A charity school for the poor, possibly at the workhouse, existed in 1731, when the
Wells charity repaid the parish's debt for fitting it
up. (fn. 23) The only other assistance for educating the
poor before 1787 came from John Stock's charity, by
will of 1780, which included annual payments for
educating and clothing 6 boys and 4 girls between
the ages of about 8 and 14; in 1818 the charity paid
for teaching and clothing 10 boys and 6 girls at
Hampstead Parochial schools. (fn. 24) In 1787 a Sunday
school for the poor was started and its success led to
provision for day pupils in 1788: at first the 12 boys
and 12 girls were taught in private schools but c. 10
years later their own schools had been formed, which
in 1815 became affiliated to the National Society. (fn. 25)
In 1833 Hampstead had two infants' schools, one
being at Kilburn, with a total of 159 pupils, and
three weekday schools for the poor: the two Hampstead Parochial schools, with 150 boys and 112 girls,
and the Roman Catholic school for 25 girls. Kilburn
had a day and Sunday school for 45 boys and 40 girls,
while another 16 girls received free instruction on
Sundays from a lady at her home. Some basic education was also provided at the three recently started
Church of England Sunday schools with a total of
282 boys and 202 girls, and at the Baptist Sunday
school with 50 pupils and the Wesleyan with 51,
both started in the 1820s. (fn. 26) By 1846 the Kilburn
schools had disappeared, but the infants', Roman
Catholic, and Parochial schools had been joined by a
day school at West End with 31, a girls' school for
40, North End dame school for 26, and St. John's
chapel schools for 76 boys, 40 girls, and 40 infants.
In 1846 883 children out of the population of 10,093
received free or almost free education at the National
or Church schools, and about 25 at the Roman
Catholic school. (fn. 27) In 1851, of 1,577 pupils attending
day schools, 857 were at public and 720 at private
schools. Though the total was equally divided between boys and girls, the majority of boys, 500,
attended the public schools, while the majority of
girls, 428, attended private schools. Over 700 of the
public school pupils went to the 8 National or
Church schools, leaving 49 at the R.C. school, 62 at
the blind school, 26 boys at a ragged school, and 15
girls at the orphan school. In addition 708 children
received some education at the 4 Church and 3 nonconformist Sunday schools. (fn. 28)
Until the mid 1870s, new district churches all
provided some form of day school, at any rate for
infants, as did some of the nonconformist chapels,
either singly, as at Rosslyn Hill in the 1860s, or as a
combined effort, as at Heath Street in 1862. Church
schools opening before 1875 included Christ Church
(1855), All Souls (c. 1860), St. Mary, Kilburn (1864),
St. Paul (1870), St. Saviour (1871), and Holy Trinity
(1873). An additional Roman Catholic school was
opened in Kilburn in the 1860s. (fn. 29) By the time that
the London School Board took office the Church,
British, and Roman Catholic schools provided accommodation for over 3,000, with only about 1,900
on their rolls. (fn. 30) Although two Church schools were
not good enough to be recognized as elementary
schools, the board did not need to provide a school
in Hampstead until 1879 when Fleet Road opened.
Three more schools were opened by the London
School Board, all in West Hampstead: Netherwood
Street (1881), Broomsleigh Street (1886), and Kingsgate Road (1903). There was great difficulty, however, in obtaining a central site for a school to replace
three voluntary schools which had been transferred
to the board: Heath Street, Rosslyn Hill, and St.
Stephen's. Attempts to purchase sites in Well Walk
in 1900 and 1901 caused an outcry, (fn. 31) and the
Parochial and Christ Church schools waged a vigorous campaign to raise their own numbers and so
obviate the need for a new board school. Managers
of Church schools grew all the more bitter as competition from board schools, with their much better
facilities, increased. The improvements required by
the London School Board and Board of Education
caused much financial strain on the congregations,
which was made worse by the abolition of fees in
board schools, as the Church schools could not
afford to follow suit. (fn. 32) Despite the campaign, which
included the publication of the correspondence with
the board in a pamphlet distributed to all Hampstead
residents, (fn. 33) the board eventually compulsorily purchased a site at New End; the school there was
opened in 1906 by the L.C.C. The Education Act,
1902, giving support from the rates to Anglican
schools, aroused further anger in Hampstead. A
branch of the Passive Resistance League was formed,
with the support of leading nonconformist ministers,
but only c. 100 received a court summons for nonpayment of rates. (fn. 34)
More difficulties came with the L.C.C., which
inspected the eight surviving non-provided elementary schools in 1904. Only St. Mary's Roman Catholic
school had to be closed, as it gave a serious fire
hazard, but two others were restricted to girls and
infants, as there were not enough entrances for boys,
and the L.C.C. wanted the remaining five to be reorganized for mixed and infants under one head; (fn. 35)
in most cases, however, reorganization did not take
place until well after the First World War. In 1905
elementary school accommodation totalled 5,091
places in the four council schools, with another 612
to come at New End, and 1,906 places in seven nonprovided schools. Although the number of places
exceeded demand, some schools, such as Fleet
Road, were still overcrowded because of their popularity or because the distribution of places was
uneven. (fn. 36)
A graver problem for Church schools was the
L.C.C.'s insistence on improvements. Some, such as
repairs to drainage systems, were very expensive,
particularly for those congregations whose numbers
were starting to fall. The Christ Church managers
sought advice from the National Society, as they not
only had to pay for improvements, but saw a threat
from the big new school at New End and therefore
wondered if they should close their own school. The
society's response was sanguine: the managers
should retain their school, as the L.C.C. would have
to maintain it if it had the required number of
pupils; if they should not be allowed to continue
with three departments, they should try with boys
only or with girls and infants, as a mixed school
would not be morally or educationally good in their
district. It was thought that there should be no
difficulty in making a smaller school suitable for
better-class children. The very existence of a large
council school made it important to preserve the
Church school, and there was a growing reaction in
favour of provision for the middle class. (fn. 37)
The National Society's optimism was justified;
despite financial problems, and the cramped sites
and buildings, all the non-provided schools except
All Souls survived in 1986, being popular especially
with middle-class parents. One, St. Paul's, moved in
1972 to spacious new premises overlooking Primrose
Hill. (fn. 38) The need to replace buildings was recognized:
in 1974 the North Camden (Hampstead) deanery
synod proposed an annual levy on each of Hampstead's 15 churches to help finance the maintenance
and building costs of the remaining six Church
schools. (fn. 39)
Council schools also had their problems. Overcrowding remained: the limit of 60 to a class was
often exceeded, especially for infants, and the further
reductions in size, to 48 for infants and 40 for
seniors, were not achieved until 1936. (fn. 40) Only one
new school, an infants' at Kingsgate Road in 1914,
was opened before the 1950s. In the school plan of
1947 all the existing county primary schools were
retained, (fn. 41) and one new one, Fitzjohn's, was opened
in 1954, with opposition again from Hampstead
Parochial where there were still places vacant. (fn. 42)
Secondary schools had little chance to become
established in Hampstead. Under the London School
Board, Fleet Road had had a higher grade school and
Kingsgate had taken senior pupils. Neither, however, was accepted by the Board of Education as a
higher elementary school, nor, despite its many
scholarship successes, was Fleet one of the schools in
the L.C.C. area that became a central school after
1910. Pupils had to transfer to schools outside the
borough, in St. Pancras or Paddington, (fn. 43) a need that
was the more surprising because Hampstead children
won nearly twice the London average of junior
county scholarships to grammar schools. (fn. 44)
In the reorganizations of the 1930s, Hampstead
Parochial and Harben also took senior pupils, but
under the 1947 plan only Harben was to become a
secondary school. Another secondary school was
opened at Fleet Road in 1955, but closed in the
1960s, and Harben became the annexe to a Paddington R.C. secondary school in 1961, so that almost all
pupils of secondary age again went outside the parish.
