The first dissenting congregation was either
that of an Independent meeting house from
1669 (fn. 87) or one using the formerly Anglican
St. George's chapel and associated with the
dissenters' academy at Bishop's Hall. (fn. 88) Early
ministers included Francis Bampfield, John
Hodges, a Congregationalist, and Thomas Lye,
a Presbyterian, all licensed in 1672. Bampfield
(d. 1684), an ejected vicar, organized a SeventhDay Baptist chapel in his house in Bethnal
Green in 1676. (fn. 89) Lye died at Bethnal Green in
1684 and Hodges was still a minister there in
1690. (fn. 90) In 1684 the officials of Bethnal Green were
punished for refusing to reveal conventicles, of
which there were 'great numbers in private
houses'. (fn. 91) George Fox often stayed with a friend
in Bethnal Green in 1685-6. (fn. 92) There was a
meeting house on the western side of Bethnal
Green, at which Thomas Brand was the
preacher, in 1689. (fn. 93)
The Huguenot église de St. Jean, Spitalfields,
had been established on the north side of St.
John Street by 1687 and probably by 1682. It
was opened by English nonconformists who
allowed the Huguenots to use it outside regular
service times. As the native congregation
declined, it became a wholly French chapel,
using the liturgy of the French Reformed
Church. (fn. 94) Two French meeting houses in Bethnal
Green were reported in 1711. (fn. 95)
The house of Nicholas Humfrey on the green
was certified for Independent meetings in 1713 (fn. 96)
although it is not clear whether it served the
congregation of 1669. A meeting house was
'near finished' in 1724 (fn. 97) and a house in 'The Way
leading from Castle Street to Virginia Row' was
used as a meeting house in 1728. (fn. 98) There were
meeting houses in 1732 (fn. 99) including, presumably,
at least one for Independents and two for Huguenots, those in St. John Street and others from
1721 to c. 1740 at Swanfields in Slaughter
(Sclater) Street, who may also have met in Cock
Lane. The St. John Street chapel was rebuilt in
1765 and used regularly until 1821 and occasionally until 1827. (fn. 1) It was connected with the
Sunday School Tract Society in the 1820s (fn. 2) and
accommodated 450 in 1838. (fn. 3)
A Presbyterian meeting house, in 1795 on
the green, (fn. 4) was recorded from 1711. Several
dissenters 'under the denomination of Presbyterian' had a meeting house with a licensed
teacher in 1778. It may have been Bethnal Green
Independent chapel, (fn. 5) which was so described in
the 1780s. (fn. 6)
John Wesley preached at Bonner's Hall, where
he had stayed in 1754, in 1755-7 and in the
parish church in 1775, 1785, and 1788. He also
visited the 'French church in Spitalfields', (fn. 7) gave
advice in 1772 to 'La Communauté Chrétienne',
whose members became closely associated with
the Methodists, (fn. 8) and mentioned his visit in 1777
to 'those of our society who lived in Bethnal
Green' in terrible poverty. (fn. 9) Methodists were
'increasing daily' under enthusiastic preachers'
in 1778 (fn. 10) and were 'very numerous' in the
1780s. (fn. 11) In 1810 they were said to be most
prevalent among the 'lower class' with five
meeting houses, each with resident licensed
teachers besides preachers who visited the
workhouse. (fn. 12) In 1811 three Methodist meeting
houses were noted, one of which had been said
in 1808 to be the principal London station of the
Kilhamites or New Methodist Connexion. (fn. 13) No
registration for worship since 1792 had been
for Methodists and if the three meeting houses
were registered earlier it was probably as
Protestant or Independent. Middlesex chapel,
certainly Methodist by 1811, was registered in
1797 as Independent.
The Christian Community, having discarded
its French name, published its rules in 1800 and
1816. It preached outdoors in summer and hired
rooms in winter, holding Sunday schools and
meetings under leaders approved by the
Methodists at City Road. Among Methodist chapels
originating in these cottage meetings were Globe
Road and Hart's Lane. In 1819 the Community
broke with the Wesleyan City Circuit when its
preachers refused to acknowledge the Circuit's
exclusive control of Globe Road chapel. (fn. 14)
There were secessions and regroupings among
all nonconformists in the later 18th and early
19th century. Of the 95 meeting places
registered for worship (fn. 15) between 1792 and 1850,
9 were for Methodists, 9 for Baptists, 36 for
Independents, 2 for Unitarians, 4 for Calvinists, 3
for Independent Calvinists, 1 each for the
Christian Society, Universalists, Latter-day Saints,
and Protestants of the Catholic Apostolic
Church, 21 for 'Protestants', and 7 were not
designated. Most meeting places were short
lived and in private houses. A few were forerunners of the chapels whose histories are given
The largest denomination was Independent,
whose meetings usually developed into Congregational chapels. Returns of worship made
presumably by the Anglican incumbent in 1810
classified the French church, with 550 places, as
Anglican and calculated that there were 1,650
places in six nonconformist chapels, although
he was confused as to their denominations. (fn. 16)
A survey of all accommodation for worship
made by the London City Mission in 1838 (fn. 17)
found that 6,610 (recte 6,910) places were for
nonconformists. Of these 3,950 (57 per cent)
belonged to 11 Independent chapels, of which 9
became Congregational (fn. 18) and 2 Baptist chapels. (fn. 19)
Four Baptist chapels (fn. 20) had 1,100 places (16
per cent), 4 Methodist chapels (fn. 21) had 810, one
Unitarian had 300, and St. John Street, for
which no denomination was given, had 450. An
unidentified missionary chapel accommodated
Independents in 1851 (fn. 22) still had the largest
proportion of the accommodation (7,762),
although it had fallen to 52 per cent. Their
attendances were by far the highest, 7,789 at 14
places of worship (fn. 23) amounting to 73 per cent of
the nonconformist total of 10,642. Baptists had
21 per cent of the accommodation at their 6
places. (fn. 24) Methodists had increased to 17 per cent
of the accommodation and 19 per cent (2,033)
of the attendance at their 4 chapels. (fn. 25) There was
one chapel for Unitarians and one for Lady
Huntingdon's Connexion, (fn. 26) besides two 'mixed
and undefined' chapels, presumably the Calvinistic (later Baptist) Hephzibah and Zehovah in
Thorold Square, described as 'various Christian
denominations'. (fn. 27) In 1858 the Anglican clergy of
12 Bethnal Green parishes listed as dissenting
places of worship 7 for Independents, 4 for
Baptists, 3 for Wesleyans, 2 for Primitive and
one for Reforming Methodists, 2 rooms for
Plymouth Brethren, one for 'Ranters' and 6
undescribed. Mormons from just outside St.
