Flyleaf, folios 1-10
c.1460 - c.1463

Sponsor

Centre for Metropolitan History

Publication

Author

Reginald R. Sharpe (editor)

Year published

1912

Pages

1-20

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'Flyleaf, folios 1-10: c.1460 - c.1463', Calendar of letter-books of the city of London: L: Edward IV-Henry VII (1912), pp. 1-20. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=33640 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Fly leaf.

Trade Marks of the following Coopers, 12 Edward IV. — 18 Henry VII., viz., William Rolff, Richard Cok, John Priour, Simon Rokesley, John Chamberleyn, John Baker, W. Hunt, W. Randolf, John Gurney, Robert Sion, Walter Cokk, W. Cokk, John Rogger, John York, Thomas Elnore, W. Horton, Geoffrey Farand, Thomas Cusake, Roger Rolf, William Matrasse, Agnes Asser, John Mynto, Richard Fresshwater, William Cooke, William Petche, John Turtill, William Baren, Thomas Cowper, William Trotter, John Aspelyn.

Fly leaf, dors.

Folio 1 b.

Inspeximus of record of proceedings held before Henry, late de facto, but not de jure, King of England, to the following effect :—

Pleas held before the King at Westminster, Michaelmas Term, anno 38 Henry VI. [A.D. 1459]. Precept issued to the Keeper of the King's prison of Flete or his Lieutenant to bring up the body of John West, "notary," a prisoner there, together with the reason of his detention, before the King at Westminster, on Monday next after the Feast of St. Martin in yeme [11 Nov.], to await a judgment of a jury in a plea of trespass between the said John West and John Skargyll. Thereupon, on the day appointed, William Venour, Keeper of the said prison, appeared with the said John West and certified that the said John had been committed to that prison by William [de Waynflete], Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor, for divers sums of money which Thomas Baron, John Barly, John Proufford, and John Warde had recovered against him in the Court of the lord the King in his Tower of London before Richard Gower, esquire, the Lieutenant of Henry, Duke of Exeter, the Constable of the Tower, and John Watkyns, the Steward of the said Court in pleas of trespass. Thereupon the said John West had declared that for none of the above causes should he have been committed, on the ground that the said Court in the Tower had always been no more than a Court Baron, and that the Lieutenant and Steward could only hold pleas such as appertained to a Court Baron, and that there was no evidence of the Court in the Tower ever having been a Court of Record or anything else but a Court Baron, and this he was ready to prove. He therefore prayed acquittal. Cur. ad. vult. A day given, the prisoner being allowed bail.

On the day appointed, both parties appeared, and the said Thomas Baron showed the Court that time out of mind a Court of Piepowder (fn. 1) had daily been held before the Lieutenant of the Constable of the Tower and the Steward for hearing pleas of debt, trespass, and all kinds of personal actions arising within the Tower and its precinct, and that in such Court held on the 22nd July, anno 37 Henry VI. [A.D. 1459], he had brought three several plaints before Richard Gower, then Lieutenant of Henry, Duke of Exeter, the Constable of the Tower, against the said John West, as appears on record, and that the said John had been committed to the Keeper of the King's prison in the Lower, quousque, &c., and this the said Thomas was ready to prove. After several adjournments, the said John West duly appeared before the Court on the day appointed, but the said Thomas Baron made default. The Court thereupon, after consideration of the evidence, and of the fact that the Court in the Tower had always been, and was still, held to be only a Court Baron and not a Court of Record, adjudged that the said John West should be quit and his sureties discharged. In testimony whereof these letters patent of exemplification were made. Witness T[homas] Billyng (fn. 2) at Westminster, 20 Oct., 12 Edward [IV.], [A.D. 1472].

Folio 2.

Custod' pueror Ric' Rool.