A very few elementary-school children won scholarships to leading local independent schools which
took direct-grant pupils after 1918: Haberdashers'
Aske's and University College schools for boys, and
South Hampstead High for girls. In 1947 the L.C.C.
supported 30 boys at Haberdashers' and 140 girls at
S. Hampstead High; University College school no
longer applied for grant aid but still took 25 boys
supported by the L.C.C., (fn. 45) in order to gain bright
pupils. (fn. 46) After Haberdashers' moved their boys'
school to Hertfordshire in 1961, the L.C.C. opened
a comprehensive secondary school in their buildings,
but it was so located that it served Hendon and
Willesden as much as Hampstead.
As part of Camden, the area joined Westminster
in a division of the I.L.E.A. under the London
Government Act, 1963. (fn. 47) In 1983 Hampstead had
five county primary and eight non-provided primary
schools, one county secondary school, and four
Public schools. (fn. 48) Except where otherwise stated,
basic historical information and figures of accommodation and average attendance have been taken
from: files on Church of England schools at the
National Society; P.R.O., ED 3/19; ED 7/75, 81;
Educ. Enq. Abstract, 1833, H.C. 62, p. 93 (1835),
xlii; National Society, Inquiry, 1846-7, Mdx. 6-7;
Mins. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1849 , H.C.
(1850), xliii; 1852-3 , H.C. (1852-3), lxxix;
Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council, 1867-8 , H.C.
(1867-8), xxv; 1876-7 [C. 1780-I], H.C. (1877),
xxix; 1880-1 [C. 2948-I], H.C. (1881), xxxii;
1890-1 [C. 643-I], H.C. (1890-1), xxvii; Return of
Elem. Schs. 1899 [Cd. 315], H.C. (1900), lxv (2);
Return of Non-Provided Schs. H.C. 178-XXXIII
(1906), lxxxviii; Bd. of Educ., List 21, 1908-38
(H.M.S.O.); L.C.C. Educ. Svce. Particulars (1937
and later edns.); L.C.C. (LL.E.A. from 1965) Educ.
Svce. Inf. (1951 and later edns.); Catholic Educ. (1978).
The following abbreviations are used in addition
to those in the index: a.a., average attendance;
accn., accommodation; amalg., amalgamated, amalgamation; B, boy, boys; Bapt., Baptist; C.E.,
Church of England; Cong., Congregationalist;
demol., demolished; dept., department; G, girl,
girls; J, JB, JG, JM, junior, junior boys, girls,
mixed; I, infant, infants; M, mixed; mod., modern;
Meth., Methodist; Nat., National; parl., parliamentary; perm., permanent; R.C., Roman Catholic;
reorg., reorganized; roll, numbers on roll; S, SB,
SG, SM, senior, senior boys, girls, mixed; S.B.L.,
School Board for London; sch., school; sec.,
secondary; sep., separate; tech., technical; temp.,
temporary; vol., voluntary; V., vicar; Wes., Wesleyan. The word 'school' is to be understood after
each named entry. Separate departments are indicated by commas: B, G, I; JM, I.
All Souls C.E., Fairhazel Gdns., Belsize Rd.
Founded c. 1860 in large hay loft in Victoria Mews,
Fairfax Rd., granted free of rent by Mr. Yeo. 1871
accn. 72, a.a. 42: instruction poor and sch. mainly
refuge for children of omnibus drivers and similar.
Wilson fam. conveyed site in Victoria Mews (later
Fairfax Pl.) at corner of Fairhazel Gdns. 1871, (fn. 49)
where one room for 194 BGI built 1872. Financed
by vol. contributions, sch. pence, parl. grant. From
73 in 1876, a.a. rose to 125 in 1899, and 173 in
1906. Union with Nat. Soc. 1892. Reorg. for 105 M,
52 I to meet L.C.C.'s improved standards. 1908 a.a.
125 M, 52 I. Lack of space prevented expansion.
Bldg. and playground renovated 1927. Roll 1940:
125 M, 40 I. Sch. closed by 1951 as part of L.C.C.'s
post-war plans. (fn. 50)
Bartrams R.C., see Rosary.
Beckford Primary, Dornfell Street, Mill Lane,
West End. Opened 1886 by S.B.L. as Broomsleigh
Street bd. sch. for BGI. Accn. nearly doubled to
1,381 by 1894. By 1895 had cookery and laundry
centre and manual training centre. (fn. 51) Reorg. between
1927 and 1932 for 630 JM, 368 I, and renamed
Beckford. Roll 1940: 693 JM, 364 I. Inc. nursery
class 1958. Roll 1986: 358 JM & I.
Berkeley Rd. Bd. Temp. sch. opened 1874 for
GBI in rooms rented for one year. 1874-5 a.a. 185.
Broomsleigh Street, see Beckford.
Christ Church C.E. Primary, Christchurch
Hill, New End. Dist. schs. under construction
1854. (fn. 52) I opened in bldg. on Wells char. land;
trustees refused a lease in order to preserve right to
build, but sch. still there 1892. Site perhaps that
vacated by Parochial I sch. Site for B, G schs. conveyed by Fras. Hoare 1855, (fn. 53) and schoolroom and
classroom built for each with aid of parl. grants.
Children not required to learn catechism or attend
Sun. sch. (fn. 54) I sch. received grant of £250 from Wells
char. 1857. Schs. financed by subscriptions, sch.
pence, parl. grants. 1868 a.a. 254. Roll 1871: 117 B,
121 G, 104 I. 1880 accn. 393; 1906 accn. 449, but
reduced to 372 by 1908; heavy expenditure required
by L.C.C. Competition from New End sch., but
Nat. Soc. advised sch. reorg. 1917 for 202 M, 130 I.
New porch 1919 allowed official recognition of nursery class of 20. Recognized accn. reduced 1922 to
200 M, 96 I. Reorg. 1926 for 296 M, and again between 1932 and 1936 for 294 JM & I. 1937 a.a. 152;
1949 a.a. 207. Roll 1967: 170. Children mainly
middle-class and from overseas by 1970s. Parents
resisted proposals 1970-2 to merge with Parochial
schs. on new site, preferring the 'village school'
atmosphere. Decline in nos. during early 1970s
reversed 1975. Teacher's ho. in playground converted to maisonnette 1975 and basement used as
community centre. Roll 1986: 155 JM & I.
Emmanuel C.E. Primary (formerly West End
Nat.), no. 101 Mill Lane. Site conveyed to trustees
and enfranchised 1845. (fn. 55) Sch. and teacher's ho.
1845, designed by Chas. Miles of West End Hall;
opened 1846 with accn. for 146. (fn. 56) Roll 1846-7: 14 B,
17 G under one mistress. Bldg. grant from Nat. Soc.
Financed by subscriptions and sch. pence which did
not cover teacher's salary 1848. Premises and instruction efficient for 95 in 1871, when roll 37. B,
39 G, aged 3 to 11. Single schoolroom with I in gallery 1872; teacher's ho. converted into classroom,
making accn. 132, and new ho. built on opposite side
of original bldg. 1874. In 1880s a.a. doubled and
continued to rise in 1890s. Additional classroom
1886, making accn. 190. Enlargement of 1874 and
part of original room replaced 1892, but both new
room and I room badly ventilated 1895, when new
roof and other repairs needed and lack of staff
hampered sch. Dist. then poorest in Hampstead and
had difficulty in financing sch. 1899 accn. 248 M & I,
a.a. 242. For I and G of all ages by 1914, when
inspection found many bldg. defects. G room divided
into 3 to increase accn. from 80 to 116, with I room
remaining at 93, by 1927. In 1936 36 SG transferred
to Netherwood Street and sch. reorg. for 217 JG &
I, a.a. 149. Reorg. for JM & I between 1964 and
1970. Former G.P.O. site at no. 160 Mill Lane
cleared by 1973 but plans still in abeyance 1986. So
overcrowded that over 90 children walked to par.
hall in Broomsleigh Street for lunch 1968; 4 rooms
for 140 children and only 1 room for head and staff
1970. (fn. 57) Roll 1986: 110 JM & I.