John's parish were said to be active and there
was some open-air preaching by dissenters but
'infidelity' was much more prevalent than
dissent. (fn. 28)
In 1886 (fn. 29) a census confined to the larger chapels
found a total accommodation of 11,000 and a
combined morning and evening attendance
of 9,885. Congregationalists provided less than
40 per cent (3,918) of the attendance at 4
chapels. (fn. 30) Baptists, with 42 per cent (4,157)
attendances at 5 chapels, (fn. 31) had overtaken them
mainly because of the dominance of Shoreditch
tabernacle. Methodists had 18 per cent (1,806)
of the attendance at 3 chapels. (fn. 32)
A much more comprehensive census in 1903 (fn. 33)
gave a nonconformist attendance of 11,975,
c. 9 per cent of the population. Baptists and
Congregationalists each had c. 30 per cent of the
attendance: 3,683 at 6 Baptist chapels and 4
missions, and 3,608 at 4 Congregationalist
chapels and 4 missions. Methodists had 20 per
cent (2,402) at 4 chapels and 2 missions. The
Unitarians still had one chapel and others
included Quakers, with 5 per cent, Salvation
Army, and Brethren. Some 11 per cent attended
'other services', mostly undenominational
The many small, short lived groups of the
early 19th century gave way to fewer moderately
sized chapels belonging mainly to the regular
denominations. (fn. 34) In 1838 the largest chapel
(Bethnal Green Congregational) held 800 and 15
of the 22 chapels held 100-400 each. In 1851 of
the 23 chapels for which accommodation figures
are available, 15 held 100-300 each but four
had room for more than 600, of which one
(Adelphi) held 950 and one (Bethnal Green
Congregational) 1,200. Most chapels were run
by local trustees, composed of weavers and other
small craftsmen. Some had wealthier supporters
like Robert Gammon, a coal merchant of Wilmot
Square who was a trustee of Bethnal Green
Congregational chapel and Abbey mission. Most
wealthy patrons lived just outside the parish,
like the silk merchants and manufacturers of
Spitalfields and Hackney. The most notable was
the silk manufacturer Jonathan Duthoit, who
was behind most of the religious and educational
activity in the Nichol district. Several large
chapels were built in the 1860s and 1870s,
especially in the more middle-class Victoria
Park. The trustees of the 2,000-seat Victoria Park
Congregational chapel (opened 1869) included
two trimming manufacturers and John David
Link, merchant, of Victoria Park Road; James
Link, presumably a relative, gave it £5,000. By
c. 1890 such people were migrating to Essex
and the decline of weaving and growth of apathy
led to the closure of the smaller chapels. As early
as 1857 it was said that when a district became
poor the dissenters could no longer maintain
themselves. (fn. 35)
The emphasis shifted to missions, mostly
funded from outside and often by supporters
who had recently moved out. (fn. 36) The depravity
and poverty of Bethnal Green had excited
comment since the early 19th century and there
had been missionary activity from the days of
the Sunday School Tract movement and the
Unitarian Domestic Mission, whose pioneering
social work has been claimed as the precursor of
the later settlement movement. The missionary
movement received stimulus with the publication
of the Bitter Cry of Outcast London in 1883. There
was some concern about ritualism in Anglican
churches (fn. 37) but most missionaries were not interested in dogma; missions were rarely confined to
one denomination and there was co-operation
between the churches on such questions as temperance, gambling, Sabbath breaking, and
'purity propaganda'. (fn. 38) More attention was given
to secularism and political radicalism. In the 1850s
the late London City Mission began open-air
meetings as a challenge to the radicals in 'a noted
wicked place', Club Row and Hare Street. (fn. 39) Bonner's Fields, once filled with 'infidel crowds', was
by 1862 the venue of 'preachers of the gospel'. (fn. 40)
Appeals for funds stressed that Christian principles should be inculcated to support order and the
rights of property. (fn. 41)
Other missionaries sought the transformation
of the slums and became increasingly involved
in social work, (fn. 42) especially as public education
largely superseded the ragged schools, so closely
associated with missions, after 1870. Besides the
missionary preacher there was a band of often
female voluntary workers who visited the
poor and who ran homes, Sunday schools,
and hospitals. Among the earliest were women
appointed in 1828 by the Sunday School Tract
Society to collect money and distribute tracts but
'not to be considered members of the committee'. (fn. 43)
Later deaconesses and sisterhoods were employed,
by the Mildmay Mission, Bonner Methodist
Home, and Shoreditch Baptist tabernacle.
In spite of the effort, most observers saw the
smaller missions as failures, if measured by
attendances at services. (fn. 44) Several established
chapels reorganized themselves as missions, often
directed, like the Union Congregational chapel
from Islington or the Unitarian mission from
Hampstead, from outside. (fn. 45) The most successful
chapels were usually the largest, with a powerful preacher, a team of helpers, and many
associated activities. Examples were the
Baptists' Shoreditch tabernacle under William
Cuff and Middlesex chapel, reorganized in 1888
as the Hackney Road branch of the
Wesleyan Missionary society. (fn. 46)
The most flourishing chapels nonetheless
declined during the 20th century. Of the 24
chapels and missions belonging to the main three
denominations in 1903, some 9 had closed by
1914, another 7 by 1939, and 5 by 1960. Those
which were rebuilt after bomb damage were on
a much smaller scale. No compensating growth
came from new denominations: although there
were several short lived Salvation Army and
some Jehovah's Witness halls, the groups were
small. Most of the missions died out. The
decline, attributed partly to Jewish immigration
in the late 19th century, has probably been
hastened by more recent non-Christian arrivals.
The natives of Bethnal Green were always
reluctant to attend services and the social
attractions of the larger chapels finally failed to
compete with commercial alternatives.
The following abbreviations are used:
accn., accommodation; aft., afternoon;
amalg., amalgamated; Bapt., Baptist; Cong.,
Congregationalist; evg., evening; Ind., Independent;
mtg. ho., meeting house; Meth., Methodist; min.,
minister; Prim., Primitive; Prot., Protestant;
reg., registered; undenom., undenominational;
Utd. Ref., United Reformed; Wes., Wesleyan.
Attendance figs. 1838 from Lond. City Mission
Mag. iii. 53-4; figs. 1886 from Brit. Weekly, 19
Nov. 1886; figs. 1903 from Mudie-Smith, Rel.
Congregationalism in Bethnal Green traditionally dated from
1662 but more correctly 1669 when Ind. mtg.
ho. 'lately fitted'. (fn. 47) Continuous line of mins.
from Dan. Evans 1690 and registers from 1704. (fn. 48)
Mins. inc. Hebrew scholar Dr. John Walker, c.
1755-70, (fn. 49) succeeded by asst. John Kello,
1771-1827. Chapel benefited from charity
under wills of John Welch 1748 and John
Dorsett 1762. (fn. 50) Mtg. ho., mentioned 1689 (fn. 51) and
1694, (fn. 52) probably dissenters' mtg. ho. on W. side
of green 1766 (fn. 53) and Kello's chapel on W. side
of Cambridge Rd. next Green Man, with accn.
for 300 in 1810 (fn. 54) and by 1818 'decayed'. New
chapel built and reg. 1819 at corner of Bath
(later Birkbeck) St.; (fn. 55) accn. for 800 in 1838.
Under Josiah Viney, 1843-57, members, called
Calvinistic Inds., built larger chapel and schoolrooms between Bethnal Green Rd. and Pott
St. 1849. (fn. 56) Bldg., called Bethnal Green chapel,
of Kentish rag and Bath stone in Gothic style
with spire by John Tarring, (fn. 57) seating 1,200 inc.
400 free in 1851. Attendance 1851: 557 a.m., 745
p.m.; (fn. 58) 1886: 323 a.m., 567 p.m.; 1903: 88 a.m.,
205 p.m. Membership 150 in 1910, 70 in 1939. (fn. 59)
Close 19th-cent. connexion with Lond. City
Mission. (fn. 60) Chapel after bombing reopened with
200 sittings 1954. (fn. 61) Utd. Ref. Ch. from 1965. (fn. 62)
Part of premises rented 1985 to Robt. Kemble
Christian Institute, founded 1982 under will of
Utd. Ref. Ch. min to promote radical Christian
activities. (fn. 63)
Gibraltar chapel, Gibraltar Pl. off Bethnal
Green Rd., dated by Congs. to 1792 (fn. 64) but
possibly originated 1760. (fn. 65) Inds. reg. no. 1
Gibraltar Fields 1793 and chapel in Gibraltar
Field 1798. (fn. 66) Simple rectangular bldg. in
1796. (fn. 67) Incorrectly listed as Meth., accommodated 200 in 1810 (fn. 68) and 600 in 1838; 264 free
sittings 1851, when attendance 80 a.m., 130
p.m. (fn. 69) Rebuilt 1871 to seat 578 (fn. 70) but closed to
Congs. c. 1877 although min. Jas. Brown lived
there until death 1881. (fn. 71)
In late 18th cent. Inds. used various premises.
No. 4 Green St. reg. 1792. (fn. 72) Min. Wm. Brittain
reg. ho. in Castle Ct., Castle St., 1793 (fn. 73) and no.