Monday, 20 March, 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1460-1], came William Boylet, John Stone, Thomas Burgeys, and Richard West, tailors, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Richard Lee, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and entered into bond with Thomas Thorntone, the Chamberlain, (fn. 3) in the sum of £90, for payment into the Chamber by the said William Boylet of a like sum to the use of Hugh, Thomas, Richard, and Agnes, children of Richard Rook, late tailor, on their coming of age or the marriage of the said Agnes.

Custod' pueror' Joh' is Chacombe.

Friday, 6 Aug., 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], came William Chacombe of co. Northampton, Henry Chacombe, William Burtone, drapers, and John Parisshe, "peautrer," into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before the Mayor and Aldermen, and acknowledged themselves bound to Thomas 'Thorndone," the Chamberlain, in the sum of 400 marks, for payment, to the Chamberlain for the time being, of the patrimony due to John, Thomas, William Leticia, Katherine, Johanna, and Alice, children of John Chacombe, late mercer, on their coming of age, or marriage of the said daughters.

Folio 2 b.

Concessio fact' Tho' e Knolles de aqua ducenda ad prisonas de Neugate et Ludgate.

Indenture of grant by Reginald, the Prior of St. Bartholomew in Westsmythfeld, and Convent of the same, to Thomas Knolles, grocer, allowing him to carry off superfluous water belonging to the Priory, and conduct it by pipes to the gates of Neugate and Ludgate, for the relief of poor prisoners there. Sealed with the seals of the said Prior and Convent, and also of the said Thomas Knolles, Henry Frowyk being then Mayor, Robert Cloptone and Thomas Catworth then Sheriffs. Dated in the Chapter House of the Priory, 20 June, A.D. 1436.

Folio 3.

Concessio fact' Thome Knolles de aqua ducenda ad portas de Neugate et Lidgate.

Indenture of grant by John Wakeryng, the Master of the Hospital of St. Bartholomew in Westsmythfeld, and brethren of the same, to Thomas Knolles, grocer, of their waste water coming from a cistern near the common fountain and Chapel of St. Nicholas, to be by him conveyed by leaden pipes to the gates of "Newgate" and Ludgate, for the relief of poor prisoners there. Sealed with the common seal of the said Hospital, and also the seal of the said Thomas Knolles. Dated in the Chapter House of the said Master and Brethren, 19 May, A.D. 1442. (fn. 4)

Folio 3 b.

3 April, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], came John Worsoppe, draper, Thomas Bernewey, draper, John Alburgh, mercer, and John Broun, mercer, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Hugh Wyche, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and entered into bond with Thomas "Thorndone," the Chamberlain, in the sum of 250 marks, for the delivery by the above John Worsoppe or some one on his behalf, to the Chamberlain for the time being, of the patrimony due to Edith and Elizabeth, daughters of Robert Colby, late draper, when they come of age or marry, together with certain jewels and other goods, comprising (inter alia) a standing piece of silver-gilt with the sign of a "Wodewose" (fn. 5) on the top of the cover, silver spoons with "Wodewoses" at the end, silver spoons with "lez unicornes" at the end; primaria (primers?), and table-cloths (mensalia) worked with "Flouris de lice." (fn. 6)

Folio 4.

Coronacio Regis Edwardi quarti.

Petition to the Duke of Clarence, Steward of England, by Richard Lee, with the common consent of the citizens, by the mouth of the Recorder, that they may be allowed to serve the King at his Coronation, according to custom:—

