The Subsidies and the London Population.
I. Immigration into London.
Taxpayers were normally London citizens, and the persons mentioned below must be considered to have been generally freemen of
London. People resident in London who were not freemen did not
contribute to the subsidies, except sometimes voluntarily. But in
the earlier subsidy several taxpayers seem not to have been freemen,
and even some aliens may have been contributors.
A. Immigration from abroad.
In order to determine whether a taxpayer was of alien origin,
we have some direct information, but mostly there are only the
names to go on. Evidence of the latter kind must be used with
caution, since some people with a foreign surname may have
belonged to families that had been resident in England for generations, or else have adopted a surname of foreign origin, because it
was that of a master.
In the lists below an attempt is made to distinguish between
people who may be supposed to have immigrated in the period of
the subsidies and such as were descendants of London citizens.
The persons are generally arranged alphabetically in the various
1. The Subsidy of 1292.
(a) People of French or possibly French origin.
Persons known to have been of French origin.
William Barache, vintner (Vintry). Called merchant of Cahors in
1268. Arnaud Barache, vintner (Vintry), was connected with him.
Janin Monchaud de Paris, merchant (Cordw).
William Seruad, merchant and alderman (Cordw). Called merchant of Cahors in 1272. See on him also F. Arens, Vierteljahrschrift
für Sozial- und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, XI, pp. 477 ff. (1913).
Persons with local surnames derived from places in France.
John Darmenters, (fn. 1) draper (Dowg). A "foreigner" (that is, not a
freeman) in 1275.
Alice de Arraz (Cordw) was the widow of Robert de Arras, merchant, alderman, who occurs in the records from 1268 on. There
were people with this surname in London about 1200. Hankin de
Arras (Cordw) may have been connected with Robert.
Henry de Araz, vintner (Vintry), was the son of Hubert (or
Wybert) de Arraz, a London citizen; doubtless of English birth.
Matthew Darraz, draper (Dowg). A "foreigner" in 1275. With him
was probably connected John Darraz (Dowg).
Peter Berneval, probably a vintner (Ports).
William de Betoyne, alderman of Queenhithe, was probably
connected with John de Betoyne (1275 ff.) and London born.
Thomas de Boloyne, merchant (Bill). The surname is found
early in London, but Thomas may well have immigrated from
William Busy (Vintry). A doubtful example.
Lionet (Dowg), perhaps identical with Leonius de Cambrey.
Roger de Cheyni (CripI). This is an old Norman family name in
Peter de Corboylle, perhaps a goldsmith (Crip E).
Staci de Gynes (Cordw).
John de Gysorz, alderman of Vintry, belonged to an old London
Richard de Mounpellers, apothecary (CripI), was a son of Robert
de Mounpeillers (1278-9 Will) and evidently London born.
John de Orlyenes (CripI).
Gilian de Parys (Bas) was the widow of Robert de Paris (1290
John de Paris, cook (Bridge).
Robert de Parys, tailor (Walbr).
Roger de Parys (Dowg).
Stephen and William de Paris, drapers (Dowg).
William de Parys (Bridge).
It is probable that some of the persons with the surname de
Paris had immigrated from Paris.
John de Sancto Saluatore, kisser (BishE).
Walter de Sancto Saluatore (CripI).
Richard Savsemer (Qu). This is an old Norman family name.
Robert de Spaigne (Dowg). Perhaps connected with John de
Ispannia (1286 Will). This is an old Norman family name in England.
Michael de Tolesan (Walbr) was a son of John de Tolesan and
grandson of John Tolesan, draper (dead in 1259); evidently English
John de Vaus, dyer (Vintry).
Raboc (Dowg) is doubtless identical with Rabot de Warloys 1298,
a foreign lodging-house keeper.
Persons with a national adjective or noun as a surname.
Eustace le Fraunceys, Gateron le Franceis, and Katherine la
Fraunceyse, probably vintners (Vintry).
Matthew le Fraunceys, hosier (BroadSt).
Roger le Fraunceis (Walbr).
Simon Fraunceys, mercer (?) (BroadSt).
John Normand (CripE).
A grouping according to the form of the surname has not been
considered necessary in this and the following sections.
Jacolin Hugelin and Donne Lumbard (Cordw), merchants of Lucca.
Thomas Romeyn, pepperer and alderman (Cordw). The surname
indicates Italian origin, but he may have been English born.
Nute le Marchaunt and Burgeys his brother (BishI), horse-merchants of Florence. Burgeys is elsewhere called Burgesius Fulberti
William Gylemouche and Thonchelin his partner (BishI). Doubtless Italians, to judge by the names, and very likely horse-merchants.
Sire Bonruncyn (Walbr) is elsewhere called Bonruncin Walteri
John Lumbard, probably a fishmonger (Bridge). The surname
may be an inherited one.
John de Fierins (Dowg). A doubtful case.
(c) Flemings or Dutchmen.
Lambert de Gant (Dowg). But cf. Simon de Gaunt 1275 (Dowg).
John Semblepain or Semblepani (Dowg). The surname indicates
Dutch or Flemish origin. He was a lodging-house keeper for Flemings and Brabanters.
It is probable that William fil. Marie and Walter Coxin (Dowg),
both lodging-house keepers for Flemings and Brabanters, were of
Dutch or Flemish origin.
Adam le Estreys fil. Ludekin, merchant and sheriff (Bill). Possibly English born.
Bartholomew le Estreys (fn. 1) (Bill). Probably a merchant of Hamburg.
Gerard Merbode, merchant (Dowg). He is called merchant of
Almain in 1272 and was alderman of the German Hanse. (fn. 2)
John Winterman, merchant (Cordw). Called merchant of Almain
Peter de Hungri, pepperer (Dowg), was the son of a London
2. The Subsidy of 1319.
Very few among the persons below can be connected with those
found in 1292.
(a) People of French or possibly French origin.
Persons with a local surname derived from a place in France.
Robert de Amyas (alias R. Wynhelm), girdler (Cheap).
Philip Balum, cornmonger (Qu). The surname de Baalum occurs
in London c. 1200.
John Beseuille, tailor (Cheap). Perhaps an old Norman family
Richard de Betoigne (Cordw) was a son of William de Betoyne
John de Bolonia (Tower) was a brother of Thomas de Boloyne
Reymund de Burdeux (Cordw) was a son of Reymund de Burdeux,
saddler, a London citizen.
Adam de Burgoigne, taverner (Cheap). John de Burgoyne,
John de Chaumpayne, saddler (BreadSt).
Robert Darry (FarrE). A doubtful case.
William de Furniual, tailor (Bas). An old Norman family name.
John de Fylers (Aldersg). A Bernard de Fylers is mentioned
1278 LBA 23 (deceased).
James le Sherman, alias de Gurnay (Bish).
John de Maundeuille, brewer (Bill). An old Norman family name.
John de la Marche, potter (Aldg). A doubtful case.