2 'near the New Rd.' 1794; (fn. 74) Jas. Turner reg.
hos. in Anchor St. (fn. 75) and Green St. 1795. (fn. 76) Ho.
belonging to magistrate John Wilmot on N. side
of Wilmot Sq. reg. 1795. (fn. 77)
Virginia chapel, Virginia Row. Built 1819 on
site of no. 10 or no. 14. (fn. 78) First was home of
min. Thos. Wheeler, reg. 1798 (fn. 79) and, when
belonging to Ric. Saunders, City draper and
min. of Mile End New Town, reg. by Prots.
1814; (fn. 80) second was shop also used as Sun. sch.,
reg. by Saunders 1815. (fn. 81) Accn. for 150 in 1838.
Hen. Althans, Ind. min. by 1825, resigned to
Jos. Massingham, sec. of Lond. City Mission,
1849. (fn. 82) Bldg. had 180 sittings inc. 72 free 1851,
when attendance 80 a.m., 20 aft., 90 p.m. (fn. 83)
Taken over by Wes. 1856-7. (fn. 84)
Hos. reg. by Inds. in early 19th cent. inc. ho.
at Friar's Mount under min. Thos. Hemmans
1805 (fn. 85) and no. 95 Church St. and no. 120 Brick
Lane 1806, (fn. 86) possibly identifiable with 'Meth.'
Brick Lane mtg. ho. with accn. for c. 150 1810. (fn. 87)
Jos. Phillips, who had founded Gibraltar chapel,
reg. no. 67 Mount St., in possession of Lazarus
Soc., 1808. (fn. 88) Other mtg. hos. were reg. at no. 99
Hare St. 1809 (fn. 89) and no. 5 Bethnal Green Rd.
1811. (fn. 90)
Ebenezer or Park chapel, built on site of
Aldgate Ho. at NE corner of green 1811, (fn. 91)
originated in Ind. Calvinists or Inds. under min.
Robt. Langford who reg. no. 5 Norwell Pl.,
Bethnal Green Rd., 1808 (fn. 92) and John Shegog's
ho. 1811. (fn. 93) Accn. for 650 in 1838 and had 560
sittings inc. 66 free 1851, when attendance 203
a.m., 299 p.m. with bible class of 20. (fn. 94) Reg. again
when premises assigned to new trustees 1854 (fn. 95)
but closed 1876. (fn. 96)
Tent Street off North St., chapel said to have
been built for Inds. 1811. Accn. for 200 in 1838
and for 150 free in 1851, when attendance 20
a.m., 40 p.m. (fn. 97) Closed by 1867 when probably
taken over by Prim. Meths. (fn. 98)
Abbey, later Essex Street, mission originated
in Calvinists (fn. 99) under min. Geo. Evans, who reg.
outho. of John Mandeno at no. 11 Hollybush
Pl. as mtg. ho. and Sun. sch. 1812 (fn. 1) although
congregation possibly existed by 1800. (fn. 2) Robt.
Gammon built Sun. sch. and mission in his gdn.
at no. 7 Wilmot Sq., reg. as Abbey Sun. sch.,
named after nearby Abbey Pl., 1828. (fn. 3) Listed as
Ind. mtg. ho. accommodating 150 in 1838.
Enlarged for 300 c. 1840. (fn. 4) Gammon, deacon
at Wycliffe Ind. chapel in Mile End, built 2
rooms in gdn. of adjoining ho. after lease expired
1856 and was replaced by Geo. Kelsey 1865.
Svces. by Lond. City Missionary from 1848
until departure because of lack of funds c. 1867.
Renamed Essex (later Blythe) St. schs. and
mission 1867 and another missionary briefly
engaged but connexion with Mission severed
when Sun. sch. cttee. tried to establish own chapel.
Former missionary from Hackney held svces.
until 1871, when svces. Bapt. (below). Cttee.
asked Stamford Hill Cong. chap. to supervise
schs. and mission 1873. Appointed former
Lond. City Missioner, Jas. T. Bennett, min. of
Old Zion chap., with which mission merged. (fn. 5)
Sun. sch. work continued until amalg. with
Abbey St. 1888. (fn. 6)
Inds. reg. no. 8 Vincent St. 1813, (fn. 7) no. 1 Albion
St., Duke St., (fn. 8) no. 32 Bacon St. 1818, (fn. 9) and no.
39 Old Nichol St. 1820. (fn. 10)
Immanuel chapel, so called 1831, (fn. 11) on N. side
of Hare St., (fn. 12) newly erected and reg. for Prots.
1820. (fn. 13) Accn. for 350 by 1838, when Cong., but
apparently closed 1849. (fn. 14)
Zion chapel, on S. side of Old Bethnal Green
Rd., built 1836 (fn. 15) and reg. 1837 (fn. 16) by Thos. Geo.
Williams, Ind. min. of High St. Hoxton and
later of Northampton Pl., Hackney Rd., who had
reg. no. 6 Teale St. 1829. (fn. 17) Bldg. had 120 sittings
inc. 80 free in 1838; also in 1851, when attendance 40 a.m., 100 p.m. and nos. had fallen after
opening of 10 Anglican chs. (fn. 18) Closed 1865/9,
when used by congregation later at Mansford St.
(below). (fn. 19)
Inds. reg. no. 2 Clare St. near Cambridge
Rd., (fn. 20) no. 2 Sebright Rd. (recte St.) off Hackney
Rd., (fn. 21) no. 14 Green St., (fn. 22) and no. 14 East St.,
Twig Folly, (fn. 23) 1830, no. 5 Golden Pl., Bethnal
Green Rd., (fn. 24) no. 5 North Side of the green, (fn. 25)
and no. 6 South Pavement 1834, (fn. 26) and ho. in
Pritchard's Rd. off Hackney Rd. 1835. (fn. 27)
Shalom chapel, in New Grove near the Oval,
N. of Hackney Rd., built by Calvinistic Inds. or
Congs. 1836. (fn. 28) Accn. for 350 in 1838 and for 300
inc. 50 free 1851, when average attendance 150
a.m., 200 p.m. (fn. 29) Cong. 1855 (fn. 30) and depicted as
such c. 1873 (fn. 31) but Bapt. by 1865 and possibly by
1856. (fn. 32)
Zion chapel and ragged sch., Thomas St.
(Passage), North St. built 1842 by T.G. Williams,
founder of earlier Zion chapel (above). Bldg. had
100 free sittings in 1851, when attendance 16
a.m., 6 p.m., but was mainly Sun. sch. with 100
scholars a.m., 138 aft., 30 p.m. (fn. 33) Although sch.
probably closed in 1860s, mission hall survived
in 1894. (fn. 34)
Nichol Street mission originated in mission
started by Jonathan Duthoit, a deacon in Union
chap., Highbury, 1836. Duthoit opened and
initially supported small chapel formed from 2
hos. in Short St. c 1843. (fn. 35) 'Tolerably large room'
for Sun. sch. and svces. by lay preachers under
Lond. City Mission. Accn. for 100-120 free, on
sch. benches 1851, when attendance 15 a.m., 50
p.m. Mission, although unsectarian, regarded as
station of Cong. Union chapel (fn. 36) and itself often
called Union chapel. (fn. 37) Bldg. condemned 1860
and sch. and mission room built at NE. corner
of Old Nichol St. and Nichol Row 1861. (fn. 38) Run
by Union chapel alone after missionary killed
by drunk; connexion with Lond. City Mission
re-established 1871 (fn. 39) but bldgs. completed 1879
reg. for Congs. 1880. Accn. for 1,400 children
and 550 adults 1913. (fn. 40) Vigorous ch. life inc.
mothers' mtgs., young men's club, and free
breakfasts for children in winter. (fn. 41) Attendance
1903: 20 a.m., 95 p.m. Attendance, mostly children, at Old Nichol St. schs., classified as Cong.
mission, 55 a.m., 555 p.m. Twenty members at
mission in 1939, (fn. 42) when closed as dangerous
structure. (fn. 43)
Sydney Street chapel dated origins to group
under Revd. Josiah Viney at schoolroom in
Bonner St. 1844. Moved to Morpeth St. 1845
and Sydney St., Globe Town, 1850, (fn. 44) where
chapel existed in 1831. (fn. 45) As Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, occupied 'very poor bldg.'
with 200 free sittings in 1851, when attendance
63 a.m., 128 p.m. Worshipers entirely 'working
people' and inc. most of women at industrial
home in Homerton, to which min. Ben.