"Shewen and besechen unto your goode and gracieux Lordshipe the Maire and Citeseyns of the Citee of London that Where after the libertees and com'endable custumes of the saide Citee of tyme that no man is mynde is to the contraire Used enjoyed and accustumed the Maire of the same Cite for the tyme beyng by raison of his saide office of Mairalte in his owne persone oweth of right and duetee to serve the King oure allez liege lord in the day of his full noble Coronac'on after mete in such place as it shal please his highnesse to take his spices (fn. 7) of Wyne in a cup of gold of our saide liege lord the King and the same cup with the coveryng belongyng thereunto and a layer of gold the said Mair to have and with hym to bere away atte tyme of his departyng for his fee and reward And also that diverse oþ'e Citeseyns þat by the saide Mair and Citee shal þ'to be named and chosen owen of right by the said custume at þe same day to serve in thoffice of Buttlershipe in helping of the chief buttler of Englond to þe lordes and estates þat shall be at the saide Coronac'on aswell atte table in the halle at mete as at after mete in þe Chambre Beseching your saide lordshipe that Richard Lee nowe Maire and oþ'e Citeseyns of þe Citee forsaide to þe saide office and s'vice nowe chosen whos names in a scedule herunto annexed be specified may be admytted to doo þe saide s'vice as their predecessours Mair and Citeseyns of þe saide Cite have in case semblable ben in dayes passed Also the saide Maire and Citeseyns prayen that they accordyng to þe libertees and Custumes forsaid may sitte in þe day of þe saide Coronac'on at þe table next þe cupbord of þe lifte side of þe hall and that the said Mair may have and enioye his said fee and Rewarde accordyng to his duete."

The above petition being allowed by the said Duke and confirmed by the King's sign manual, the Mayor and citizens ordered the fact to be placed on record to the following effect, viz., that Richard Lee, the Mayor, at the Coronation banquet in the great hall at Westminster, took the first table on the left side of the said hall near the King's cupboard (cipharium), and the other citizens with him according to the liberties and customs anciently used.

Folio 4 b.

Moreover, the aforesaid Mayor, the boards and tables being removed (amotis tabulis et mensis subtractis) (fn. 8) in the chamber of the lord the King, serving in his own person, offered wine to the royal mouth in a gold cup, at the same time presenting a golden ewer (fiolam) filled with water to temper the wine withal. Moreover, certain notable men specially appointed thereto, whose names are subscribed, attended the Chief Butler of England both in the hall and chamber according to their privilege. All being over, the said Mayor took and carried away the said gold cup, together with its cover, and also the ewer, as his fee and reward, and so the Mayor, enriched with the royal gift, returned home.

Robert Scrayngham, Thomas Muschamp, Mercers, John Lambe, William Haydok, Grocers; Thomas Eyre, Henry Waver, Drapers, William Chattok, John Bernewell, Fishmongers; Humfrey Hayford, Goldsmith; William Gregory, Skinner; Laurence Wilkynson, Vintner; William Knot, Tailor; William Corbet, Iremonger.

Folio 4 b-5.

Nota de Convivio Servientum ad legem.

Record of proceedings which took place at a feast given by the Serjeants-at-law in their Hall on Monday, 7 Oct., 3 Edward IV. [A.D. 1463], (fn. 9) to which Matthew Philip, the Mayor, and other citizens had been invited, but which they abruptly left, owing to the Mayor not being allotted the seat of honour which he had claimed, and which had been given to the Lord Treasurer. Dinner finished, a deputation, consisting of John Clay, Knt., John Say, the Speaker, John Denham, and Hugh Fen, Under-treasurer of England, was dispatched to the Mayor to assure him that what had taken place did not meet with the approval of the lords who were present, and to ask him that he would honour them with his presence the next day at dinner, when he should be accorded a place suited to his position. To this the Mayor said he would give an answer the following day after consulting the Aldermen. When the time came, and the deputation again appeared in the Inner Chamber of the Guildhall, answer was made that inasmuch [ends abruptly].

Folio 5 b.

Licenc' dat' Haymanno Voyet desponsare Agnet' filiam Will' m i Heydon. (fn. 11)

7 Oct., 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], came Haymann Voyet, physician, and Agnes his wife, daughter of William Heydone, late haberdasher, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Hugh Wyche, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and acknowledged that he had received his wife's patrimony from Robert Boteler, William Porter, and Richard Wright, goldsmiths.

Exon' acio custod' Alic' Crichefeld fil' Joh' is Crichefeld.

