The vestry's appointment of a schoolmaster in
1613 has normally been seen as the origin of
Hackney's first parochial school. (fn. 19) A schoolmaster (ludimagister) had been recorded in 1580 and
1586, (fn. 20) however, and William Snape, a parishioner, had left 40s. 'for the better maintaining of
the grammar school' by will proved 1587. (fn. 21)
The vestry specified different rates for teaching
some parishioners' children to read and others
to write and cypher; fees for outsiders' children
were left to the master. (fn. 22) Margaret Audley's
charities, by will dated 1616, included £20 a year
for a schoolmaster, to be appointed by the vicar,
churchwardens, and 12 leading inhabitants. (fn. 23)
Although the foundation was presumably intended as a second school, perhaps to prepare
for the learned professions, (fn. 24) a separate master
was not recorded. Its 12 boys were taught, as
were the other children, in the Church House, (fn. 25)
in 1620 called the 'common schoolhouse of the
parish'. (fn. 26) Robert Skingle, parish schoolmaster
from 1644, taught both sets of pupils: in 1665
he was said to neglect his schools and not to
deserve his £20 salary. (fn. 27) The vestry's and Mrs.
Audley's schools were later believed to have
been the same. (fn. 28)
A parochial charity school was founded in
1714 (fn. 29) and finally absorbed the old free school
in 1772, when it took in Mrs. Audley's pupils.
As a National school, whose funds also supported a Sunday school from 1804, it became
known as Hackney Free and Parochial school. A
school of industry, proposed in 1772, was
founded in 1790; both boys and girls were taught
in Dalston Lane from c. 1810, although only the
girls remained in 1833. A Unitarian school also
originated in 1790. Another industrial school,
for girls, was founded in 1803 and survived in
1824 in Bohemia Place with the support of
Independents. At Homerton, Ram's episcopal
chapel established a girls' school in 1792 and a
boys' in 1801. At Kingsland a school later
connected with Kingsland Congregational church
was opened in 1808 on the Stoke Newington
side of the boundary. (fn. 30) South Hackney had a
free school founded from Well Street chapel
in 1807 and St. John's chapel school founded
by the Revd. H. H. Norris in 1810. Infants
attended a school near the brickfields at Upper
Clapton, which had been built by the Revd. J.
J. Watson, in 1811, when some girls from the
Sunday school went on to a school supported
by Mrs. Watson.
In 1819 the poor were said to have ample
means of obtaining education. (fn. 31) The four endowed
schools were Hackney Free and Parochial, in so
far as it served Mrs. Audley's charity, and those
of Norris, Ram's chapel, and Well Street chapel.
In addition to the workhouse and the school
of industry, there were 12 other schools supported entirely by voluntary contributions, six
of them being Sunday schools. At least one
Sunday school, held by Methodists, in 1821
taught writing on some weekdays. (fn. 32) The numbers included a second National school at
Stamford Hill, which perhaps was a short lived
forerunner of St. Thomas's, Upper Clapton, and
a new Independents' school in St. Thomas's
Square, but excluded a new Lancasterian or
British school for boys in Homerton Row.
Provision had greatly increased by 1833, (fn. 33)
when there were 4 infants' and 59 day schools.
The day schools included 8 connected with the
Church of England, among them the Cumberland benevolent institution and 2 started in
1828 at Upper Clapton, and 6 connected with
dissenters, among them a girls' Lancasterian
school, Brenton's asylum school at Hackney
Wick which prepared boys for the colonies,
and the London Orphan Asylum. The last two,
like the Cumberland institution, were not restricted to local children. The other day schools
were for fee payers, some of them boarders:
2,109 children were educated at their parents'
expense. (fn. 34)
National schools, promoted by the Hackney
Phalanx, (fn. 35) were opened in connexion with the
new Anglican churches. By 1846-7, in addition
to Hackney Parochial or St. John's, Ram's
chapel, and St. Thomas's schools, there were
National schools for South Hackney (formerly
Norris's school) and West Hackney, and for St.
James's, Clapton, St. Philip's (later Holy Trinity),
Dalston, and St. Peter's, De Beauvoir Town.
The National Society found least provision in
the poorer parts of South Hackney. (fn. 36) Later
National schools were those of St. Barnabas,
Homerton, and St. Thomas (later St. Matthew)
at Upper Clapton, St. Augustine, Victoria Park,
and St. Michael and All Angels, London Fields.
Dissenters were served by Congregational
schools in Stoke Newington High Street and
Upper Clapton, in addition to those at South
Hackney, Kingsland, Homerton, and St.
Thomas's Square, by Wesleyan ones at Homerton and Dalston, and by the Unitarian school.
Roman Catholics had a school at the Triangle,
later St. John the Baptist's, by 1849 and at
Kingsland, later Our Lady and St. Joseph's,
from 1855. Ragged schools were opened at
Kingsland in 1848 and in Sanford Lane, off
Stoke Newington High Street, in 1849. (fn. 37)
Parliamentary grants were paid to the Parochial school and West Hackney school, which
had also received a building grant, by 1851. (fn. 38)
Eight schools or institutions received annual
grants by 1868 (fn. 39) and thirteen by 1870. (fn. 40) All were
listed in 1871 among Hackney's 42 public elementary schools, a number exaggerated by the
counting of some departments as separate
schools and the inclusion of such institutions
as the London Orphan Asylum, with 439 inmates,
and the smaller Dalston refuge, Elizabeth Fry
refuge, and Silesia orphanage. Dalston refuge,
like the privately managed Tre-Wint industrial
home, had received a parliamentary grant since
1868. Of 6,762 daytime attenders in 1871,
4,917 went to public schools or institutions, a
further 288 to 13 privately managed schools,
institutions, or missions, and 1,557 to 88
private adventure schools. (fn. 41)
Under the Education Act, 1870, the Hackney
division of the school board for London included
Shoreditch and Bethnal Green. (fn. 42) The board,
whose divisional committee hired offices at no.
205 Mare Street from 1873, (fn. 43) was warned in
1872 that compulsory attendance could be
achieved only after a building programme in
the poorest districts, where absentees were 'of
such a low order' as to be unfit to mix with
children in regular attendance. (fn. 44) Despite the
poor state of existing accommodation, lack of
places forced the board to take over Kingsland
and Shacklewell ragged school as soon as its
managers threatened closure. (fn. 45) Most of the
board's early building took place outside the
parish: 7 of the division's 19 board schools in
1873 were in Hackney and only one, in John
Street replacing Kingsland ragged school, was a
new foundation. (fn. 46)
The most effective defence of denominational
education against the dominance of the board
was in South Hackney, where the vicar of St.
Michael's pressed ahead with the building of a
large National school near the board's school in
Lamb Lane, although he gave up a proposed
infants' school. (fn. 47) There was a mild demurral at
the board's plans to build near St. Matthew's
school at Upper Clapton in 1874 (fn. 48) and proposals
to build opposite the Free and Parochial school
were defeated in 1875. (fn. 49) Hackney vestry joined
neighbouring authorities in 1876 in charging
the board with extravagance. (fn. 50) Proposals for a
board school in Cassland Road were opposed by
residents and by the Cass Foundation in the
1890s. (fn. 51)
The board had opened 13 permanent schools,
besides 3 temporary ones, by 1880 and 16 by
1890. A National school was opened for St.
Michael and All Angels, Stoke Newington
common, although it proved short lived; the
schools connected with St. Augustine's, St.
Barnabas's, and St. Peter's also closed. Two
more Roman Catholic schools had opened by
1890. Of the four protestant nonconformist
schools which then still received grants, (fn. 52) only
Dalston Wesleyan survived in 1903. (fn. 53)
By 1903 the 28 board schools in Hackney M.B.
had accommodation for 33,758 and a total
average attendance of 27,435. (fn. 54) Nearly all had
separate departments for boys, girls, and infants; Millfields Road school was higher
elementary, Queen's Road and Wilton Road
included higher grade classes, and Cassland
Road was entirely higher grade. In addition
the board's 7 special schools were attended by 258
handicapped children. (fn. 55) Eighteen other schools
received grants and were attended by 4,869. Ten
were connected with the Church of England. (fn. 56)
Only Hackney Free and Parochial school, including a branch for infants on a separate site
and with a total attendance of 779, was comparable in size to a normal board school.
The L.C.C.'s education committee succeeded
the London school board in 1904. (fn. 57) By 1909
there were county secondary schools at Hackney
Downs (taken over from the Grocers' Company), Colvestone Crescent, and Cassland
Road. (fn. 58) A central school was opened at Lauriston Road in 1910, another at Millfields Road to
replace the higher elementary department in
1911, and another at Wilton Road to replace the
higher grade departments of Wilton and Queen's
roads in 1913. (fn. 59) Of 43 maintained schools in
1927, 32 were county, 7 connected with the
Church of England, St. Matthew's and West
Hackney parochial schools having closed, and 4
Roman Catholic. (fn. 60) Three of the Anglican and all
the Roman Catholic schools survived the Second
World War, to become voluntary aided primary
schools. In 1951 there were also 23 county
primary schools, a county nursery school called
Wentworth in Cassland Road, and 16 county
secondary schools. (fn. 61) Many county schools were
renamed in 1949. (fn. 62)
Under the London Government Act, 1963,
Hackney L.B. formed a division of the new
I.L.E.A. (fn. 63) By 1976 several of the county primary
schools had been divided into adjoining junior
mixed and infants' schools, while the number of
county secondary schools had been reduced by
reorganization on comprehensive lines, although
some formed upper and lower schools on separate sites. (fn. 64) In 1989 there were 50 I.L.E.A.
primary schools, (fn. 65) most of which had nursery
classes, besides Wentworth nursery school; they
included the 3 Anglican and 4 Roman Catholic
schools and an eighth voluntary school, the
Jewish Simon Marks. (fn. 66) Of the 8 I.L.E.A. secondary schools only Clapton, Homerton House,
and Kingsland had originated as county schools;
the others were Our Lady's Convent High and
the Skinners' Company's, (fn. 67) Hackney Downs,
Cardinal Pole's, originally in Shoreditch, and a
secondary division of Hackney Free and Parochial.
Hackney L.B. became a local education
authority on the abolition of the I.L.E.A. in
1990. (fn. 68) The education directorate, which occupied the former Edith Cavell school building
from 1992, had carried out six amalgamations of
junior and infants' schools by 1993. (fn. 69)
Public schools . (fn. 70)
Except where otherwise stated,
basic historical information and figures of accommodation and average attendance have been
taken from: files on Church of England schools
at the National Society; Mins. of Educ. Cttee. of
Council, 1848-9 , H.C. (1850), xliii; 1850-
1 , H.C. (1850-1), xliv(1); 1859-60 ,
H.C. (1860), liv; Rep. of Educ. Cttee. of Council,
1867-8 , H.C. (1867-8), xxv; 1868-9
, H.C. (1868-9), xx; 1869-70 [C.165],
H.C. (1870), xxii; 1870-1 [C.406], H.C.
(1871), xxii; 1871-2 [C.601], H.C.(1872), xxii;
1880-1 [C.2948-1], H.C. (1881), xxxii; 1890-1
[C.6438-1], H.C. (1890-1), xxvii; Return of NonProvided Schs. H.C. 178-XXXIII (1906),
lxxxviii; Bd. of Educ., List 21, 1908-38
(H.M.S.O); L.C.C. Educ. Service Particulars
(1937 and later edns.); L.C.C. (I.L.E.A from
1965), Educ. Service Inf. (1951 and later edns.).
Inf. on Church of England schools 1846 is from
National Society, Inquiry, 1846-7, Mdx. Roll
and attendance figures for 1871 are from
G.L.R.O., SBL 1518, pp. 91-2. Schools renamed in 1949 are listed in L.C.C. Educ. Cttee.