Woodyard was attached. (fn. 46) Chapel reg. for Inds.
1861 (fn. 47) and again when rebuilt for 370 in 1865. (fn. 48)
By will proved 1880, Sam. Yates left £500 to be
invested for min. (fn. 49) Attendance 1886: 162 a.m.,
187 p.m. Closed 1901. (fn. 50)
Adelphi chapel between nos. 352 and 354
Hackney Rd., built 1845 by W. Woodhouse,
min. of closed Adelphi Cong. chapel in Strand
(Westm.), after reading of work of Abbey St.
Sun. sch. (fn. 51) Accn. for 950 inc. 370 free in 1851,
when attendance 850 a.m., 950 p.m. (fn. 52) Bldg.
remodelled 1871 (fn. 53) with 'atrocious columns' in
W. windows and thick Corinthian front columns, 'exhibiting the nonconformist tradition
shattered by Victorian showiness'. (fn. 54) Attendance
1886: 271 a.m., 570 p.m.; 1903: 228 a.m., 446
p.m. Declined under homesick min. from Yorks.
and closed 1909, when chapel became cinema. (fn. 55)
Gascoigne Place, off Crab Tree Row, schoolroom used as Ind. preaching station by British
Mission by 1851. Free seating for 180 with
standing for 250 in 1851, when attendance 45
p.m.; Sun. sch. a.m. and p.m. (fn. 56) Reg. for Inds.
1854 and described as mission ch. in 1870 but
closed 1872. (fn. 57)
Albion grammar sch. in Oxford St., W. side
of Cambridge Rd., reg. for Ind. worship 1853. (fn. 58)
Morpeth Street, Cong. chapel built 1857. (fn. 59)
Victoria Park Cong. ch. was reg. 1865 at iron
ch. opened 1864 by group called Free Meths.
formed 1862 at Peel Grove hall. (fn. 60) New bldg. at
SW. junction of Approach and Bonner rds., of
red brick with stone dressings in Lombardic
style, seating 2,000, by W. F. Poulton 1869:
campanile, iron gallery. (fn. 61) Highest Cong. attendance in Bethnal Green 1886, when 885 a.m.,
953 p.m., and in 1903, when 412 a.m., 625 p.m.
Vigorous ch. life inc. Sun. schs. at Victoria hall
and Twig Folly, free concerts, and work among
poor, missions, and ragged schs. (fn. 62) Labour leader
Ben. Tillett (d. 1943), was librarian in 1880s. (fn. 63)
Membership 397 in 1910, 309 in 1919, 190 in
1926, and 70 in 1939. (fn. 64) Bldg. damaged 1940 and
closed 1953. Site acquired by neighbouring Parmiter's sch. (fn. 65)
Mansford Street chapel originated in group
around Lond. City Missioner Jas. T. Bennett in
Satchwell St. British sch. 1868. Met in vacated
Old Zion chapel, listed as Durham (later Teesdale) St., 1869-80. (fn. 66) Leased site between
Mansford and Blythe streets 1880, where chapel
built and reg. 1881. (fn. 67) Divisions led to sale 1884
to Lond. Cong. Union, which supplied min. (R.
Mackey), who left after 8 months with other
seceders. Having no regular pastor, chapel dissolved 1886 although Sun. sch. continued until
sale to Unitarians 1888. (fn. 68)
Victoria Hall, Approach Rd., built by Victoria Park Cong. ch. on site to S. acquired 1870,
reg. 1877. (fn. 69) Bldg. in 'mixed Lombardic style',
seating 900-1,000, by Woodman of Notting Hill;
inc. 2 schoolrooms and libr. (fn. 70) Cong. mission in
1903, when attendance 100 a.m., 484 p.m. Damaged 1940 and closed 1953, site being sold to
Parmiter's sch. (fn. 71)
Satchwell Street British sch. used for Ind.
worship 1871. (fn. 72)
Victoria (Park) hall, so called 1895, had
formerly been United Meth. Free chapel in
Bonner Lane (St.). (fn. 73) Cong. mission in 1903,
when attendance 23 a.m., 70 p.m.
Pott Street premises of former Bethnal
Green Chap. British sch. used as Cong. mission
1903, when attendance, mostly Sun. sch., 52
a.m., 150 p.m. Still in use 1914. (fn. 74)
Twig Folly mission, at N. junction of Bonner
and Hartley streets, (fn. 75) housed mission and Sun.
sch. associated with Victoria Park Cong. ch. c.
1910 to c. 1926. (fn. 76)
Under min. Geo. Gray, Bapts. reg.
no. 5 St. John St. near Brick Lane 1809 (fn. 77) and
others reg. no. 27 Club Row, at SW. corner of
par., 1814; (fn. 78) Particular Bapts. reg. tenement at
entrance of Pitt St., on S. side of Bethnal Green
Rd. 1824. (fn. 79)
Squirries Street chapel built by dissenting
group under W. Woodland and reg. for Prots.
1819, (fn. 80) after Wes. Circuit had dissolved Christian
Community and claimed exclusive control over
Globe Rd. chapel. Perhaps rebuilt 1823, (fn. 81) Bapt.
by 1827. (fn. 82) Accn. for 250 in 1838 and 224 inc. 40
free in 1851, when attendance 40 aft., 200 evg. (fn. 83)
Membership 70 in 1868, (fn. 84) when sch. started. (fn. 85)
Reorganized as mission 1871 but apparently
closed by 1883. (fn. 86)
Providence chapel, later Shoreditch Tabernacle, originated in group associated with
ragged sch. in Shoreditch which worshipped
nearby 1832 and chose 'Calvinistic' Jas. Smith
(d. 1838), as min. 1833. (fn. 87) Moved to Providence
hall, Worship St., 1833 and acquired site in
Austin St. 1835 for new Providence chapel for
Particular or Calvinistic Bapts. (fn. 88) New schoolroom for Sun. sch. 1844. Bldg. in simple classical
style with pedimented front (fn. 89) seated 600 inc. 300
free 1838 and 1851, when attendance 148 a.m.,
152 p.m. (fn. 90) Membership 130 in 1837, 200 in
1844, 320 in 1865, and 461 in 1875. (fn. 91) Seceders
formed Union chapel in Cumberland St.,
Shoreditch, 1839, where joined by others 1855.
Wm. Cuff, pastor from 1872 and unlike most
of congregation not a Strict Bapt., established
open-air mission, other mission halls, and
schs. Adjoining property purchased 1860 and
1877, (fn. 92) where Shoreditch Tabernacle, in
classical style and seating 2,000, built 1879;
adjoining equally large Sun. sch. built 1890.
Enormous cost, (fn. 93) despite fund raising by Chas.
Spurgeon, who had preached at Providence
chapel years before, incurred prolonged debt. (fn. 94)
Cuff became president of Bapt. Union in 1910
and remained min. until 1917. Chapel had
Bethnal Green's largest nonconf. attendance:
1886: 1,033 a.m., 1,468 p.m.; 1903: 546 a.m.,
1,220 p.m. By c. 1900 early supporters had moved
away and congregation exclusively workingclass. Social work increasingly important, aided
by many lay workers (300 c. 1898) (fn. 95) and by
deaconesses from 1918. Membership 941 in 1900,
336 by 1935. (fn. 96) Bldg. neglected by 1928, when
sale narrowly averted, damaged by bombing
1944, and demolished 1960. New brick chapel
in modern style, seating 250, opened 1963. (fn. 97) Run
mainly by deaconess and visiting preachers,
membership dropping to 61 in 1987-8, (fn. 98) but
later fall in evg. attendance offset by higher
attendance a.m., especially of Nigerians and
Hephzibah chapel, later Marnham hall, no. 1
Darling Pl., at junction with Cambridge Rd. on
S. boundary, reg. for Inds. 1836. (fn. 99) Accn. for
300 in 1838. Calvinistic or evangelical Bapt. in
1851, when bldg. seated 240 inc. 60 free and
attendance 200 a.m., 240 p.m. (fn. 1) Membership 58
in 1858, when well attended, but apparently
closed c. 1872. (fn. 2) Reopened as Bapt. mission,
called Marnham hall, by E. Lond. tabernacle
(Stepney) 1876. (fn. 3) Attendance 1903: 58 p.m. Used
by Lond. City Mission 1904-18 and closed by
1938. (fn. 4)
Claremont Street, S. of Hackney Rd., chapel
reg. for Inds. 1836. (fn. 5) Accn. for 280 in 1838.