19 Sept., 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], came Johanna Sevenok, Prioress of Haliwell, and Alice, daughter of John Crichefeld, a nun of Haliwell, aged 15½ years, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Hugh Wyche, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and acknowledged satisfaction for the patrimony of the said Alice.

Q'd materie Civitat' pre omnib' attendant' quolibet die Lune.

Be it remembered that on the day of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.], 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], on consideration by Richard Lee, the Mayor, Thomas Ursewyk, the Recorder, Hugh Wiche, John Norman, William Marwe, Thomas Scot, William Hulyn, Matthew Philip, John Walden, Ralph Josselyn, William Taillour, Thomas Oulegreve, John Stokker, Richard Flemyng, John Lambert, George Irland, and Robert Basset, Aldermen, it was ordained that on every Monday (except some urgent cause prevents) the City's affaiis should be especially attended to, and the consideration of private matters postponed, for the public welfare.

Officium garbellag' speciar' concess' Joh' i Stokes.

Wednesday, 21 Oct., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], the Office of Garbelage of spices was granted to John Stokes, grocer, at the request of John Fogg, Knt., Treasurer of the King's Household, by Richard Lee, the Mayor, Thomas Ursewyk, the Recorder, John Norman, William Marwe, Thomas Scot, William Hulyn, Matthew "Phelip," John Waldene, Thomas Cook, Thomas Oulegreve, William Taillour, Richard Flemyng, George Irland, and Robert Basset, Aldermen, the said John Stokes paying yearly to the Chamberlain, for the City's use, the sum of 20s.

Eleccio Vicecomilum.

The Feast of St. Matthew, Ap. [21 Sept.], 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], in the presence of Richard Lee, the Mayor, Thomas Ursewyk, the Recorder, John Norman, William Marowe, Matthew Philip, John Walden, Thomas Cook, John Feld, Ralph Josselyn, Thomas Oulegreve, William Taillour, Hugh Wyche, John Stokker, George Irland, Richard Flemyng, John Lambert, and Robert Basset, Aldermen, and very many Commoners, summoned to the Guildhall for the election of Sheriffs, John Lok, vintner, was elected one of the Sheriffs of London and Middlesex (fn. 12) by the Mayor, and George Irland, grocer, was elected the other Sheriff by the Commonalty.

The same day, Thomas Thorndone, draper, was elected Chamberlain for the ensuing year; Peter Alphold and Peter Calcot were elected Wardens of the City's Bridge; Thomas Oulegreve, William Taillour, Aldermen, William Corbet, Robert Scrayngham, William Hampton, and Nicholas Marchall, Commoners, were elected Auditors of the accounts of the Chamberlain and Wardens in arrear.

Afterwards, viz., on the eve of St. Michael [29 Sept.], the said Sheriffs were sworn at the Guildhall, and on the morrow of the said Feast were presented, admitted, and accepted before the Barons of the Exchequer.

Folio 6.

Eleccio Maioris.

The Feast of the Translation of St. Edward [13 Oct.], 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], in the presence of Richard Lee, the Mayor, Thomas Ursewyk, the Recorder, John Norman, William Marwe, Thomas Scot, William Hulyn, Matthew Philip, Thomas Cook, John Feld, William Taillour, Ralph Josselyn, Thomas Oulegreve, John Stokker, Hugh Wiche, Richard Flemyng, John Walshawe, John Lambert, George Irland, and Robert Basset, Aldermen, and an immense Commonalty, summoned to the Guildhall for the election of a Mayor for the year ensuing, Hugh Wyche, Alderman, was elected.

Afterwards, viz., on the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.], he was sworn at the Guildhall, and on the morrow was presented, admitted, and accepted before the Barons of the Exchequer.

Finis Joh' is Fabian pro maritag' cujusdam Orphane, etc.

4 Dec., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], John Fabyan, draper, condemned by the Mayor and Aldermen to pay £40 to the Chamber, for having married Johanna, daughter of Roger Hasant, late draper, a City orphan, without obtaining permission from the Mayor and Aldermen.

