Manors and other estates


Victoria County History



R W Dunning, C R Elrington (Editors), A P Baggs, M C Siraut

Year published


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'Bridgwater: Manors and other estates', A History of the County of Somerset: Volume 6: Andersfield, Cannington, and North Petherton Hundreds (Bridgwater and neighbouring parishes) (1992), pp. 208-213. URL: Date accessed: 23 November 2014.


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In 1066 Merlesuain held BRIDGWATER, which in 1086 Walter (or Walscin) of Douai held as one of a group of manors which lay on each side of the Parrett (fn. 18) and later formed part of the honor of Bampton (Devon). (fn. 19) Walter had no tenant recorded at Bridgwater, which may therefore have been his demesne manor; in the late 12th century and in 1234 other manors in the group were held of it. (fn. 20) From 1283 the manor, or at least the 'foreign' as distinct from what had become the borough, was known as HAYGROVE. (fn. 21) Walter was succeeded c. 1107 by his son Robert, who rebelled in 1136, and Robert's daughter Gillian carried his lands to successive husbands Fulk Pagnell and Warin de Aule. (fn. 22) Warin held the honor of Bampton in 1166 (fn. 23) but Bridgwater was in the Crown's hands from 1177 to 1179. It then passed to Fulk's son Fulk Pagnell, (fn. 24) who fled the realm in 1185. The sheriff accounted for Bridgwater in 1185-6, (fn. 25) but the honor was held by the guardian of Fulk's son William in 1186-7. (fn. 26) The sheriff rendered tallage for Bridgwater and other lands in 1199-1200, and in that year Fulk recovered his lands. (fn. 27) Also in 1199 Fulk granted Bridgwater manor to William Brewer as part of an exchange, a grant which was confirmed by the Crown and by Fulk's son William. (fn. 28)

William Brewer died in 1226 and his son and heir William in 1233 without issue. (fn. 29) After a period of Crown custody between 1233 and 1248, (fn. 30) Bridgwater passed to two great-granddaughters of the elder William, namely Maud and Eve de Braose. Maud married successively Roger de Mortimer (d. 1282) and William Mortimer (d. 1297). Her share of Bridgwater was the castle and one third of the borough and manor, an estate later sometimes known as BRIDGWATER CASTLE manor. (fn. 31) She died in 1301 when her heir was Edmund, her son by her first husband. Edmund (cr. Baron Mortimer 1295, d. 1304) (fn. 32) held Bridgwater jointly with his wife Margaret, who survived until 1334. (fn. 33) Her heir was her great-grandson Roger Mortimer, Lord Mortimer and earl of March (d. 1360), but his mother Elizabeth (d. 1355) had a life interest in the estate. (fn. 34) Roger's widow Philippe (d. 1382) held the estate in dower. (fn. 35) From then the estate was usually held in dower by the Mortimers' widows. Philippe was followed by her grandson Roger (d. 1398), whose widow Eleanor died in 1405. (fn. 36) Her son Edmund died in 1425, and when his widow Anne died in 1432 the heir was his nephew Richard Plantagenet, duke of York. (fn. 37)

Richard's widow Cecily, duchess of York, held the castle and the third share of the borough and manor from her husband's death in 1460 until her own in 1495, when the estate merged with the Crown. (fn. 38) Queen Elizabeth, wife of Henry VII, was granted the reversion, and on her death in 1503 the lordship again passed to the Crown. (fn. 39) Catherine of Aragon as princess of Wales received the share as part of her jointure in 1509, (fn. 40) but in 1511 it was given to two daughters of Edward IV, namely Katharine, recently widowed countess of Devon, and Anne, wife of Sir Thomas Howard. (fn. 41) Anne was dead by 1512 and Katharine in 1527, (fn. 42) and their estate in Bridgwater evidently reverted to the Crown and formed part of the jointure of Anne Boleyn (d. 1536), Jane Seymour (d. 1537), Anne of Cleves (marriage annulled 1540), Catherine Howard (d. 1542), and Catherine Parr (d. 1548). (fn. 43) It reverted to the Crown and was let. (fn. 44) In 1626 it was granted to Sir William and Sir George Whitmore, who had both been lessees of the estate. (fn. 45) In 1627 George conveyed the manor, but not the castle, to Sir Richard Grobham, husband of his sister Margaret. (fn. 46) Grobham died in 1629 leaving his widow in possession with remainder to his nephew George Grobham of Broomfield. (fn. 47) George died probably in 1646, and in 1652 John Howe the elder, husband of Sir Richard's sister and heir Jane, together with a Richard Grobham, were apparently in possession of the estate. (fn. 48) The manor continued in the Howe family, probably with little land, descending from John and Jane Howe to their son John (cr. Bt. 1660), to Sir John's son Sir Richard Grubham Howe (d. by 1703), and to Sir Richard's son and namesake (d. 1730), owner in 1704-5. (fn. 49) No further reference to the manor has been found.