Fitzjohn's Primary, no. 86A Fitzjohn's Ave.
Opened 1954 for JM & I, incorporating fine schoolroom and chapel designed by Wm. Munt and built
1858 for Royal Soldiers' Daughters' Home in
grounds of Vane Ho. (fn. 58) Roll 1986: 202 JM & I.
Fleet Primary, Fleet Rd., Gospel Oak. First bd.
sch. in Hampstead, opened 1879 for 1,207 with SM
in one bldg. of 8 classrooms, I in another of 2 rooms
on same site. Sch. pence. Served quickly growing
area; new classroom for 377 1881 and several extensions until 1890s. (fn. 59) JM dept. opened 1884. 1890
accn. 1,891. By 1890s known as 'Harrow of the board
schools', regularly winning majority of S.B.L. and
Wells char. scholarships to sec. schs.; in 1896 won
top 2 scholarships for G and top 2 for B out of all
pupils' in L.C.C.'s competition. (fn. 60) By 1897 had
cookery centre, laboratory, manual training centre,
and drawing class, and senior part recognized as
higher grade sch. By 1900 no longer catered only for
poor, drawing children from considerable distance,
but after establishment of central schs. did not
receive S pupils from other schs. (fn. 61) Roll 1940: 520
SM, 424 JM, 408 I. Reorg. by 1951 as Fleet primary
for JM, I, and combined JM & I by 1964. Fleet sec.
M opened on same site by 1958, but became Fleet
Youth Centre by 1964 and Fleet Community Educ.
Centre between 1970 and 1976. In 1986 educ. centre
was in original bldgs. fronting Agincourt Rd., while
JM & I sch. used mod. bldgs. on Fleet Rd. side. Roll
1986: 226 JM & I.
Hampstead, Westbere Rd., Cricklewood. Opened
c. 1961 for SM in former Haberdashers' Aske's B
sch. Roll 1983: 1,114 SM, with additional bldgs. on
c. 6-a. site and large 6th form. (fn. 62) Roll 1986: 1,069
Hampstead Parochial C.E. Primary, Holly Bush
Vale. (fn. 63) Day sch. for poor founded 1788 by PhiloInvestigists Soc.: 12 B and 12 G selected from soc.'s
Sun. sch. Funds increased by collections at par. ch.
and Hampstead chapel, allowing increase to 58
pupils in 1790. Clothing given from 1789 to Sun.
sch. pupils and then to some day pupils. In 1798 soc.
known as Sun. Sch. Soc. and teachers had to be
members of Reformed Ch. Day B taught reading,
writing, and arithmetic; day G reading, knitting, and
sewing. B taught at private sch. of Thos. Mitchell,
member of soc., until 1806, and then temporarily in
Chicken Ho. Early premises for G sch. unknown, but
c. 1799 occupied new bldg. in Yorkshire Grey Yard.
New B schoolroom built c. 1808 near Fenton Ho.,
Hampstead Grove. From 1815 schs. governed by
Parochial Sch. Soc., which decided on support by
vol. contributions and on educ. in accordance with
doctrines of C.E., but admission without religious
test; sch. was affiliated to Nat. Soc. By 1816 G bldg.
dilapidated and sch. moved to new bldg. at corner of
Holly Walk and Mount Vernon built with aid of vol.
contributions. (fn. 64) B moved c. 1815 to Sam. Hoare's
schoolroom (later New End Bapt. chapel) until 1826,
when new room built with permission of guardians
of poor at SE. corner of wkho. gdn. on site held at
will from par. (fn. 65) with vol. contributions.
I sch. founded 1827 or 1829 in bldg. near Well
Walk on site belonging to Wells char.: rent paid to
lessees until lease expired 1850; thereafter none demanded. Roll 112 I in 1833, when master had rentfree ho. and salary paid from vol. contributions and
sch. pence. B sch. had 150 in 1833, when master
received £90 p.a. G sch. had 112; mistress had accn.
and £50 p.a. B and G schs. also supported by sch.
pence, vol. contributions, and up to £12 p.a. from
John Stock's char. for educating 12 orphan B. Rolls
1846-7: 102 B, 89 G, 153 I.
B and I schs. were in dist. assigned to Christ Ch.
1854. B sch. very dilapidated, so new schs. on freehold site at Bradley's Bldgs. (later Holly Bush Vale)
completed 1856, (fn. 66) paid for by subscriptions, grants
from parl., Wells char., Shakespeare's char., Nat.
Soc. Additional land 1862 and 1865; (fn. 67) G sch. for 100
built on site c. 1862. B, G & I schs. each had 2 rooms
and teacher's ho. 1871; rolls: 125 B, 80 G, 90 I.
Subjects inc. history, grammar, geography, needlework, singing. Part of site sold to M.B.W 1887 (fn. 68) to
pay for new I classroom. Mission hall built on part
of site 1891-2, with large upper room fitted up for
cookery classes for many schs. by 1900. L.C.C. plan
for M sch. resisted until 1926 when reorg. for 362
M & I. Falling pop. led to further reorg. 1936 whereby Parochial sch. became SM, with accn. 314, J went
to Christ Ch., and I to New End. Roll 1940: 317
SM, before bldg. requisitioned. Reopened 1951 as
JM & I vol. aided primary with roll of 299. Roll
1986: 131 JM & I.
Harben, Linstead Street, Kilburn. Opened 1881
by S.B.L. as Netherwood Street bd. sch. for c. 600
BGI, 18 classrooms. 1880 accn. increased to 1,587;
a.a. 1,056 and 40 at evg. sch. Cookery centre added
by 1895. (fn. 69) Reorg. between 1927 and 1932 for 360
SB, 360 SG, 426 I, and renamed the Harben. Reorg.
1940 with roll of 440 SM. In 1951 2 schs. formed:
Harben sec. for SM, Harben primary for JM & I,
but latter closed by 1955. Sec. sch. closed 1961, when
bldg. became lower sch. annexe of St. George R.C.
comprehensive, Lanark Rd. (Paddington). (fn. 70)
Heath Street British. (fn. 71) M & I schs. opened
1862 to meet demand for freer type of ch. sch. than
C.E. Nat. Met in Heath Street Bapt. ch. schoolroom
but controlled by cttee. of several dissenting chs.
Over 100 enrolled by end of 1st year. In 1871 M sch.
with 300 accn. in 2 rooms gave extensive range of
instruction at expense of proficiency; roll 112 B and
58 G under one master. I sch. with 56 accn. in one
room gave fairly good instruction; roll 70 under one
mistress. Recognized as pub. elem. sch. and received
parl. grant from 1872. Also financed by sch. pence
(2d.-9d.), collections. Roll 1881: 303; 1886: 400.
Evg. classes for S pupils started 1887, teaching
drawing, shorthand, French, woodwork. 1890 accn.