Afterwards, on the said John making submission and confessing that he had acted through ignorance, half the fine was remitted.

Warantum Wardmoti, etc.

12 Dec., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], Precept to the Aldermen to hold their Wardmotes. (fn. 13)

Folio 6 b.

Jud' m pillorii Simo' is Ludbroke pro quadam obligac' oe fraud ter per ipsum facta.

27 Oct. [1 Edward IV.], Simon Ludbroke summoned before the Mayor and Aldermen for practising a fraud upon Johanna, late wife of John Martyn, and at the time married to Thomas Pynde, taverner, by a certain bond made between the said Johanna and Robert Snell, "brasyer," whereby she became bound to the said Robert in the sum of £40, and the said Robert became similarly bound to the said Johanna in a like sum, that they would abide by the judgment of the said Simon and a certain Thomas Pilche as arbitrators between them. There was, however, fraud in the matter, inasmuch as Robert Snell's bond was conditioned, whereas the other bond was without condition, and had been forged by the said Simon. On appearing before the Mayor and Aldermen, the said Simon confessed that the bond had been fabricated for the purpose of frightening the said Johanna into a marriage with the said Robert Snell, who thought her to be a widow. Thereupon the said Simon was committed to prison until the matter should be fully considered.

Afterwards, viz., on the 13th December, the said Simon, at the suggestion of Thomas Pynde, stood on the pillory for half an hour, the said Thomas being warned to take no action on account of the deception practised on his wife. Nevertheless, the said Thomas, whilst the said Simon was on the pillory, took away the ladder, and caused rotten eggs to be thrown at him, and for want of the ladder, the said Simon had to stand on the pillory a whole hour contrary to the decree of the Mayor. For so doing, the said Thomas was summoned before the Mayor and Aldermen, and confessing his guilt was committed to prison, for, says Seneca, vindicta vindictam requirit. (fn. 14) After two days, he made submission, and it was then agreed that he should pay a fine of £20 as an example for others not to slight the commands of superiors. On the 16th Dec. the fine was reduced to £10.

Proclamacio pro vicis Civit' mundand' et candelis in vicos palam illuminand'.

Proclamation ordering every sufficient freeman to hang out at his window or door a lantern, with a candle light therein of 12 to the pound at least, at the hour of "vii of the bell" at night, and forbidding the casting of dung or rubbish into the open streets or lanes.

Folio 7.

Ordinacio facta pro mundac'oe Civitat'.

Thursday, 5 Nov., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], ordinance by the Common Council to the effect that John Hornecastell, Serjeant of the channel (canell') (fn. 15) for the time being, shall go round the City with constables of each Ward to cleanse the streets and lanes of the City, and, wherever they find mud or other unclean thing, to distrain those whose duty it is to remove it, and not to surrender the distress until a fine of 4 pence be paid to the Chamber. If an attempt be made at rescue, the offenders to be committed to prison at the discretion of the Mayor and Aldermen.

Precept for an armed watch to be kept by night in every Ward, between 9 P.M. and 4 A.M., and for lanterns to be hung out. [No date.]

A schedule of the number of men to be provided by each Ward to keep the watch. Total, 285 men.

Q' d Tegulatores Laborarii reputentur.

Friday, 2 Oct., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], ordinance by the Common Council, there being present Richard Lee, the Mayor, Thomas Ursewyk, the Recorder, John Norman, William Marwe, Thomas Scot, William Hulyn, John Walden, John Feld, John Stokker, Thomas Oulegreve, John Walsshawe, William Taillour, Ralph Josselyn, Richard Flemyng, John Lambert, Hugh Wyche, and Robert Basset, Aldermen, and an immense Commonalty, that tilers of the City shall thenceforth be reputed as labourers, and shall not be incorporated nor be deemed to constitute an Art or Society. (fn. 16)

Q' d Amerciamenta Cur' Maioris int' Camer' et Vic' London' equaliter dividantur.