On the partition of Bridgwater in 1248 Eve de Braose, wife of William de Cauntelo (d. 1254), received two thirds of the borough and manor. (fn. 50) In 1255 Eve was succeeded by her son George Cauntelo (d. 1273) whose sister and heir Millicent (d. 1298-9) married Eudes la Zouche (d. 1279). (fn. 51) From her son William (cr. Baron Zouche 1308, d. 1352) the estate passed to successive barons Zouche until the attainder of John, Lord Zouche, after the battle of Bosworth in 1485. (fn. 52) The Crown granted the estate in tail male to Giles Daubeney, Baron Daubeney (d. 1508). (fn. 53)

In 1538 Daubeney's son Henry (cr. earl of Bridgwater 1538, d. 1548) sold his share of Bridgwater manor to Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford (fn. 54) (attainted 1552). In 1582 his heir, Edward Seymour, earl of Hertford (d. 1621), recovered the estate, which passed to Anne, known as Lady Beauchamp, the widow of his eldest grandson Edward Seymour. (fn. 55) Anne married secondly Edward Lewis and was still alive in 1662. (fn. 56) The manor seems to have passed by 1677 to two of the daughters of her first husband's brother, Frances, wife of Conyers Darcy, later earl of Holderness (d. 1692), and Jane, wife of Charles Boyle, Baron Clifford of Lanesborough (d. 1694). Courts were held 1683-6 in the names of Darcy and Boyle. (fn. 57) In 1687 Thomas Bruce, earl of Ailesbury (d. 1741), and his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Seymour, Lord Beauchamp, sold the estate to Sir Charles Pym, Bt. (d. 1688), whose heir was his sister Mary, wife of (Sir) Thomas Hales. (fn. 58)

Sir Thomas was succeeded in 1748 (fn. 59) by his son Sir Thomas (d. 1762). The estate descended with Brymore in Cannington, but by the time of Henry Hales Pleydell-Bouverie (d. 1925) (fn. 60) it was negligible in size.

By 1323 Maurice de Berkeley, Lord Berkeley (d. 1326), received a rent charge of £10 from his brother-in-law William, Lord Zouche, payable from Bridgwater park. (fn. 61) The rent charge descended in the Berkeley family (fn. 62) and in 1439 was divided between three sisters, Margaret (d. 1467), wife of John Talbot, earl of Shrewsbury, Eleanor (d. 1467), then wife of Edmund Beaufort, earl of Dorset, and Elizabeth (d. 1480), then wife of George Neville, Lord Latimer. (fn. 63)

Margaret's share descended indirectly to Sir Edward Grey (cr. Baron Lisle 1475, Vct. Lisle 1483, d. 1492), whose estate included what was later called the manors of KIDSBURY, Haygrove, and Bridgwater, inherited from Thomas Cheddar. (fn. 64) His son John (d. 1504) left a daughter and heir Elizabeth (d. 1519), wife of Henry Courtenay, earl of Devon. Her heirs were two aunts of whom Elizabeth, Baroness Lisle, wife of Arthur Plantagenet (cr. Vct. Lisle 1523, d. 1542) was the sole survivor by 1523. (fn. 65) Viscount Lisle, retaining a life interest after the death of his wife c. 1530, leased the estate in 1531 to his stepson Sir John Dudley, later duke of Northumberland (d. 1553), (fn. 66) a transaction which resulted in a dispute with Sir Edward Seymour. (fn. 67) Seymour acquired part of the estate after Lisle's death, (fn. 68) and exchanged it for other Crown land in 1547; it remained in royal possession until 1570 when it was granted in fee to Hugh Counsell and Robert Pistor. (fn. 69) No further trace of the share has been found.

Eleanor's share descended to Henry Manners, earl of Rutland (d. 1563), and has not been found recorded after 1560. (fn. 70) Elizabeth's share,. with lands in Bridgwater, descended through the Nevilles (fn. 71) to Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland, (fn. 72) who still received an annuity from the manor in 1605. (fn. 73)

In 1066 Saric held an estate at BOWER. In 1086 Walter of Douai held it with Rademer as his tenant. (fn. 74) The overlordship seems to have descended with Bridgwater, and 2½ knights' fees in Bower, Horsey, and Pawlett were held of William Brewer's heirs in 1234. (fn. 75) William of Horsey was mesne tenant of those fees, and a namesake held ½ knight's fee at Bower in 1303. Although there is no reference to the Horsey family in 1346, (fn. 76) some land at East and West Bower, on either side of Bridgwater, was held in 1371 of John Horsey by knight service. (fn. 77)

In 1205 Christian of Bridgwater (Bruges), widow of Jordan of Chilton, claimed dower against Robert of Chilton in her late husband's lands in 'his Bower', Little Bower, and 'the other Bower'. (fn. 78) Robert of Chilton was holding land at Bower in 1254, and one of the same name was tenant of William of Horsey there in 1303. (fn. 79) The heirs of Robert were returned as tenants in 1346. (fn. 80)

In 1309 Hugh Godwin settled land in South Bower on his wife Margery. (fn. 81) By 1318, after Hugh's death, Margery held land there and at North Bower. (fn. 82) No further reference to the estate has been found until 1412, when William Godwin the elder was holding the manor of GODWINSBOWER, (fn. 83) in 1586 called Godwinsbower or DUNWEAR. (fn. 84) William Godwin or his namesake died in 1442 when his heir was his son William, then a minor. (fn. 85) William Godwin, possibly successor to the last, died in 1502, when his son Christopher was his heir. The manor was then described as being 'by the house of the hospital of St. John the Baptist', and was said to be held of the lord of Curry Rivel. (fn. 86) In 1507 Christopher Godwin sold the manor, including lands in East, North, and South Bower, to Robert Brent. (fn. 87) Robert (d. 1508) was followed by his son John (d. 1524), John by Robert's grandson William Brent (d. 1536), and William by his son Richard. The manor was said in 1508 to be held of Otterhampton manor, (fn. 88) and again in 1614. (fn. 89) Richard Brent (d. 1570) had an only daughter Anne, wife of Thomas Paulet (d. 1586). Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas and Anne, married Giles Hoby and by 1586 had a daughter Anne, then a minor. (fn. 90)