Mins. (1949-50), 269. Primary school rolls for
1989 have been supplied by the education officer,
I.L.E.A. division 4; rolls for 1993, including
nursery classes, have been supplied by the research and statistics team, Hackney education
The following abbreviations are used in addition to those in the index: a.a., average
attendance; accn., accommodation; amalg.,
amalgamated; B, boy, boys; bd., board; C,
county; C.E., Church of England; Cong., Congregationalist; demol., demolished; dept.,
department; G, girl, girls; I, infant, infants; J,
JB, JG, JM, junior, junior boys, girls, mixed;
M, mixed; Meth., Methodist; Nat., National;
parl., parliamentary; perm., permanent; R.C.,
Roman Catholic; reorg., reorganized; roll, numbers on roll; S,SB,SG,SM, senior, senior boys,
girls, mixed; S.B.L., School Board for London;
sec., secondary; Sun., Sunday; temp., temporary; vol., voluntary; Wes., Wesleyan. The word
'school' is to be understood after each named
entry. Separate departments are indicated by
commas: B,G, I; JM, I.
Ada Street C.E. (fn. 71) Temp. I sch. opened 1840
or 1841 in premises of Sir John Cass's char. in
Wick Street, followed by schs. for 120 I in
Goring Street and 30 I in Well Street. Intended
partly to serve South Hackney Parochial schs.
but founded as separate venture by asst. curate
C. J. Daniel. Larger site leased to cttee. by 1847,
in Ada Street, (fn. 72) where I sch. used also as mixed
sch. 1870. Roll 1871: 192; a.a. 106. Listed 1871
as St. Mic. and All Angels, Ada Street, and
probably replaced by St. Mic.'s Nat. sch., Lamb
Formerly Sigdon Rd. bd. (q.v.),
renamed 1949. JM, I by 1951. Rolls 1989: 220
JM, 200 I. Amalg. as primary sch. 1992. Roll
Baden-Powell, Ferron Rd. Opened 1970 for
280 JM & I. (fn. 73) Roll 1989: 190 JM & I;
Ballance Rd., see St. Dominic.
Bay Street Temp. Bd. Opened 1906 in former
Dalston Cong. sch. (q.v.) for 260 M, 60 I. Closed
Opened 1876 as Rendlesham Rd.
bd. (fn. 74) for 532 SM, 300 I, and 1887 for 379 JM.
Called Benthal Rd. by 1903, Benthal by 1951.
Rebuilt after war damage 1949 for JM & I (fn. 75) ;
reorg. by 1955 for I only, by 1976 for JM, I.
Rolls 1989: 194 JM, 187 I; 1993: 220 JM, 244
Berger, Anderson Rd. Opened 1877 in former
St. Barnabas sch. (q.v.), (fn. 76) moved 1878 as Berger
Rd. temp. bd. to iron bldg. in Wick Rd., and
1879 to perm. sch. for 720 M, 356 I. Iron bldg.
reopened 1879-83, 1883-4; (fn. 77) inc. temp. accn. for
30 I in 1913. Reorg. 1920 for 328 B, 338 G, 356
I, again 1932/6 for 480 JB, 313 I, and again by
1951 for JM, I. Renamed Berger 1949. Rolls
1989: 192 JM, 188 I. Amalg. as primary sch.
1993. Roll 1993: 455.
Berkshire Rd. bd. Opened 1899 as Windsor
Rd. bd. (Berkshire Rd. from 1906), on site of
dyeworks, for 348 B, 348 G, 390 I. Inc. temp.
accn. for 50 B in 1913. Reorg. 1927/32 for 340
SB, 340 SG, 397 I. Renamed Lea Marsh primary and sec. schs. 1949. Reorg. by 1951 as sec.
for SM. Closed by 1966, when pupils sent to
Clapton Pk. or Upton Ho. (qq.v.). (fn. 78)
Bohemia Place industrial.
Opened 1803 for
G, most of whom were placed in domestic svce.
Not identifiable with any sch. listed 1819 or later
but supported 1821-4, when 33 G educ. and
clothed, by sermons at Old Gravel Pit and Well
Street chapels. (fn. 79)
Brooke Ho. sec., Kenninghall Rd. Opened
1960 for 960 SB from Joseph Priestley and
Mount Pleasant (qq.v.) in bldgs. designed by
Armstrong & MacManus on site of Brooke Ho. (fn. 80)
Amalg. with Upton Ho. to form Homerton Ho.
(qq.v.) 1982. Bldg. later adapted for Hackney
Coll. (fn. 81)
Cadogan Terr. temp. bd. Opened 1879 for B.
Closed 1883 on opening of Sidney Rd. (q.v.). (fn. 82)
Cardinal Pole R.C. sec., Kenworthy Rd.
Opened 1959 in Wenlock Rd., Shoreditch, as
vol. aided sch. with older children from Kingsland R.C. (later Our Lady and St. Joseph,
q.v.). Moved 1964 to new bldg. in Kenworthy
Rd. Annexe in former French hosp., Victoria
Pk. Rd., for lower sch. from 1974. (fn. 83) Roll 1993:
Cassland Rd. higher grade, see South Hackney C.
Cassland Rd. C. Opened 1913 as temp.
county sch. for 160 JM, 192 I. SM dept. opened
1916, closed 1917 on opening of Derby Rd.
(q.v.). Reorg. 1932/6 for 285 I only.
Cassland sec., see South Hackney.
Chapman Rd. Cong. Opened by 1870 for BG.
Described 1871 as at Chapman Rd. mission
rooms, Hackney Wick. (fn. 84) Roll 1871: 161; a.a. 116.
Nothing further known.
Chatsworth Rd. temp. bd. Opened 1901 for
60 G in Sun. schoolroom below tabernacle and
managed from Rushmore Rd. (q.v.). (fn. 85) Closed
Clapton C, Laura Pl. Opened 1916 for SG.
Renamed John Howard sec. 1949. Amalg. with
Clapton Pk. to form Clapton comprehensive in
Howard bldg. and 4 new perm. bldgs. for 1,080
SG 1977. Roll 1993: 781 SG. (fn. 86)
Clapton Jewish Day, see Simon Marks.
Clapton Pk., Oswald Street. Formerly Mandeville Street (q.v.), renamed for SB 1949.
Closed 1953, when bldg. occup. by Pond Ho.
Reopened by 1961 for SG, with lower sch.
between Oswald and Mandeville streets and
annexe (later upper sch.) in Chelmer Rd. Amalg.
with John Howard to form Clapton comprehensive.
Clapton R.C., see St. Scholastica.
Clapton, Upper, and Stamford Hill, see St.
Clapton, Upper, Cong., Conduit (later Rossendale) Street. Opened by 1871, when paid parl.
grant, by Upper Clapton Cong. ch. Roll 1871:
251 M; a.a. 170. Transferred 1875 to S.B.L.,
closed 1876 on opening of Rendlesham Rd. (later
Benthal, q.v.), briefly for I 1877. (fn. 87)
Opened as Colvestone Crescent
by 1949, when renamed Colvestone. I only 1951,
1955, JM & I by 1970. Roll 1989: 163 JM & I;
Craven Pk., Castlewood Rd. Opened 1896 by
S.B.L. for 336 M, 215 I. Reorg. by 1919 for 404
SM, 228 JM & I, and again 1932/6 for 300 JM,
262 I. JM, I 1951, with annexe at synagogue in
Egerton Rd., JM & I by 1976. Roll 1989: 164
JM & I; 1993: 221.
Dalston central, Wilton Rd. Opened 1913 (fn. 88)
for 388 Higher Grade M from Wilton Rd. (q.v.).
Dalston Cong., Bay Street. Opened 1855 as
Dalston Training sch. by Dalston Cong. ch. (fn. 89) In
1873 had separate bldgs. for 229 B and 169 I in
Bay Street and school room for 98 G above
chapel vestry; styled 'Middle-class', although
only 81 of 297 pupils paid more than 9d. a week.
Managers unsuccessfully sought transfer to
S.B.L. 1873 (fn. 90) and maintained sch., with accn.
for 580 by 1880, until 1890 or later.
Dalston C, Shacklewell Lane. Opened 1876
as Hindle Street bd. for 469 B, 464 G, 546 I.
Called the Shacklewell by 1903. Reorg.
1932/1936 for 353 SB, 342 SG, 414 I. New
yellow-brick bldg. in Shacklewell Lane by E. P.
Wheeler 1937. (fn. 91) Renamed Dalston county sec.
bef. 1949, when renamed Dalston. For SG only
1951. Renamed Dalston Mount after enlargement on closure of Mount Pleasant (q.v.) by
1974. Amalg. with Edith Cavell, South Hackney
(q.v.), and Shoreditch to form Kingsland (q.v.)
Dalston Mount, see Dalston C.
Dalston sch. of industry. (fn. 92)
Opened 1790 for
30 B at Shacklewell and 30 G in par. churchyard;
by 1795 40 G, who had moved to Jerusalem Sq.
by 1799. B educ. and 20 of them taught tailoring
1799, when G taught reading and needlework.
B moved 1803 to Dalston Lane, (fn. 93) where G had
moved by 1810. Financed by subscriptions and
sermons 1811. 20 B and 35 G in 1819, as
Hackney sch. of ind.; 40 G only by 1833. New
bldg. by Jas. Edmeston for 80 G with ho. for
mistress on site leased from Tyssen est. at corner
of Dalston Rise (later Lane) and projected Amhurst Rd 1837., (fn. 94) but a.a. only 40 G in 1843.
Roll 1871: 49 G; a.a. 24. probably closed by 1880
and later acquired for North-East Lond. Institute. (fn. 95)
Dalston training, see Dalston Cong.
Dalston Wes., Mayfield Terr. (later Rd.).
Opened by 1871, when paid parl. grant. Roll
1871: 105 M; a.a. 97. Accn. for 526 by 1880.
'Middle-class', not transferred to S.B.L. Closed
after 1906. (fn. 96)
Opened 1886 as Daubeney Rd. bd.
for 540 B, 530 G, 436 I. Inc. temp. accn. for 50
B in 1913. Reorg. 1927/32 for 422 JB, 435 JG,
306 I, by 1976 for JM, I. Renamed Daubeney
1949. Rolls 1989: 233 JM, 216 I. Amalg. as
primary sch. 1993. Roll 1993: 517.
De Beauvoir, Tottenham Rd. Opened by 1951
for JM, I. Rolls 1989: 203 JM, 183 I. Amalg. as
primary sch. 1993. Roll 1993: 397.
Derby Rd. Opened 1917 for 440 SM from
Cassland Rd. county (q.v.). Reorg. 1926. Amalg.
1927 with Lauriston (q.v.).
Detmold Rd. bd. Opened 1884 in iron bldgs. (fn. 97)
and 1886 as perm. sch. for 407 B, 364 G, 445 I.
Reorg. 1932/36 for 560 JM, 324 I. Renamed
Southwold (q.v.) by 1951.
Downs Side, Rendlesham Rd. Opened 1969
for JM & I in new bldgs. (fn. 98) Roll 1993: 235 JM
Edith Cavell, see Enfield Rd. and Kingsland.
Elizabeth Carr, see Glyn Rd.
Eleanor Rd. bd. Opened 1898 for 295 B, 295
G, 310 I from Lamb Lane (q.v.). (fn. 99) Inc. temp.
accn. for 20 B, 20 G in 1913. Reorg. 1927/32 for
300 JM, 262 I, and again 1936/38 for 510 SB.
Closed by 1947.
Enfield Rd. bd. Opened 1894 for 355 B, 355
G, 438 I. Reorg. 1932/36 for 273 SB, 275 SG,
312 I. Renamed Kingsland (q.v.) 1949, for SM
only by 1951. Renamed Edith Cavell by 1963.
Premises housed Hackney L.B. educ. directorate
from 1992. (fn. 1)
Eton mission schs., Hackney Wick. Opened
probably as char. schs. supported by mission.
Govt. inspection sought for small sch., not in
receipt of grant, by sister in charge 1889. Upper
grade sch., under govt. inspection, closed 1891. (fn. 2)
Formerly Stoke Newington
bd. (q.v.), renamed 1949. JM, I in 1951, JM &
I by 1970. Closed by 1978.
Fountayne, see Jubilee.
Opened 1875 as Gainsborough Rd. bd. for 468 B, 468 G, 496 I. Reorg.