508, a.a. 325. Taken over by S.B.L. 1900 when roll
264 M, 156 I, but treated as temp. sch. with accn.
261 M, 127 I. Defended as flourishing sch. by
managers of Christ Ch. Nat. 1901. Roll 1906: 230
M, 110 I, when pupils transferred to New End.
Hoare's, see Mrs. Hoare's; Samuel Hoare's
Holy Trinity C.E. Primary (formerly Trinity
Nat.), Trinity Walk, Maresfield Gdns. Opened 1873
in former temp. ch. in Conduit Fields (Belsize Lane)
with rooms for M, I; roll c. 90. Sch. pence. Site for
perm. sch. granted 1874 by Wilson fam. (fn. 72) Sch. built
1876 for 174 M, 70 I, with grants from parl. and
Nat. Soc. 1880 a.a. 106. 1890 accn. 284, a.a. 179.
After Educ. Act, 1902, large sums spent on improvements; by 1908 accn. reduced to 139 M, 102 I. 1927
accn. 109 M, 80 I. 1936 accn. 206 M & I. Renamed
Holy Trinity 1932. Attendance declined from 183 to
157 in 1930s, when ch. had difficulty in financing the
sch.; pop. of dist. 80 per cent foreign by 1942. Roll
1940: 176 M, 46 I. 1942 a.a. 150. By 1951 reorg. for
JM & I. New classroom built in playground 1978.
Roll 1986: 174 JM & I.
Kilburn Day And Sun. Founded 1829; in 1833
had 45 B under master, 40 G under mistress. Nothing further known.
Kilburn I. Started 1833 with 47 I; mistress paid
from vol. contributions. Nothing further known.
Kilburn R.C., Quex Rd. Opened c. 1868 in 2
rooms of shopkeeper's ho. Roll 1871: 29 B and 34 G
all ages under one mistress; I in dark kitchen but
premises for 300 being purchased and would probably allow recognition as public elem. sch. 1880
accn. 337, a.a. 200. Not listed among public schs.
thereafter, but an R.C. sch. in Mazenod Ave., behind ch., in 1891, (fn. 73) on site later used for Mazenod
Kingsgate, Messina Ave., Kilburn. (fn. 74) Opened
1903 as Kingsgate Rd. bd. sch. by S.B.L. and intended as higher grade sch., but after disagreement
with Bd. of Educ. opened for SM, taking seniors
from Netherwood Street. 1908 accn. 452 SM, a.a.
333. Standard not good enough for higher elem.
status. I dept. for 366 opened 1914. Reorg. between
1927 and 1932 for 480 JM, 306 I. Roll 1940: 528
JM, 322 I. By 1951 became Kingsgate primary for
JM, I. Roll 1986: 171 JM; 197 I.
Mazenod R.C. Primary, Mazenod Ave., Kilburn.
Vol. aided sch. opened 1967 for JM & I, on site used
for sch. or annexe since 1947. (fn. 75) Roll 1977: 250 JM
& I; 1986: 215 JM & I.
Mrs. Hoare's. (fn. 76) Hannah Hoare, w. of Sam. (d.
1825), said to have had G sch. c. 1812. Probably that
supported by dau. Sarah Hoare in East Heath Rd.
and possibly that listed 1846 with 40 G under one
mistress and financed by subscriptions. Nothing
Netherwood Street BD., see Harben.
New End Primary, Streatley Pl. (fn. 77) Opened by
L.C.C. 1906, after much difficulty in obtaining site,
for 198 SM, 194 JM, 220 I, replacing Heath Street
Brit., St. Steph.'s Nat., and Rosslyn Hill. Tried new
system of combining GBI under one head, but without Bd. of Educ.'s sanction, so reorg. for M, I under
2 heads 1910; a.a. 489, but declined steadily to 94 in
1938. 1922 accn. 270 M, 192 I. 1927 accn. 350 M,
192 I. Reorg. 1932 for 336 M & I, and 1936 for 348
JM & I. Roll 1940: 176 JM, 1841. Became New End
primary for JM & I 1951. Roll 1986: 187 JM & I.
North End 1, Sandy Rd. (fn. 78) Originated in sch. held
in mistress's ho. at North End, which had 12 B and
14 G in 1846. Schoolroom built by pub. subscriptions 1840 on land given by lord of manor. Financed
by vol. contributions, sch. pence; deficit made up by
John Gurney Hoare 1872 and sch. managed by his
w. Room for 30 I under one mistress; premises and
instruction satisfactory 1871. Reorg. as pub. elem.
sch. but apparently did not receive parl. grant and
was not maintained by L.C.C. 1903. Closed 1907.
North-West London Jewish, Minster Rd.,
Cricklewood. Opened 1945 as vol. aided Jewish sch.
for JM & I. Moved to Willesden 1958. (fn. 79)
Rosary R.C. Primary, no. 238 Haverstock Hill.
Formerly Bartrams R.C. sch. at orphanage run by
Sisters of Providence from c. 1867. (fn. 80) 1871 accn. 68
and roll 48 G, aged 3 to over 13, of whom 39 boarded
at orphanage. Sch. pence. Not recognized as pub.
elem. sch. 1871 but received parl. grant from 1876.
Accn. increased to 116 by 1880, 250 by 1890, 337 by
1899. Not maintained by L.C.C. until 1921. 1922
accn. 198 G, 741; 1937, 158 G, 114 I. (fn. 81) After Second
World War became Rosary R.C. vol. aided primary
for JG & I, reorg. for JM, I by 1969. Roll 1977: 188
JM, 128 I; 1986: 295 JM & I.
Rosslyn Hill British, Willoughby Rd. (fn. 82) M sch.
opened by Rosslyn Hill Unitarian ch. between 1862
and 1869 in former chapel. 1871 accn. 288 in 2 rooms
under one master, a.a. 31; evg. sch. 6 hrs. a week for
23 B all ages. Premises and instruction efficient but,
unusually, more pupils needed for size of bldg. I sch.
in 2 rooms at no. 3 Pilgrim's Pl., Rosslyn Hill, accn.
32, a.a. 19; not recognized as pub. elem. sch. Schs.
financed by subscriptions, mainly from chapel members, sch. pence. 1876 a.a. 106. 1880 a.a. 136, beside
small evg. sch. Declined to 1890 a.a. 54. Roll 1900:
34 G, 29 I, when taken over by S.B.L. as temp. sch.
for M, I. Pupils transferred to New End 1906.
St. John's Chapel, Downshire Hill. B, G, and I
schs. founded by Revd. John Wilcox, min. of chapel,
in 1830s at no. 14A Downshire Hill. (fn. 83) Roll 1846-7:
76 B under master, 40 G under mistress, 40 I under
mistress. Financed by subscriptions, sch. pence, parl.
grant. Instruction for B useful 1852, but less so in G
sch., partly organized like an I sch. Roll 1871: 46 B,
48 G, 43 I, with separate rooms and teachers. Transferred to St. Steph.'s elem. sch. (q.v.) 1874-5.
St. Mary, Kilburn, C.E. Primary, West End
Lane. (fn. 84) Established 1864 in rented premises: I in
same bldg. as master's ho., B & G in adjoining bldg.
Financed by sch. pence, collections. B & G moved
1868 to bldg. at corner of West End Lane and Kilburn Pl., leased by bp. of Lond., and formed Nat.
Sch., with 1 schoolroom, 1 classroom, and mistress's
ho.; 1867-8 a.a. 125. New sch. built 1870 on adjoining site, with 2 rooms for B, 2 for GI, 2 classrooms,
mistress's ho. Roll 1871: 162 B, 70 G, 80 I. New
bldg. for I sch. 1874. Subjects inc. history, grammar,
geography, singing, drawing, physical science. 1880
accn. 391, a.a. 320. Income 1899 from small endowment (£10 p.a.), sch. pence, parl. grant. 1900 accn.
enlarged for 429 BGI, but L.C.C. wanted reduction
and sch. for G and I only. By 1906 accn. 348 but still
for BGI. 1908 a.a. 365; steady decline thereafter.
