Wardens of the Forest and Constables of St. Briavels

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Victoria County History

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C R J Currie, N M Herbert (Editors), A P Baggs, A R J Jurica

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1996

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413-415

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'Wardens of the Forest and Constables of St. Briavels', A History of the County of Gloucester: Volume 5: Bledisloe Hundred, St. Briavels Hundred, The Forest of Dean (1996), pp. 413-415. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=23275 Date accessed: 23 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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WARDENS OF THE FOREST OF DEAN AND CONSTABLES OF ST. BRIAVELS

By 1207 the keepers or wardens (custodes) of the Forest under the Crown also had the style of constable of St. Briavels castle, the castle having probably remained with the custody of the Forest since 1139. During the 13th and 14th centuries the constable-wardens held at farm the castle, St. Briavels manor, Newland manor, and most of the profits of the Forest, but after the duke of Bedford's death in 1435 that estate was leased separately under the Crown, while the constablewardens received an annual fee paid out of the estate; between 1611 and 1810, however, the holders of the offices usually had (though by a separate patent) the lease of the estate. (fn. 96) Between 1660 and 1835, except for two short intervals, the holders were the lord lieutenants of the county.

It should be noted that deputies appointed by the holders to perform the offices in the Middle Ages were often styled, confusingly, 'constable' rather than, as later, 'deputy constable'.

From the 16th century the style 'keeper of the deer and woods' was used in the patents rather than 'warden', and the later holders sometimes affected the style of 'lord warden'.

In the following list appointments were during royal pleasure unless otherwise stated. When the year of appointment or departure from office is not known the years of occurrence in office are given in brackets. Some holders of the offices are, of course, unrecorded before 1200, as possibly are some afterwards.

(1086) William son of Norman (held 'Dean' manor by custody of the Forest) (fn. 97)
(1130) Hugh, son of William son of Norman (fn. 98)
1139-43 Miles of Gloucester, earl of Hereford (held castle and Forest in fee) (fn. 99)
1143-54/5 Roger of Gloucester, earl of Hereford (as preceding) (fn. 1)
(1156)-7 Niel son of Arthur (fn. 2)
1157-64 Roger of Powis (fn. 3)
1164-(6) William de Neville (fn. 4)
(1194-1206) William Marshal, earl of Pembroke and lord of Striguil (fn. 5)
1207-16 Hugh de Neville (fn. 6)
1216-24 John of Monmouth, lord of Monmouth (fn. 7)
1224 Walter Asmeins (fn. 8)
1224-(30) Roger de Clifford (fn. 9)
1231-2 Gilbert Basset (fn. 10)
1232-(3) Peter des Rivaux (fn. 11)
1234-(7) Emery de St. Amand (fn. 12)
1241- Emery de Cancellis (fn. 13)
(1246)-7 Richard de Clifford (fn. 14)
1248-55 Peter Chaceporc (fn. 15)
1255 James Fresel (fn. 16)
1255-63 Robert Walrond (two grants for terms of years) (fn. 17)