1927/32 for 353 JB, 355 JG, 307 I. Renamed
Gainsborough by 1938, after rd. renamed
Eastway. JM, I in 1951. In Berkshire Rd. as
JM & I by 1970. Roll 1989: 124 JM & I; 1993:
Gayhurst. (fn. 3)
Opened 1894 as Gayhurst Rd. bd.
for 358 B, 358 G, 363 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 560
SG, 328 I. Primary only by 1949, when renamed
Gayhurst. JM, I in 1951. Rolls 1993: 269 JM,
Glyn Rd. bd., Chelmer Rd. Iron bldg. opened
1884, closed 1886 on opening of Daubeney
(q.v.), reopened 1891-2 and 1893-4. (fn. 4) Perm. sch.
opened 1892 for 420 B, 418 G, 488 I. Inc. temp.
accn. for 40 B in 1913. Reorg. 1927/32 for 360
SB, 360 SG, 325 I. Renamed Glyn 1949; I sch.
renamed Elizabeth Carr 1951. (fn. 5) Glyn closed
1958 (fn. 6) and Eliz. Carr by 1961, when Chelmer Rd.
premises occup. by Clapton Pk. (q.v.).
Hackney British, see Homerton Cong.
Hackney Downs, Downs Park Rd. (fn. 7) Opened
1876 as grammar sch. for 500 B by Grocers' Co.
of Lond. on site bought from Tyssen est. Fees
of £3 to £6 p.a., raised to £8 to £10 in 1888.
Offered to L.C.C. 1904, renamed Hackney
Downs sch., formerly the Grocers' Co.'s sch.,
1905, and managed by L.C.C. from 1907.
Thereafter popular and usually overcrowded.
Roll 1906: 426; 1931: 675; 1952: 539. Main bldg.
in Gothic style by Theophilus Allen damaged
by fire 1963, when sch. temporarily dispersed,
and demol. 1970. New bldg., intended for grammar sch., opened 1967, but further bldg., for
comprehensive intakes from 1969, carried out
1968-70. Roll 1993: 441 SB. Pupils inc. playwright Harold Pinter (b. 1930). (fn. 8)
Hackney Free and Parochial schs. (fn. 9) Originated in parochial sch. recorded in 1580s and
supported by Marg. Audley's foundation by will
of 1616 for 12 B (by 1732 called the free sch.)
and by char. sch. established for 30 B and 20 G
aged 7 to 12, also clothed, in 1714. Free sch. held
in Church Ho. and char. sch. in rented ho. in
churchyard. Char. sch., managed by subscribers
of 40s. a year, financed largely by sermons.
Temporarily closed 1734 but revived with
Stephen Ram as treasurer 1738 (fn. 10) and absorbed
free sch. 1772. Premises in Plough Lane,
Homerton, until 1811, then new two-storeyed
bldg. with central pediment in Paradise Fields
(later Chatham Pl.), with accn. for master and
mistress, largely paid for by legacy from Jas.
Gadsden. 50 B and 40 G educ. and clothed by
1811, besides 50 B and 30 G at Sun. sch. opened
1804. Nat. system by 1819, when 179 B educ.,
inc. 100 clothed, and 80 G educ. and clothed. (fn. 11)
I sch. opened 1826 in rented premises in Bridge
(later Ponsford) Street, moved temporarily 1856
to Chatham Pl., then to new bldg. in Paragon
Rd. Name Hackney Free and Parochial Charity
schs. adopted under Chancery decree of 1842,
to remove doubts about legacy to Hackney's
'free' school. 180 B, 110 G, and 120 I by 1846.
Schs. financed by subscribers and benefactors,
inc. Gadsden's legacy for 15 medals presented
annually from 1820, parl. grant in 1850, and sch.
pence (1d.-2d.) from 1856. Master and mistress
not certificated 1858. (fn. 12) 100 B and all G clothed
1861. (fn. 13) Rolls 1871: 330 BG, 296 I; a.a. 252 BG,
158 I. Bldg. in grounds of Sutton Ho., Isabella
Rd., opened 1896, replacing condemned
Chatham Pl. BG and I schs., with accn. for 829,
formed boro.'s largest non-bd. sch. 1903. (fn. 14) As
sociated with Ram's chapel I (q.v.) from 1936.
Isabella Rd. bldg. condemned 1937, rebuilt, and
alone used as vol. aided sch. 1946, after bomb
damage to Paragon Rd. and requisitioning of
Ram's sch. in Tresham Ave. Temp. transfer to
Berger Rd. 1950. New sch. for c. 320 SM opened
1952 on Paragon Rd. site; designed by Howard
V. Lobb as first post-war C.E. sec. sch. completed in Lond. Overcrowding relieved 1963 by
acquisition of former Wilton Rd. sch. (q.v.). Roll
1993: 670 SM. Isabella Rd. bldg. remodelled
after seniors' move and site later extended after
compulsory purchase of Tresham Ave. Rolls
1989: 197 JM in Isabella Rd., 139 I in Mehetabel
Rd. Amalg. as Ram's Episcopal primary sch.
(q.v.). Sale of Wilton Rd. site and re-establishment of SM sch. in Paragon Rd. planned for
1994. (fn. 15)
Hackney sch. of industry, see Dalston sch. of
Hackney Unitarian, Paradise Fields (later
Chatham Pl.). (fn. 16) Established 1790 by Ric. Price
and other subscribers as Sun. and day sch. for
BG; to be inspected by members of cong. and
Hackney New Coll. Called New Gravel Pit mtg.
sch. 1819, when 30 B and 30 G clothed and educ.
By 1833 only 25 G attended daily, besides 14 B
at Sun. sch. in Water Lane which closed 1840.
Roll 1871, when called Hackney Unitarian: 56
G; a.a. 48. Improved after having been found
inefficient 1872. (fn. 17) Day sch. closed 1884.
Hackney Working Men's Institute, West
Street. (fn. 18) Two rooms on first floor of institute (fn. 19)
were lent for sch., under uncertificated mistress,
by 1871. Financed by pence (1d.-2d.). Roll 1871:
102; accn.: 50. Presumably closed soon afterwards, when premises found inadequate and
transfer was rejected by S.B.L.
Harrington Hill primary.
for JM & I. Roll 1989: 183 JM & I; 1993: 222.
Hindle Street, see Dalston C.
Holcroft Rd., see Orchard primary.
Holmleigh primary, Dunsmure Rd. Opened
1970 for JM & I in new bldgs. (fn. 20) Roll 1989: 147
JM & I; 1993: 206.
Holy Trinity C.E. primary, Beechwood
Rd. (fn. 21) Opened by 1842 as St. Philip's Nat. for 60
G. 40 G, 35 I by 1846. Schoolroom for 100 BGI
built 1851 on site in Woodland Street leased for
99 yrs. by Thos. and Wm. Art. Rhodes; enlarged
1865. Roll 1871: 150 BGI; a.a. 138. Financed
1873 by vol. contributions and sch. pence (2d.);
parl. grant by 1876. Iron room for I built nearby
1879 and replaced by perm. bldg. 1880, when
management transferred to new dist. of Holy
Trinity. Site for new GI sch. leased 1882 by
Rhodes fam. in Mayfield (later Beechwood)
Rd. (fn. 22) Accn. 1890: 568 BGI; a.a. 506. Reorg.
1927/32 for 120 G, 156 I, by 1951 vol. aided for
JM & I. Roll 1993: 232 JM & I.
Homerton Cong., Homerton Row. Opened
1819 as Homerton (sometimes called Hackney)
Brit. or Lancasterian sch. in new bldg. 215 B,
most paying 1d., in 1822; overcrowded by
1824; (fn. 23) 273 B in 1833. GI sch. in separate bldg.
1820, at first under different managers. (fn. 24) Both
schs. probably transferred to Cong. Bd. of Educ.
(responsible for Homerton Coll.) 1852. (fn. 25) Parl.
grant by 1869. a.a. 1869: 50 G, 70 I. B sch.
continued under Homerton Practising sch. (below), but lease of GI sch., with accn. for c. 275,
transferred to bd. 1871. (fn. 26)
Homerton Ho., Homerton Row. Opened
1982 as SB comprehensive on amalgamation of
Brooke Ho. with Upton Ho. (qq.v.), on site of
former Upton Ho. annexe. Roll 1990: 700 SB;
Homerton Practising, High Street. Model
sch. for BG built c. 1852, designed by Alf.
Smith, behind Homerton Coll. and managed,
like coll., by Cong. Bd. of Educ. (fn. 27) Parl. grant by
1869. Rolls 1871: 490 BG; a.a. 346; 89 B; a.a.
74. Children drawn from wider area than those
at Homerton Cong. sch. (fn. 28) (above), which was
taken over as Homerton Row training sch. Roll
1871: 130; a.a. 115. Transfer to S.B.L., reserving
right for coll. students to practise teaching,
rejected by bd. 1888. (fn. 29) Schs. closed 1893, when
S.B.L. bought bldgs. (fn. 30)
Homerton Ragged, John (later Dunn) Street.
So named 1871, when night sch. with roll and
a.a. 30. (fn. 31) Probably offshoot of Kingsland ragged
sch. (q.v.). Acquired as John Street bd. sch.
Homerton R.C., see St. Dominic.
Homerton Row Bd. Opened 1883 for 1,180
BGI (I opened 1882). Reorg. 1927/32 for 355
JB, 360 JG, 411 I and again 1932/6 for 360 JG,
409 I. Closed after 1938.
Homerton Wes., Church Rd. Opened probably in connexion with Wes. Meth. ch. of 1868. (fn. 32)
Roll 1871: 77; a.a. 68. Parl. grant by 1876. 1890
accn. 627; a.a. 187. Closed by 1899.
Howrah Ho., see St. Victoire's.
Isaac Watts, see Stoke Newington Road.
John Howard, see Clapton C.
John Street temp. bd. (fn. 33) Opened 1872 for BG.
a.a. 1873: 70. (fn. 34) Schoolroom in Dunn's Pl., John
(later Dunn) Street, stated 1872 to have been
used by Kingsland, Dalston, and Shacklewell
ragged sch. Closed 1875 and replaced by Hindle
St. bd. sch. (see Dalston C).
Joseph Priestely sec., Morning Lane.
Opened by 1951 for SB. Annexe at Homerton
Row by 1958. Amalg. with B from Mount
Pleasant to form Brooke Ho. (q.v.) 1960. Annexe
used by Upton Ho. 1961.
Jubilee, Filey Ave. Opened 1970/2 for JM &
I as Fountayne. Roll 1989: 316 JM & I; 1993:
Kingsland, Shacklewell Lane. Enfield Rd.
sch. (q. v.) renamed Kingsland 1949 for SM.
Kingsland renamed Edith Cavell for SM by
1961, with upper sch. in Enfield Rd. and lower
in former Queen's Rd. sch. (see Queensbridge)
in Albion Drive. Edith Cavell amalg. 1982 with
Dalston Mount (see Dalston county), South
Hackney C (q.v.), and Shoreditch to form Kingsland comprehensive, by 1990 with whole sch.
at Shacklewell Lane. (fn. 35) Roll 1993: 880 SM.
Kingsland R.C., see Our Lady and St.
Kingsland Ragged, Kingsland High Street. (fn. 36)
Opened 1848 after mtg. at Maberly schoolroom,
presumably part of Maberly Cong. chapel, Islington, in no. 14 Providence Row. Moved 1848
to rented room at Kingsland British sch., Stoke
Newington, (fn. 37) but served wide area, with annual
mtgs. at Kingsland Cong. ch., and therefore
named Kingsland, Dalston, and Shacklewell
ragged sch. from 1851. a.a. 1850: 70 B and 80
G, taught on separate evgs. by 14 vol. teachers;
also industrial class of 10 G. (fn. 38) B and G taught
together from 1855, when day sch. also started.
a.a. 1861: 240 day, 166 evg. (fn. 39) Bldg. fund started
with legacy 1866, (fn. 40) apparently followed by move
to Abbott Street, where a.a. 1871 was 124, and
John Street. Transferred with Homerton ragged
to John Street bd. (qq. v.) 1872. (fn. 41)
Kingsmead, Kingsmead Way. Opened 1953
for I. (fn. 42) JM & I after 1976. Roll 1993: 221 JM &
Lamb Lane Bd. Opened 1873 for 120 G, 120
I. (fn. 43) Children moved to Eleanor Rd. (q.v.), when
Lamb Lane bldg. converted into centre for
special instruction. (fn. 44)
Lauriston, Rutland Rd. Opened 1892 as
Lauriston Rd. bd. for 300 B, 300 G, 377 I.