John de la Mare (FarrI). Probably an old Norman family-name.
Thomas de Maryns, apothecary (Cheap). An apprentice of Roger
de Arcubus, adm. in 1314.
Richard Merk, tapicer (Langb). A Theobald de Merkes is mentioned 1302 HMC 9th Rep 3 b.
Richard Mongomery (Bish). Probably an old Norman family name.
John Morteyne (ColemSt).
John de Mountagu, tailor (Cheap). An old Norman family name
or from Montacute So.
Thomas de Neuille, woolmonger (Tower).
Hugh de Parys, probably a chaloner (Langb). Perhaps connected
with Richard de Parys, chaloner (1276).
Hugh de Paris (Walbr). Cf. Robert de Parys 1292 S (Walbr).
John de Parys (Cornh).
John de Parys, corder (FarrE).
Roger de Parys (FarrE).
Roger de Parys, mercer (Cordw).
Simon de Parys, mercer, alderman (Cheap). Parys is doubtless a
Stephen de Paris, perhaps a surgeon (Walbr).
William de Parys, probably a shearman (Dowg).
John Perers (Cordw).
John de Reygnes (Bridge).
John de Sancto Saluatore, currier (Tower).
Thomas Seyncler, haymonger (Castle). An old Norman family
William de Synnyngham, cordwainer (FarrI).
Thomas de Spaigne (Dowg). Doubtless connected with Robert de
Spaigne 1292 S.
Persons with a national adjective or noun as a surname.
Simon Fraunceis, mercer, alderman (Cheap).
Henry le Frensche (Aldg).
Richard le Freynshe, bokeler (Cheap). Admitted a freeman in 1310.
Hugh Pycard, tapicer (Langb). A son of Michael le Tapicer, who
was admitted in 1310, and doubtless a Frenchman.
John Pycard, perhaps a smith (CripE).
Hugh and Roger Bret (Aldersg), Laurence le Bret, probably a
goldsmith (FarrE), Robert le Bret, goldsmith (CripI). Laurence was
a son of Philip le Bret (1316 Will), and Robert a son of Richard
le Bret. Bret is a surname of old standing in London.
Persons with surnames of other kinds.
Surnames of an unusual or a peculiar kind may indicate French
origin. A probable case is Henry Nasard, draper (Dowg). He became
a freeman after 1306. Michael Myniot, vintner (CripI) does not
seem to have been London born, since he was reminded in 1320
of the oath he had taken on his admission to the freedom (LBE 122).
Other possible cases are James Maucouenant, cook (BreadSt),
Robert Sayleben, cook (BroadSt), John Traynel (Cheap).
Persons stated to have been Italians.
Bankyn de Brounlexk (fn. 1) (Cand). A merchant of Florence. Not a
freeman in 1319.
Bartholomew le Spicer (Langb). A Florentine.
Burnet Lespicer, pepperer (Cheap), alias B. de Luka.
Cambin Foulberd, taverner (Bish), was a son of Guy de Florencia, a brother of Nute le Marchaunt (1292 S), and probably
John Pysselege (BreadSt). A merchant of Genoa.
Bartholomew Thomasyn, pepperer (Cheap). Called B. Thomesyn
of Lucca, citizen of London in 1341.
Persons with surnames pointing to Italian origin.
Chiuel, the king's hosier (Cheap). Called Chevel de Pistorio in
John de Plesaunce (Langb).
Bernard de la Pouche (Tower).
John de Triple (Walbr). Admitted in 1312-13 and evidently
a Lombard merchant.
Henry Lombard, fishmonger (Castle). Cf. John Lumbard 1292 S.
Pelle le Lombard (Bish), elsewhere called Pelle de Luka, kalendrer.
Philip le Lombard (Langb).
Ragace le Lombard (Bish) was a servant of Burgeys Fulberd of
Florence [1292 S].
Persons with an Italian font-name.
Conel le Chaucer (BreadSt).
Mone le Kalendrer (ColemSt).
Peter Manioun, merchant (Cordw). Called Peter Lopice, mangoun in 1330-1.
(d) Flemings and Dutch.
John le Fullere, Brabantere (Dowg).
John Reynald, merchant (Cheap). Stated to have been of Dinant.
Mabel Rotelond (Bridge), a lodging-house keeper for Flemings
Henry Scof, draper (Dowg). Elsewhere called Henry Scof of
John Slabart, merchant (Cordw). The surname indicates Flemish
or Dutch origin.
Bartholomew le Estrishe (Bill). Found already in 1292 S.
Herman le Skyppere, merchant (Dowg).
John le White (Tower) was a German merchant, who was exempted
as not being a freeman.
B. Immigration from the English provinces (inclusive of Wales,
Scotland and Ireland).
As already mentioned, a great many taxpayers in 1292 and 1319
have surnames derived from places or districts outside London.
Such names point to immigration into London of people from these
places or districts. But it must not be concluded that all taxpayers
with such names had actually moved to London from the provinces.
Many were descendants of people who had immigrated in an earlier
period. Others had taken over a master's surname; some of them
may have been London born. There are also some taxpayers with
a surname not of the local type who can be proved to have come
from the provinces.
Every local surname of the type under discussion gives evidence of
immigration into London and is thus of interest. But what is of most
importance is to try and find out to what extent such immigration
had taken place in the period covered by the rolls. For the people
in the earlier roll it is difficult to find sufficient material, because
the London records for the early and middle thirteenth century are
meagre. If a surname is first recorded towards the end of the century, we cannot be sure that it was introduced into London by the
taxpayer of 1292, but we may suppose that many who had a local
surname not with certainty evidenced earlier in London, at least in
the same ward, were actually immigrants. For the early fourteenth
century the material is abundant and allows of safer conclusions.
All information bearing on this question is collected and discussed
in the commentary to the text, and in this section only a summary
of the results and some general conclusions will be given.
In the lists below are included also people exempted from taxation and the aldermen mentioned in the Subsidy of 1292. The
word "taxpayer" is thus here used somewhat loosely. The persons
with surnames of the kind under discussion who were exempted
are few, only a dozen or so.
1. The Subsidy of 1292.
The taxpayers with surnames of the type under discussion or
otherwise known to have come from the provinces are just over 300.
The Home Counties.
16 taxpayers, inclusive of Richard le Heymongere [CripI 32].
Gilbert and Robert de Fulham were very likely connected with
earlier fishmongers called de Fulham. John de Stebeheye was a
nephew of John de Stebenhethe senior (1281-2 Will). These were
probably London born.
The people in this group were small taxpayers, with the exception of Henry de Cherring (tax 1 m.). For the remainder the
assessments range from 2s. to 6s. 8d.
Only 9 taxpayers, inclusive of Robert Podyfat. Alice de Eure (£1)
was the widow of John de Evere, ironmonger, the first bearer of
this surname in London noted. High taxpayers: Adam Bekenisfeld,
fishmonger, and William de Heure, ironmonger (£2), Robert de
Colebroc and William de Graue (£1).