In 1614 John Brent died seised of the manor, his son John being then a minor. (fn. 91) The younger John appears to have survived until 1692, when his heir was his cousin John Hodges. (fn. 92) Elizabeth Hodges, probably John's widow, had an interest in the manor in 1703, but John is said to have sold some of his land to Robert West. (fn. 93) No further owners have been traced, although the manor still existed in 1763. (fn. 94)

In 1487 Walter Michell died seised of NORTH BOWER manor, held of North Petherton manor. (fn. 95) The manor descended with East Chilton manor in Durleigh (fn. 96) to the Hockmore family and was held in 1723 by the last William Hockmore's three sons-in-law, Brent Reynell Spiller, William Pitt, and Davidge Gould. (fn. 97) John Peryman (d. 1512) held another manor of NORTH BOWER. His heirs were his daughters Joan and Dorothy. (fn. 98) Dorothy married Philip Courtenay and, as a widow, held the manor in 1555. (fn. 99) Edward Courtenay was owner in 1575, but by 1613 the estate had passed to the Chichester family, owners of Dunwear manor. (fn. 1) Sir Robert Chichester (d. 1627) held the manor as of North Petherton manor, (fn. 2) and it descended with Dunwear until 1693 or later. (fn. 3)

In 1280 Stephen le King and Maud his wife and Lettice at Cross claimed that Jordan of Chilton had disseised Eileen at Bower, greatgrandmother of Maud and Lettice, of land in Durleigh and granted it to Maslin at Bower, whom John Maslin of Bower had succeeded. (fn. 4) Hugh Maslin, son and heir of William Maslin, in 1335 granted his lands in and near WEST BOWER to Richard Coker. (fn. 5) Richard was succeeded by James Coker (fl. 1402-7) and James by Matthew Coker, who held the estate in 1412 and was alive in 1420. (fn. 6) John Coker, described as cousin and heir of James Coker, left a daughter Margaret, who had succeeded to West Bower manor by 1461. She married first Sir Alexander Hody (d. 1461) (fn. 7) and c. 1462 Sir Reynold Stourton, (fn. 8) and died in 1489. Her heir was her cousin John Seymour (d. 1491) whose son (fn. 9) Sir John (d. 1536) was father of Jane Seymour, Henry VIII's queen, and of Edward Seymour (cr. earl of Hertford 1537, duke of Somerset 1547). Edward held West Bower from 1536 until his attainder and death in 1552, when the manor was forfeit to the Crown. (fn. 10)

The Crown sold the manor and other lands, including some possessions of the dissolved hospital of St. John in Bridgwater, in 1553 to Thomas Sydney and Nicholas Halswell. Sydney sold his share to Halswell two weeks later (fn. 11) and the manor descended with Halswell manor in Goathurst, being let for much of the 17th century to members of the Still and Bourne families. (fn. 12) In 1938 Lord Wharton sold West Bower to Bridgwater corporation for the construction of Durleigh reservoir, and in 1963 ownership passed to the West Somerset water board. Mr. Michael Martin later bought the house and surrounding land. (fn. 13)

Richard Coker was licensed to have an oratory at West Bower for a year in 1339, (fn. 14) and the manor house included a chapel of St. John the Baptist in 1462. (fn. 15) West Bower Manor, now on the edge of Durleigh reservoir, comprises two sides of a courtyard house, the north side of which is a substantial gatehouse with added polygonal turrets flanking its southern façade. Glass in the cusped and transomed turret windows bears the initials A and M which have been interpreted as those of Alexander and Margaret Hody. (fn. 16) In 1540 the house was described as in two parts, one covered in slate, the other in lead. There was also a little court 'within the walls', a garden said to be outside the gate on the west, a small barton with another garden, an orchard, and a pond. Nearby was a former rabbit warren. The house was then let with 75 a. of land. (fn. 17) In 1635 the site included a dovecot and the house was let with 150 a. of land. (fn. 18) The dovecot, circular in plan with c. 730 nest holes, was made of cob, repaired with brick and stone; it was demolished in 1967. (fn. 19)

Robert de la Mare died in 1371 holding a small estate described as at East and West Bower of John Horsey, and leaving his son Richard as his heir. (fn. 20) Sir Alexander Hody (d. 1461) held BOWER DELAMERE or Delameres Bower as part of his estate at West Bower, (fn. 21) and the name Delamere survived on the West Bower estate until the earlier 18th century. (fn. 22)

Geoffrey the cook seems to have been lord of DUNWEAR in the 1190s. (fn. 23) The manor was held of John de Columbers as 1 knight's fee in 1284-5 and as ½ knight's fee in 1303, (fn. 24) and in 1569 and 1627 was held of the Columbers heir as of Nether Stowey manor. (fn. 25) In 1236 William de Raleigh held Dunwear in demesne, (fn. 26) Thomas de Raleigh in 1284-5 and 1303, (fn. 27) Lucy de Raleigh in 1316, and Thomas de Raleigh before 1342. (fn. 28) Thomas's unnamed heirs were lords in 1346. (fn. 29) Possibly from then and certainly from 1402 (fn. 30) Dunwear manor descended with Beggearn Huish in Nettlecombe, and the Chichesters retained it when they sold Beggearn Huish in 1604. Sir Robert Chichester, K.B., died in 1627 owning both North Bower and Dunwear and leaving a son John, a minor. (fn. 31) John (cr. Bt. 1641) seems to have mortgaged or sold both manors in 1660, (fn. 32) and no further trace of either manor has been found.