Reorg. 1926. Accn. 1927, after taking children
from Derby Rd.: 440 B, 424 G, 384 I. Reorg.
1932/6 for 640 JM, 408 I, and again by 1938 for
438 SM, 400 JM, 336 I. Separate SM and
primary schs. by 1949, when both renamed
Lauriston. Sec. sch. amalg. with Cassland to
form South Hackney C (q.v.) 1958. primary sch.
in Derby Rd. 1970, Rutland Rd. by 1976. Roll
1993: 254 JM & I.
Lauriston Rd. central. Opened 1910 at
Lauriston Rd. bd. for 340 M. Closed by 1919.
Lea Marsh, see Berkshire Rd.
London Fields, Westgate Street. Opened
1874 for 453 B, 442 G, 577 I. Reorg. 1927/32
for 360 JB, 360 JG, 408 I, and again 1932/6 for
640 JM, 408 I. Rolls 1989: 137 JM, 153 I; 1993:
400 JM & I.
Mandeville, Oswald Street. Opened 1902 as
Mandeville Street bd. for 300 B, 300 G, 302 I.
Reorg. 1927/32 for 280 JB, 240 JG, 276 I, and
again 1936/8 for 352 JM, 276 I. Sec. sch. by
1949, when renamed Clapton Pk. (q.v.). Replaced 1977 by Mandeville primary, with J sch.
in old Oswald Street bldg. and I in new adjoining bldg. (fn. 45) Roll 1993: 224 JM & I.
Mayfield Terrace, see Dalston Wes.
Millfields, Elmcroft Street. Opened 1895 as
Millfields Rd. bd. for 1,539 MI. Opening of
higher grade dept., attended by many pupils
from outside Hackney, led to curtailment of
senior sch. and to local complaints 1901. (fn. 46) Accn.
1909: 300 SM (higher elem.), 650 M, 379 I;
1919, after opening of Millfields Rd. central
(below): 590 M, 404 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 490
JM, 398 I. Rolls 1989: 243 JM, 211 I. Amalg.
as primary sch. 1993. Roll 1993: 517.
Millfields Rd. central. Opened 1911 at
Millfields Rd. bd. for 354 M. Accn. 1922: 414
M. Renamed North Hackney central by 1927.
Reorg. 1927/32 for 374 SG. Renamed Pond Ho.
1951. (fn. 47) Closed 1955/63.
Morningside, Chatham Pl. Formerly Morning Lane bd. (q.v.), renamed as JM & I by 1951.
Roll 1989: 275 JM & I; 1993: 359.
Morning Lane bd. Opened 1884 for 465 B,
465 G, 578 I; inc. temp. accn. for 60 I in 1913.
Reorg. 1927/32 for 371 SB, 379 SG, 443 I.
Replaced by Joseph Priestley and Morningside
(qq.v.) by 1951.
Mount Pleasant County Sec., Mount Pleasant Lane. Opened by 1938 for 320 SB, 320 SG.
SB amalg. with Joseph Priestley to form Brooke
Ho. (q.v.) 1960. SG remained in Mt. Pleasant
Lane until bldgs. taken over as lower sch. for
Skinners' Co.'s sch. 1972. (fn. 48)
Norris's charity, see South Hackney Parochial.
North Hackney Central, see Millfields Rd. central.
Northwold, Northwold Rd. Opened 1902 as
Northwold Rd. bd. for 366 SM, 306 JM, 306 I.
Reorg. 1923 for 440 B, 440 G, 480 I. Separate
SM and primary schs. by 1949, when both
renamed Northwold. Sec. sch. closed by 1955.
Rolls 1993: 198 JM, 213 I.
Oldhill Street, see Tyssen.
Olinda Rd. temp. bd. Opened 1891 for B & G
in two iron bldgs. on land owned by S.B.L.
Superseded 1896 by Craven Pk. (q.v.).
Orchard primary, Holcroft Rd. Opened 1926
as Holcroft Rd. county for 232 B, 232 G, 276 I.
Renamed Orchard county by 1927. Reorg.
1932/6 for 240 JB, 240 JG, 251 I. Roll 1989: 294
JM & I; 1993: 374.
Orchard Street bd. Opened 1874 in former
Well Street chapel (q.v.) and Orchard Street
schs.; closed 1875, reopened 1875, closed again
1876. (fn. 49) Perm. sch. opened 1875 for 246 B, 239
G, and 1876 for 303 I. Closed 1926.
Orchard Street schs., see Well Street
Our Lady and St. Joseph R.C. primary,
Tottenham Rd. Opened 1855 as Kingsland R.C.
on ground floor of ch. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence (1d.-6d.) 1870; (fn. 50) parl.
grant by 1871. Roll 1871, when also called St.
Joseph's: 92 BGI; a.a. 71. Accn. 1880: 355 BGI.
Remained all-age sch., later vol. aided, until
transfer of older children to Cardinal Pole (q.v.)
1959. (fn. 51) Primary sch. continued in Tottenham
Rd., renamed Our Lady and St. Joseph by 1976.
Roll 1989: 205 JM & I; 1993 251.
Our Lady's Convent high sch., see below,
Pond House, see Millfields Rd. central.
Queen's Rd. bd., see Queensbridge.
Queensbridge, Queensbridge Rd. Opened
1898 as Queen's Rd. bd., apparently as successor
to Dalston Cong. or Training sch., for 418 SM
(higher grade), 420 JM, 405 I. Reorg. 1923 for
454 B, 448 G, 368 I, and again 1927/32 for 549
SB, 275 JM, 310 I. Renamed Queensbridge Rd.
1939. Sec. and primary schs. both renamed
Queensbridge 1949. I sch. only by 1951. Roll
Ram's Episcopal Chapel schs., Homerton.
Char. sch. to educ. and clothe 25 G aged 8 to 14
opened 1792 in rented ho.; additional 4 G taught
reading at Sun. sch. 1819 under legacy from
Judith Lambe. Sch. to educ. and clothe 25 B
opened 1801. Financed 8 by vol. contributions
1819, (fn. 52) when all classes perhaps held in later B
sch. in Durham Grove. Separate bldg. for G,
with teacher's ho., built 1836 in Retreat Pl. (fn. 53) 60
B, 70 G, and 137 I by 1846, when G sch. praised
by inspector. G and certificated teacher, supported by endowment and subscriptions, 1856; (fn. 54)
G still clothed 1861, when master took some
paying pupils. (fn. 55) Parl. grant probably paid by
1869. Rolls 1871: 60 B in Durham Grove, 101
G in Retreat Pl., 140 I at corner of Urswick Rd.
and College (later Tresham) Ave.; a.a. 54 B, 76
G, 90 I. B and G schs. probably closed by 1880.
Accn. 1903: 175 I; a.a. 118. (fn. 56) Management transferred to Hackney Free and Parochial schs. (q.v.)
1936. (fn. 57) Remodelled Hackney Free and Parochial
I sch. renamed Hackney Free and Parochial
(Ram's Episcopal) 1951. (fn. 58)
Ram's Episcopal Primary established 1993 on
amalgamation of Hackney Free and Parochial
JM, I schs. Roll 1993: 319 JM & I.
Rendlesham Rd., see Benthal.
Opened 1877 as Rushmore Rd. bd.
for 432 B, 432 G, 382 I, and 1908 for 330 JM,
inc. pupils from Chatsworth Rd. temp. (q.v.).
Reorg. 1924 for 432 B, 384 G, 330 J & I (B),
334 J & I (G), and again 1927/32 for 472 SB,
418 SG, 326 I. Primary sch. only by 1949, when
renamed Rushmore. Rolls 1989: 211 JM, 213 I;
1993: 220 JM, 260 I.
St. Augustine, Cassland Rd. Roll 1871: 96;
a.a. 78. Presumably connected with ch. in Victoria Pk. Only Sun. sch. and recently started
night sch. existed 1878. (fn. 59) Nothing further
St. Barnabas Nat., Queen's (later Berger)
Rd. (fn. 60) Opened 1855 for BGI on site bought 1853
mainly with money from Revd. J. J. Watson.
Parl. grant by 1868. Roll 1871: 342; a.a. 241.
Debts incurred by opening of separate G sch. to
satisfy Educ. Dept. 1875. (fn. 61) Closed 1877, when
rented to S.B.L. for Berger Rd. sch. (q.v.). (fn. 62)
Proceeds of sale spent c. 1880 on new Sun. sch.
and other bldgs. next to St. Barnabas's ch.
St. Dominic R.C. Primary, Ballance Rd.
Opened 1873 as Homerton or Ballance Rd. R.C.
for BGI in new bldg. next to ch. on site given
by Revd. Geo. Akers. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence (1d.-2d.) 1873; (fn. 63) parl.
grant by 1876, when a.a. 136. Accn. 1890: 420;
a.a. 182. G. taught by Sisters of Sacred Hearts,
who also kept nearby boarding sch. (fn. 64) Renamed
St. Dominic, vol. aided, 1949. Roll 1989: 215
JM, 169 I; 1993: 236 JM, 238 I.
St. James Nat., Powell Rd. (fn. 65) Opened by 1846
for G, I. Perhaps not permanent until land
settled in trust by Powell fam. 1853. (fn. 66) Financed
by vol. contributions, sch. pence (1d.-2d. 1873),
and parl. grant by 1870. Neighbouring B sch.
probably opened before 1863, when new I sch.
built adjoining G sch. (fn. 67) Roll 1871: 105 B, 62 G,
80 I; a.a. 81 B, 52 G, 46 I. Closed as day schs.
1876, after inspector's report, (fn. 68) but reopened by
1880. Accn. 1886: 286. Accn. 1906: 342; a.a. 267.
Reorg. by 1909: accn. 122 B. Closed after 1938.
I sch. under same management opened at Lea
Bridge by 1846. Roll 1871: 120; a.a. 77. Closed
St. John of Jerusalem C.E., Ainsworth Rd.
Opened 1956 in new bldg. on site of bombed
South Hackney Parochial schs. (q.v.). Enlarged
1968. Roll 1993: 238 JM & I. (fn. 69)
St. John the Baptist R.C., King Edward's
Rd. Opened by 1849 as Triangle or Hackney
Triangle R.C. for BG in rented bldg. New bldg.
for BGI, adjoining presbytery, built 1851. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence
(1d.-2d.) 1868; (fn. 70) parl. grant by 1869. Roll 1871:
152; a.a. 100. Accn. 1890: 528; a.a. 236. Accn.
1909: 100 B, 101 G, 114 I. Reorg. 1932/6 for
100 B, 196 GI. As St. John the Bapt., vol. aided,
occupied part of London Fields sch. by 1951 to
c. 1968, when it moved to Bonner Rd., Bethnal
Green. (fn. 71)
St. John's Chapel, see South Hackney Parochial.
St. Matthew Nat., Harrington Hill. (fn. 72)
Opened 1862 for I in new bldg. at High Hill
Ferry granted to clergy of St. Thos., Stamford
Hill, by W. A. Tyssen-Amhurst. Parl. grant by
1870. Management by new dist. of St. Mat. from
1871, when sch. enlarged for GI. Sch. for B
opened 1874, designed, like master's ho., by F.
T. Dollman. (fn. 73) Further additions to allow separation of G from I 1881. Accn. 1890: 364; a.a.
215. I sch. accn. improved after threat to grant
1893. BG sch. closed by 1906, I sch. in 1909.
Derelict bldgs. remained Ch. property 1936.
St. Michael And All Angels Nat., Lamb
Lane. Probably replaced Ada Street (q.v.) as Ch.
sch. Opened 1873 for 500 B and 250 G, to serve
also as ch. hall, on part of site of Pembroke Ho.,
bought in 1871 from G.E.R. Co. (fn. 74) Financed by
sch. pence (6d.-8d.) 1874; (fn. 75) parl. grant by 1876.