22 taxpayers. Peter de Brauhinge, bureller (£2), and Gilbert and
William de Pelham (the latter's tax 2 m.) probably had early
London connections. Relatively high taxpayers: John de Chelse,
chandler (1 m.), John de Hertford (50s.), William de Red, skinner
(1 m.), Vincent de Sterteford, woolmonger (£1), Margaret de Sterteford, widow of a glover (2 m.), William de Storteford, pepperer (£5),
Richard Toterich, hosier (2 m. with his partner), William de Ware
of Qu (£5).
35 taxpayers, inclusive of John le Joignur (Vi). Wolmar de Essex,
alderman of Bill, may have been connected with Eadwin (early
13th) and Edmund de Essex (1260 ff.), Gilbert de Assindone,
mercer (1 m.), with Robert (1276 ff.). Thomas de Frowyc, goldsmith, and Robert Frowick, cordwainer, belonged to an old London
family. Lucas and Richard de Hauering (Lucas's tax £5) and
Reginald de Thonderle, draper, sheriff (£2), may have inherited
their surnames. Most taxpayers had small assessments (2s. to 6s.
8d.), but we may note Richard de Chigewelle, fishmonger (£6),
Roger de Essex, pepperer (£2), Henry de Fingrie, fishmonger (£4),
Adam de Alingbery, skinner (30s.), William de Leyre, pepperer (£4),
Walter de ripa de la Leye and Henry de St. Osy, vintner (£1),
John de Wrytele, cheesemonger (30s.).
27 taxpayers, inclusive of Boydin Massecre. The Rokesles belonged to a family that had long been settled in London, or had
derived the surname from members of it. They had taxes of from
£3 to £1. Otherwise taxes were small, except for John de Boctone,
coffrer, Thomas de Kent and Roger de Schorne, fishmongers (2 m.),
Hary de Kent, hosier (£1), John de Romeneye, cornmonger (£2),
John de Sandwic, cordwainer (1 m.).
12 taxpayers. Richard de Bernes, fishmonger, seems to have had
early London connections. Relatively high taxpayers: John de
Gildeford, pepperer (£2), William de Kersauntone, cordwainer
(16s.), Richard de Wendlesworthe, corder, sheriff (£3), and William de Wendesworthe, corder (£2).
Home Counties (unspecified).
Five taxpayers: Rand' de Boreham, Walter de Borham and his
brother, Hugh de Clopham, Thomas de Waledene (the last son of a
London citizen). Adam de Fulmere (10s.) and John de Fulmere,
woolmonger (£1), may have come from Bucks or Cambridgeshire,
John le Mareshal (Walbr) from Surrey or Cambridgeshire, and
William de Renham (1 m.) from Kent, Essex or Norfolk.
The East Midlands.
Four taxpayers, inclusive of Bartholomew Nicolas (1 m.). John
de Dunstaple, skinner, and Richard de Bedeford had a tax of
13 taxpayers. Nicholas de Lintone, Robert de Queie (1 m.), and
John de Ryplawe, ironmonger (1 m.), had early London connections. Relatively high taxpayers: John de Brinkele, cornmonger
(£1), Richard de Caumpes, ironmonger (£2), Reginald de Meldeburne, armourer (1 m.).
14 taxpayers, inclusive of Alan le Potere (Ports). John de Meleford, fruiterer, is called "junior" in 1292-3. Alan de Suffolk,
cordwainer (£1) and A. de Suffolk, taverner (both of Vi), may have
been connected with Alexander de Suffolk (will enrolled in 1277).
The highest taxpayers were Fulk de St. Edmund, bureller, sheriff
(£5), Thomas de Suffolk, skinner, sheriff (£4), Edmund de Suffolk of
7 taxpayers. Thomas de Fullesham, mercer (2 m.) was connected
with Robert (1295 Will). Robert de Worthestede, mercer, had a
tax of £2.
Four taxpayers, three with the surname Lincoln. Katherine de
Lincolne was the widow of John de L., draper, apparently a son of
Adam de L., mentioned 1266 Pat. John de Lincolne of Vintry had
a tax of 10s.
13 taxpayers, 6 with the surname Northampton. High taxpayers:
Peter de Bosenham, skinner, sheriff (£4), Philip de Norhamptone,
fripperer (£1), Robert de Tiphelde, skinner (1 m.), Walter de Waldegraue, chandler (£1).
Henry de Boudene, skinner (£1).
The East Midlands (unspecified).
Henry de Brune, cordwainer, and Robert de Guntorp, clerk.
Thomas de Collingham, fishmonger (£1) and Robert de Rothewelle
may alternatively have come from the North.
Southern and South-western Counties.
Two taxpayers, William de Lewes, draper (4 m.), and William
de Chicestre, glazier.
10 taxpayers, 5 with the surname Winchester. Thomas de Basinge,
woolmonger, alderman (£5), William de Wyncestre, woolmonger
(1 m.), and probably Ralph de Wincestre and William de Wyntonia
of CripI, draper (£1), belonged to old London families. The others
generally had small taxes.
5 taxpayers. John Dabindone, draper (£3), may have been connected with Richard de Abindon (1272-84). Relatively high
taxpayers: Richard de Hakeburne, mercer (£1), and Sarah de
Hakeburne (1 m.).
8 taxpayers, 5 with the surname Oxford. Highest taxpayers:
John de Burford, pepperer (£3), and Thomas de Oxonia, skinner
Only Martin de Aumesbery, goldsmith, sheriff (£2), doubtless
connected with Geoffrey de Ambresbure, goldsmith (1272-3 Will).
Robert de Gloucestre, saddler (1 m.), and William de Bittone (2s.).
William de Monnemue (2s.) and perhaps Henry le Waleys,
alderman of Cordw.
Southern Counties (unspecified).
William de Lynham, tailor, and Auncel de Thele (both 2s.).
The West Midlands.
Three taxpayers: Thomas de Hereford, bereman, perhaps connected with Henry de H. (1286-7 Will), John de Brimyerd, mercer
(£1), William de Brimyerd, potter (30s.).
Two taxpayers, both with the surname de Kid(e)menstre.
Rois de Couentre (£2), widow of Henry de C., vintner, probably
of an old London family, and Jake de Couentre, cornmonger.
Walter de Wenlok, tailor (£5) and Hugh de Lodelawe.
Northern England and Scotland.
7 taxpayers. John de Euerwic, glover, and Roger de Jork,
skinner, had a tax of 1 m.
Ralph de Dureme (2s.).
John Morpah (6s. 8d.), if Morpah is for de Morpath.
The surname Scot is found thrice. Geoffrey Scot, fishmonger, had
a tax of £1.
The surname le Norreys, found thrice, may mean "the Northerner".
Andrew le Hirreys, tailor (2s.).