Bapt. by 1848 (fn. 6) and seated 250 inc. 150 free in
1851, when attendance 30 a.m., 45 p.m. (fn. 7) Poor
attendance c. 1858. (fn. 8) Membership 30 in 1872.
Closed by 1875. (fn. 9)
Wolverley Street Bapt. chapel accommodated
150 in 1838.
Bethel Bapt. chapel, Austin St., accommodated 100 in 1838, although not reg. until
1840. Passed to Latter-Day Saints 1843. (fn. 10) May
have existed earlier as Bethel chapel, Meth. and
accommodating 150 in 1810 (fn. 11) and belonging to
Seventh-Day Bapts. 1851-4 when 1675 given as
foundation, (fn. 12) probably claiming descent from
Fras. Brampfield. (fn. 13) Was mainstream Bapt.
chapel called Austin St., Virginia Row, 1862-76.
Membership 60 in 1872. (fn. 14) Later became mission
of Shoreditch tabernacle and attended in 1903
by 29 p.m.
Ann's Place, off Pritchard's Rd., infants'
schoolroom reg. for Bapts. 1839. (fn. 15) New infants'
and Sun. sch., presumably on same site, reg.
1840. (fn. 16) Attendance 1851: 70 p.m., all free sittings. (fn. 17) By 1871 dist. missionary held Sun. and
Tues. evg. svces. at sch. (fn. 18) Bldg. enlarged to 200
seats 1881-2. (fn. 19) As Ames (sic) Pl. Bapt. mission,
attendance, mostly children, 1903: 339 a.m., 159
p.m. Closed c. 1909. (fn. 20)
Pollard Row, N. of Bethnal Green Rd., room
reg. for bapts. by Jesse Hobson of Stepney Coll.,
who also reg. Ann's Pl. (above), 1839. (fn. 21)
Williams Place, room reg. for Bapts. by
another member of Stepney Coll. 1840. (fn. 22)
Trinity chapel and schs., Peel Grove, reg.
but not yet so named by Bapts. 1848. (fn. 23) Many
seceded when Tim. Appleford appointed min.
1850 and Trinity chapel said to belong to
Particular Bapts. or Calvinists 1851. Bldg. seated
313 inc. 122 free in 1851, when attendance 40
a.m., 150 p.m. (fn. 24) Evangelical Bapt. 1851-8 (fn. 25) but
used later by other groups. (fn. 26)
Zoar meeting, no. 1 Peel Terr., Old Ford Rd.,
reg. by particular Bapts., perhaps descended
from original group, 1866-95. (fn. 27)
Morpeth Street, Bapt. chapel 1849-56. Min.
from 1851 was Tim. Appleford, previously at
Peel Grove. (fn. 28)
Hope chapel, between Norton and Type
streets, reg. 1859 by Strict Calvinistic Bapts. on
site leased 1854 by Bapts. who had begun
preaching at Twig Folly 1851. (fn. 29) Membership
33 in 1855, 82 in 1868, and 120 in 1872 when
bldg., originally seating 150, enlarged for 250.
Attendance 1886: 122 a.m., 105 p.m.; 1903: 88
a.m., 90 p.m. Membership fell to 98 in 1910 and
43 in 1925. (fn. 30) Closed 1935/8. (fn. 31)
Hart's Lane, Bapt. chapel opened by one of
dissident groups from Providence chapel 1854,
probably in former Wes. chapel. Closed by 1863. (fn. 32)
The Oval, vacated Cong. Shalom chapel taken
over by Bapts. from Squirries St. 1856 (fn. 33) and reg.
1872, (fn. 34) when membership 100. (fn. 35) Attendance
1886: 77 a.m., 86 p.m.; 1903: 23 a.m., 54 p.m.
Closed 1908. (fn. 36) Later housed industrial mission
(below) and Lithuanian Rom. Cath. ch. (above).
Union church, at corner of Grove and Esmond
(later Roman) rds., taken over by congregation
under Allan Curr, who preached at Peel Grove
hall 1865. Gothic bldg. described by C.H.
Spurgeon, who preached there, as more fit for
mass ho. than a Bapt. chapel. Curr left within
year to become Presbyterian min., selling bldg.
to Lond. Bapt. Assoc. which appointed pastor
1867 and sold bldg. to Ch. of Eng. to become
St. Barnabas ch.
Grove Road or Victoria Park chapel, replacing Union ch. on site to N., reg. for
Particular Bapts. 1872. Bldg. of yellow brick
with stone dressings in Italianate style, seating
800 and with large schoolroom in basement, (fn. 37)
by Chas. Gray, Searle & Son 1869. Attendance
1886: 403 a.m., 433 p.m.; 1903: 284 a.m., 432
p.m. Membership 416 in 1890, 330 in 1910, 179
in 1925, 66 in 1955, and 43 in 1987, (fn. 38) but one of
few chapels surviving 1988.
Zion chapel, Matilda Rd. off Old Bethnal
Green Rd., 1866-80. (fn. 39)
Essex Street mission sch., off Bethnal Green
Rd., used as Bapt. chapel on Sun. 1871. (fn. 40)
Preston Street, Victoria Park, off Green St.,
chapel seating 70 from 1872 to c. 1900/3. (fn. 41)
Bethnal Green Road chapel reg. 1882 (fn. 42) in
new bldg. at W. end where 17th-cent.
Glasshouse Memorial Bapt. ch. had moved
1881. (fn. 43) Belonged to General Bapt. Assoc. and
General Bapt. Assembly and seated 850.
Membership 288 in 1885. (fn. 44) Attendance 1886:
188 a.m., 242 p.m.; 1903: 16 a.m., 23 p.m. falling
nos. attributed to Jewish immigration. Sec. of
Lond. Bapt. Assoc. assumed pastorate, cancelled
reg. 1905, and leased chapel as synagogue. Freehold sold to Jews 1927. (fn. 45)
Gibraltar Place, former Cong. Gibraltar
chapel reopened as Bapt. mission seating 500
and connected with Shoreditch Tabernacle
1883. (fn. 46) Attendance 1903: 127 p.m. Apparently
called Nichol St. from c. 1915 and closed 1920. (fn. 47)
Shacklewell Street sch., associated with
Gibraltar chapel, used as Bapt. mission by
Shoreditch Tabernacle before reg. as Shoreditch
Tabernacle mission chapel 1906. Attendance
1903: 32 a.m., 163 p.m. Closed by 1925. (fn. 48)
Green Street, no. 222 reg. as mission hall
1901-76. (fn. 49)
Church Row, old town hall reg. 1911-25. (fn. 50)
Tent Street, mission hall reg. for strict and
Particular Bapts. 1934-54. (fn. 51)
Middlesex chapel in Middlesex Terr. on SE. side of Hackney Rd. reg. for
Inds. 1797 by min. John Jefferies, (fn. 52) who leased
site 1798. Described as Wes. Meth. from 1811. (fn. 53)
Accn. for 400 in 1838 but 'small and dilapidated'
1841 when new chapel founded on same site.