Accn. 1890: 534; a.a. 237. Accn. 1909: 231 M,
110 I. Closed after 1939.
St. Michael And All Angels Nat., Rossington Street. Probably opened 1884 in former
premises of Upper Clapton and Stamford Hill
Nat. sch. (see St. Thomas C.E.). (fn. 76) Accn. 1890:
151; a.a. 89. Nothing further known.
St. Peter Nat., De Beauvoir Rd. Opened by
1846 for B, G. Financed by vol. contributions
and sch. pence. Roll 1871: 260; a.a. 182. Parl.
grant, as De Beauvoir Town Nat., by 1876.
Accn. 1880: 365. Closed by 1890.
St. Philip, see Holy Trinity.
St. Scholastica R.C. primary, Kenninghall
Rd. Opened 1868 as Clapton R.C. for BG in
bldg. also used as temp. chapel. New bldg. for
BGI 1879. Financed by vol. contributions and
sch. pence (2d.-9d.) 1881, (fn. 77) parl. grant by 1890.
Accn. 1909: 90 MI. Vol. aided JM & I in
Kenninghall Rd. 1951, in Elmcroft Street 1970.
Called St. Scholastica from c. 1972. In Kenninghall Rd. by 1976. Roll 1993: 251 JM & I.
St. Thomas C.E. primary, Lynmouth Rd.
Opened 1828 for BG and 1831 for I as Upper
Clapton and Stamford Hill Nat. in leased bldg.
in Wood (later Rossington) Street. (fn. 78) 100 B, 53
G, 80 I by 1846. Enlarged 1855. Roll 1871: 202;
a.a. 160; also sch. for 75 I in Chapel Rd.,
improved after being found inefficient 1872. (fn. 79)
Financed by endowment, vol. contributions, and
sch. pence (1d.-3d.) 1872; (fn. 80) parl. grant, after
closure 1875 and reopening for GI, (fn. 81) by 1876.
New bldg. for GI in Grove (later Lynmouth)
Rd. on site given by W. A. Tyssen-Amherst
1884, when old bldgs. assigned to St. Mic. and
All Angels, Rossington Street (q.v.). (fn. 82) Accn.
1909: 126 G, 84 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 210 M &
I, and again 1932/6 for 194 JM & I. Called St.
Thomas by 1938. Vol. aided JM & I by 1951.
Roll 1993: 91 JM & I.
St. Thomas's Sq. Meeting. Opened by 1819,
when 20 G educ. and clothed in addition to
120 BG at Sun. sch. of Ind. chapel. (fn. 83) 120 G, of
whom 25 clothed and oldest trained as servants,
1833. (fn. 84) Financed mainly by vol. contributions.
New schoolrooms 1841. (fn. 85) Apparently survived
only as St. Thos.'s Sq. I sch., Loddiges Rd.,
1871: accn. 33; a.a. 18. Probably closed after
S.B.L. refused to accept transfer 1871. (fn. 86)
St. Victoire's Convent R.C., Victoria Pk.
Rd. (fn. 87) Opened as Howrah Ho. high sch. for G
next to convent of Faithful Companions of Jesus
in E. India Dock Rd. (Poplar). (fn. 88) After war
damage and use of temp. premises, moved as
vol. aided grammar sch. with 161 G to former
French hosp. on edge of Victoria Pk. 1949.
Name changed from Howrah Ho. convent sch.
to St. Victoire's convent sch. 1952, although no
convent attached. Closed between 1972 and
Sandford Lane ragged, Stoke Newington
High Street. Opened C. 1846 as Stoke Newington ragged in ho. on n. side of Stoke
Newington common. Accn. 1850: 60; a.a. 36 B and
12 G week days, 16 B evgs., and Sun. classes, taught
by 33 vol. and 2 paid teachers. (fn. 89) Moved 1854 to
single-storeyed bldg. at S. end of Lawrence's Bldgs.
Accn. 1871: 208; a.a. 176. Closed on transfer to
S.B.L. as temp. accn. 1872. (fn. 90)
Shacklewell, the, see Dalston C.
Shacklewell primary, Shacklewell Row.
Opened by 1951 for JM, I. New bldgs. 1971. Rolls
1993: 191 JM, 216 I.
Sidney Rd. bd. Opened 1882 for 471 G, 634 I,
and 1883 for 471 B. Reorg. 1927/32 for 387 JB,
392 JG, 468 I, and again 1932/6 for 468 I. Closed
Sigdon Rd. bd. Opened 1898 for 328 B, 328
G, 350 I. Inc. temp. accn. for 25 B, 25 G, 25 I
in 1913. Reorg. 1932/6 for 392 JB, 391 JG, 470
I. Renamed Amherst (q.v.) 1949.
Simon Marks, Kyverdale Rd. Opened 1956 as
Clapton Jewish day sch., vol. aided, in purpose
built Zion Ho. Renamed Simon Marks primary
1973. Roll 1993: 214. (fn. 91)
Skinners' Co.'s sch., see below, private schs.
South Hackney C, Cassland Rd. Opened by
1902 as Cassland Rd. higher grade with single
dept. for 816. (fn. 92) Bldg. of red brick in elaborate
Renaissance style. (fn. 93) Called South Hackney sec.
for G in 1910. Transferred to Clapton C (q.v.)
1916. (fn. 94) South Hackney central sch. for 440 M
was in former SM premises of Cassland Rd.
(q.v.) in 1919. Accn. 1938: 500 SM. Renamed
Cassland 1951 (fn. 95) on amalg. with Lauriston (q.v.)
but renamed South Hackney 1958, (fn. 96) with upper
sch. in Cassland Rd. and lower in Lauriston Rd.
Amalg. with Dalston C (q.v.), Edith Cavell, and
Shoreditch to form Kingsland (q.v.) 1982.
South Hackney Central, see South Hackney
South Hackney I, see Ada Street.
South Hackney Parochial. (fn. 97) Opened 1810 as
St. John's chapel (also known as Norris's char.)
sch. in new bldg. with wings for 50 B and 50 G
flanking rooms of master and mistress; land in
Park Pl., Grove Street, given by Revd. H. H.
Norris, whose endowment was assisted by J. De
Kewer. (fn. 98) 57 B and 24 G in 1814, when G
clothed; financed mainly by subscriptions. 82 B
and 32 G in 1833. Settled in trust by Norris as
South Hackney Parochial or charity schs. 1834.
140 B, 40 G by 1846. (fn. 99) Bldg. of St. John of
Jerusalem ch. necessitated move 1848 to site
given by St. Thos.'s hosp. in Greenwood's Row
(later Percy and later Kingshold Rd.), where sch.
for BG designed by Hen. Currey. (fn. 1) Master and
mistress certificated 1855. 50-60 B partly and 30
G completely clothed 1861, when master took
some paying pupils. (fn. 2) Parl. grant by 1860. Roll
1871: 126; a.a. 114. Transfer of G sch. rejected
by S.B.L. 1871. I sch. built on adjoining site,
given by St. Thos.'s hosp., 1875. BG sch. enlarged 1883. Total accn. 1890: 535; a.a. 422.
Accn. 1909: 266 M, 110 I. Reorg. for JM & I
1939. (fn. 3) Bombed in war and replaced by St. John
of Jerusalem (q.v.). (fn. 4)
Southwold, Detmold Rd. Formerly Detmold
Rd. (q.v.), renamed by 1951. JM, I, in 1951.
Roll 1989: 261 JM & I; 1993: 316.
Stoke Newington, Stamford Hill, and Upper Clapton, Stamford Hill. Roll 1871: 88 I;
a.a. 72. Possibly connected with Stoke Newington British (below) and transferred to S.B.L.
1872. (fn. 5)
Stoke Newington British, High Street.
Opened 1838 for BG in new bldg. near S. corner
of later Northwold Rd. Financed by vol. contributions and sch. pence (4d.-9d.) 1869, when
principal teacher trained at Homerton Coll. but
not certificated. (fn. 6) Roll 1871: 143; a.a. 132. Transferred to S.B.L. 1872 and replaced by bd. sch. (fn. 7)
Stoke Newington bd., High Street. Opened
1876 for 236 B, 213 G, 234 I in new bldg. on
site of British sch. (above). Primary sch. renamed Fleetwood (q.v.) 1949. Sec. sch. renamed
Isaac Watts and closed by 1951.
Stoke Newington ragged, see Sandford
Tottenham Rd. bd. Opened 1874 for 230 B,
230 G, 443 I, and 1887 for 480 JM. Reorg.
1932/6 for 360 JB, 320 JG, 333 I. Closed after
1938 and replaced by De Beauvoir (q.v.).
Tottenham Sq. temp. Bd., Tottenham Rd.
Opened 1877 in temperance hall, rented weekly.
Closed 1882 on transfer to Tottenham Rd. bd. (fn. 8)
Triangle R.C., see St. John the Baptist.
Tyssen, Oldhill Street. Bldg. for Oldhill Street
primary partly completed 1939 and used as
temp. accn. by 1948. (fn. 9) Renamed Tyssen 1949.
JM, I by 1951, in Firsby Rd, off Oldhill Street.
Roll 1989: 261 JM & I; 1993: 431.
Upton Ho., Urswick Rd. Opened 1928 as
Upton Ho. central sch. for 361 SB in former
truant or industrial sch. Sec. sch. for SB 1951;
annexe in Homerton Row by 1958 and another
annexe there, formerly of Joseph Priestley sch.,
by 1961. Amalg. with Brooke Ho. to form
Homerton Ho. (qq.v.) 1982.
Well Street Chapel Free schs. (fn. 10) Established 1807 by Wm. Pearson and others to educ.
up to 60 B according to principles of C. of E. 'in
their Calvinistic sense'. Premises between Well
Street and later Orchard Street settled in trust
1811 (fn. 11) on Revd. Geo. Collison and 11 other
members of Well Street Ind. chapel or cttee. of
Village Itinerancy soc., with provision for reversion to Brit. and Foreign Schs. Soc.; inc.
master's ho., and adjoining ground let on bldg.
lease. I sch. built 1830 with gift from Pearson.
70 B, chosen by subscribers and attending
chapel, educ. 1843 at free sch., (fn. 12) whose management was vested in Village Itinerancy soc. 1850.
Free sch. united with I sch. under soc. by Char.
Com. Scheme 1868. Bldgs. enlarged for 160 B
and 180 GI by 1869, when master and mistress
not certificated. Financed by endowment and sch.
pence (1d.-6d.) 1869; (fn. 13) parl. grant by 1871.
Leased to S.B.L. from 1873 as temp. accn. for
Orchard Street bd. (q.v.). Compulsorily purchased by S.B.L. 1877 but part of proceeds
awarded to Brit. and Foreign Sch. Soc. 1878 and
devoted to Orchard Street Schs. Endowment,
providing scholarships at Hackney elem. schs.,
1881, and to Hackney and Spitalfields Exhibition Foundation from 1894.
West Hackney Parochial schs. (fn. 14) Probably
opened c. 1830 for 70 B, 50 G, (fn. 15) although West
Hackney Nat. recorded 1833 as having 47 G and
mistress's ho., (fn. 16) while rector in 1837 claimed that
there was provision only for Sun. schs. and that
sch. room for G was beyond par. boundary. Sch.
for 200 B and 200 G, on site leased by W. G.
Daniel-Tyssen in Church (later Evering) Rd.,
built 1837 (fn. 17) . 98 B, 113 G by 1846. Parl. grant
by 1849. Roll 1871: 157 BG, 58 I; a.a. 114 BG,
37 I. Rebuilt c. 1873, largely at expense of Ric.
Foster. Fees (previously 1d.-2d.) raised 1877 and
again 1882. Accn. 1880: 498; a.a. 395. Closed
1906. Bldg. survived 1992.
Wick Rd. temp. bd., see Berger.
Wilton Rd. bd. (later Wilton Way C).
Opened 1886 for 477 B (higher grade), 477 G
(higher grade), 560 I. Reorg. 1927/32 for 457 JB,
417 JG, 420 I. Sec. sch. for SM by 1951. Closed
Windsor Rd. bd., see Berkshire Rd.