Monday, 9 Nov., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], it was agreed by Hugh Wiche, the Mayor, Thomas Scot, Richard Lee, Matthew Philip, Thomas Cook, John Feld, William Taillour, Thomas Oulegreve, John Stokker, William Marwe, John Middelton, George Irland, and Robert Basset, Aldermen, that amercements in the Mayor's Court should be equally divided between the Sheriffs and the Chamber.

Q' d querele coram Vic' capiend' per eor' clericos debile intrentur, etc.

Thursday, 13 Nov., the same year, it was ordained by Hugh Wyche, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, that all plaints thenceforth to be taken by clerks of the Sheriffs should be by them taken and enrolled in the Compters, or in full Sheriffs' Court in the Guildhall, and not elsewhere, under penalty of losing their office.

4 Feb., 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462-3], ordinance by Thomas Cook, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, that Margaret Clarenceux, widow of Roger Clarenceux, King of Arms, shall have a house assigned to her by the Chamberlain of the yearly value of 6s. 8d.

Folio 7 b.

Eleccio Ric' i Bowherst ad colligend' am'ciamenta.

At a Common Council held on Friday the 25th Sept., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], there being present Richard Lee, the Mayor, Thomas Ursewyk, the Recorder, John Norman, John Walden, John Eeld, Ralph Josselyn, William Taillour, Thomas Oulegreve, Hugh Wyche, John Stokker, John Walsshawe, Robert Basset, Richard Flemyng, and John Lambert, Aldermen, and an immense Commonalty, Richard Bowherst was appointed collector of all issues and amercements of vendors of ale within the liberty of the City, making a return of the same to the Chamberlain for the time being.

Licenc' dat' Vicecomitibus ad h' end' tot s' vient' q' t eis videbitur exped'.

The same day, permission was granted to the recently elected Sheriffs, viz., George Irland and John Lok, to have as many Serjeants as they may deem necessary, the ordinance of the 8th July, 30 Henry VI. [A.D. 1452], notwithstanding. (fn. 17)

Exon' acio custod' Ph' i Bulwyk.

20 March, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461-2], Philip, son of John Bulwyk, late grocer, a City orphan of full age, acknowledged satisfaction for all jewels and utensils bequeathed to him by his parents.

Qualiter Maior sumpsit seisinam porte de Bisshopesgate eo q' d m' catores de Hansa Aleman' etc.

Record of a dispute having arisen between the citizens of London and merchants of Almaine touching the repair and custody of Bishopesgate, the latter claiming under an ancient "composition" the repair and custody of one part above the gate, (fn. 18) whilst the custody of the two parts below appertained to the citizens. By virtue of which composition the said merchants claim a mansion over the gate, and the right to demise it at will for a term of years, and also claim, in time of war, to guard two parts above the middle of the gate, viz., one where "le portcolys" is situate, and another part over the battlement, whilst the citizens guard the parts below; but the said merchants claim to be bound to undertake the burden provided only they receive the emoluments of the gate. The deed of "composition" being thereupon examined by the Mayor and Aldermen, it was found that the said merchants had no right to the mansion over the gate, but in return for certain privileges they enjoyed in the City, they were bound to undertake the aforesaid duties. It was further found that they were not bound in time of war to defend the middle part, viz., where the "Portcoles" was situate, but had to defend the portion above the battlement, the part near the "Portcoles" being too perilous in war time to commit to the custody of foreigners.