In 794 Brihtric, king of Wessex, granted to his alderman Wigferth 10 cassati of land on the north bank of the Parrett. The charter recording the grant later belonged to Athelney abbey. A second Athelney charter, dated 959 and recording a grant by King Eadwig to Ceolward of a mansa at Ham, on the west bank of the Parrett, may have recorded another estate, described as 3 'perticae' at Ham, and later as the manor, which King Aethelred gave to Athelney abbey in 1009. (fn. 33) Athelney abbey held HAMME or HAMP manor until its dissolution in 1539, the holding sometimes assessed at ½ knight's fee, and the income assigned to the abbey pittancer. (fn. 34) A holding within the manor from 1225 provided a lamp for the abbey's Lady Chapel. (fn. 35)

In 1541 the Crown sold the manor, leased to Sir Richard Warre and his son Robert, to the corporation of Bristol. (fn. 36) The corporation let the estate to John Castleman, already a substantial tenant there, in 1554, (fn. 37) but from 1694 sold houses and land. In 1698 it sold the rest, including the lordship, to Roger Hoar of Bridgwater. (fn. 38) His son, also Roger, retained the manor until 1705 when he sold it to Sir John Tynte, and it descended with West Bower. (fn. 39)

In 1540 the Crown let the capital messuage of Hamp to John Soper. (fn. 40) From 1543 it was leased to John Castleman, and from 1569 to Robert Moleyns. Moleyns held it jointly with Robert Cuffe in 1575, (fn. 41) and another Robert Cuffe occupied Hamp Farm and demesnes in 1655. (fn. 42) In 1547 the house included a ground-floor hall with a chapel at one end. (fn. 43) No record of it after 1655 has been found.

Alweard Glebard held HORSEY in 1066 and Walter of Douai in 1086. (fn. 44) The overlordship descended with Bridgwater and on William Brewer's death in 1233 passed through his sister Margery to her daughter Gundrada, wife of Pain of Chaworth (d. 1237), and to Pain's son Patrick (d. 1283), whose two sons died childless. Patrick's daughter Maud (d. by 1322) married Henry, (fn. 45) earl of Lancaster from 1322, who was succeeded in 1345 by his son Henry (cr. duke of Lancaster 1351, d. 1361). (fn. 46) Horsey, granted in 1463 to George Plantagenet, duke of Clarence (d. 1478), was considered to be parcel of the duchy of Lancaster until 1641 or later. (fn. 47)

Rademer or Raimar was undertenant of Horsey in 1086. (fn. 48) In 1166 William of Horsey held 1 knight's fee there of the honor of Bampton (Devon), (fn. 49) and Philip of Horsey held ½ knight's fee of William Brewer before 1208. (fn. 50) William of Horsey had succeeded by 1236 and his son and heir William was evidently dead by 1275. (fn. 51) John of Horsey had succeeded by 1284 and died c. 1294, leaving his son William a minor. (fn. 52) William held the estate in 1303 and was followed c. 1327 by his two sons John (d. c. 1337) and Ralph (d. 1354) in turn. Ralph's son John was a minor in 1354. (fn. 53)

John, of age in 1359, held Horsey and other estates until his death in 1375, when he left Horsey settled on his widow Eleanor. His son (fn. 54) Sir John settled the manor before 1412 on his wife Eleanor, but by a further settlement of 1420 the manor passed on his death in 1422 to Joan, widow of his son William and wife of John Trethek. (fn. 55) Sir John's son and heir Henry held Horsey in 1428, and settled it on himself and his wife in 1432. (fn. 56) He died childless in 1460 and his estate passed to his brother Thomas (d. 1468), (fn. 57) and then in direct male line to John (d. 1531), Sir John (d. 1546), Sir John (d. 1564), and Sir John (d. s.p. 1589). (fn. 58) Under a settlement made by the last, the manor or lordship of Horsey and Pignes passed to his cousin Sir Ralph Horsey (fn. 59) (d. 1612). Though Sir Ralph left a son George, Horsey manor passed to Sir Thomas Freke, presumably by sale, since George had assured it to Sir Thomas during his mother's life. (fn. 60) Sir Thomas's son John succeeded in 1633 and held the manor at his death in 1641, but his sons John (d. 1657) and Thomas are not known to have held the manor. (fn. 61) In 1673 Sir John Morton, Bt., owned the estate. (fn. 62) He died in 1699, leaving as his heir his daughter Anne, wife of Edmund Pleydell (d. 1726). (fn. 63) Their son John Morton Pleydell was in possession in 1703 and died in 1705. His brother and heir Edmund Morton Pleydell (d. 1754) was followed in the direct male line by two namesakes (d. 1794 and 1835). The eldest daughter of the last, Margaretta (d. s.p. 1871), wife of the Revd. James Michel, (fn. 64) settled Horsey and Pignes on her nephew John Clavell Mansell (later Mansel-Pleydell), on whose behalf they were sold in 1868 to Joseph Boon. Thomas Major House bought the land in 1872 and in 1877 sold it to the trustees of the late Mary Tyler Greenhill. Her grandson Pelham Spencer Greenhill succeeded in 1877. Pelham Benjamin Greenhill, son of the last, died in 1916 in the same year as his father, and the heir was Benjamin Greenhill, an infant. In 1984 Mr. Greenhill gave Horsey Manor Farm to his daughter Carol, Mrs. A. C. Hudson, owner in 1988. (fn. 65)