Special schools. (fn. 18)
The opening in 1899 of three
special day schools, in Berkshire Road, Enfield
Road, and Lamb Lane, was followed in 1900 by
that of a residential deaf school at Homerton. (fn. 19)
By 1903 the board administered 7 special schools
in Hackney, with a total of 324 places and an
average attendance of 258. The school for the
deaf and one in College Lane for the physically
defective had their own buildings; the other five,
for the mentally defective, shared the premises
of ordinary schools. The L.C.C. likewise administered 7 schools in 1909, although some of the
sites had changed. (fn. 20) The older and privately
financed East London Home and School for
Blind Children (fn. 21) was later listed with the council's schools, which are described below.
Downsview, Ickburgh, and Stormont House
were maintained by the I.L.E.A. in 1990. (fn. 22)
Berger Rd. Opened 1902 for 80 mentally defective. For 90 and 10 temp. by 1924, for 113 SG and
JM by 1935. Classes for maladjusted continued at
Berger primary sch. until 1967 or later, when
perhaps moved to Morningside (q.v.).
Berkshire Rd. Opened 1899 as Windsor Rd.
for 65 mentally defective. For 90 and 10 temp.
by 1924. Reopened 1925 for 45 partially blind.
Renamed Ryder sch., sec. and primary, for
partially sighted by 1951. Moved to Tollet
Street, Stepney, by 1958.
Opened 1903 for 60 physically
defective in former Homerton Practising sch. (fn. 23)
Accn. 1921: 125; roll 152. For 135 SG and JM
by 1935. Closed c. 1940.
Downsview, Downs Rd. Opened 1968 as purpose-built sch. for children aged 5 to 16 with
moderate learning difficulties. Roll 1993: 130. (fn. 24)
Enfield Rd. Opened 1899 for 65 physically
defective, perhaps replacing manual training
centre of 1897. (fn. 25) Reopened 1929 for 45 blind.
Closed by 1935.
Opened 1920 for 45 partially
blind. Closed c. 1940.
Homerton Sch. For Deaf Children, High
Street. Opened 1900 for 45 boarders and 25 day
pupils. Moved to Penn (Bucks.) 1921. (fn. 26)
Ickburgh, Ickburgh Rd. Opened 1970 for
children aged 2 to 19 with severe learning
difficulties, in bldg. which had been acquired
from Hackney L.B. health dept. and built by
L.C.C. in early 1960s. Steel framed single-storeyed bldg. by Foster Associates 1972-3. Roll
1993: 86. (fn. 27)
Opened 1899 for 65 mentally
defective, upgrading centre for special instruction which had replaced bd. sch. 1898. (fn. 28) Closed
c. 1926. Unit for partially deaf open at London
Fields primary sch. by 1951 to 1974 or later.
Marsh Ho., Millfields Rd. Opened by 1972
for children with severe learning difficulties.
Listed as annexe of Ickburgh (q.v.) 1976 and
probably closed soon afterwards.
Opened by 1903 for 24 blind,
probably as temp. sch. (fn. 29) Closed c. 1926.
Morningside, Morning Lane. Classes for
maladjusted held at Morningside primary sch.
1970, perhaps in place of those at Berger (q.v.).
Discontinued by 1972.
Northworld Rd. Opened 1903 for 65 mentally
defective, perhaps replacing centre for physically and mentally handicapped of 1898. (fn. 30) For
SG and JM by 1930. Closed c. 1932.
Rendlesham Rd. Room for special instruction
of defective children in temp. use 1898-9. (fn. 31)
Ryder, see Berkshire Rd.
Stormont Ho., Downs Pk. Rd. Opened 1919
as 'open air' sch. for 75 tuberculous children.
Bombed in Second World War and reopened
1964 in new bldg. for delicate children aged 5 to
16. Roll 1993: 133. (fn. 32)
Upton Ho., Urswick Rd. Opened 1878 for 60
B nominally as industrial sch., to avoid disputes
about legality of detentions, although only truants admitted. Rebuilt 1885 for 100 B and
enlarged on provision of new infirmary 1887. (fn. 33)
1909 accn.: 150 B aged 5 to 14. Truant sch.
closed by 1913. Opened 1928 as 'open air' sch.
for 130 delicate children. Closed c. 1940.
Windsor Rd., see Berkshire Rd.
Adult and technical education.
chapel, in addition to providing day and Sunday
schools, was the scene in 1822 of the seventh
general meeting of the Hackney Society for
Teaching Adult Persons to Read. (fn. 34) A successful
course of lectures for parents was given in 1854
at Kingsland ragged school, where adults may
have attended the evening classes from 1855, by
which time children could attend classes in the
day. (fn. 35) Adults may have been in the mind of the
vicar of St. Barnabas when he hoped to start an
evening school in 1855. (fn. 36)
In 1871 there was a total roll of 531 and an
attendance of 459 at night classes held in both
public and private schools. Apart from Hackney
Working Men's Institute (below), the largest
numbers enrolled were 72 at an evening school
at the printing house, Shacklewell, and 70 at
Sandford Lane ragged school. Churches and
missions, notably St. Matthew's, also offered
many places. (fn. 37)
The school board provided several centres for
cookery, of which the first, each with 14 places,
were opened at Benthal Road in 1881, at Homerton Row in 1883, and Tottenham Road in 1887.
Centres for laundrywork and handicrafts followed in the 1890s. (fn. 38) In addition to those centres
and to the classes at Hackney technical institute
(below), 17 ordinary evening schools or continuation classes were held by 1901, all of them in
the board's buildings save one at Holy Trinity
school. (fn. 39) The L.C.C. in 1910 administered one
science and art and two commercial evening
centres, besides 16 ordinary evening schools; it
aided the technical institute and Clapton and
Stamford Hill school of art, which had their own
governing bodies. (fn. 40)
Hackney Working Men's Institute was at no.
6 West (later Westgate) Street, the Triangle, by
1860. It held a yearly tenancy in 1871, when
listed as a private adventure school with 94 on
the roll, and apparently had closed by 1880. (fn. 41)
The North-East London institute school of
music, science, and art, at nos. 236 and 238
Dalston Lane, by 1894 occupied enlarged premises on the site of Dalston school of industry. (fn. 42)
They were to be acquired in 1897 as a central
site for Hackney institute (fn. 43) and by 1904 served
as its northern branch, being transferred to the
L.C.C. with the southern branch in 1909. (fn. 44)
South Hackney technical institute, so called in
1900 but later known as Sir John Cass's Hackney
institute, (fn. 45) originated in the annual tenancy of
Cassland House taken by the L.C.C.'s technical
education board in 1897. With money assigned
to technical instruction in Hackney under a
Charity Commission Scheme, a building trade
school was opened and placed under the same
governing body as that of the institute in Dalston
Lane. (fn. 46) After transfer to the L.C.C. in 1909, (fn. 47)
the two branches constituted the L.C.C. Hackney institute, renamed in 1928 the L.C.C.
Hackney technical institute (fn. 48) and in 1947 Hackney
technical college. (fn. 49) In 1974 it was amalgamated
with Poplar technical college and Hackney and
Stoke Newington college of further education to
form Hackney College, whose Poplar sites were
transferred in 1990 to the new Tower Hamlets
college of further education. (fn. 50)
Hackney's technical college expanded from the
mid 1960s, when its department of building took
over Triangle House at nos. 15-35 Mare Street.
Keltan House, a former factory, at nos. 89-115,
had been adapted by 1970 and Clapton school
for girls in Laura Place was used from 1968 until
1988. The administrative headquarters were
moved from Dalston Lane to Keltan House in
1974 and to Brooke House, an extensive conversion of the boy's school, in 1990. Chelmer House
was converted from a school for joint use with
Hackney adult education institute in 1981.
Hackney College's eight sites included the original two in Dalston Lane and Cassland Road and
two in Stoke Newington and Bow in 1990, when
10,000-12,000 students were enrolled annually
for full-or part-time courses. (fn. 51)
Clapton and Stamford Hill school of art was
established at no. 37 Clapton Common in 1885
and moved in 1888 to no. 81. Both day and evening
classes were held in 1910. The school, a noted
centre for training art teachers, where Clapton's
historian Florence Bagust taught, closed in 1916
after the L.C.C. had withdrawn support. (fn. 52)
Ten evening institutes, (fn. 53) some of them with
branches, met at the L.C.C.'s schools in 1930:
4 were for women, 3 were commercial or junior
commercial, 2 were junior commercial and technical, and one was literary. In addition South
Hackney day continuation school was held in
Homerton High Street. After reorganization in
1948, (fn. 54) Clapton and Homerton (formerly Glyn
Road) women's institute offered classes to both
sexes at Glyn school, with a branch at Lea Marsh
school. It was replaced by Clapton and Kingsland institute on the same site, by then an annexe
of Clapton Park school, with branches at three
primary schools, in 1958. Clapton institute, its
successor, was at Upton House by 1967 and at
Brooke House school throughout the 1970s.
Hackney adult education institute was in Chelmer Road from 1981 and at Woodberry Down
school, Stoke Newington, by 1987.
The Cordwainers' technical college, originally
in Clerkenwell and incorporated in 1914 to take
over the work of the Leather Trades school, (fn. 55)
moved from war-time accommodation to no. 182
Mare Street (formerly Lady Holles's and the
Dalston county school) in 1945. (fn. 56) A threestoreyed block with a connecting wing was
added in 1956-7. The college was aided by
Hackney education authority in 1990 and specialized in courses for the footwear and leather
goods industries; a course in rural saddlery,
developed in the 1960s, remained the only one
in the country. It enrolled 176 full-and 328
part-time students for 1989-90, when numbers
were expected shortly to double. (fn. 57)
Its healthy reputation made
Hackney a noted centre of private education for
some 200 years, in particular as 'the ladies'
university of the female arts'. (fn. 58) John Salladine,
a French schoolmaster, was resident in 1627 (fn. 59)
and was chosen in 1630 as a vestryman, in which
capacity he helped to appoint the parish schoolmaster. (fn. 60) Mrs. Winch boarded young ladies in
1637, when a rich City orphan was abducted
while walking on Newington common. (fn. 61) Samuel
Pepys (b. 1633) boarded at Hackney as a little
child. (fn. 62)
The Presbyterian Mrs. Salmon taught French,
housewifery, and polite accomplishments (fn. 63) to
pupils who included the verse writer Katherine
Philips (1631-64), 'matchless Orinda', in 1639 (fn. 64)
and the daughters of the lawyer Sir John Bramston (d. 1670) in 1648. (fn. 65) Mrs. Salmon
presumably was Elizabeth, wife of Thomas
Salmon (d. 1672), a vestryman who in 1671 was
allowed to add to his scholars' gallery in the
church and who successfully sued for unpaid
fees. (fn. 66) He occupied a house at Clapton in 1658,
presumably that assessed in 1664 at 28 hearths (fn. 67)
and left with 11 a. to his widow and his son
Thomas. (fn. 68) The younger Thomas, a clergyman,
had moved to Meppershall (Beds.) by 1691. (fn. 69)
Allocations of the Salmons' pew have led to
identification of their school with those of Benjamin Morland and Henry Newcome. (fn. 70)
Another fashionable school was established in
1643 by Mary Perwich, whose husband Robert,
'professing schooling and boarding', was licensed to build a gallery in the church in 1649. (fn. 71)
The school was allegedy associated with the
Black and White House south of the churchyard,
but in fact that house was enlarged for Sir
Thomas Vyner (fn. 72) and assessed at only 20
hearths. (fn. 73) The Perwichs occupied a larger building: their school took 800 girls during its first 17
years (fn. 74) and, after Brooke House, Robert Perwich's was the biggest house in the parish in
1664, when it was assessed at 36 hearths in
Church Street, and in 1672, when it had 32. (fn. 75) It
was probably at the north end of the village,
where 6½ a. held of Grumbolds were conveyed
by Ralph Macro in 1653, (fn. 76) and presumably was
among the copyholds left to Perwich's wife and
four surviving daughters in 1676. (fn. 77)
The Perwichs offered music and dancing,
taught by well known masters, in addition to
household skills. A fifth daughter Susanna (d.