Bldg., with galleries added 1847, (fn. 54) reg. 1854; (fn. 55)
seated 820 inc. 200 free in 1851, when attendance
310 a.m., 504 p.m. (fn. 56) Attendance 1886: 232 a.m.,
383 p.m.; 1903: 239 a.m., 471 p.m. Run as
Shoreditch Meth. mission from 1888 and
'overflowing with energy' 1898. Large nos. at
svces. enlivened by brass band. Also held cottage
mtgs. and provided medical and legal advice. (fn. 57)
Closed 1955. (fn. 58)
Hart's Lane, chapel on W. side off Bethnal
Green Rd. built c. 1817 by Wes., who had reg.
bldg. in Wilmot Sq. 1815. (fn. 59) Accn. for 160 in
1838 and seated 120 inc. 40 free in 1851, when
attendance 29 a.m., (fn. 60) 55 p.m. Apparently passed
to Bapts. by 1854.
Weaver Street, Sun. sch. 'lately erected' on
boundary with Spitalfields reg. by unspecified
group 1818. (fn. 61) Associated with Wes. Tract Soc., (fn. 62)
it may have developed into Lion chapel in same
street, reg. for Wes. 1824 (fn. 63) and apparently closed
No. 4 Perseverance Terrace, Church St.,
reg. by 'Arminian Methodists late in connexion
with Wesley' 1819. (fn. 64) Their min. Tim. Gibson
reg. ho. in Spitalfields for 'Calvinistic Inds.'
1821. (fn. 65)
Globe Road, Mile End, Wes. chapel next to
later rly. line opened 1819 and taken over by
Dr. T.B. Stephenson of Children's Home as
mission hall named after Gen. Gordon 1885. (fn. 66)
Transferred to Bethnal Green by boundary
changes 1900. Attendance 1903: 66 a.m., 118 p.m.
Remained Meth. mission until sold to Salvation
Army 1959. (fn. 67)
Cooper's Gardens, off Hackney Rd., chapel reg.
for Prots. 1820 by group (fn. 68) which built Hare St.
chapel (above, Congs.). Acquired and probably
rebuilt by Prim. Meths. 1835 (fn. 69) but not listed
1838. (fn. 70) Seated 250 inc. 106 free in 1851, when
attendance 180 a.m., 190 aft., 300 p.m.; 'crowded
to excess' Sun. evgs., with simultaneous svce. in
schoolroom. (fn. 71) New bldg. 1852, (fn. 72) reg. 1853. (fn. 73)
'Fairly attended' c. 1858. (fn. 74) . Plot acquired at
corner of Hackney Rd. and the Oval 1877, (fn. 75)
where new Cooper's Gdns. Memorial ch. reg.
1879. (fn. 76) Attendance 1886: 85 a.m., 95 p.m.; 1903:
57 a.m., 61 p.m. Closed 1919. (fn. 77)
Collingwood Street Sun. sch., behind
Shoreditch ch. and supposedly built 1821, may
have originated in room in Castle Ct., reg. for
Meths. under min. Thos. Crossley 1821. (fn. 78) Reg.
by Prots. 1832 (fn. 79) and by Wes. 1838 but not listed
1838. (fn. 80) Wes. preaching 'now discontinued' in
1851 (fn. 81) but bldg., retained mainly as Sun. sch.,
used for Wes. svces. on weekday evgs. in 1871. (fn. 82)
Hare Street Sun. sch. (c. 1821), associated
with Wes. Tract Soc., (fn. 83) accommodated 200 for
Wes. worship 1838.
Hos. reg. by Wes. in early 19th cent. inc. ho.
and wareho. at no. 6 Spicer St. 1824, (fn. 84) no. 11
Kittisford Pl., Hackney Rd., 1832, (fn. 85) and no. 36
Anchor St. 1845. (fn. 86) Ind. Meths. reg. chapel in
King St. off Hackney Rd. 1835. (fn. 87) New Connexion
had room in New York St. accommodating 50
in 1838. Prim. Meths. reg. room in Three Colts
Lane off Cambridge Rd. 1855-95. (fn. 88)
Virginia Row chapel, formerly Ind., was
listed as Wes. 1857-75. (fn. 89)
Peel Grove chapel built for Free Meths.
1862 (fn. 90) but members left to form Victoria Park
Cong. chapel 1865. (fn. 91)
Bonner Lane (later St.), ground N. of Twig Folly
British boys' sch. leased 1863 for United Meth. Free
chapel, (fn. 92) which existed 1872 (fn. 93) and was probably
'Prim. Meth.' chapel attended by young Geo.
Lansbury, where pastor vividly described torments of hell. (fn. 94) Had become Victoria hall by
1895 (fn. 95) and may have housed so-called Cripples'
ch. in Bonner St., described as Wes. mission
1903, when attendance 46 p.m.
Victoria Park church was established by
Bethnal Green Meth. Circuit, formed 1864 from
Spitalfields, which rented Peel Grove hall for
svces. 1865. Site at NE. junction of Approach
and Bonner rds. acquired 1867, (fn. 96) where ch. opened
and reg. for Wes. 1868. (fn. 97) Bldg. in classical style
with pediment and massive Corinthian pillars,
seating 1,000 and largest Meth. ch. in Bethnal
Green. (fn. 98) Attendance 1886:479a.m., 532 p.m. Closely
associated with adjacent Children's Home,
whose founder Thos. Bowman Stephenson
was its min. and from 1893 superintendent of
Victoria Park circuit, which replaced Bethnal
Green circuit. Ch. not listed 1903 and declined
after Children's Home moved 1913. (fn. 99) Bldg.
closed 1928, but reopened as Bethnal Green
Central hall, serving East End Mission, 1929,
with brutal concrete façade labelled 'the Church
of the Happy Welcome' cloaking pediment. (fn. 1)
Damaged 1941 and demolished, worshippers
using former Twig Folly mission premises
(below). (fn. 2) Plain brick chapel seating 150, with 4
classrooms for 442, opened on site 1959. (fn. 3)
Tent Street, off North (later Brady) St.,
mtgs. of Prim. Meths. c. 1867-77 (fn. 4) probably at
former Ind. chapel later used as mission hall.
Twig Folly British sch., junction of Bonner
and Hartley streets, used by Lond. City Mission
from c. 1860 (fn. 5) and for unsectarian Sun. evg. svces.
1871. (fn. 6) Wes. mission 1903, when attendance 86
a.m., 298 p.m. Still Wes. (fn. 7) but apparently also
used by Congs. 1914. (fn. 8) Served worshippers from
bombed Victoria Park Meth. ch. 1942-59. (fn. 9)
Driffield Road, Prim. Meth. chapel on W. side
reg. as in St. Mary Stratford (at Bow) 1878.
Transferred to Bethnal Green by boundary
changes 1900. (fn. 10) Extended 1935 (fn. 11) and closed c.
1951. (fn. 12)
No. 66 Ravenscroft Street, off Hackney
Rd., reg. by Meth. Army 1883-95. (fn. 13)
Children's Home chapel, Bonner Rd., reg. for
Wes. 1886. (fn. 14) Attendance, mostly children, 1903:
515 a.m., 445 p.m. Closed 1913. (fn. 15)
Spicer Street, ho. on Spitalfields
border reg. 1832 by Unitarians (fn. 16) who built
Domestic Mission chapel and sch. in same
street, reg. 1837. (fn. 17) Accn. for 300 in 1838. All
sittings free and missionary acknowledged no
'peculiar dogmas'. Attendance 1851: 70-100
p.m. and 155 Sun. sch. a.m., 175 Sun. sch. aft. (fn. 18)
Described by incumbent of St. Matthias as 'rather
influential... liberally supported by wealthy
individual from West End' 1857. (fn. 19) Primarily a
Brit. sch. but Sun. evg. svces. still held 1871. (fn. 20)
Mission apparently closed with schs. 1884,
Unitarians moving to Mansford St. (fn. 21)
Mansford Street, former Cong. chapel
bought by Lond. Dist. Unitarian Soc., reg. as
mission 1889. (fn. 22) Attendance 1903: 39 a.m., 82
p.m. Membership 97 in 1906, when new bldgs.
added in neighbouring Blythe St. for associated
clubs; (fn. 23) extended 1911. (fn. 24) Average attendance
1947: 36. (fn. 25) Nos. fell when area redeveloped
in 1960s. (fn. 26) Mission reconstructed as Chalice
foundation 1985 and bldgs. restored by 1989 for
community centre and activities inc. Church
Action with Unemployment and Rathbone Soc.