Reorg. between 1932 and 1936 for 304 M & I, a.a.
321. Roll 1940: 242 M, 85 I. Reorg. by 1951 as vol.
aided primary sch. for JM & I. Roll 1986: 160 JM &
I. Appeal for new sch. 1984: bldg. to start in Quex
St. Mary, Primrose Hill, Day, no. 4 Ainger Rd.
M sch. for all ages in 2 rooms opened by 1871. Roll
1871: 85, with amateur teachers and mostly from
congregation. Inc. evg. sch. with 22 B and 9 G. Not
considered efficient or recognized as pub. elem. sch.
Nothing further known.
St. Mary R.C., Holly Pl. (fn. 85) R.C. day sch. with 25
G established by 1833, financed by vol. contributions. Cath. Poor Sch. Cttee. grant 1849. 19 B and
13 G examined 1851, when rooms too small but new
bldgs. planned. Annual parl. grant until 1865, then
closed until 1872. Reopened with a.a. 39. 1880 accn.
77, a.a. 60. 1900 accn. 50 M, 27 I and further 20 I
in temp. room. Roll 1905: 50 M, 28 I. Closed 1905
because of fire risk, as premises lay behind terraced
St. Paul C.E. Primary, Elsworthy Rd., Primrose
Hill. St. Paul's Parochial schs. opened in ho. in
King's Coll. Rd. Mews, Adelaide Rd., with 40 B on
ground floor from 1870, 20 G and 30 I on first floor
from 1871. Financed by collections, subscriptions,
sch. pence. Recognized as pub. elem. sch. 1872, as
new bldg. planned, and received parl. grants. Site in
Winchester Rd. leased to V. by Eton Coll. 1873,
where sch. built for 104 B, 84 G, 55 I in 3 rooms and
2 classrooms. 1880 a.a. 167. 1899 a.a. 255. 1908 accn.
after improvements 201. Reorg. between 1927 and
1932 for 181 M & I. Roll 1940: 137 M, 46 I. Became
vol. aided C.E. primary 1951. Bldg. condemned
1913 (fn. 86) but not replaced until 1972 by sch. in Elsworthy Rd., with 6 classrooms in bungalow style in
landscaped grounds; bldg. completed 1976. Roll
1976: 206 JM & I; 1986: 200 JM & I.
St. Saviour I, Fleet Mews, Upper Park Rd.,
Haverstock Hill. Opened 1871 in rented ho. with 2
rooms for mistress and 2 rooms for 100 I of poor and
constantly changing neighbourhood; renewal of 7year lease depended on success. 1871 a.a. 35, when
premises adequate but sch. not recognized. V. tried
unsuccessfully to establish perm. ch. sch. opposite
site of new Fleet Rd. bd. sch. 1878. (fn. 87)
St. Stephen Elem. Day. (fn. 88)
M & I sch. started 1870
in 2 rooms in crypt of St. Steph.'s, Rosslyn Hill;
financed by vol. contributions, sch. pence, offertories,
Nat. Soc. grant. Roll 1871: 44 B and 61 G all ages
under 1 mistress, a.a. 72; evg. sch. for 30 B aged
8-16. Premises unsuitable but instruction efficient,
and new site nearby obtained 1871. Succeeded St.
John's chapel sch. at no. 14A Downshire Hill 1874-5;
a.a. 195. Site in Worsley Rd. (later nos. 40-44 Pilgrim's Lane) conveyed to V. 1877, where bldg. for
B Nat. opened. 1880 accn. 554, a.a. 201. I in iron
bldg. at South End Green from c. 1886. Financial
difficulties led to closure of B sch. 1897, when B sent
mainly to Fleet Rd. Permission from Char. Com. to
sell premises and build new I sch. near iron sch.
1898 but G & I schs. transferred to S.B.L. 1899.
1900 accn. 130 G & I in Downshire Hill temp. sch.
S.B.L. hired former Worsley Rd. sch. for 159 M
1902, retaining 51 I in Downshire Hill. 1905 accn.
159 M, 262 I. Iron bldg. at South End Green became St. Steph.'s Sun. sch. M & I schs. closed 1906,
when pupils transferred to New End.
Samuel Hoare's British, New End. Opened by
1811 in bldg. paid for by Hoare, who also paid
master's salary and other expenses. Roll 1811: 112
B. (fn. 89) After Parochial sch. was united with Nat. Soc.
but without religious test, Hoare closed sch. and
offered bldg. for Parochial B. (fn. 90)
Trinity Nat., see Holy Trinity.
West End Nat., see Emmanuel.
Special schools. Alexandra Priory, Ainsworth
Way, Boundary Rd. Opened between 1967 and 1974
in Sans Walk, Clerkenwell, and moved to Ainsworth
Way by 1978. For primary and sec. educationally
subnormal M, with special care unit. Roll 1986:
Frank Barnes Primary, Harley Rd., Swiss Cottage. (fn. 91) Opened 1978 as primary sch. for 80 M from
sch. in Clerkenwell. Designed by G.L.C.'s dept. of
architecture to incorporate latest techniques for
teaching profoundly deaf, on site allotted 20 years
before, where noise and vibration which would have
affected hearing aids led to bldg. of special defences
on N. side; S. side, adjoining sites of John Keats and
Franklin Delano Roosevelt schs., all glazed. Group
rooms, polygonal to reduce echoes, for 2 junior
groups, 2 I and nursery groups, and group of
multiple-handicapped aged 5 to 7. Roll 1986:
Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Avenue Rd., Swiss
Cottage. Opened 1901 for physically handicapped in
Essendine Rd., Paddington, and moved to Hampstead 1957. Roll 1986: 66 M.
Iverson Rd., Kilburn. Opened by 1899, when
a.a. 29, as bd. sch. for 40 defective children. Probably replaced by dept. for mentally defective opened
at Kingsgate Rd. bd. sch. 1903. Nothing further
John Keats, Adelaide Rd., Swiss Cottage. Opened
1958 for delicate M all ages on site shared with
Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Roll 1986: 97 M.