Some 60 taxpayers have surnames whose provenance cannot be
determined, because derived from place-names found in various
parts of England. For some connection with earlier Londoners can
be established or made probable, as for Peter de Kumbe, woolmonger (30s.), William de Graueley, painter, John de Affeld,
bureller (£1), William de Hanintone, skinner, Robert de Staundone,
probably a plumber, Roger de Wautham (1 m.).
Comparatively high assessments have been noted for Adam de
Burtone, skinner (£1), John de Dene, woolmonger (£2), Ralph de
Langeford (1 m.), Thomas de Neunham, goldsmith (£1), Robert and
Stephen de Prestone, corders (2 m. jointly), Andrew de Staunford,
skinner (2 m.), Stephen le Chaucer, alias de Upton (2 m.), Richard
de Weleford, hosier (2 m. with his partner), John atte Wode,
fishmonger (2 m.).
A number of taxpayers with other than local surnames in the
roll of 1292 seem not to have been freemen, but became such later.
Several cases have been noted. They will be discussed in Chap. VI,
I, a. The probability is that these people were not of London birth.
2. The Subsidy of 1319.
The taxpayers with local surnames taken from places in England
outside London, or otherwise associated with such places, number
no less than about 870. Many of these were doubtless London born
and had inherited the surname or adopted it from a master. But
a considerable number of taxpayers must have come to London in
the period just before the time of the subsidy. Many are known to
have been admitted freemen in the first or second decade of the
Not a few taxpayers with non-local surnames were admitted
in the same period. About 35 certain cases are on record.
The Home Counties.
53 taxpayers. Some of these were doubtless London born. The
three woolmongers with the name de Hakeneye, Richard, alderman,
Simon (both of Bill) and Robert (of Tower), were doubtless connected with Osbert de Hakeneye, woolmonger (of Bill) and William
de Hakeneye, woolmonger (1277-1302). These were high taxpayers (10 m., £10 and £1 respectively). Gregory de Fulham was a
son of Adam de Fulham, alderman, whose real name seems to have
been Blund. Others belonging to this group were Nicholas de Haleforde, goldsmith (10s.), Walter de Stebenhuthe, chaloner, Simon
de Thornham, fishmonger.
9 taxpayers are known to have been admitted shortly before
1319, Thomas ate Brom, kisser, William de Hakeneye, currier,
Nicholas de Hestone, currier, James le Kissere (of Heston), Roger
de Mimmes, chandler, John de Totenham, chandler, Nicholas de
Totenham, brewer (tax 10s.), Thomas de Westminster, goldsmith,
and John Gubbe, alias de Woxbregge (Uxbridge), stockfishmonger.
There were few high taxpayers, apart from those mentioned:
Thomas de Braynforde, fishmonger (£1), Roger de Edelmetone,
tanner, and Gilbert de Istelworthe, dyer (both 11s. 8d.), William
de Stanes, cordwainer, and John de Stebenhuthe, cornmonger
(both 1 m.). Most had small taxes, 23 only 2s. or less, and the majority were craftsmen such as curriers, tanners, chandlers, fusters,
or small dealers.
Only 12 taxpayers. William de Merlawe, cutler, may have been
an apprentice of Henry de Merlawe 1292 S. Three are known to
have been admitted in 1310-11 or later, Henry de Amondesham,
capper, John de Amondesham, an apprentice of Henry, and John
de Bledelowe, baker. There was one very high taxpayer, John de
Wengraue, clerk, alderman and Mayor (£20), and two medium
ones, Reginald de Aylesbur' (1 m.) and Thomas de Chetyngtone
(11s. 8d.), both probably merchants.
67 taxpayers. Not a few of these were very likely sons or apprentices of London citizens, as Geoffrey Anesty, perhaps a draper
(16s.), William de Braughyng, bureller (16s. 8d.), John de Gatesdene,
brewer, Benedict de Rikemersworthe, capper, Peter and Thomas
de Ware, stockfishmongers, John and Thomas de Ware, butchers.
John de Chelse and Vincent de Storteforde are in 1292 S.
Many are known to have been admitted about 1309 or later, but
a few of them may have taken a master's surname, as Thomas de
Crokesle, cornmonger, Laurence de Haddham, tanner, and Henry
de Ware, ironmonger. Others were: Geoffrey le Goldbeter (or de
Aldenham), John de Benyngho, woolmonger, William Payn,
fuster (of Bovingdon), Robert atte Hulle and John Neuman, tanners
(both of Hadham), Richard de Hodesdone, fishmonger (22s. 3d.),
Thomas de Hoddesdone, fripperer, William de Hodesdone, apothecary, Adam de Sancto Albano, ironmonger (£1), John Blaket,
cornmonger (of St. Albans).
There were a few high or relatively high taxpayers, apart from
those mentioned: Ralph de Berkwey, cornmonger (1 m.), Agnes de
Braughyng (33s. 4d.), Ralph de Braghyngg, girdler (10s.), John
de Chelse, chandler (22s. odd), Geoffrey de Gedelstone, cutler
(10s.), Ivo Persiual, woolmonger, of St. Albans (2 m.), John de
Redeburne, poulterer (£1), Richard Lusscher, alias de Tateregge,
tanner (8s. 4d.).
95 taxpayers. Essex is the county that has left numerically the
greatest contribution to the London population. The surname de
Berkyng has been supposed to have been taken from Barking Ess.
Several taxpayers had early London connections. Roger de
Frowyk, goldsmith and alderman (tax £4), came of an old London
family, and so doubtless did Thomas de Conyngham. Some people
with surnames such as Berkynge, Canefelde, Hallingbury, Manhale,
Peryngdon, Writele were sons of London citizens or connected with
such. William de Leyre is also in 1292 S.
16 are known to have been admitted in 1309 or later, but some
doubtless had a master's surname and need not have come from
Essex: Adam de Kanefelde, butcher, Alan de Chikewelle, fishmonger (tax £2), Thomas de Chikewelle, cordwainer (10s.), Richard
de Herlawe, butcher. Others were: John de Asshyndone, tailor,
Ernald le Chaundeler (of Berden), John de Claktone, tailor, John de
Herwardstok, mercer, William de Matthyng, William le Lacer, alias
de Aungre (10s.), John Belamy, merchant, of Great Sampford
(£2), John de Shenefelde, cordwainer, William de Schenefelde,
tanner, Sewal de Godesname, alias de Springefeld, paternostrer
(8s. 4d.), Ralph de Wandlesworthe, corder (of Broomfield), John
de Warle, merchant (1 m.). Hamo de Chikewelle, fishmonger,
alderman and Mayor (tax £2) was really Hamo de Dene, but this
surname may have been taken from a place in Essex.
There were relatively few high taxpayers, apart from those mentioned, the highest being William de Leyre, pepperer (40 m.), Thomas
de Roqeswelle (10 m.), William de Hokkele, stockfishmonger (43s.,
4d.), Richard de Berkyng, fishmonger (30s.) and William de Leytone,
woolmonger (£1). A few had taxes of from 11s. 8d. to 10s.