1263 Roger de Mortimer (fn. 18)
1263-6 John Giffard (fn. 19)
1266 castle and Forest granted to Edward, the king's son (fn. 20)
(late 1260s) Thomas de Clare (fn. 21)
1272-5 William de Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (fn. 22)
1275-81 Ralph of Sandwich (fn. 23)
1281-7 Grimbald Pauncefoot (grant for years) (fn. 24)
1287-91 William Hathaway (fn. 25)
1291-1308 John Botetourt (fn. 26)
1308-(9) John de Handlo (fn. 27)
1310-18 John of Wyesham (grant for life 1311) (fn. 28)
1318-(20) Roger Damory (fn. 29)
1321 William de Beauchamp (fn. 30)
1322 Simon de Dryby (fn. 31)
1322 James de Broughton (fn. 32)
1322-5 Robert de Sapy (Hugh le Despenser the younger given superior custody 1322) (fn. 33)
1325-6 John de Mynors (fn. 34)
1326 John de Hardredshull (fn. 35)
1327 castle and Forest granted to Queen Isabella (fn. 36)
1330-5 Robert de Sapy (fn. 37)
1335-90 Guy Brian (grant for life 1341) (fn. 38)
1390-7 Thomas, duke of Gloucester (assumed to have held in right of grantof castle and Forest) (fn. 39)
1397-9 Thomas le Despenser, earl of Gloucester (as preceding) (fn. 40)
1399 Hugh Waterton (fn. 41)
1399-1435 John, duke of Bedford (in right of grant in fee of castle and Forest) (fn. 42)
1435-(6) Robert Greyndour (fn. 43)
1436-(45) John Mone (grant for life 1438) (fn. 44)
1449- John Ashurst (grant for life) (fn. 45)
1461-(76) James Hyett (grant for life) (fn. 46)
1475- Roger Hyett (grant with father Jas. in survivorship) (fn. 47)
1478-?1483 Anthony Woodville, Earl Rivers
1478-(83) Thomas Baynham
1481- Robert Poyntz
1483- Richard Williams(grants in survivorship made to Rivers and Baynham in 1478, to them and Poyntz in 1481, and during pleasure to Baynham and Williams in 1483) (fn. 48)
1484- Giles Bridges (grant for life) (fn. 49)
1485-(90) Robert Poyntz
1485-(95) Alexander Baynham (grant to them in survivorship) (fn. 50)
1522- Thomas ap Gwilliam
1522-?1540 Sir William Kingston
1528-?1546 George Baynham (later Sir George) (during pleasure to ap Gwilliam and Kingston 1522, and in survivorship to Kingston and Baynham 1528) (fn. 51)
1546- Richard Bream
1546-70 Sir William Herbert, later earl of Pembroke
1549-1601 Henry Herbert, later earl of Pembroke (grant in survivorship to Bream and Sir William 1546, and to Sir William and son Henry 1549) (fn. 52)
1601-8 Sir Edward Winter (grant for life, surrendered) (fn. 53)
1608-30 William Herbert, earl of Pembroke (fn. 54)
1631-?1650 Philip Herbert, earl of Pembroke (fn. 55)
1650-4 ? offices vacant (fn. 56)
1654-(9) Maj.-Gen. John Desborough, later Lord Desborough (fn. 57)
1660-97 Henry Somerset, Lord Herbert, later marquess of Worcester and duke of Beaufort (grant for life, forfeited) (fn. 58)
1697-1710 Charles Berkeley, Vct. Dursley, later earl of Berkeley (fn. 59)
1711-36 James Berkeley, earl of Berkeley; constable only 1712-14 (fn. 60)
1712-14 Thomas Thynne, Vct. Weymouth,warden only (fn. 61)
1737-55 Augustus Berkeley, earl of Berkeley (fn. 62)
1755-8 Matthew Ducie Moreton, Lord Ducie (fn. 63)
1758-62 John Thynne Howe, Lord Chedworth (fn. 64)
1762-6 Norborne Berkeley, later Lord Botetourt (fn. 65)
1766-1810 Frederick Augustus Berkeley, earl of Berkeley (fn. 66)
1810-12 offices vacant (fn. 67)
1812-35 Henry Charles Somerset, duke of Beaufort (fn. 68)