St. John's hospital, Bridgwater, founded before 1213 probably by William Brewer, had by then been endowed with Bridgwater church. (fn. 66) By 1215 it had also acquired 100 a. of land, a compact holding north-east of the hospital site which was still known as Hundred Acres in 1842. (fn. 67) The land may have been given in exchange for other land previously granted by Brewer to the hospital. (fn. 68) About 1349 the hospital acquired rents in the town and the reversion of small properties there. (fn. 69) By 1535 the hospital also held rents in Hamp and Horsey. (fn. 70)

John Bourchier, earl of Bath (d. 1561), farmer of the hospital site and the rectory in 1538-9, (fn. 71) received grants of both properties in 1541 or 1542, (fn. 72) but from Michaelmas 1542 the site and demesne were occupied by Humphrey Colles, who secured a reversionary lease from the Crown in 1543. (fn. 73) Colles remained in occupation of the former demesne until his death in 1570 when Hundred Acres passed to his son John. (fn. 74) John, like his father recorder of the town, (fn. 75) died in 1627, having leased the land to his son George. (fn. 76) The Colles family held the land in 1631, (fn. 77) but under the will of Matthew de Haviland dated 1667 Hundred Acres was to pass after the death of his wife Constance first to his sister Mary Davies for two years and then was to be sold for the benefit of his four nieces. (fn. 78) Hundred Acres was acquired by the Popham family who held it and other former hospital property in and near the town until 1774 when it was divided and sold. (fn. 79)

The site of the former hospital and land in North Petherton, called BRIDGEWATER manor and later ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST manor, was sold by the Crown in 1611 to Sir Richard Grobham (d. 1629). It probably descended on his death with Bridgwater Castle manor (fn. 80) and after the death of Sir Richard Grubham Howe in 1730 passed to a Mr. Howe, who held it in 1732, (fn. 81) and to Margaret Howe, probably his widow, by 1769. (fn. 82) Described as half the manor, it was sold by a Mr. Howe, perhaps Margaret's successor, to Thomas Dosson (d. 1802). Dosson's brother George sold it in 1811 to William Mogg (d. c. 1856). (fn. 83) No further record of the estate has been found.

In 1542 the buildings of the hospital were intended for destruction, (fn. 84) but John Newport died in 1564 in possession of the mansion, its circuit, and precincts. (fn. 85) No further references to the buildings have been found.

Although by 1546 the Crown had granted about one third of the hospital's rents in the town to William Portman and Alexander Popham, the rest, called Bridgwater manor late PRIORY, were still in the Crown's hands. (fn. 86)

Alexander Popham (d. 1556) was probably sublessee of the RECTORY from the earl of Bath. (fn. 87) After expensive negotiations in 1561 Bridgwater corporation acquired in reversion a 21-year lease of the rectory and tithes from the Crown, subject to finding two priests to serve the church. (fn. 88) In 1571 the lease was extended to 81 years, with a further obligation to appoint a schoolmaster. (fn. 89) The corporation remained lessee of the rectory until 1706 when it acquired the title in fee. (fn. 90)

From 1564 the corporation granted leases of the tithes in small units, occasionally those of a single holding but more usually those of one or more tithe collection districts. In 1564 they were defiened as of wool and lambs, sheaf and corn, oblations, offerings, and small tithes, but in the 1570s mention was made of tithing pigs, vicar's tithes, and offerings made within the borough called Easter Book or Easter duties, payable by servants, which were all usually reserved to the corporation. (fn. 91) The corporation remained impropriators in 1847 when a rent charge of £328 18s. 7d. was agreed. Until then most of the parish owed tithes at the rates of 6d. an acre from residents and 12d. an acre from others on land not growing grain or flax; tithes of Castle field were partly by modus and partly in kind, and 41 a. of the former hospital demesne were tithe free. (fn. 92)

In 1227 Dunkeswell abbey (Devon) held a messuage in Bridgwater given by William Brewer. (fn. 93) The abbey retained the messuage, receiving a rent of 12s. in 1539. (fn. 94) In the later 13th century Muchelney abbey was granted a half burgage (fn. 95) in High Street, which it still held in 1388. (fn. 96) The Monmouth family, probably in the 12th century, gave Taunton priory three burgages (fn. 97) valued at 4s. in 1535 and including a tenement in High Street. (fn. 98) Apart from its manor of Hamp, Athelney abbey held several burgages in the town including an inn called the Saracen's Head. (fn. 99) Buckland priory by 1535 had a pension paid by St. John's hospital in respect of tithes from Horsey. (fn. 1) By the 16th century the Name of Jesus chantry in St. Mary's church, Taunton, and the chantry in Woolavington church each had a burgage in the town. (fn. 2)