48 taxpayers, 12 with the surname de Kent. The three de Rokesles
belonged to an old London family; their taxes were remarkably
small (5s. to 20d.). Benedict de Shorne, fishmonger (10s.) was a
son of Roger de Schorne [1292 S], and Gilbert de Lesnes, goldsmith
(10s.), may have been connected with his namesake in 1292 S.
Most had no obvious connection with earlier London citizens.
Henry de Kent is also in 1292 S.
Some were admitted about 1310, as John de Bekenham, mercer,
Adam de Cantuaria, A. de Cobhampburi, cheesemonger, William
de Craye, butcher, Alexander le Cordewaner (of Greenwich), John
de Lesnes, tailor, Edmund de Leuesham, baker, and John de
Leuesham, fishmonger (?).
Most were small taxpayers. The highest were Simon le Carpenter
or de Cantuaria (1 m.), Stephen de Craye, stockfishmonger (31s. 8d.),
Henry de Kent, hosier, and John de Kancia, dyer (£1 each), Thomas
de Kent, bureller (16s. 8d.), John de Sellyngg, apothecary (£2), Henry de Shorne, fishmonger (1 m.).
47 taxpayers. Connection with earlier Londoners is probable for
some, as for Roger de Bernes, fishmonger (tax 30s.), Thomas do
Dunlee, pepperer, Nicholas de Reigate, girdler, Richard de Wandlesworthe. John de Stokwelle, painter, is in 1292 S.
15 are known to have been admitted in or after 1309: John de
Benstede, wax-chandler, William Schep, potter (of Burwood), William le Faunt, alias de Camerwelle, skinner (16s. 8d.), Walter de
Mordone of Croydon, stockfishmonger (16s. 8d.), John de Ewelle,
glover, Thomas de Kauendishe of Ewell, mercer (1 m.), John de
Godestone, hosier, Adam de Kyngestone, fishmonger, John Lok of
Ockley, cornmonger (11s. 8d.), Walter de Pappeworthe, dyer,
alderman (16s. 8d.), John and Richard de Porkesle, painters,
Richard de Talleworthe, shipwright, John le Fayner, alias de
Wandlesworth, haymonger, Richard de Yietyngg, fripperer (8s.).
There were few high taxpayers beyond those mentioned: William
de Cheyham, cornmonger (46s. 8d.), John Lok (of Qu), cornmonger
(£1), Robert de Pypehurste, gold-beater (1 m.).
Home Counties (unspecified).
23 taxpayers. The four Borehams may have been connected with
earlier London citizens. Sampson de Waledene, bureller (1 m.),
was doubtless connected with Thomas 1292 S. William de Nottele,
carpenter (8s.), probably took the surname of Hugh de Notteleye.
4 were admitted in or after 1309: Richard de Chibbenham, hosier,
John Pake, maltmonger (1 m.), Richard atte Rothe, chandler
(1 m.), William atte Rothe, salter (£4).
Relatively high taxpayers were: John de Borham, girdler (8s.),
Robert de Lambourne, bureller (£1), Reginald de Wodeham (1 m.).
Home Counties or the East Midlands.
9 taxpayers. Edmund de Grauele, painter, may have been
connected with William 1292 S. Four were admitted in 1311:
John de Denham, fishmonger (8s.), Richard Bokskyn, alias de
Gravele, fuster, Peter de Henham, hoder, David de Reynham,
brewer. Roger le Palmer senior, cornmonger and alderman, was
originally called de Coulinges. John le Mareschal of Walbr is also
in 1292 S. A high taxpayer was Richard de Renham, cornmonger
The East Midlands.
15 taxpayers. Three, William de Alegate (of Ampthill), potter,
Peter de Stoppesle, fuster, and Simon de Stoppesle, tanner, were
admitted in 1311 or later; the last took his master's surname.
Highest taxpayers: Nicholas de Donstaple (16s. 8d.) and John de
Stoppesle, tanner (10s.).
Only four taxpayers, the highest taxation being 40d.
26 taxpayers, several of whom had early London connections:
Yter de Compes, a son of Richard de Caumpes, ironmonger 1292 S,
Geoffrey de Caumpes, perhaps an apprentice of the same, Maud de
Cakestone, widow of William 1292 S (£2), David de Dullyngham,
butcher, Roger de Eli, fishmonger (£2), Geoffrey de Meldeburne,
merchant (£6 13s. 4d.), John de Pampesworthe (BreadSt), son of a
London cordwainer. Denis de Cantebrigg' is Denys le Orfeure
6 were admitted in 1309 or later: John de Badburgham, hatter,
Gilbert de Balsham, saddler (perhaps a master's surname), Thomas
de Balsham, cheesemonger, Richard de Dokesworthe, ironmonger,
Robert de Knapwelle, skinner (10s.), John le Quilter. (16s. 8d.).
High taxpayers beyond those mentioned: John de Balsham,
pepperer (25s.), Robert de Ely, fishmonger and alderman (£2),
Roger de Lyntone, probably a saddler (1 m.).
29 taxpayers. John de Bradelee was probably connected with
Geoffrey de Bradelee, girdler (1310-11 Will), and Thomas de
Bury was a son-in-law and probably an apprentice of Roger de
Bery 1292 S. The Cavendishes probably belonged to or were connected with a London family.
8 were admitted in 1309 or later: Hugh Herre, cornmonger, of
Battisford (£1), John de Dallingg junior, mercer, Geoffrey Cocus
(of Dennington), Roger de Donwyco, skinner, John de Ypeswiche,
mercer, John Knapwedd of Ipswich, mercer (10s.), Alan Gille of
Somerleyton or Somerton, cornmonger (2 m.), Geoffrey de Sudbury,
Elyas de Suffolk, goldsmith and alderman, had a tax of 1 m.
The number of taxpayers is no less than 61. Nicholas de Yernemuthe is in 1292 S.
15 are known to have been admitted in or after 1309. Apart from
those mentioned below they are: Thomas le Parchemyner (of
Bawdeswell), Simon and Walter le Foundour (of Ellingham),
Geoffrey le Foundour, William de Foundenhale, hatter, Hugh de
Hecham, lime-burner, Thomas de Lodene, woodmonger, Henry le
Fisshemonger, alias de Redenhale, John le Tableter.
The taxpayers of Norfolk offer particular interest and will be
dealt with more fully than those hitherto discussed.
There were a good many high taxpayers, and many were merchants, as drapers, mercers, pepperers. Several had early London
connections, but generally only for a generation back.
John de Aylesham, mercer and alderman (5s. 4d.), was admitted
in 1312. John de Berlingham, woolmonger (10s.), was admitted
in 1311. Thomas de Blakeneye, draper (£2), may have been an
apprentice of Adam (1295 Will) or of Peter (1311 Will). John de
Castelacre, goldsmith, had a tax of 10s. The Caustons, an important
family of mercers, are first represented by William (1297-8 Will).