1661) played the violin so well that distinguished
audiences came from London. In reply to criticism of such accomplishments a memoir stressed
Susanna's humility and her regard for William
Spurstowe. (fn. 78) In the mid 1640s Joseph Lister, a
serving man, found that an unidentified Hackney school was merely for 'young gentlewomen
to learn to play and dance and sing' and that
there were no daily prayers. (fn. 79)
Hannah Woolley (d.1677 or later), an early
champion of women's education, moved with
her husband from Newport (Essex) to Hackney
in 1655. There she kept a boarding school and
presumably wrote her first works on cookery,
published in 1661 and 1664. The school may
have closed after her second marriage in 1666. (fn. 80)
Other schools included those of Mr. Littelton
of Clapton, who was allotted a pew in 1661,
George Painter, who had two French boarders
in 1668, and Mrs. Freeman and her daughter,
who were licensed to build a gallery in 1671. (fn. 81)
Pepys, who had recently renewed his acquaintance with Hackney, went to church in 1667
chiefly to see the young ladies of the schools,
'whereof there is great store, very pretty'. (fn. 82) The
prosperous vicar of Earls Colne (Essex) sent his
daughters to be educated at Hackney in 1675. (fn. 83)
The City's court of aldermen in 1682 paid the
fees of two orphans to Mrs. Crittenden, (fn. 84) who
in 1686 had installed her scholars without permission in Thomas Salmon's pew. (fn. 85) Mrs.
Boardman, another schoolmistress, was threatened in 1685 with the pillory. (fn. 86) Samuel Hoadly
(d.1705), author of the popular Natural Method
of Teaching, moved in 1686 to Hackney, which
he left in 1700 to become headmaster at Norwich. (fn. 87) Benjamin Morland, son of the ejected
Martin Morland, kept a successful private school
at Clapton from 1685 (fn. 88) and took over Mrs.
Crittenden's gallery in 1690. (fn. 89)
Girls' schools, perhaps influenced by the freer
morality of the Restoration, continued to be
condemned for frivolity. John Aubrey in 1670
regretted a past when girls had been educated at
nunneries, 'not at Hackney schools to learn pride
and wantonness'. At the same time, by catering
chiefly for citizens' daughters, they attracted the
sneers of court dramatists: (fn. 90) snobbery was portrayed in a Hackney educated haberdasher's wife
in Thomas Shadwell's The Humourists of 1671 (fn. 91)
and a heroine from Hackney was kept close by
her father in Wycherley's The Gentleman DancingMaster of 1672. (fn. 92)
Growing numbers led in 1686 to an order that
gentlewomen's schools which had a gallery
should use no other pews. (fn. 93) Allocations were
made for Mr. Sinclair's pupils in 1686 and Mrs.
Hopkins's in 1689. (fn. 94) Of 13 well known ladies'
boarding schools listed in 1694 three, under
Mrs. Freeman, Mrs. Beckford, and Mrs. Smith,
were at Hackney. Morland's and another grammar school and a writing school were also
listed, (fn. 95) as later was Hoadly's school. (fn. 96) The
grammarian James Greenwood (d. 1737) was an
usher under Morland before moving to Woodford (Essex) soon after 1711. (fn. 97)
By c. 1700 the west side of London was attracting
more schools. (fn. 98) The lexicographer Robert
Ainsworth (d. 1743), who advocated small
classes, kept a school in Bethnal Green in 1698
and afterwards, between 1725 and 1729, lived at
the Norris family's house in Grove Street. (fn. 99)
During most of the 18th and early 19th centuries
the parish, for all its many schools, was noted
chiefly for Newcome's and for nonconformist
academies. (fn. 1)
Newcome's or Hackney school came to be the
largest and most fashionable of all 18th-century
private schools. (fn. 2) It originally belonged to Benjamin Morland, whose daughter Lydia married
Henry, son of the vicar Peter Newcome, in 1714.
Henry Newcome (d. 1756), although dismissed
as a young preacher of little sense, was long
remembered as 'the famous Dr. Newcome of
Hackney'. He probably took charge in 1721,
when Morland became high master of St. Paul's
school. (fn. 3) Perhaps an acquaintance begun at Hackney led Samuel Hoadly's son Benjamin (d.
1761), bishop of Winchester, to choose Newcome's school for his own sons Benjamin
(1706-57), the royal physician, and John (1711-
76), the poet, both of whom wrote plays. John
distinguished himself in one of the theatrical
performances for which the school became famous. (fn. 4) Leading Whig patrons included the
Cavendishes, the Fitzroys, and the Yorkes: (fn. 5) sons
of the third and fourth dukes of Devonshire
attended, (fn. 6) as did the second earl of Hardwicke
(d. 1790) and his three brothers. (fn. 7)
The plays at Newcome's school were produced
from 1730 or earlier, perhaps annually in the
1760s (fn. 8) but every three years by 1795. (fn. 9) Contributors of prologues or epilogues, for both classical
and English works, included David Garrick in
1763 (fn. 10) and later George Keate (d. 1797). (fn. 11) Actors
included the earl of Euston, later first lord of the
treasury as duke of Grafton (1735-1811), who
was watched by his grandfather in 1751, (fn. 12) perhaps the future fifth duke of Devonshire (d.
1811) in the early 1760s, (fn. 13) the future earl of
Harrington and Lord Robert Cavendish in 1764,
when over 100 coaches arrived, (fn. 14) and the diarist
Thomas Creevey (1768-1838) in 1783. (fn. 15) Royalty
attended in 1761. (fn. 16) Old boys' dinners often took
place at the Thatched House tavern, St. James's:
stewards included the earl of Hardwicke and
Lord Grey in 1768, Lord Ravensworth in 1781,
and the duke of Devonshire, Lord Dover, and
Lord Henry Fitzroy in 1791. (fn. 17) Reunions were
still held in 1829. (fn. 18)
Henry Newcome died rich, (fn. 19) leaving Clapton
copyholds to his son Peter, F.R.S., so long as he
should carry on the school, and then on the same
conditions to Peter's half-brother Henry. (fn. 20) Peter
(d. 1779) gave up control to Henry, (fn. 21) who married a niece of the antiquary William Cole and
whose second son Richard (fn. 22) had succeeded by
1792. The diplomatist Stratford Canning (1786-
1880), a pupil from 1792 to 1794, remembered
a priggish potentate who left the boys to a
Spartan existence in which the smaller ones were
slaves. (fn. 23) At the end of 1802 Richard handed over
to the Revd. C. T. Heathcote, (fn. 24) whose family
had long known the Newcomes (fn. 25) and under
whom speeches replaced the plays. (fn. 26) The school
closed between 1815, when changes were announced by Heathcote, who also held an Essex
living, and 1819, when the property was auctioned. (fn. 27) In the 1790s a resident usher kept order
in a tall double-gabled brick building large
enough for 70-80 boys, while the Newcomes
lived next to it in a new house. (fn. 28) The two houses,
walled grounds, and 8 a. offered a good building
site, (fn. 29) which was taken for the London Orphan
Asylum. (fn. 30)
Girls' boarding schools were kept in 1715 by
Mrs. Wallis, Mrs. Hammond, and Elizabeth
Hutton and in 1726 by Elizabeth Golbourne.
Mrs. Hutton's may have been at the Black and
White House, (fn. 31) occupied as a school by Mary
Roberts in 1747 (fn. 32) and presumably the 'old white
boarding school next the church, well known for
a century past' whose former headmistress
Katharine Thompson died in 1788; (fn. 33) the school
had ended a long existence by 1795. (fn. 34) Mrs.
Newton died in 1790, having kept a school for
many years. M. and E. Humphries boarded
young ladies at Homerton in 1772, (fn. 35) the Misses
Green kept the Grove boarding school in
Church Street in 1782, Mrs. Ranking engaged a
Frenchman for her boarders in Tryon's Place in
1784, (fn. 36) Mrs. Carter's scholars had lately used a
gallery in the church in 1787, (fn. 37) and Miss Rogerson boarded girls in the Grove in 1790. (fn. 38) Mrs.
Larkham, assisted by Mr. Larkham, in 1791
boarded girls at Dalston, where Miss Story was
associated with her in 1793. (fn. 39)
Boys' boarding schools in the 18th century
included one under a Mr. W-, where a pupil
stabbed another with a sword in 1727, (fn. 40) and one
under James Graham, which surrendered a pew
in 1738 (fn. 41) but presumably continued as Graham's
school at Dalston, where it staged a play in 1755.
An academy in Church Street offered genteel
boarding, with emphasis on morals, in 1769. (fn. 42)
John Bonnycastle (1750?-1821), the mathematical writer, kept an academy at Hackney when
young. (fn. 43) A French grammar by Isaac Coustell,
a teacher at Hackney, was advertised in 1748. (fn. 44)
John Naudin took boarders in Well Street,
where only French was spoken in the family, in
1775 and denied rumours of his retirement in
1785. (fn. 45) He may have been succeeded by Paul de
la Pierre, a Swiss, and one Gilbert, who advertised their Well Street academy in 1790 and
produced French plays in 1791; boys under eight
boarded at Miss Gilbert's, Well Street, in 1793. (fn. 46)
Mr. De Latre kept an academy in the City in
1789 (fn. 47) but lived in Well Street, where Mrs. De
Latre carried on a school, perhaps for girls, in
1790; Mrs. Delavaud and Miss Yeomans were
her successors in 1791. (fn. 48) Mr. Thurgood, after
nine years' experience, moved from Hoxton to
open a boarding school in Shore Place in 1791. (fn. 49)
Barber's Barn was Mr. Worsley's school in the
1790s. (fn. 50)
Private schools were most numerous in the
19th century, (fn. 51) although many were short lived
and some were apparently ill managed. A seller of
indecent prints in 1802 had no need to venture
farther than Hackney because of his custom from
the ladies' schools. (fn. 52) Mr. Newham, in charge of a
school at Homerton, was sued in 1807 for beating
a boy who had been bitten by the master's dog. (fn. 53)
In 1826-7 at least 71 establishments were described as private academies. Thirty-five, of which
22 were wholly or partly boarding, were in the old
centre and south part of the parish; a further 10
were listed for Clapton, 4 for Homerton, 18 for
Kingsland, Dalston, and Shacklewell, and 4 for
Stamford Hill. (fn. 54) Such schools were often ephemeral; few of the proprietors were still listed in 1832,
when some had moved farther north within the
parish. (fn. 55) In 1838 the total was 75, of which 29 were
in Hackney, 16 in Clapton, 27 in Kingsland,
Dalston, and Shacklewell, and 3 at Stamford
Hill. (fn. 56) There were also rival grammar schools,
founded in 1830 by subscription. (fn. 57) In 1849 at least
68 residents kept schools, while others offered
private or specialist tuition. (fn. 58)
Longer lived schools included one in 1804
under Richard Barnes, successor to James Pickbourne, in the Cass family's house or in one that
had replaced it in Grove Street. As Grove House
school, it was kept by Barnes and his son in 1832
and at its height had over 40 boarders. (fn. 59) Probably it had been closed by 1848, when a school
was established in the nearby Common House. (fn. 60)
That too was called Grove House by 1849,
when, as in 1861, it was under John Willey. (fn. 61) By
1869 it was under H. R. Clarke, who prepared
boarders and day boys for the universities or
commerce in 1872, and by 1879 under E. Watkinson. (fn. 62) Clapton House reputedly had both
boys and girls (fn. 63) before its lease as a classical
school in 1830 to Donald Aird, who advertised
its grandeur and previously had taught in St.