18 V.C.H. Som. i. 497, 499-500.
19 Pipe R. 1179 (P.R.S. xxviii), 71; Sanders, Eng. Baronies, 5.
20 P.R.O., DL 42/11, f. 2 and v.; Bk. of Fees, i. 400.
21 Cal. Inq. p. m. ii, p. 265.
22 Sanders, Eng. Baronies, 5.
23 Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), i. 256-7.
24 Pipe R. 1178 (P.R.S. xxvii), 44; 1179 (P.R.S. xxviii), 71; 1180 (P.R.S. xxix), 111; 1181 (P.R.S. xxx), 9; Sanders, Eng. Baronies, 5.
25 Pipe R. 1185 (P.R.S. xxxiv), 182; 1186 (P.R.S. xxxvi), 140.
26 Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), i. 69.
27 Pipe R. 1199 (P.R.S. N.S. x), 197, 240.
28 P.R.O., DL 42/11, ff. 1, 2, 4v.; Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 28; Dugdale, Mon. v. 204.
29 Sanders, Eng. Baronies, 123.
30 Abbrev. Rot. Orig. (Rec. Com.), i. 1-2, 4; Cal. Pat. 1232-47, 51, 99, 287; 1247-58, 8; Bk. of Fees, ii. 755, 1140; Cal. Lib. 1226-40, 380; 1240-45, 265.
31 Cal. Pat. 1247-58, 8; Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, p. 265; iii, p. 270. A third coheir, Eleanor, wife of Humphrey de Bohun, apparently had no share in Bridgwater: Sanders, Eng. Baronies, 8.
32 Cal. Inq. p.m. iv, pp. 20, 118, 158; Complete Peerage, ix. 276-85.
33 Cal. Pat. 1301-7, 33; Cal. Inq. p.m. iv, p. 158; S.R.S. vi. 393.
34 Cal. Inq. p.m. vii, p. 400; x, p. 532; Cal. Pat. 1313-17, 491.
35 Cal. Inq. p.m. xv, pp. 227-8.
36 Cal. Close, 1396-9, 452, 454; P.R.O., C 137/53, no. 23.
37 Complete Peerage, viii. 453; Cal. Close, 1422-9, 218-19.
38 Complete Peerage, xii (2), 909; S.R.S. lx, pp. viii-ix, nos. 773, 819; lxx, no. 894.
39 Cal. Pat. 1485-94, 369-70; Rot. Parl. vi. 462; Handbk. Brit. Chron. (1986), 38.
40 L. & P. Hen. VIII, i (1), p. 49.
41 P.R.O., CP 25(2)/51/358/3 Hen. VIII Mich.; Complete Peerage, iv. 330.
42 Handbk. Brit. Chron. 38.
43 L. & P. Hen. VIII, vii, p. 147; xv, p. 52; xvi, p. 240; xviii (1), p. 121; xix (1), p. 374; P.R.O., LR 14/858; Cat. Glynde Place Archives, ed. R. F. Dell, no. 3471.
44 P.R.O., LR 14/894; ibid. E 178/4452; Cal. Pat. 1566-9, p. 333.
45 P.R.O., C 66/1811, 1842; Collinson, Hist. Som. iii. 81-2.
46 P.R.O., CP 25(2)/526/2 Chas. I Hil.; Burke, Land. Gent. (1914), 2014.
47 P.R.O., C 142/460, no. 53.
48 Som. Wills, ed. Brown, iii. 4; P.R.O., CP 25(2)/616/1652 Mich.
49 G.E.C. Baronetage, iii. 123.
50 Pat. R. 1247-58, 8; Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, p. 18; Sanders, Eng. Baronies, 40.
51 Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, p. 18; Cal. Close, 1272-9, 115; Cal. Fine R. 1272-1307, 18, 59; Complete Peerage, xii (2), 938-9.
52 Complete Peerage, xii (2), 938-47; Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, iii, p. 547.
53 Rot. Parl. vi. 485; P.R.O., C 142/25, no. 22.
54 P.R.O., E 328/94, 97.
55 Ibid. C 66/1218; ibid. CP 25(2)/347/19 Jas. I Mich.
56 Complete Peerage, vi. 507; S.R.O., DD/X/SU; D/B/bw 2045.
57 S.R.O., DD/HK 63; P.R.O., CP 25(2)/762/29 Chas. II East.; Complete Peerage, ii. 431; vi. 536; xii (1), 133.
58 P.R.O., CP 25(2)/795/3 Jas. II Mich.; ibid. CP 43/423, rot. 242; G.E.C. Baronetage, iii. 281.
59 B.L. Eg. 3129; S.R.O., D/P/can 4/1/1.
60 G.E.C. Baronetage, iii. 79-80; Burke, Peerage (1949), 1650; Som. C.C., Brymore deeds 247; above, Cannington, manors.
61 P.R.O., SC 6/1148/2, 8; Cal. Inq. p.m. xii, p. 193.
62 Cal. Inq. p.m. xii, p. 193; xvi, p. 306; Complete Peerage, i. 126-31; Cal. Close, 1364-8, 437; 1389-92, 14.
63 P.R.O., C 139/94, no. 54; C 140/26, no. 44; Cal. Close, 1476-85, p. 224; Complete Peerage, i. 131 n.
64 P.R.O., E 326/6768; ibid. SC 6/969/22; Complete Peerage, viii. 55-61.