A nephew of his was William, mercer and alderman (10 m.), and a
relative probably John, mercer and alderman (£1). John de Colkirk,
tailor, had a tax of 8s. 4d. John de Dallingg, mercer and sheriff,
had a tax of 2 m. John de Depham, mercer, was admitted in 1309-
10. It is doubtful if Andrew de Depham (10s.) was connected with
him. William de Elsyngg, mercer (1 m.), founder of Elsing Spittle,
shows no early connections with London; his brother was Richard
de Elsyngg, mercer. Benedict de Fulham (for Fulsham), pepperer,
alderman (16s. 8d.) may have been connected with Thomas de
Fullesham 1292 S. Elias le Callere of Garboldisham, mercer (44s.
odd), was admitted in 1310-11. William de Hakeforde, mercer
(11s. 1d.), had no known early London connections. William de
Hedersete, mercer and alderman (£1), may have been connected
with Nicholas, mercer (1290 Will). Richard de Horsham, mercer,
was elected a sheriff in 1312. Simon de Parys (of Necton), mercer,
alderman (10 m.). John de Pykenham, paternostrer (2 m.), had no
known early London connections. The same is true of Richer de
Refham, mercer, alderman, Mayor (8s. 4d.). Elias de Salle, mercer,
had a master's surname; he was admitted in 1310-11. Andrew de
Secheforde, mercer (6s.), was a son and Henry de Secheforde,
merchant and alderman (1 m.), a kinsman of Albin de Seccheford,
mercer, the first known bearer of the surname in London. Richard
Starcolf, mercer (6s. 8d.) was admitted in 1311. Robert de Worstede,
mercer (£4) may be identical with Robert 1292 S, the first known
bearer of the surname in London. Nicholas de Yernemuthe, perhaps
a skinner (£2), is first recorded in 1292 S.
27 taxpayers, 7 with the surname Lincoln. Peter de Bolyngtone
(1 m.), Richard de Bolyngtone (10s.), both fishmongers, and Hugh
de Bolyngtone may have been connected with William (1281 ff.),
John de Lyncolne, cordwainer (33s. 4d.), with John [1292 S.].
5 or 6 were admitted in or after 1309: John de Grantham, pepperer (70s.), Richard de Holebeche, hosier (1 m.), Robert de Casteuene,
tailor, Hugh de Lyncolne, skinner, Notekyn de Lincolne, if identical
with Richard, skinner (£2), William de Messyngham, mercer (1 m.).
Again we note several members of the merchant class.
The highest taxpayer was Robert de Kelleseye, lawyer and alderman (£20). Relatively high taxpayers were Walter de Bardeneie,
coffrer (16s. 8d.) and John de Lyndeseye, chandler (23s. 4d.).
18 taxpayers, 9 with the surname Northampton. Robert de
Dodeford, skinner (£2), is in 1292 S. Geoffrey and Margaret de
Norhamptone (of Bas) may both have been connected with Philip
1292 S (of Bas).
Four were admitted in or after 1309: Luke le Chaucer, alias de
Grendone, John de Kyslyngebery, hosier or draper (10s.), John de la
Nonneys, draper (25s.), Henry de Norhamptone, fripperer (10s.).
7 taxpayers. The most prominent one was John de Pulteneye, (fn. 1)
draper, alderman and Mayor (£1). Next as regards tax come John
de Wymondeswolde (16s. 8d.) and Nicholas de Segraue (5s.),
possibly a knight.
10 taxpayers. Ralph de Blythe, saddler (20s.), may have been
connected with earlier London citizens. John de Nothyngham,
fripperer, was admitted in 1310, Thomas le Mirurer, clerk, of
Selston in 1312. Geoffrey de Notyngham, skinner, had a tax of
The East Midlands (unspecified).
12 taxpayers. Thomas and William de Walepol, goldsmiths, may
have had early London connections. The following were admitted
after 1309: Richard Madour of Fakenham, capper (8s. 4d.), Adam
Haudeby, brewer, John de Someresham, draper, Henry de Stowe,
draper (2 m.). John le Mareschal of Barningham (of Cordw) had a
tax of £1.
The East Midlands or the North.
10 taxpayers. Aubry de Appilby was probably of London origin.
Relatively high taxpayers: Geoffrey de Brandone, mercer (27s.
odd), Peter de Nouo castro, skinner (8s. 4d.).
Southern and South-western Counties.
Only four taxpayers. William de Canefelde, alias de Rygewyk,
butcher, was admitted in 1312 and Henry de Denecoumbe, painter,
in 1310, but both had master's surnames. The others were William
de Arundel, horsemonger (11s. 8d.), and William de Wynchelse (15s.).
18 taxpayers, 10 with the surname Winchester.
Richolda de Basyng was the widow of William, woolmonger and
sheriff, who belonged to an old London family. William de Wyncestre, woolmonger (of Bill), was doubtless connected with William
1292 S (of Bill). Relatively high taxpayers were only John de
Wyntonia, barber (1 m.), John de Wyntonia, cordwainer, and William de Wyncestre, brewer (both 10s.).
18 taxpayers. Stephen de Abyndone, draper and alderman (£5)
was a son of Richard (1272-84), and so was perhaps Simon de
Abyndone, draper and alderman (5 m.). John de Neubury, corder,
was a son of Alan, merchant (1277, etc.), while Robert de Hakebourne, mercer, will have been connected with Richard 1292 S.
Alexander Baudry, alias de Redynghe, tanner, and John de
Warfeld, cornmonger, were admitted in or after 1309.
High taxpayers: William de Braye (£10), John de Braye (23s.
4d.), both woolmongers, Cristiana de Neubery (10s.). Thomas Cok,
draper (40 m.), is also called Th. Cok of Abyndon, but the latter
may be a master's surname.
8 taxpayers, four with the surname Oxford. John de Hoynesham
may be identical with John de Heynesham 1292 S.
Highest taxpayers: John de Charletone, mercer (5 m.), and John
de Epwelle, parson (10s.).
Only four taxpayers. Walter de Aumesbery, goldsmith, was
doubtless connected with Martin 1292 S. The other three had the
surname Salesbury. Adam de Salesbir', pepperer, had a tax of 70s.
John de Schaftebury (10d.).
Four taxpayers, or five, if John de Mountagu, tailor, took his
surname from Montacute, which is very doubtful. The highest
taxpayers were Henry de Somersete, baker (9s.), and Gilbert de
Tauntone, saddler (5s.).
9 taxpayers, five with the surname Exeter. Henry de Coumbemartyn, woolmonger and alderman (£2), was a kinsman of William,
alderman (1298-1318). Roesia Deueneys was perhaps the widow
of Richard, tailor (1294-1310). Richard de Deuonia and Robert
de Excestre were probably tailors, and Elyas le Armurer (or de
Wodebere), admitted in 1310, a tailor or linen-armourer. The
highest tax, apart from Henry de Coumbemartyn, was 40d.