Private schools. In 1609 James Hill was licensed
to teach in the parish church. (fn. 92) Robert Bramwick
was presented in 1618 for keeping a school without a
licence. (fn. 93) George Turner of Kilburn in Hampstead
was a schoolmaster whose bequests of books in 1651
indicated a strong interest in the classics. (fn. 94) Licensed
schoolmasters included Jacob Baileman in 1661,
teaching grammar, John Frederick Wagner in 1662,
teaching literature, and Theophilus Wragge in 1674,
teaching grammar. (fn. 95) Lancelot Johnson in 1684 was
permitted to plant trees on part of the waste 'for the
ease and defence' of the boys in his school. (fn. 96) Lewis
Vaslet is said to have opened his 'French school' in
Hampstead in 1713, moving to Fulham in 1716, (fn. 97) but
in 1702 a Mr. Vallett, possibly the same man, rented
the new vestry room for his scholars. (fn. 98) Similar random references to 18th-century schools give little
idea of their number or duration; only from the late
19th century can histories be traced. (fn. 99)
In 1828 nine boarding schools for young ladies,
mainly finishing schools, included one at Kilburn,
and eight for boys included two at Kilburn. (fn. 1) In 1833
there were eight private day schools, three of them
with a total of 22 boys and 29 girls, one with 14 girls
and five with 90 boys; 15 boarding schools, nine of
them with 144 girls, six with 193 boys; and two day
and boarding schools, one with 26 boys and girls, the
other with 21 boys. (fn. 2) By 1851 there were 39 private
day schools for a total of 428 girls and 292 boys, 46
per cent of all day pupils in Hampstead, but with an
average roll of only 18, whereas the National Society
and other public schools had an average of 71. (fn. 3)
Fifteen endowed and private schools for boys were
listed in 1872, mainly preparing for the Public
schools, and some 45 private girls' schools in 1884. (fn. 4)
Roman Catholics were also well represented, with
both boys' preparatory schools and convent boarding schools for girls. (fn. 5) H. G. Wells and A. A. Milne
recalled Henley House, (fn. 6) which was probably fairly
typical of the small private schools of the 1880s,
when they differed in their strengths according to
the proprietor but were similar in their weaknesses:
a lack of space and equipment, and an emphasis on
career success at the expense of other values. Wells
thought that Alfred Harmsworth, a pupil at Henley
House, was an example of the failure of such schools
to impart moral values. (fn. 7) By the late 19th century
social decline in districts such as Kilburn was causing closures: J. V. Milne sold Henley House, which
provided secondary education, c. 1892, in the belief
that only preparatory schools would continue to have
any chance of success. (fn. 8)
Private schools in Hampstead recorded under the
Education Act, 1918, included 24 with 1,270 boys
and girls, 5 with 337 girls, and 4 with 165 boys.
About 32 other schools applied for inspection and
recognition. (fn. 9) The system of recognition probably
helped to reduce the number of schools, as did removals and the financial depression of the 1930s. (fn. 10)
Most schools were evacuated in 1939; although a
few returned in 1940, others remained away throughout the war and many never returned, their premises
having been damaged and the demand much
After the Second World War, 7 of Hampstead's
independent schools were recognized as efficient in
1951. Twenty-two were listed in 1960, of which 10
were recognized, and 14 in 1984, almost all recognized. (fn. 11) Although by the 1980s boarders were no
longer taken, independent day schools remained
relatively numerous for London. Some of the
schools, both past and present, are described in
alphabetical order below. (fn. 12)
Sara and Rita Allen-Olney set up a school for
general and higher education of girls in 1886 in St.
John's Wood at the Elms, with some pupils from
South Hampstead High where Rita had been headmistress. (fn. 13) By 1889 they had moved to no. 41 Belsize
Park Gardens and in 1891 they moved to the Hall, a
new house in Crossfield Road. They took boarding
and day girls from the age of 6. In 1905 their school
was sold to the Revd. D. H. Marshall, who moved
his Belsize preparatory school there, renaming it the
Hall school, and carried on the girls' school at no. 18
Buckland Crescent. In 1919, under Mrs. Rosa Money
Dawes, the roll was 50-60. The Allen-Olney school
prepared day girls and boarders for university entrance and school examinations in 1927 but apparently had closed by 1934.
Burgess Hill school, for day boys and girls aged 5
to 14, was started in Hampstead in 1936 as a modern
co-educational primary school. Within two years it
had 120 pupils. Weekly meetings involved pupils in
many decisions regarding the school. It moved to
Cranleigh (Surr.) as a boarding and day school in
1939 and returned to nos. 11, 12, and 13 Oak Hill
Park c. 1948, (fn. 14) where it remained until c. 1960.
Frognal school, under Miss E. J. Campbell, had
100 girls in 1919, when it was at no. 84 Fitzjohn's
Avenue. By 1931 it had moved to no. 104, with an
annexe at no. 14 Prince Arthur Road, and management was by a limited company with Miss Campbell
continuing as head. (fn. 15) It was recognized and took day
girls aged 6 to 19; roll in 1929: 189; in 1931: 212.
Education was on Public school lines, without too
much pressure. A domestic science department was
opened at no. 106 Fitzjohn's Avenue for students
over 18, with preparation for national certificates.
The school closed in 1938, when a member of the
staff opened Settrington school (q.v.), with many
staff and pupils from Frognal.
Haberdashers' Aske's School for Boys originated
as a day school run by the Haberdashers' Aske's
charity foundation at Hoxton (Shoreditch) from
1690 until 1898, when it moved temporarily to
Cricklewood. In 1903 it moved to a new building in
Westbere Road and was recognized. In 1906 the
school was thought to be of value in a rapidly expanding neighbourhood but was cramped, with 412
boys in accommodation suitable for 200-300. In
1907 an additional block was proposed for 240, including 50 juniors. The roll was 503 in 1911, of
whom about one third came from Hampstead.
Teaching so improved between 1906 and 1911 that
inspectors foresaw a most efficient and advanced
school. It received a direct grant and in 1961 moved
to Aldenham (Herts.), (fn. 16) when the buildings were
taken over by Hampstead school. (fn. 17)
The Hall school (fn. 18) originated as Belsize school,
founded in 1889 by the Revd. Francis John Wrottesley, who with his wife had taken fee-paying pupils at
their home, no. 18 Buckland Crescent, since 1881.
The Wrottesleys sold their school in 1898 to the
Revd. D. H. Marshall, who took over an adjoining
house in 1903, when there were 58 boys, including
10 boarders. In 1905 Marshall bought the AllenOlney girls' school, (fn. 19) which his wife continued at
Buckland Crescent. Marshall moved the boys to
Crossfield Road and renamed the school the Hall.
The roll was over 100 in 1909, when he sold the
school to G. H. Montauban. It prepared boys aged
5 to 13 for Public schools and won many scholarships. Montauban bought Woodcote, no. 69 Belsize
Park, at the corner of Buckland Crescent, in 1916
and opened it in 1917 for boys under 8. (fn. 20) The school
was recognized from 1919, when Montauban sold
the Hall to R. T. Gladstone, retaining the junior
school until 1923. In the 1920s the roll increased
from 60 to 270. In 1935 ownership passed to a private
company. The main building was extended in 1935
and the junior school in 1938. The roll fell to 45 in
1940 but under a new company rose to 170 in 1942.
The junior school, evacuated in 1939, reopened in
1942 with 35 boys. The school became a charitable
trust in 1952. In 1951 there were 302 boys aged 5 to
15, including 30 boarders, but boarding ceased between 1960 and 1974. In 1983 the school prepared
up to 320 boys for Public schools.
Heath Mount school, at the corner of Heath
Street and the Grove, was variously said to have
been founded in 1795 and 1817. (fn. 21) In 1872 it prepared boarders and day boys for the Civil Service,
the armed services, and Public schools. (fn. 22) It was
taken over by J. S. Granville Grenfell in 1895 and
had 56 pupils aged 8 to 14 in 1903. In 1921 there
were 24 boarders and 65 day boys, mostly from
Hampstead. After an adverse inspection had prevented recognition, a dismissed master sought the
help of Arthur Waugh, whose son Evelyn he had
taught there, to approach the Minister of Education. (fn. 23) The school had closed by 1934 and moved to
Hertford. (fn. 24)
Henley House school, nos. 6 & 7 Mortimer Road
(later Crescent), Kilburn, had been unsuccessful
before 1878 when John Vine Milne, father of the
writer A. A. Milne, bought the goodwill. Numbers
rose from c. 6 to 50 boys, aged 8 to 18, including 15
boarders. Milne's family lived in one semi-detached
house, the other being adapted for classrooms. H. G.