Chapel converted to Garrett centre and manse
to small residential settlement. (fn. 27)
Cambridge hall, no. 365 Cambridge Rd., was
Unitarian 1890. (fn. 28)
No. 22 Globe Street (later part
of Globe rd.) reg. by Christian Brethren as Twig
Folly mtg. 1859-76. (fn. 29)
Globe Road, bldg. reg. by Plymouth Brethren,
who in 1858 had occupied 2 small rooms in St.
Simon Zelotes par., 1861-76. (fn. 30)
Sclater Street, iron room behind G.E.R.
station used by Brethren 1876-93. (fn. 31)
No. 117 Coventry Street, gospel hall used
by Brethren 1893-c. 1905. (fn. 32) Attendance, mostly
children, 1903: 81 p.m.
No. 55 Bethnal Green Road reg. by Brethren
1909-54. (fn. 33)
Christian Community. (fn. 34)
its Meth. connexion c. 1819, community held
open-air svces. in Bonner's Fields and, often
with other groups, met in Cheapside (Lond.)
and Shoreditch. Used mission room in Menotti
St. 1872 (fn. 35) and opened Christian Community
Memorial hall, commemorating centenary of
reorganization, 1875. (fn. 36) Acquired site at junction
of London (later Dunbridge) St. with Mapes St.,
bought by Ind. min. Wm. Tyler of Hanbury
St. (Spitalfields) ch., 1878. (fn. 37) Bldg. in Gothic
style, seating 700, used for religious mtgs., Sun.
sch., men's club, and lectures and closely associated
with Lond. City Mission. (fn. 38) Extended by free
libr., inc. books given by royalty, 1881. Attendance
1903: 3 a.m., 79 p.m. Libr. closed 1934 and
memorial hall 1949. Headquarters of Community
moved to Good Shepherd mission, Three Colts
Lane, and after 1973 to Romford (Essex). (fn. 39)
First headquarters in
old wool store in Three Colts Lane, (fn. 40) although
no. 198 Three Colts Lane reg. as barracks only
1893-5, (fn. 41) whereas first hall was under rly. arch
in Bethnal Green Rd. by 1890. (fn. 42) No. 245 Brick
Lane, barracks reg. 1890-5. (fn. 43) No. 45 Brady
Lane, barracks reg. 1894-1900. (fn. 44) No. 86 Sclater
St., barracks reg. c. 1898-1907; (fn. 45) attendance
1903: 6 a.m., 20 p.m. Tent St., barracks reg. c.
1898-1907; (fn. 46) attendance 1903: 14 a.m., 13 p.m.
No. 1 Parmiter St., mission hall reg. 1898-
1903. (fn. 47) No. 374 Hackney Rd., Cambridge Heath
outpost reg. c. 1898-1925; (fn. 48) attendance 1903: 11
a.m. 20 p.m. No. 343 Bethnal Green Rd., citadel
and institute reg. 1908-33; reg. again as hall
1933-54. (fn. 49) No. 58 Russia Lane, ground floor
room reg. as hall 1925-8; replaced by hall at no.
40 Tagg St. 1928-54. (fn. 50) Goodwill Centre in
Warley St. and hostel in Roman Rd., near
Bonner St., in use c. 1950. (fn. 51) Gordon hall, Globe
Rd., acquired from Meths. (above) 1959; rebuilt
and reg. as Sigsworth hall after local Army
Worker Alice Sigsworth 1960. (fn. 52)
Society of Friends (Quakers).
hall at junction of Barnet Grove and Ivimey St.
reg. 1892. (fn. 53) Attendance, mostly children, 1903:
236 a.m., 398 p.m. Closed 1956. (fn. 54)
Presbyterian Jewish mission
from Whitechapel Rd. moved to new built
mission ho. at nos. 207-11 Cambridge Rd.
1913. (fn. 55) Closed c. 1946. (fn. 56)
no. 195 Roman Rd., reg. for International Bible
Students Organisation 1942-54, presumably
belonged to Jehovah's Witnesses. (fn. 57)
Kingdom Hall, no. 184 Grove Rd., where
premises had been reg. 1972, built with accn. for
250 by Jehovah's Witnesses 1974. (fn. 58)
City Mission, undenom. Prot. mission founded
1835 and often closely associated with existing
chs. Each dist. had missioner, usually drawn
from lower classes, supervised by min. or
prominent layman. Work inc. preaching and
holding svces., Sun. and ragged schs., visiting,
clubs, medical assistance, and soup kitchens.
Four dists. in Bethnal Green by 1838: Cambridge
Rd., North St., Quaker St., and Wilmot Sq. (fn. 59)
One of first probably Wilmot Sq., associated
with Abbey Sun. sch. and Robt. Gammon,
supervisor 1847. (fn. 60) Cambridge Rd. originated in
Christian Instruction Soc., established with 20
visitors and Lond. City Missioner 1838; links
with Bethnal Green Cong. chapel, where mtgs.
held and whose min. was supervisor. (fn. 61)
Appeal launched to support 42 missionaries in
Spitalfields and Bethnal Green W. of Cambridge
Rd. 1843. (fn. 62) Bethnal Green had 15 missionaries,
mostly in crowded W. and S. but inc. Globe Lane
and Twig Folly, E. of Cambridge Rd. 1846. (fn. 63)
Eleven missionaries in 1850; little progress over
8 years reported 1852. (fn. 64) Thirteen missionaries,
one each supported by Suffolk Auxiliary, Clifton
Ladies' Assoc., and Jonathan Duthoit, 1854.
Other contributions made by brewers Truman,
Hanbury, Buxton & Co., by min. of Bethnal Green
Cong. chapel, and by other silk manufacturers. (fn. 65)
E. Counties Rly. provided premises rent free. (fn. 66)
Still 13 missionaries 1875 and 2 more 1876
after appeal, little money being raised locally. (fn. 67)
Missionaries at Shaftesbury and Marnham halls
until First World War and probably beyond. (fn. 68)
One, associated with V. of St. Jas. the Less, still
working 1950. (fn. 69)
Mtg. places, usually short lived, inc. Brick
Lane from 1848, (fn. 70) where at no. 160 attendance
1903 was 23 p.m., Anchor St. ragged sch. 1849-
72, (fn. 71) no. 1 Castle St. c. 1855-c. 1862, (fn. 72) Cudworth
ragged sch. 1859-72 with svces. for adults 3
times a week c. 1870, (fn. 73) and Twig Folly British
sch. c. 1860-c. 1871. (fn. 74) Schoolroom and mission
station in George St., W. of Cambridge Rd.,
opened by missioner of Punderson's Gdns. dist.
c. 1863, where weekly evg. cottage mtgs. had
average attendance 1865 of 60-70. (fn. 75) Probably
identifiable with Albion sch., at no. 7 George
St., bldg. owned by Lond. City Mission superintendent (Josiah Goodman), which housed
svces. 1871. (fn. 76) Mission had ho. at no. 26 Blythe
St. (fn. 77) and opened station in former shop in
Gibraltar Walk 1872. (fn. 78) Other stations at former
Cong. and Meth. chapel in Tent St. 1880-92 (fn. 79)
and in Columbia Rd. 1882-95. (fn. 80) Lond. City
Mission's Shaftesbury hall, built in Gosset St.
1885 although reg. only 1930, survived until
1950s. (fn. 81) Attendance 1903: 15 a.m., 67 p.m. Other
mission halls reg. at no. 224 Hackney Rd. 1892, (fn. 82)
in Old Bethnal Green Rd. c. 1893-1898, (fn. 83) and
at Marnham hall in Darling Row 1904-18,
where Mission held Sun. evg. svces. (fn. 84)
Mildmay Mission, similarly evangelistic, (fn. 85)
came to Bethnal Green when founder Revd.