Thomas de Cornwaille, tailor (12d.).
8 taxpayers, or 9, if Henry Dymmok took his surname from
Dymock. Two had the surname Bristoll. six the surname Gloucester.
Henry de Gloucestre, goldsmith and alderman (tax only 6s. 8d.),
may have been a son of William de Gloucestre (1252-68). Two or
three other taxpayers with this surname seem to have been goldsmiths. The only high taxpayer was Richard de Gloucestre, draper
and alderman (£10).
Southern Counties (unspecified).
13 taxpayers. Agnes de Wobourne was the widow of Ralph,
currier. Godfrey le Whittawier, alias de Yfeld, was admitted in
1312, William atte Wyche in 1311.
High taxpayers: John atte Sole, moneyer, and Roger de Suthcote,
cornmonger (£2 each), William de Soudele (2½m.).
The West Midlands.
Four taxpayers, all with the surname Hereford. John de Hereforde, saddler, may have had earlier London connections. Stephen
de Hereforde, hatter (11s. 8d.) was admitted in 1311, Richard de
Hereforde, draper, in 1309-10.
Three taxpayers. The highest taxpayer was Hugh de Wircestre,
skinner (8s. 4d.).
Five taxpayers. Henry de Ardena, merchant, was a son of William de Arderne, tailor. Simon Pottarius, alias de Flechamstede,
was admitted after 1310-11. The highest tax was 20d. John de
Kileworthe, draper, had a tax of 13½d.
Four taxpayers, two with the surname Shrewsbury. Highest
Only Thomas de Enefelde, alias Evenefeld, pepperer (£2). He was
admitted before 1308-9.
Five taxpayers, three with the surname Derby. Hugh de Ayssheburne, cordwainer (10s.) will have been connected with Richard,
cordwainer (1276 ff.). Heruy de Derbi, skinner, had a tax of 11s. odd.
Only Richard de Blakenhale (20d.), probably an armourer.
The West Midlands (unspecified).
Three taxpayers: Bartholomew de Bordesle, fripperer, son of
Geoffrey (1311-12 Will), Hugh de Madele, tailor, William atte
Ok, butcher. Highest tax 3s.
William de Bristenok, perhaps a baker or cornmonger (10s.) and
Edmund Mohaut, fripperer, probably connected with Adam (1303).
Northern England and Scotland.
18 taxpayers. Salerna de Beuerle was the widow of William,
vintner. Hugh de Gartone, mercer and alderman (£10), and William
de Gartone, mercer, were evidently connected with William de
Garton (1298-1312). Henry Darcy, draper, alderman and Mayor
(50s.), was admitted in 1310, Simon le Callere in 1309, Walter de
Scardburghe, cook, in 1311. Simon de Swanlonde, draper, alderman
and Mayor, had a tax of £20.
Three taxpayers: William de Bedik, pepperer, possibly connected
with Adam de Bidik, tailor (1276-99), Thomas de Dureme,
spurrier (10s.), and John le Cotiller, alias de Hertepol (20d.).
Three taxpayers: Margareta Hawyk, no doubt a widow, Nicholas
le Longe of Newcastle on Tyne, fripperer (11s.), admitted in
1309-10, and Andrew de Tyndale.
John de Kendale (2s. 6d.).
Four taxpayers. Two were potters, William Ingelwode and
Robert de Raghtone. The latter had the highest tax (5s.).
Thomas de Galeweye, Geoffrey Scot, fishmonger, a son of
Geoffrey 1292 S, Gilbert Scot. Richard le Hare (Cornh) may be for
R. de Hare (Are), Are being the old form of Ayr. Highest tax 2s.
John le Northren, Thomas de Horneby.
About 150 taxpayers had surnames derived from, or were associated with, places whose names are found in various parts of England,
and it is generally impossible to determine which place was the
name-giver. Most of the persons with such names were small taxpayers. Some can be connected with earlier London citizens with the
same surname, as Nicholas de Bentele, John de Colewelle, mercer
(1 m.), Thomas de Farndone, goldsmith, Laurence de Hanyntone,
skinner (£1), connected with William 1292 S, Peter de Hatfelde,
bureller, Geoffrey de Littlingtone, dyer, Roger de Netelstede, skinner, William de Neweport, fishmonger, Emma de Staunforde (1 m.),
widow of Andrew 1292 S. Nicholas de Farndone, goldsmith, alderman and Mayor (11s. odd), was of London descent, the surname
having probably been taken from a master.
Two are found in 1292 S: Stephen de Prestone, corder (£1), and
perhaps John de Coton, skinner.
About 25 are known to have been admitted in or after 1309.
Some evidently had taken over masters' surnames. Examples are:
Elyas de Bamptone, skinner (8s. 4d.), Walter Bois, batour, Henry de
Bramptone, cook, William de Cestre, bowyer, Philip de Farnham,
pepperer, Walter Gorst, pepperer (30s.), Hervy de Hales, woodmonger (a master's surname), John de Heslewelle, bureller, William
Robert, alias de Hatfeld, butcher, Richard le Coffrer, alias de
Hortone, John Edward, alias de Mortone, butcher, Adam le Nayler,
alias atte Newecastel, William de Ottele, dubber, Walter Stok,
William le Peautrer, alias de Suttone, Robert de Suttone, lorimer,
Walter Larblaster, alias de Thorp, Roger de Waltham, butcher,
William de Waltham, cordwainer, Ivo le Joignour, alias de Wattone, Thomas de Welleforde, hosier (doubtless a master's surname).
The highest taxpayers were John de Assheforde, woolmonger
(30s.), John de Codyngtone, woolman (50s.), John de Coton,
skinner and alderman (£2), John de Prestone, corder (5 m.). Relatively high taxpayers: Richard de Farnberghe, coffrer (10s.), Richard
de Farnham, pepperer (10s.), Thomas de Hales, woodmonger (15s.),
William de Hanyntone (11s. odd), Gilbert de Mordone, stockfishmonger (£1), William de Mortone, bureller (16s. 8d.), Henry de
Prestone, corder (1 m.), Stephen de Prestone, corder (£1), Alan
de Suttone, saddler (£1), William de Waltham, goldsmith (10s.),
Nigel de Whatele, oatmonger (8s. 8d.).