Wells taught English, science, and drawing 1889-90
and admired Milne, although equipment was sparse
and the school fell short of its intentions; the honour
system for discipline was in advance of its time, and
a new approach to mathematics proved successful
for university entrance. Alfred Harmsworth was encouraged to start the school magazine in 1878, printed
from 1881. Milne moved his school c. 1892 to
Westgate-on-Sea (Kent); Henley House continued
as a school until c. 1910 under various proprietors. (fn. 25)
King Alfred school was opened in 1898 at no. 24
Ellerdale Road by the new King Alfred School
Society, to practise modern theories of education.
Day boys and girls aged c. 8 to 18 were taught together to at least the age of 14. The school had no
religious or political affiliations; discipline depended
mainly on the pupils' co-operation and competition
was discouraged, although there was preparation for
entrance examinations to further education. In 1903
there were 20 girls and 15 boys in classes smaller
than at most maintained schools and under a staff
better qualified than at most private schools. By 1913
there were 85 pupils and more space was needed,
despite the addition of no. 22 Ellerdale Road. The
school also needed capital and more older boys. It
moved to Hendon in 1919. (fn. 26)
Lyndhurst House preparatory school, no. 24
Lyndhurst Gardens, was opened for 150 day boys
aged 7 to 13 c. 1950 by Davies Tutors and renamed
Lyndhurst House school by 1960. Recognized from
1957, it successfully prepared boys for Public schools
in 1983. (fn. 27)
North Bridge House school, no. 8 Netherhall
Gardens, a mixed preparatory school, was formerly
at nos. 23-4 St. John's Wood Park and had 120
pupils by 1960. In 1983 it prepared 320 pupils aged
3 to 13 for Public schools, with juniors at Netherhall Gardens and seniors at Gloucester Gate (St.
Peterborough Lodge school, no. 143 Finchley
Road, started c. 1898 as a school belonging to A. H.
Linford and later occupied a block added to a private
house in 1901, standing in 2 a. It was a preparatory
school for c. 100 boys aged 5 to 15, including 5 to 10
boarders, and in 1921 had 92 boys, mainly from
Hampstead. The school was highly successful in
preparation for the Royal Navy and Public schools
and was recognized from 1921. Linford also ran
Downsend school, Leatherhead (Surr.), which he
had opened during the First World War for the
boarders from Peterborough Lodge. A branch was
opened in 1931 at no. 17 Maresfield Gardens to take
c. 90 juniors, aged 5 to 9. In 1937 the lease of the
main school expired and the school moved to no. 6
Netherhall Gardens, whose garden adjoined that of
the junior school. (fn. 28) The whole school amalgamated
with Downsend in 1940 and apparently did not
return to Hampstead.
Purcell school, no. 13 Lyndhurst Terrace, formerly the Central Tutorial School for Young Musicians, was recognized from 1972. It had 65 day girls
and boys aged 8 to 18 in 1974. It left Hampstead c.
Queen's House school, no. 69 Fitzjohn's Avenue,
opened in 1947 for day girls aged 9 to 18, with education up to university entrance. It was recognized
from 1950 and had 83 girls in 1951. It closed c.
The Royal Soldiers' Daughters' Home, no. 65
Rosslyn Hill, was founded at Rosslyn House in 1855
to relieve the families of soldiers in the Crimea. The
trustees bought Vane House and rebuilt it in 1858 to
designs by William Munt, incorporating part of the
17th-century house; the grounds of c. 4 a. included
part of those of Rosslyn House. The home had been
enlarged by 1876, when it had 163 girls with accommodation for 200. Originally intended for destitute
war orphans, it later took the daughters of serving or
retired soldiers; they were admitted from infancy to
13 and left at 16, able ones being trained to become
teachers. From 1924 the school was maintained by
the L.C.C., with a roll of c. 110 until the Second
World War. Accommodation was reduced from 200
to 145 in 1924. In view of the small numbers in a
wide age range, inspectors recommended limiting
the school to juniors or sending the girls out to
school. The L.C.C. ceased maintenance from 1945,
when the governors decided to run an independent
all-age boarding school. By 1973, however, and possibly as early as 1951 when they sold the school
building to the L.C.C., all the girls were sent to local
maintained schools, while the home provided extras
such as dancing, drama, music, and riding. A new
building was opened in 1970 behind the old, which
was replaced by Vane Mews, Vane Close, and Mulberry Close. (fn. 29)
The Royal Sailors' Orphan Girls' School and
Home was said to have been established in 1829 as a
home, (fn. 30) which opened in Hampstead in 1862 at
Frognal House. In 1869 it moved to a new building
at nos. 96-116 Fitzjohn's Avenue, designed by
Edward Ellis. In 1871 two rooms for 78 served as a
school, attended by 60 girls of all ages, whose subjects included domestic ones. It was recognized as a
public elementary school from 1879 and received a
parliamentary grant from 1882, when the roll was c.
116, but ceased to receive grants between 1903 and
1908, and in 1919 again became independent. The
Home closed in 1957 and was demolished to make
way for council flats. (fn. 31)
St. Anthony's preparatory school, no. 90 Fitzjohn's Avenue, opened c. 1953 as a Roman Catholic
day school for boys aged 6 to 14, preparing them for
Public schools. It was recognized from 1956. The
roll was 200 in 1960, 275 in 1974, and 280 in 1983.
No. 1 Arkwright Road was added to the school c.
1965. (fn. 32)
St. Christopher's school was thought to have
been founded in 1883. A small Froebel class held by
1889, probably by Mrs. Roberts, soon developed
into a preparatory school, Hampstead kindergarten
and school at no. 13 Carlingford Road, under Miss
Amy Pridham, who was later joined by Miss E. G.
Wells; the school embodied the ideas of Pestalozzi
and Froebel. It moved in 1898 to no. 16 Hampstead
Hill Gardens and had c. 35 junior girls and boys c.
1905. After another move, to no. 20 Hampstead Hill
Gardens, the school was carried on from 1912 by
Miss Violet H. Wright, who in 1919 moved to no. 32
Belsize Lane, formerly a nursery training college,
having taken over Tremarth and Ruskin House
schools. Thereafter she took girls up to 18. The
school had 112 girls and boys in 1919 and was
recognized from 1924. Miss Wright also opened a
school of domestic science at the Lodge, no. 2 Rosslyn Hill, in 1924, with accommodation for 8-9
boarders. In the 1930s the lower school took girls
and boys aged 4 to 10, and senior girls were prepared
for London Matriculation and Oxford School Certificate. In 1937 the juniors moved to no. 20 Lyndhurst Gardens. The school, which was evacuated
during the Second World War, was bought by Miss
Rosemary Manning and Miss Bell in 1950. It had 19
pupils under 5, 122 aged 5 to 10, and 7 aged 11 to
15 in 1951, and later had c. 180 until the early 1970s.
Principally a girls' preparatory school, taking a few
small boys, it encouraged parents to send children
on to local day schools rather than to boarding
schools. The arts, especially music, were emphasized. When Miss Manning decided to retire in 1972,
a parent, Dr. David Cohen, bought the property
through his family trust and leased it to a board of
governors. A new block was opened in 1983, containing 3 classrooms and 2 music rooms. In 1974 the
school had 164 girls aged 4 to 12 and in 1984 it took
up to 215 day girls aged 5 to 11. (fn. 33)
St. Margaret's school, no. 18 Kidderpore Gardens,
was started by Miss Elizabeth Tulloch in West
Hampstead in 1884 and moved to a pair of semidetached houses at Oak Hill Park in 1898. Originally
a day and boarding school for girls aged 11 and upwards, by 1904 it included a small preparatory class.