65 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, ii, p. 521; Complete Peerage, viii. 60-7.
66 P.R.O., E 328/303.
67 Ibid. E 211/371; E 326/5686, 6768, 12180; E 328/201, 272; Cat. Anct. D. iii, D 637; L. & P. Hen. VIII, vi, p. 626.
68 P.R.O., C 142/115, no. 38; ibid. SC 6/Hen. VIII/3074.
69 Cal. Pat. 1569-72, p. 42.
70 Complete Peerage, xi. 104-8; P.R.O., E 326/12925; ibid. CP 25(2)/259/2 & 3 Eliz. I Mich.
71 Cal. Close, 1476-85, p. 224.
72 Complete Peerage, vii. 480-6; Alnwick Castle, Northumberland MSS. X. II. 12/2F, 6, 9A (xii); P.R.O., C 142/248, no. 22.
73 Alnwick Castle, Northumberland MSS. X. II. 12/9.
74 V.C.H. Som. i. 497.
75 Bk. of Fees, i. 400.
76 Feud. Aids, iv. 300, 344.
77 Cal. Inq. p.m. xiii, pp. 19-20.
78 Cur. Reg. R. iv. 2-3, 39; S.R.S. vi. 25-6.
79 Close R. 1253-4, 153; Feud. Aids, iv. 300.
80 Feud. Aids, iv. 344.
81 S.R.S. xii. 14.
82 Cal. Pat. 1317-21, 297, 470, 547; Rot. Parl. i. 372.
83 Feud. Aids, vi. 513.
84 P.R.O., C 142/215, no. 245.
85 Ibid. C 139/109, no. 26.
86 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, iii, pp. 407-8; P.R.O., C 1/286/33.
87 Cal. Close, 1500-9, pp. 207, 280, 345.
88 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, iii, pp. 309-11; P.R.O., C 142/41, no. 28; C 142/58, no. 6.
89 S.R.S. lxvii, p. 90.
90 P.R.O., C 142/156, no. 14; C 142/215, no. 245.
91 S.R.S. lxvii, p. 90.
92 B.L. Add. Ch. 71725; Collinson, Hist. Som. iii. 436-7; S.R.O., DD/MLY, box 10.
93 P.R.O., CP 40/3211, m. 20; Collinson, Hist. Som. iii. 436-7.
94 S.R.O., DD/AH 39/9.
95 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, pp. 114-15.
96 Below, Durleigh, manors.
97 P.R.O., CP 25(2)/1089/9 Geo. I Hil.
98 Ibid. C 142/27, no. 107.
99 Ibid. CP 25(2)/77/658/2 & 3 Phil. & Mary Mich.; S.R.S. extra ser. 28.
1 P.R.O., CP 25(2)/204/17 & 18 Eliz. I Mich.; CP 25(2)/386/11 Jas. I Trin.
2 Ibid. C 142/438, no. 129; S.R.S. lxvii, p. 167.
3 P.R.O., CP 43/391, rot. 99; below, this section (Dunwear).
4 S.R.S. xliv. 182, where Durleigh is misread as Churleigh.
5 S.D.N.Q. xxvii. 5; S.R.S. lvii. 31-2.
6 S.R.S. lvii. 34; Feud. Aids, vi. 513; S.D.N.Q. xxvii. 5; Pole MS. 4034.
7 P.R.O., C 140/4, no. 34; S.R.S. xxii. 145-6.
8 S.R.S. xlix, p. 368.
9 Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, pp. 266-7, 327; Burke, Peerage (1949), 1869.
10 P.R.O., C 142/115, no. 38.
11 Cal. Pat. 1553, 54-5; S.R.O., DD/S/WH 2.
12 P.R.O., C 142/475, no. 96; Som. Wills, ed. Brown, v. 77; vi. 81; S.R.S. xxviii. 297; S.R.O., D/B/bw 286; above, Goathurst, manors.
13 Inf. from Mr. Martin, West Bower.
14 S.R.S. ix, p. 360.
15 Ibid. xlix, p. 368.
16 S.D.N.Q. xxvii. 55-6.
17 Longleat House, Seymour Papers, XII, f. 14v.
18 S.R.O., DD/S/BW 5.
19 Proc. Som. Arch. Soc. cxii. 101-3.
20 Cal. Inq. p.m. xiii, pp. 19-20.
21 Pole MS. 2770, 2898.
22 S.R.O., DD/S/WH 218.
23 Pipe R. 1194 (P.R.S. N.S. v), 19; S.R.S. xxv, p. 95.
24 Feud. Aids, iv. 278, 300.
25 P.R.O., C 142/151, no. 9; S.R.S. lxvii, p. 167; V.C.H. Som. v. 193-4.
26 S.R.S. vi. 81; xiv, p. 149.
27 Feud. Aids, iv. 278, 300.
28 Ibid. 332; Year Bk. 16 Edw. III (Rolls Ser.), (2), 327-32.
29 Feud. Aids, iv. 344.
30 V.C.H. Som. v. 115; P.R.O., C 137/44, no. 36.
31 P.R.O., C 142/438, no. 129; S.R.S. lxvii, p. 167.
32 P.R.O., CP 25(2)/715/12 Chas. II Mich.
33 S.R.S. xiv, pp. 144-6, 188; H. P. R. Finberg, Early Charters of Wessex, pp. 118-20, 139-41, 149.
34 S.R.S. xiv, p. 153; Feud. Aids, iv. 300; Tax. Eccl. (Rec. Com.), 204.
35 S.R.S. xiv, p. 151.
36 L. & P. Hen. VIII, xv, p. 563; xvi, p. 418; Bristol R.O. 4490, f. 5v.
37 Bristol R.O. 04403.