Thomas's Square. Aird may have added some
buildings and apparently used Salomon's 'synagogue' as a dining hall. (fn. 64) Sutton House
contained a boys' school under Dr. Burnet,
briefly attended in 1818 by the novelist Edward
Bulwer-Lytton (d. 1873), and later Milford
House girls' school. (fn. 65) The many girls' schools
included one near St. Thomas's Square under
the Misses Brown, successors to Mrs. and Miss
Walker, in 1814; (fn. 66) it may have been continued
by them in Mare Street in 1826, by Maria Brown
in Mare Street, or by Sarah Brown in Cambridge
Row in 1838. Hannah Slater's school in Lower
Clapton Road near the site of Laura Place,
recorded in 1826 and 1838 and perhaps continuing one kept by Mrs. Bell, was highly regarded, (fn. 67)
as was the school of the Misses Hibbert, in
Upper Clapton Road by 1826. (fn. 68)
The most distinguished 19th-century school,
in the enlightened tradition of Ainsworth, was
Madras House, (fn. 69) so named by the religious
writer John Allen (d. 1839), who adopted the
Madras system whereby monitors took responsibility for younger boys. (fn. 70) Although it was later
claimed that the school dated from 1796, (fn. 71) Allen
first took pupils in Mare Street in 1817, moving
to larger premises on the east side in 1821. The
school, visited by Edward Irving (d. 1834) and
other scholars, had a maximum of nearly 150
boys. (fn. 72) They included the lexicographer Sir
William Smith (1813-93) and his brother Philip
(1817-85), who wrote on ancient history, John
Curwen (1816-80), the writer on music, and Sir
Charles Reed (1819-81), chairman of the London school board. The missionary Edward
Steere (1828-82), bishop of Zanzibar, attended
under John Allen's son, the philologist Alexander Allen (d. 1842). On Alexander's death
Madras House passed to Thomas Garland, (fn. 73)
who ran it in 1861, and to Messrs. W. Paine and
Wilson, who described it as a grammar school in
1869 (fn. 74) and took boarders and day boys until 1879 or
later. (fn. 75) The premises, at no. 208 Mare Street,
were used by the Essex Volunteer Regiment in 1892. (fn. 76)
Hackney Proprietary grammar school, (fn. 77) each
of whose proprietors might hold not more than
3 out of 130 shares, was opened in 1830. Its staff
was to be well paid and the Madras system was
used. Although the headmaster was an Anglican
clergyman, the presence of nonconformist teachers led to printed denunciations in 1831. (fn. 78) More
damaging was a ban on shopkeepers' sons, (fn. 79)
which stimulated support for a Church of England grammar school (below). Each school had
c. 120 boys in the 1830s, when they formed
warring gangs before uniting against the Free
school, but the Proprietary school had only 50
by c. 1840 and amalgamated with the Church of
England grammar school before 1848. The 'dear
little building', (fn. 80) rendered and with Perpendicular details, was converted to private use as Sutton
Lodge, which in turn was replaced in the 1950s
by extensions to the Metal Box factory. (fn. 81)
Hackney Church of England grammar school
sought a headmaster in 1829 and was opened in
connexion with King's College, London, with
the bishop as patron and the rector J. J. Watson
as president. (fn. 82) Benjamin Clarke was among the
first boys in 1830, when a few boarders were
allowed. The composer Alfred Cellier (1844-91)
attended and later taught there. (fn. 83) The building,
on the west side of Back Lane (later Clarence
Road) was designed by William MacIntosh
Brookes and rendered, with a Doric portico: it
was costlier than that of Hackney Proprietary
school. The school was rescued from debt c.
1880 and continued as King's College or Hackney Collegiate (fn. 84) school until 1895. After serving as
a soft drinks factory, the building made way in
1903 for flats called Clarence Gardens, which in
turn made way for a road on the Pembury estate. (fn. 85)
The number of private schools fell only slightly
in the mid 19th century. Wick House was turned
into a boys' boarding school, entitled Wick Hall
collegiate, commercial, and scientific school, in
1841 (fn. 86) but was again in private occupation in
1861, shortly before its demolition. (fn. 87) At least 57
private schools existed in 1861, only 10 of them
for boys, (fn. 88) and 55, including a Pestalozzian
school, in 1869. Many retained genteel descriptions in 1869, when there were also music
teachers (fn. 89) and, in Dalston, a 20-year old French
institute offering art classes. (fn. 90) Clapton House
was the third home of St. John's Foundation
school for the sons of poor clergymen from 1859
until its move to Leatherhead (Surr.) in 1872.
As his first school, it was recalled by Sir Anthony
Hope Hawkins (1863-1933) (the novelist Anthony Hope), whose father the Revd. E. C.
Hawkins was headmaster. (fn. 91)
Schools in 1872 included Dalston Congregational or Middle-class training school of 1855,
which was often listed with public schools, (fn. 92)
Kingsland collegiate school of 1865 for 20 boarders and 60 day boys, South Hackney college of
1866 for 40 boarders and 75 day boys, Lonsbury
college of 1866 at Hackney Downs, and Dalston
college at Albion hall. Both South Hackney and
Lonsbury colleges, offering a commercial education, survived in 1898. (fn. 93) Anglican clergymen
had charge of St. James's college, called Clapton
college by 1879, for boarders and day boys, and
Hackney Collegiate school. (fn. 94) Priory House
school was on the west side of Lower Clapton
Road, under Howard Anderton; it had been
founded by Samuel Prout Newcome and later
continued at Clapton Common under Howard's
son Stanley until 1909. (fn. 95) Girls' schools in 1884
included the purpose-built Kingsland Birkbeck
schools in Ridley Road, founded in 1852 in the
old Kingsland Congregational church and originally also for boys, College House, Clapton
Square, founded in 1863, and the expensive
Grove House at Upper Clapton. (fn. 96)
After 1870 a few well known schools were
founded, in spite of social changes and better
public provision, which were blamed for the
closure of Madras House. (fn. 97) The Grocers' Co.'s
school of 1876 was drawing boys from Clapton
college by 1882. (fn. 98) The governors of Lady
Holles's school in London built a middle-class
school at no. 182 Mare Street, which was opened
in 1878 and charged fees comparable with those
of the Grocers' school; some 300 girls attended
by 1884, although numbers fell to 81 in 1895
before reaching 380 in 1921. (fn. 99) At Stamford Hill
successful schools were founded by the Skinners' Co. in 1890 and the Servite Sisters in 1904. (fn. 1)
The Church Schools' Co., formed in 1883, had
a short lived school in Cazenove Road in 1892. (fn. 2)
Bodleian House, Upper Clapton, was founded
in 1878 and attended by 35 girls, including
boarders, in 1884. It may have continued at no.
35 Clapton Common as a music academy, with
a kindergarten and preparatory school, in the
1930s. (fn. 3) No. 81 Clapton Common, from 1888 the
home of Clapton and Stamford Hill school of
art, in 1861 had been a girls' boarding school
under Miss C. Bush. (fn. 4)
Roman Catholic schools were open in Sidney
Road by 1887. The boys', next to the church,
was called Homerton Catholic grammar school; (fn. 5)
it had accommodation for 112 and an attendance
of 27 in 1890 and closed in 1891. (fn. 6) The girls', at
no. 21, was a boarding school still managed by
Sisters of the Sacred Hearts in 1894. (fn. 7)
The Skinners' Co.'s school for girls (fn. 8) was
opened in 1890, under a Scheme of 1886, following foundations for boys at Tunbridge Wells
and Tonbridge (Kent). (fn. 9) Purpose-built premises
at nos. 111 and 113 (later 117) Stamford Hill
accommodated 250 pupils aged 8-7, of whom 6
at first held scholarships. (fn. 10) Under the Act of
1944, the school was voluntary aided from 1949.
Younger girls used the former Mount Pleasant
county school (fn. 11) from 1972, while older ones
remained at Stamford Hill. In 1989 the upper
school had 290 pupils aged 14-19 and the lower
had 353, aged 11-13.
In 1898 the Girls' Public Day School Co.
occupied nos. 1 and 2 Marriott Terrace, Lower
Clapton Road, and North Hackney high school
for girls had a boys' department and kindergarten at Stamford Hill. Besides those schools,
others mentioned above, and a mixed middleclass school in Lauriston Road, there were at
least 60 smaller private establishments. A few
survived near Victoria Park but most were farther north: 13 were in the Hackney part of Stoke
Newington, notably in Brooke or Cazenove
roads, 7 in Upper Clapton, including 4 in Clapton Common, and 13 in Lower Clapton,
including 3 in Clapton Square. (fn. 12)
Ownership in 1898 was more concentrated
than the number of schools suggested: H. Anderton's Priory House was at no. 29 Clapton
Common and Miss H. A. Anderton's school at
no. 57; probably two schools were kept by Miss
Bessie Buckley, two by Miss A. Henderson, and
two by Miss M. E. Jervis. While most schools
were short lived, a few continued in different
hands. Stamford Hill and Clapton school for
girls, at no. 96 Stamford Hill under Miss Henderson by 1898, moved after c. 1906 to no. 118, (fn. 13)
where it remained under Miss J. Rothery until
1930 or later. (fn. 14) No. 77 Cazenove Road housed a
school under Miss E. Plews in 1898 and Wilson
college for boys, founded in 1881, under W. A.
Warne in 1911 and 1914; a boys' school, under W.
Brimicombe by 1930, survived there until the Second World War. (fn. 15) Clark's college opened a branch
at the Tower House, no. 108 Clapton Common, c.
1909 and soon moved to nos. 147-9 Stamford Hill,
where it remained until 1959 or later. (fn. 16)
Numbers fell rapidly in the 20th century.
Excluding the Grocers', Lady Holles's, and
Skinners' schools, 29 private schools were listed
in 1905, when 2 were for boarders, 15 in 1914,
and 10 in 1930. The Grocers' school passed to
the L.C.C. in 1906 and Lady Holles's moved
to Hampton in the 1930s. By 1939 there were
only denominational schools, apart from the
Skinners', Brimicombe's, and Clark's college at
Stamford Hill. (fn. 17)
A Roman Catholic school whose success may
have affected many competitors was opened by
the Servite Sisters at no. 14 Amhurst Park in
1904. (fn. 18) For girls of all ages and at first also for
small boys, it occupied no. 16 by 1914 (fn. 19) and was
described as a high-class day school and kindergarten in 1931, when it also occupied no. 12. (fn. 20)
As Our Lady's Convent high school, it was
voluntary aided from 1944. Nos. 6, 8, and 10
Amhurst Park were acquired in 1966 and all the
original buildings were replaced in stages, in
1963, 1966, 1978, and 1986. The school remained in the Servites' trusteeship in 1989, with
575 girls aged 11 to 18 on the roll.
Jewish settlement (fn. 21) had led to the opening in
1906 of an industrial school for girls in detention
called Montefiore House at no. 69 Stamford
Hill, with Claude Montefiore as chairman of the
governors. (fn. 22) The Jewish Secondary Schools
Movement, established by Rabbi V. Schonfield
who founded the Union of Orthodox Hebrew
Congregations, in 1929 started a boys' school at
Avigdor House, no. 96 Amhurst Park, and a
girls', with some preparatory classes and boarders, at Northfields, nos. 109 and 111 Stamford
Hill. (fn. 23) In 1939 the New synagogue also had a
preparatory and kindergarten school. All apparently closed during the war, although afterwards
Avigdor House reopened in Stoke Newington (fn. 24)
and the movement had offices at no. 86 Amhurst
Park until the 1980s.
Yesodey Hatorah, founded in 1943, was the
first and in 1977 the largest of the ultra-orthodox
schools. (fn. 25) It occupied nos. 2 and 4 Amhurst Park
by 1947 and also nos. 5 and 13, as primary and
girls' senior schools, by 1964. In 1989 the boys'
primary school, kindergarten, and nursery were
at no. 2 Amhurst Park, the boys' senior school
was at no. 4, and primary and senior girls'
schools were at no. 153 Stamford Hill.
The Lubavitch Foundation opened the ultraorthodox Lubavitch House primary school for
girls, with a nursery, at nos. 107 and 109 Stamford Hill in 1959. The Foundation's synagogue
moved there from Cazenove Road in 1960, when
a boys' school was opened. A senior girls' school
started at no. 115 Stamford Hill in 1962 and
expanded in 1964 and 1966. Premises for boys
were acquired and adapted in 1971 at nos. 133
and 135 Clapton Common, where a senior school
was opened in 1983. In 1989 the kindergarten,
with 100 children, and 115 senior girls were at
no. 107 Stamford Hill, 175 junior girls were at
nos. 113-115 Stamford Hill, and 80 senior and
165 junior boys were at Clapton Common. (fn. 26)
Yesodey Hatorah girls' and Lubavitch boys'
and girls' primary schools unsuccessfully sought
voluntary aided status in 1983-4. Although
Hackney L.B. later made grants to several Jewish schools, Simon Marks was the only one
administered by the I.L.E.A. in 1990 and by
Hackney in 1993. (fn. 27)