In 1904 there were 57 girls, prepared for examinations up to university entrance. The school was
recognized in 1920, when it had 85 day girls and 11
boarders aged 5 to 18, mostly from Hampstead. It
incorporated Threave House school (q.v.) from
1932. After the Second World War the school reopened in Kidderpore Gardens c. 1948 with 72 day
girls. From 1954 management was by a company,
registered as a charitable trust. By 1974 the roll was
151 girls, aged 7 to 16, and in 1983 it was 145. (fn. 34)
St. Mary's convent school was opened by the
Dames Anglaises of the Institute of the Blessed
Virgin Mary in England's Lane by 1880. (fn. 35) In 1919
it had 97 girls. The convent moved to no. 47 Fitzjohn's Avenue c. 1927, where it ran a boarding and
day school for girls with a kindergarten and mixed
preparatory school in 1949. (fn. 36) The school was recognized from 1951. By 1960 it was a Roman Catholic
girls' preparatory day school, with a few small boys.
In 1974 there were 156 girls aged 4 to 11, and 40
boys aged 4 to 8; in 1983 the maximum roll was
St. Mary's Town and Country school started in
1937 when a small school called St. Mary's was taken
over in co-operation with Mrs. Ena Curry, of Dartington Hall, as a progressive educational day school.
It continued to be built up at Hereford during the
Second World War and the day school reopened in
1945 at no. 38 Eton Avenue, while the boarding
school was at Stanford Park near Rugby. Pupils were
interchanged between town and country, and from
1951 often used a weekend and summer school at the
16-a. Hedgerley Wood (Bucks.). (fn. 37) In 1951 there
were 144 girls and boys of all ages including 17
boarders. In 1969 it was proposed to adapt a house
in Glenloch Road, formerly used for boarders, for
teachers' accommodation and as a laboratory. (fn. 38) The
school was recognized by 1960; in 1974 it had 186
girls and boys aged 4 to 16. It closed c. 1983.
Sarum Hall school, no. 51 Eton Avenue, started in
1929 when a management company was incorporated. It prepared day girls aged 5 to 14 for Public
schools (fn. 39) and was recognized from 1934. There were
95 girls aged 5 to 15 in 1951 and 120 in 1984. The
school closed in 1986. (fn. 40)
Settrington school, no. 24 Lyndhurst Gardens,
was started in 1938 by Miss Hilda M. Johnson, a
teacher at the former Frognal school, with support
from parents there. Numbers were limited to 60
girls, nearly all of them at first from Frognal. Day
girls aged 10 to 18 were prepared up to university
entrance. The school was recognized in 1939. It
closed c. 1950, when the premises were taken over by
Davies Tutors as Lyndhurst House. (fn. 41)
South Hampstead High school (fn. 42) was founded as
St. John's Wood High by the Girls' Public Day
School Trust in 1876 in a house in Winchester Road.
Numbers had reached 197 by 1878 and 302 by 1882,
when the school moved to a new building in Maresfield Gardens. Two laboratories, two classrooms,
and a fives court were added in 1889. In 1908 the
school had 244 girls of all ages and was recognized. (fn. 43)
In 1921 it acquired no. 1 Maresfield Gardens,
formerly the home of Sir Ernest Waterlow, which
became a junior school, the studio later being used
by the seniors. Extensions including a gymnasium,
library, laboratory, and classrooms marked the
school's jubilee. In 1927 girls were prepared for
examinations up to university entrance. (fn. 44) A direct
grant was received after 1944, but the junior school
remained wholly fee-paying. In 1957, when the total
roll was over 500, the juniors moved to no. 12
Netherhall Gardens and the seniors took over
Waterlow House. A site adjoining the playground
was bought in 1968 and a science block opened there
in 1972. In 1976 the school had 160 juniors, aged 5
to 11, and 466 seniors, aged 11 to 18, including a 6th
form of 117; numbers were similar in 1984. Despite
its restricted site, the school drew pupils from a wide
area of north and west London, with strong support
from the Jewish community. A large new building,
on the site of Waterlow House, including a theatre
and sports hall, was due for completion in 1987. (fn. 45)
Stepping Stone school, no. 33 Fitzjohn's Avenue,
was opened as a nursery and mixed preparatory
school c. 1964 (fn. 46) and recognized since 1970. It had
193 girls and boys aged 3 to 9 in 1974 and up to 220
Threave House school, no. 7 Heath Drive, was
founded in 1886 by the Misses McMillan as a day
school for girls aged 7 to 19. In 1903 it occupied a
large detached house and was particularly strong in
Mathematics, French, German, and Latin, while the
life drawing, taught by the head of Sydenham School
of Art, was the best which the inspector had seen in
a girls' school. In 1903 there were 80 girls. Compulsory religious instruction in 1906 caused the withdrawal of perhaps a third of the pupils, who were
Jewish or Roman Catholic. It was recognized in
1919, when the roll was 69 and it could accommodate
75, although in 1930 the inspectors wanted less
emphasis on examinations and the introduction of
science. The surviving Miss McMillan retired in
1932, whereupon the school was amalgamated with
St. Margaret's (q.v.). (fn. 47)
University College school (fn. 48) was founded in 1830
in Gower Street as part of University College, London. When the college became part of London University in 1907, (fn. 49) the school became a separate
corporation and moved with c. 200 boys to Hampstead, where the preparatory school was already
established. (fn. 50) It occupied a neo-Georgian building
of brick with stone dressings, designed by Arnold
Bidlake Mitchell (fn. 51) as three linked blocks accommodating 500. The school was recognized from 1907
but suffered as other schools adopted its nonconformist and liberal traditions. It applied for a direct
grant in 1919, providing 25 per cent of the places
free, and also received an annual grant from the
L.C.C. from 1920 to 1924. The roll, only c. 300 in
1917, had increased to 525 by 1931. Academic
standards were affected by the reliance on fee-payers
but the curriculum was extended in the period between the World Wars. After the mortgages were
paid off the school dispensed with the direct grant
and in 1944 became completely independent again,
while continuing to offer 25 per cent of the places to
boys from primary schools, often those refused
assistance by L.C.C. but accepted by Middlesex
C.C. After the Second World War, competition for
places increased, although the number was kept
down to 500 boys, aged 13 to 18; the 6th form was
built up and the school became strong in classics. A
new laboratory, music room, library, and headmaster's house were paid for through a jubilee appeal
in 1957. A brick and glass 6th-form centre, designed
by Michael Foster of T.F.P. Architects, (fn. 52) was opened
in 1974. The main building was damaged by fire in
1978, the restored hall being reopened by Queen
Elizabeth II in 1980, on the school's sesquicentenary.
University College preparatory school was opened
in 1891 at Holly Hill House (no. 11 Holly Hill). It
had c. 80 boys by 1900, over 100 by 1907, and 250 at
its peak in 1921, necessitating the housing of the top
forms in the senior school at Frognal. The house was
rebuilt for 200 boys in 1926-8 to a design by Sir
John Simpson, incorporating woodwork from the
old house. James Elroy Flecker, poet, was a master
there. (fn. 53) In 1984 there were c. 250 boys aged 7 to 13.
Warwick House school, founded in 1883, was at
no. 145 King Henry's Road in 1919 with 30 boys (fn. 54)
and moved to no. 30 Lymington Road c. 1939. (fn. 55) It
took both boarders and day boys, preparing seniors
for examinations up to university entrance and
juniors for Public schools. Special provision was
made for Jews, Moslems, and Roman Catholics. The
school closed c. 1969. (fn. 56)
Wykeham House school was established in 1895,
probably by a Miss Budd. Miss Ada Wright, a member of staff, took over in 1898 and may have moved
to no. 147 Abbey Road, Kilburn, by 1908, and certainly by 1919. The school was recognized in 1920,
when it prepared day boys and 5 boarders aged 5 to
13 for Public schools. It closed in 1933. (fn. 57)