
31 P.R.O., C 142/69, no. 190; C 142/173, no. 51; C 142/250, no. 2; Test. Ebor. vi, pp. 158-9.
32 P.R.O., CP 25(2)/755/21 Chas. II Mic. [14 from end]; Yorks. Fines, 1603-14, 214; Miscellanea, i (Y.A.S. Rec. Ser. lxi), 106. For fam., Visit. Yorks. 1584-5 and 1612, ed. J. Foster, 167.
33 P.R.O., CP 25(2)/896/10 Wm. III Mic. no. 21; CP 25(2)/985/8 Anne Mic. no. 11; Poulson, Holderness, ii. 269.
34 R.D.B., R/69/167; S/210/504.
35 Poulson, Holderness, ii. 269.
36 R.D.B., AI/513/1002; AZ/179/279.
37 Ibid. CH/233/377; DS/130/168; O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVII (1855 edn.).
38 R.D.B., CH/21/35; DS/130/168.
39 E.R.A.O., QDE/1/6/36; ibid. PE/185/16, p. 37.
40 R.D.B., DM/312/362.
41 Ibid. DU/207/263; FG/452/23.
42 Ibid. GY/226/267.
43 Ibid. IX/231/306; H.U.L., DDCV(2)/53/9.
44 R.D.B., LN/417/549; E.R.A.O., DDX/287/18.
45 Directories; below, this section.
46 R.D.B., 8/251/239 (1899).
47 Ibid. 88/178/171 (1906).
48 Ibid. 884/246/196; 1439/406/369; 1499/311/283; inf. from Mr. W. H. Richardson, Burstwick, 1995.
49 Cal. Inq. p.m. x, p. 8.
50 P.R.O., E 179/205/504; Visit. Yorks. 1584-5 and 1612, ed. J. Foster, 167. Other Brighams then occupied smaller houses.
51 R.D.B., AI/513/1002; DM/312/362.
52 E.R.A.O., PE/104/99.
53 H.U.L., DDCV(2)/53/9; Baines, Hist. Yorks. (1823), ii. 402; White, Dir. E. & N.R. Yorks. (1840), 273.
54 R.D.B., 1499/311/283.
55 Ibid. BC/414/655; BN/482/757; H.U.L., DDCV(2)/ 51/6. If the Raines family earlier had a house called Wyton Hall, as their pedigree asserts, it was evidently elsewhere at Wyton: J. Foster, Pedigrees of Yorks. iii.
56 R.D.B., BS/285/438; BS/436/606.
57 J. Foster, Pedigrees of Yorks. iii; window in Bilton church.
58 E.R.A.O., DDIV/19/1.
59 R.D.B., EL/214/251.
60 Ibid. DW/266/326; E.R.A.O., DDHE/34, viii, 1-2; O.S. Map 1/2,500, Yorks. CCXXVII. 6 (1890 edn.).
61 R.D.B., GZ/90/72.
62 Ibid. HI/381/471.
63 Ibid. IT/100/148; above, this section.
64 Windows in Bilton church.
65 E.R.A.O., DDX/287/18, 23; R.D.B., 63/431/401 (1904).
66 R.D.B., 797/325/279; 822/330/285; 822/331/286.
67 Ibid. 952/150/138; 1393/159/143; 1712/140/131; inf. from Mr. H. A. Swift, Wyton, 1994.
68 Inf. from Mr. Marr, Wyton, 1994.
69 Dept. of Environment, Buildings List (1987); inf. from Mr. Marr.
70 Dugdale, Mon. vi. 326.
71 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), v. 112; V.C.H. Yorks. E.R. v. 183.
72 R.D.B., 569/428/347; 710/212/183; O.S. Map 1/2,500, Yorks. CCXXVII. 6 (1910 edn.).
73 R.D.B., 281/85/72.
74 Ibid. 439/522/418, etc.; inf. from Ann Watson's Trust, 1994.
75 E.R.A.O., DDCC/111/31; above, Swine, manors (rectory).
76 R.D.B., U/269/514; above, Bilton, manor.
77 E.R.A.O., PE/104/99.
78 H.U.L., DDCV(2)/51/3; Poulson, Holderness, i. 129.
79 R.D.B., A/351/501; N/195/436; H.U.L., DDCV(2)/ 51/6; DDCV(2)/62/23.
80 Yorks. Fines, 1327-47, p. 168.
81 H.U.L., DDCV(2)/51/1, 4.
82 Ibid. DDCV(2)/51/8.
83 E.R.A.O., DDX/152/20.
84 R.D.B., AC/255/11.
85 Ibid. A1/513/1002.
86 H.U.L., DX/150/16 (15).
87 E.R.A.O., PE/104/99.
88 P.R.O., HO 107/2365; directories.
89 R.D.B., 120/226/204; directories.
90 R.D.B., N/195/436.
91 O.S. Map 1/10,000, TA 13 SE. (1970 edn.).
92 Yorks. Fines, 1327-47, p. 168.
93 E.R.A.O., DDPK/26/1.
94 Ibid. NV/1/46; ibid. PE/104/99.
95 Poor Law Abstract, 1804, pp. 594-5; 1818, pp. 522-3.
96 3rd Rep. Poor Law Com. 170.
97 Census.
98 Humberside (Structural Change) Order 1995, copy at E.R.A.O.
99 Y.A.J. xxiv. 76.
1 P.R.O., E 318/11/528, m. 10; E 126/9, ff. 294-5.
2 Ibid. C 2/Eliz. I/W 14/47; C 3/34/50; Cal. Pat. 1575-8, p. 28.
3 Lamb. Pal. Libr., Carte Misc. XII/9, f. 132v.; P.R.O., E 134/18 Chas. II Mich./10; E 126/9, ff. 294-5 (print. Thompson, Swine, 278-83); T.E.R.A.S. iv. 52.
4 H.U.L., DDCV(2)/53/9.
5 Aveling, Post Reformation Catholicism, 67 and passim.
6 Herring's Visit. iv, p. 218; H. N. Birt, Obit Bk. of Eng. Benedictines, 1600-1912, 91, 362.
7 P.R.O., HO 129/522/1/9/8; R.D.B., FQ/377/371; O.S. Map 6", Yorks. CCXXVII (1855 edn.).
8 R.D.B., 1075/362/320; illus. in D. [R. J.] and S. Neave, E.R. Chapels and Meeting Ho. (E. Yorks. Loc. Hist. Soc.), 60.
9 Returns relating to Elem. Educ. 472-3.