Wm. Pennefather offered help of deaconesses to
V. of St. Phil. during cholera outbreak 1866.
From ho. in Friar's Mount they opened invalid
kitchen and offered 1d. dinners, (fn. 86) moving to
larger premises in Little Bacon St. 1871 for mtgs.
and classes. (fn. 87) Former police station in Church
St. (W. end of Bethnal Green Rd. opposite
Turville St.), acquired 1884 (fn. 88) and converted into
mission ho. and men's lodging ho., with accn.
for deaconesses and soup kitchen. Replaced by
mission halls in Cross St. and Sweetapple Sq.
by 1903, where attendances 84 p.m. and 72 p.m.
Other activities inc. lads' institute, mothers'
mtgs., sewing classes for factory girls, and mission
to Jews. (fn. 89) Medical mission opened 1874 and
gospel svces. held weekly at hosp. opened in
Turville Street 1877. (fn. 90)
Bethnal Green Medical Mission was opened
as Home of Industry (fn. 91) in Commercial St. 1866
by Annie Macpherson (d. 1904), who moved it
to purpose-built home designed by Geo. Baines
at no. 29 Bethnal Green Rd. 1887. (fn. 92) Activities
inc. distributing bibles, medical assistance,
working among women, training missionaries,
and running large Sun. sch., (fn. 93) where attendance,
mostly children, 1903 was 530 p.m. Emigration
of many children to Canada disrupted by war
and finally discontinued 1925. After home in
Bethnal Green Rd. closed 1916, (fn. 94) work carried
on from training home in Hackney until site
acquired at no. 305 Cambridge Rd. 1925. Medical
work, started under Miss Macpherson's doctor
nephew 1901, increasingly important and led to
renaming 1926. Reg. as undenom. mission 1930.
New bldg. opened on same site 1955 (fn. 95) and
Trinity chapel, Peel Grove,
reg. for Bapts. 1848 (fn. 96) but part of bldg. let to
'socialists' and rest to Particular Bapts. and Sun.
sch. 1851. (fn. 97) New sch. chapel reg. by members
of Ch. of Eng. (fn. 98) and Sun. evg. svces. introduced
1859. Bldg. also used by young men's association, by Bible and book soc. based on Soc. for
the Diffusion of Pure Literature among the
People, and for evg. classes and Sun. lectures. (fn. 99)
Run in 1860s by temperance movement, (fn. 1) which
let it to Wes., Congs., and Bapts. (fn. 2) As Anglican
mission, called St. Thos. mission ho. in 1870s. (fn. 3)
Connected with Ragged School Union, as Ashley
mission hall, from 1880. (fn. 4) Attendance, mostly
children, 1903: 57 a.m., 48 p.m. Survived as lecture
hall until destroyed in Second World War. (fn. 5)
Good Shepherd sch. and mission (fn. 6) in large
workshop, probably nos. 75 and 76 railway
arches near North St., opened by Sun. sch.
teachers from closed St. And. and reg. for
nonconfs. 1855. (fn. 7) Mission moved three times
before new bldg. erected in Mapes St. 1866.
After bldg. destroyed by extensions to G.E.R.,
cottages in Wilmot St. temp. housed Good
Shepherd British sch., Sun. sch., and Sun.
evg. mission svces. 1871. (fn. 8) Permanent sch. and
mission opened at corner of Three Colts La.
and Wilmot St. 1871. Amalg. with Abbey St.
sch. under Ragged Sch. Union (later Shaftesbury Soc.) 1894 but still used for mission
svces. (fn. 9) Attendance 1903: 73 a.m., 265 p.m.
Amalg. with King Edward Institute 1933, (fn. 10)
premises enlarged 1934, and reg. as King Edw.
Institute and Good Shepherd mission by 'Christians' 1939. (fn. 11) In 1990 still non-denominational
mission belonging to Shaftesbury Soc., offering
Sun. svces., Sun. sch., bible study and youth
clubs founded 1980 in association with evangelical Anglican ch. of St. Helen, Bishopsgate
(Lond.). (fn. 12) Also housed Christian Community
1949-74 (fn. 13) and from 1983 Pentecostal Bibleway
ch. founded in Weavers' Field sch. and housed
in former St. Jas. the Gt. ch. 1979-83. (fn. 14)
Abbey Street British (fn. 15) and Sun. schs. used for
Lond. City Mission mtgs. 1881. (fn. 16) Sold to Ragged
Sch. Union 1891 (fn. 17) and used by missionary for
svces., bible classes, and associated activities 1892. (fn. 18)
Amalg. with Good Shepherd mission 1894. (fn. 19)
King Edward Mission and Institute, founded
as ragged sch. and mission by Dr. Tyler in King
Edward St., Spitalfields, 1845, used hall at corner of Tent St. and North (Brady) St. 1909-34.
Site housed successively from 1811 Congs.,
Prim. Meths., gospel mission (1878-9), Lond.
City Mission, Salvation Army, and after 1934,
when King Edw. mission merged with Good
Shepherd mission, Particular Bapts. (fn. 20)
Zehovah (or Jehovah) in Thorold Sq. N. of
Bethnal Green Rd. built 1844. Lower part of
bldg. used for sch. and worship by 'various
Christian denominations' 1851, when 48 free
sittings; attendance 22 aft., 20 evg. Census return signed by agent for Christian Soc. of
Operative Silkweavers. (fn. 21) Bldg. disappeared in
redevelopment 1872 and new chapel built at no.
204 Bethnal Green Rd. on site leased to pastor
by 1874, when congregation 42. (fn. 22) Sun. sch. built
at no. 203 Bethnal Green Rd. 1879, (fn. 23) where
chapel and schoolrooms survived 1899. (fn. 24) Christian Industrial Mission occupied former Bapt.
Shalom chap. in the Oval 1909-11. (fn. 25)
London Open Air Gospel Mission and Free
Gospel Ch., which preached at markets and
factories, reg. no. 7 St. Jude's St. 1853. (fn. 26)
Unsectarian gospel mission in large workshop
at no. 43 Old Castle St. opened by Wm. Jarvis
1867. Adjoining ho. acquired and 'commodious'
hall for religious and other mtgs. on Sun. and
most evgs. built 1869. Apparently unsuccessful
appeal claimed that closure would leave c. 40,000
adults without ch. or chapel accn. 1871. (fn. 27)
Bible Defence Association reg. no. 304 Hackney Rd. as Amicable hall 1869-95. (fn. 28)
Unsectarian gospel mission hall reg. at no. 69
Green St. 1876-95. (fn. 29)
The Hon. Mr. Ashley's mission operated from
no. 31 Gloucester St., Cambridge Heath, in
1871. (fn. 30)
Mission hall existed at corner of Squirries St.
and South (Florida) St. c. 1871-2. (fn. 31)
Christian Mission met in Hart's Lane, probably
in former Wes. and Bapt. chapel, 1872 (fn. 32) and reg.
people's halls at no. 121 Brick Lane and under rly.
at E. end of Bethnal Green Rd. 1876-95. (fn. 33)
People's Gospel Mission reg. no. 244 Hackney
Rd. 1887-95. (fn. 34)
Mission hall erected in Hart's Lane 1885. (fn. 35)
Young Men's Christian Mission reg. former
Unitarian no. 365 Cambridge Rd. as Emmanuel
hall 1891-5. (fn. 36) Y.M.C.A. reg. Cambridge club,
no. 128 Cambridge Rd. 1899-1906 and no. 17
Victoria Park Sq. 1905-25. (fn. 37)
Parmiter St. mission existed 1892-7. (fn. 38)
League of Charity mission ho., nos. 31 and 33
Church St., existed 1902-14. (fn. 39)
Lighthouse Mission, unsectarian, reg. at no.
13 Winchester St. 1929. (fn. 40)
Christian Tulipeans reg. Tulip hall, no. 20
Victoria Park Sq., 1940-1. (fn. 41)