38 Ibid. Common Cncl. Proc. 1687-1702, ff. 106v.-107, 161; ibid. 00570 (1-28); 00904 (2-6, 14-15).
39 S.R.O., DD/RN 1; above, this section (West Bower).
40 L. & P. Hen. VIII, xv, p. 563.
41 Bristol R.O. 04403; 4490, f. 6.
42 Ibid. 04237.
43 Ibid. 4490, f. 6.
44 V.C.H. Som. i. 499.
45 Bk. of Fees, i. 400; Feud. Aids, iv. 278; Cal. Inq. p.m. iii, p. 142; Sanders, Eng. Baronies, 125.
46 Cal. Inq. p.m. x, p. 160; Cal. Close, 1360-4, 209; Handbk. Brit. Chron. (1986), 468.
47 Cal. Pat. 1461-7, 226; 1467-77, 457, 530; P.R.O., C 142/498, no. 22.
48 V.C.H. Som. i. 499.
49 Red Bk. Exch. (Rolls Ser.), i. 256-7.
50 P.R.O., DL 42/11, ff. 2-2v. Philip, Walter, William, and Thomas of Horsey were said to have been successive lords in Henry II's reign: Collinson, Hist. Som. iii. 85-6.
51 Bk. of Fees, i. 400; S.R.S. vi. 81; Pole MS. 833, 4112; Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, pp. 94-5.
52 Feud. Aids, iv. 278; Cal. Inq. p.m. iii, pp. 142, 383; Cal. Close, 1288-96, 346.
53 Cal. Inq. p.m. iii, p. 383; vii, p. 29; viii, p. 63; x, pp. 160, 260; Feud. Aids, iv. 300, 344.
54 Cal. Inq. p.m. x, p. 432; xiv, p. 142; Cal. Close, 1354-60, 573-4; 1360-4, 209; 1374-7, 159.
55 Feud. Aids, vi. 509; P.R.O., C 139/1, no. 20; Cal. Close, 1422-9, 30.
56 Feud. Aids, iv. 364; B.L. Add. Ch. 53143.
57 P.R.O., C 140/2, no. 25; C 140/28, no. 32.
58 J. Hutchins, Hist. Dors. iv. 252-3, 427-9; P.R.O., C 142/84, no. 37.
59 P.R.O., C 142/221, no. 102; S.D.N.Q. xix. 103.
60 P.R.O., E 178/5620.
61 Ibid. C 142/498, no. 22; Visit. Dors. 1623 (Harl Soc. xx), 41-2.
62 S.R.O., DD/SH 108, pt. 2.
63 G.E.C. Baronetage, i. 121.
64 P.R.O., CP 43/482, rot. 113; Burke, Land. Gent. (1914), 1513-14.
65 S.R.O., DD/HUD 12; inf. from Mrs. A. C. Hudson, Claverdon (Warws.).
66 V.C.H. Som. ii. 154-5.
67 Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 204; S.R.O., tithe award.
68 P.R.O., DL 42/11, f. 6v.
69 Cal. Pat. 1348-50, 407.
70 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i. 207-8.
71 P.R.O., SC 6/Hen. VIII/3151; L. & P. Hen. VIII, xiv (1), p. 428.
72 L. &. P. Hen. VIII, xvii, p. 704; xviii (1), p. 196; xix (2), pp. 86-7.
73 P.R.O., SC 6/Hen. VIII/3140; L. & P. Hen. VIII, xviii (1), p. 196.
74 P.R.O., SC 6/Hen. VIII/3143; ibid. WARD 7/13, no. 32; L. & P. Hen. VIII, xix (2), pp. 86-7.
75 Jarman, Hist. Bridgwater, 274.
76 S.R.S. lxvii, p. 95; S.R.O., DD/PH 43.
77 S.R.O., D/B/bw 1868.
78 A Chronicle of De Haviland (c. 1865), 77.
79 S.R.O., DD/PO, box 21; DD/POt 134.
80 Above, this section.
81 S.R.O., D/B/bw 2/1/2 (2 May 1732).
82 Ibid. DD/SAS (C/96) 17/17.
83 Ibid. DD/PAM 5.
84 Ibid. DD/POt 39.
85 P.R.O., C 142/141, no. 17.
86 Ibid. SC 6/Hen. VIII/3143; L. & P. Hen. VIII, xx (1), p. 676.
87 S.R.S. xxi. 180-1.
88 Cal. Pat. 1560-3, pp. 161-2; S.R.O., D/B/bw 799, 1694, 1815.
89 Cal. Pat. 1569-72, p. 307.
90 S.R.O., D/B/bw 656, 938, 1280, 1745, 1820, 1872, 1968-9; V.C.H. Som. ii. 447.
91 S.R.O., D/B/bw 800, 1074, 1320, 1561, 1590, 1688, 1822, 2179-83, 2185.
92 Ibid. tithe award.
93 Cal. Chart. R. 1226-57, 18. The gift was probably made by William Brewer (d. 1233).
94 Dugdale, Mon. v. 680.
95 S.R.S. xiv, pp. 89-90.
96 Ibid. xlviii, no. 130; liii, no. 434.
97 Cal. Chart. R. 1327-41, 316.
98 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i. 169; Dugdale, Mon. v. 626.
99 S.R.S. xlviii, no. 292; Bodl. Libr., MS. Top. Som. b. 1, f. 8; Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i. 207; L. & P. Hen. VIII, xviii (1), p. 535.
1 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), i. 211.
2 Cal. Pat. 1549-51, 145-6; 1553-4, 153.