The following persons with non-local surnames, admitted in or
after 1309, may be identified with taxpayers of 1319. The surnames
are given in the form of the Subsidy: Ralph Abraham, girdler,
Aubin Larblaster, Adam Ballard, cornmonger, John Barette,
cornmonger, John Barun, batour, Simon Blak, tableter, William
Bon emfaunt, saddler, Robert Burel, cordwainer, Nigel le Carpenter, John le Chaundeler of FarrE, Simon le Chaundeler, Walter
le Coo, John Cosyn, cook, Richard Coterel, cordwainer, N. Crane,
butcher, John Eliot, carter, Ralph Elys, stockfishmonger, Hamo le
Fishmonger, Richard le Forester, baker, Richard Hayn, baker,
John Heryng, fripperer, Denis le Haymonger, Gilbert le Hurer (?),
John le Litel, hatter, Peter Mory, butcher (8s. 4d.), John Mounde,
cornmonger, William Muriele, poulterer, Robert Newecome, sealengraver, Robert Pany, mason, William Paskes, saddler, Simon
Robes, pepperer (?), Richard Rolf, lorimer, Robert Sayleben, cook,
Richard Soyl, butcher, Richard Sorel, cordwainer, Roger Swetyng,
Richard Swyft, fripperer, Richard Trugg, girdler.
3. Summary and Conclusions.
The material collected in the preceding pages shows that the
number of London people with surnames derived from places in
England outside London or otherwise known to have come to
London from the provinces, is very considerable in both subsidies,
but that such people are relatively more numerous in the later than
in the earlier one (in 1319 about 900 out of about 1,850 persons
mentioned). It must again be emphasized that a good many of
these people were doubtless London born, being either sons or
descendants of earlier immigrants or else apprentices of people with
a local surname. But we may suppose that a considerable number
of these taxpayers were actually immigrants or at any rate sons of
immigrants. Indeed it can be proved that many taxpayers with
local surnames in the Subsidy of 1319 were immigrants. Moreover,
there is no reason to suppose that the taxpayers with other than
local surnames were all Londoners by birth. We have been able
to show that many people with non-local surnames in the roll of
1319 appear with local surnames in other sources or can be proved
by other evidence to have come from the provinces, and that not a
few of them are known to have been admitted freemen shortly
before 1319. In all probability many taxpayers with surnames of
occupation or relationship or the like, on whose early history nothing
is known, were likewise immigrants. All things considered, it is
probable that the percentage of actual immigrants from the provinces in London about 1300 was high, but an approximate figure
had better not be suggested.
In the Subsidy of 1292 taxpayers associated with the Home
Counties form the largest group among what we may for shortness'
sake call "immigrants". They are about 125 or almost half the
number. But the probability is that many among the 60 persons
placed under Various Counties came from the Home Counties, for
instance those with surnames such as Graveley, Hadle, Hatfeld,
Langele, Mordon, Nettlestede, Preston, Saunford, Stanford, Waltham,
since places with those names are found in these counties. Next
come taxpayers associated with the East Midlands, just under 60.
The remaining groups are quite small, the taxpayers associated
with the South and South-West being 32, those with the North of
England 12, and those with the West Midlands 9 only. The majority
of the taxpayers belonging to the last three groups had names
taken from towns, such as Winchester, Oxford, Gloucester, Hereford,
Coventry, York, Durham.
In the Subsidy of 1319 (fn. 1) the relative figures show certain important differences from those for the earlier subsidy. In comparing
the figures for the two subsidies it must, of course, be remembered
that the known taxpayers of 1292 are less than half the number of
those of 1319. The taxpayers associated with the Home Counties
still form the largest group, numbering about 350, yet considerably
less than half the number of immigrants. But those associated
with the East Midlands are a good second, numbering over 200.
Southern and South-Western England comes third with 88 taxpayers, followed by the North with 34 or 35 taxpayers, and the
West Midlands inclusive of Wales with 28. Oxfordshire has exactly
8 taxpayers in both subsidies, which means a relative decrease in
The small contribution given to the London population by the
Southern and South-Western counties is striking. It is surprising
that only two taxpayers can with certainty be assigned to such a
county as Sussex in 1292, four in 1319. The numbers for Worcestershire and Warwickshire are two each in 1292, three and five respectively in 1319, for Staffordshire none in 1292, one in 1319.
But the point of most interest is the considerable rise in the numbers of taxpayers from the East Midlands in 1319, and especially
the rise in the number of those associated with Norfolk from 7 in
1292 to 61 in 1319. Lincolnshire has risen from four in 1292 to 27,
Leicestershire from one to seven. It is clear that a considerable
immigration took place about 1300 from the East Midlands,
However, it is not only the numerical rise that is of interest here.
As was pointed out in the discussion of immigrants from Norfolk
in the Subsidy of 1319, it is a remarkable fact that very many among
the people from that county belonged to the merchant class and
appear as large or relatively large taxpayers in 1319, and the same
is true to a certain extent of immigrants from other East Midland
counties. Not a few aldermen, sheriffs, and even Mayors are among
their number. We may note in the Subsidy of 1319 such prominent
citizens as John de Grantham, John de Pulteneye, Richer de
Refham, aldermen and Mayors, John de Aylesham, John and
William de Caustone, Benedict de Fulsham, William de Hedersete,
Simon de Parys, Henry de Secheforde (all Nf), Elias de Suffolk,
Robert de Ely, Robert de Kelleseye, perhaps Roger le Palmer
senior, all aldermen, John de Dallingg, sheriff, Richard de Horsham, elected sheriff. Of South Yorkshire were Henry Darcy and
Simon de Swanlonde, aldermen and Mayors, Hugh de Gartone,
alderman. No similar list could be drawn up for taxpayers associated
with the Home Counties in spite of their large numbers; there are
only Richard de Hakeneye (Mx), John de Wengraue (Bk), Richard
de Berkyngg, Roger de Frowyk, William de Leyre, perhaps Hamo
de Chikewelle (Ess), Walter de Mordone and Walter de Pappeworthe (Sr). If Berks is included in the Home Counties, Simon
and Stephen de Abyndone are to be added.
This means that the merchant class, which formed the upper
stratum of London society, (fn. 1) in the first two decades of the fourteenth century was very strongly recruited from the East Midlands.
Now it is a known fact that the language of London in the twelfth
and thirteenth centuries was of an East Saxon type, but that in
the fourteenth century it changed its character and became in the
main an East Midland dialect. It has been suggested that this
change was due to an influx into London of people from the East
Midlands. In this form the theory is hardly tenable, for the chief
immigration into London was from the Home Counties, especially
Essex and Herts. But the people who came from these districts
were chiefly handicraftsmen and small dealers, only to a small
extent of the merchant class. However, the theory may be modified
in the following way. The immigration of numerous people belonging
to the merchant class from the East Midlands may have influenced
the language of the upper stratum of London society and given it
a mainly Midland character, and the later Standard English may
have grown out of this upper-class London dialect.
The material in the Subsidies of 1292 and 1319 is not sufficient
for a definite solution of this problem. The influx of people from
the East Midlands continued in the decades succeeding 1320 at
least down to the middle of the century. The editor has collected
voluminous material for London citizens with local surnames down
to 1350 or slightly later, but it has grown so in bulk that it can
hardly be published in full. It may be possible to work up the part of
the material from the East Midlands and the North and publish