In 1836 the office of constable was vested in the First Commissioner of H.M. Woods, Forests, and Land Revenues and the office of warden in the Commissioners in general. (fn. 69)

Footnotes

96 Above, St. Briavels, manors.
97 Dom. Bk. (Rec. Com.), i. 167v.
98 Pipe R. 1130 (H.M.S.O. facsimile), 77.
99 B.L. Lansdowne MS. 229, f. 123v.
1 Camd. Misc. xxii. 28-9; Rot. Chart. (Rec. Com.), 53, 61.
2 Pipe R. 1156-8 (Rec. Com.), 49, 100.
3 Ibid. 169; Pipe R. 1160 (P.R.S. ii), 29; 1161 (P.R.S. iv), 22; 1162 (P.R.S. v), 60; 1163 (P.R.S. vi), 9; 1164 (P.R.S. vii), 18.
4 Ibid. 1166 (P.R.S. ix), 78.
5 Ibid. 1194 (P.R.S. N.S. v), 239; 1198 (P.R.S. N.S. ix), 7; 1199 (P.R.S. N.S. x), 26; 1200 (P.R.S. N.S. xii), 121; 1203 (P.R.S. N.S. xvi), 60; 1204 (P.R.S. N.S. xviii), 147; 1205 (P.R.S. N.S xix), 96; 1206 (P.R.S. N.S. xx), 10.
6 Rot. Litt. Pat. (Rec. Com.), i. 71.
7 Ibid. i. 185.
8 Pat. R. 1216-25, 419-20.
9 Rot. Litt. Claus. (Rec. Com.), i. 586, 623; Close R. 1227-31, 378.
10 Pat. R. 1225-32, 452, 477.
11 Cal Chart. R. 1226-57, 169; Close R. 1231-4, 198.
12 Cal. Pat. 1232-47, 48, 55, 160, 175.
13 Ibid. 252.
14 Close R. 1242-7, 414, 526; Cal. Lib. 1245-51, 122.
15 Cal. Pat. 1247-58, 13; Inq. p.m. Glos. 1302-58, 287.
16 Cal. Pat. 1247-58, 394.
17 Ibid. 450; 1258-66, 87; Cal. Lib. 1260-7, 218.
18 P.R.O., E 32/29, rot. 1d.
19 Cal. Pat. 1258-66, 273, 472-3, 548.
20 Ibid. 548; Cat. Anct. D. i, A 910.
21 P.R.O., E 32/29, rot. 1d.
22 Ibid. E 32/30, rot. 36.
23 Ibid.; Hist. & Cart. Mon. Glouc. (Rolls Ser.), ii. 183-5.
24 P.R.O., E 32/30, rot. 36; Trans. B.G.A.S. lxxi. 125-7.
25 Cal. Close, 1279-88, 461.
26 Cal. Pat. 1281-92, 412; Cal. Fine R. 1307-19, 2.
27 Cal. Fine R. 1307-19, 18; Cal. Close, 1307-13, 170.
28 Cal. Fine R. 1307-19, 76; Cal. Pat. 1307-13, 355.
29 Cal. Fine R. 1307-19, 363; Cal. Close, 1318-23, 199.
30 Cal. Fine R. 1319-27, 51.
31 Ibid. 96.
32 Ibid. 175.
33 Ibid. 182; Cal. Pat. 1321-4, 214.
34 Cal. Fine R. 1319-27, 331; Cal. Mem. R. 1326-7, p. 3.
35 Cal. Fine R. 1319-27, 424.
36 Cal. Pat. 1327-30, 69; Cal. Mem. R. 1326-7, p. 10.
37 Cal. Fine R. 1327-31, 211.
38 Ibid. 461; 1337-47, 243.
39 Cal. Pat. 1388-92, 297, 360.
40 Ibid. 1396-9, 224.
41 Cal. Fine R. 1399-1405, 14.
42 Cal. Pat. 1399-1401, 159; cf. P.R.O., E 101/141/1, where a reference to the appointment of a (deputy) constable by the duke confirms that he was regarded as constable-warden.
43 Cal. Pat. 1429-36, 492.
44 Ibid. 513; 1436-41, 153. Ric. Roos had a grant in reversion in 1445 and may have succeeded Mone: ibid. 1441-6, 355.
45 Ibid. 1446-52, 225; Glos. R.O., D 33/107.
46 Cal. Pat. 1461-7, 117; Glos. R.O., D 33/120.
47 Cal. Pat. 1467-77, 484.
48 Ibid. 1476-85, 261, 405.
49 Ibid. 384.
50 Ibid. 1485-94, 97, a grant made in Mar. 1486, as from Mich. 1485; Glos. R.O., D 33/124.
51 L. & P. Hen. VIII, iii (2), p. 942; iv (2), p. 1773.
52 Ibid. xxi (2), pp. 85-6; Cal. Pat. 1575-8, p. 531. Sir Wm. Winter had a grant for life in reversion in 1577 but died before Pembroke; his son was the next constable.
53 Glos. R.O., D 421/E 3.
54 Cal. S.P. Dom. 1603-10, 395.
55 P.R.O., C 99/11, no. 1; Glos. R.O., D 33/310.
56 Cf. Glos. R.O., D 2026/X 17, an undated petition to parl. by local inhabitants, asking that Cromwell should be appointed.
57 Badminton Mun. FmE 2/3/2; Berkeley Cast. Mun., General Ser. T, box 25, appointment of recorder and deputy warden 1659.
58 Berkeley Cast. Mun., patents no. 8; the duke surrendered his public offices in 1697.
59 Ibid. no. 8. In 1704, because it was thought that the office of constable could not be held separately from St. Briavels castle, the earl was reappointed as warden only with the power to hold the courts attached to the constableship: ibid. no. 10; General Ser. T, box 25, petition of earl of Berkeley to Queen Anne, and legal opinion.
60 Ibid. patents nos. 14-15, 22.
61 Ibid. no. 15.
62 Ibid. no. 29.
63 Glos. R.O., D 340A/C 26, X 8.
64 Ibid. C 26; cf. Glos. Colln. 15931, cts. 1759, 1762.
65 Badminton Mun. FmS/G 2/4/1.
66 Berkeley Cast. Mun., General Ser. T, box 25, patent 1766.
67 1st Rep. Dean Forest Com. 12.
68 Badminton Mun. FmM 2/5/1.
69 Constable of St. Briavels Act, 6 Wm. IV, c. 3.


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