On the 5th March, 1 Edward IV. (fn. 19) [A.D. 1460-1], the said merchants appeared on summons before the Mayor and Aldermen in the Inner Chamber, and were asked, as they had often been asked before, to deliver up the keys, so that the gate, which had fallen into decay, might be repaired. This they refused to do. Thereupon it was agreed by Hugh Wiche, the Mayor, John Norman, William Marowe, Geoffrey Boleyn, William Hulyn, Richard Lee, Matthew Philip, John Walden, Ralph Verney, John Stokker, Ralph Josselyn, William Taylour, Thomas Coke, John Lambard, John Walsha, Richard Flemmyng, Robert Basset, and George Ireland, Aldermen, that the Mayor should personally go and take seisin of the gate in the City's name. Notice being sent to the merchants to attend at the gate, they were asked to deliver up the keys, and on their refusal, the Mayor ordered new keys to be made, took seisin of the gate, and expelled the merchants of Almaine.

Folio 8.

Concessio fact' Will' mo Calbeck mansionis in porta de Bisshopesgate.

7 April, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], ordinance by Hugh Wiche, the Mayor, John Norman, Thomas Scot, William Hulyn, Richard Lee, Ralph Verney, William Tailour, Matthew Philippe, Richard Flemmyng, Robert Basset, Thomas Oulegreve, George Irland, and John Stokdon, Aldermen, that, inasmuch as the merchants of Almaine residing in the City refused to repair the gate of Bishopesgate, contrary to the terms of the "composition" made between them and the City, William Calbeck, one of the Serjeants-at-Mace, to whom the mansion over the said gate had been granted by the Mayor and Aldermen, should lay out money on the repair of the said gate under the supervision of the Chamberlain, by whom he should be reimbursed.

De liberacione Record'.

5 Feb., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461-2], ordinance by Hugh Wiche, the Mayor, John Norman, Geoffrey Boleyn, Richard Lee, Matthew Philippe, Ralph Verney, Thomas Oulegreve, Thomas Coke, John Stokker, Richard Flemmyng, John Walshaw, George Irland, Robert Basset, and John Stokdon, Aldermen, that no record affecting the liberty of the City be delivered to any one before it has been openly shown to the Mayor and Aldermen in full court, under penalty of loss of office; and, further, that no clerk in the Mayor's Court deliver any record out of the rolls or books, but the Common Clerk or his deputy shall deliver such records.

De Clericis Cur' Maioris.

The same day, it was ordained by the said Mayor and Aldermen that all clerks of the Mayor's Court should be removable at the will of the Common Clerk, and others appointed in their place (but further consideration was taken by the Mayor and Aldermen for the said clerks, as appears in the oath of the said Common Clerk (fn. 20) ).

Custod' de Blakwelhall concess' Ric'o Norman.

The same day Richard Norman, "draper," was presented to the Mayor and Aldermen by the Wardens of the Mistery of Drapers (pannar') to execute the office of Keeper of Blackwellhall, (fn. 21) he paying a yearly ferm of 40 marks to the Chamberlain. Should the profits of the office be less than 40 marks, a portion of the said ferm to be remitted. Also there was granted to the said Richard the office of aulnage (fn. 22) (ulnagii) within the liberty of the City, he paying yearly to the Chamberlain the sum of £4.

Ordinacio concern' Piscenar'.

1 March, 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461-2], ordinance by Hugh Wyche, the Mayor, John Norman, William Marowe, William Hulyn, Richard Lee, William Taillour, John Walden, Matthew Philippe, Ralph Verney, Ralph Josselyn, John Lambard, Robert Basset, and John Stokdon, Aldermen, that the Fishmongers, who had made certain ordinances on their own account, should show them to the Court, and that in future they should use no ordinances until they had been confirmed by the Court. (fn. 23)

Folio 8 b.

Exon' acio Joh' is Whitby ab assis', etc.

16 Aug., 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], writ received by Hugh Wyche, the Mayor, George Irlond and John Lok, the Sheriffs, to discharge John Whitby, "wexchaundeler," from assizes, &c., if he be found to be over 70 years of age. Discharged accordingly.

Exon' Ric' i Frome ao assis', etc.

20 Aug., the same year Richard Frome, skinner, discharged by Hugh Wyche, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, from serving on juries, &c., owing to his infirmities.

Exon' Rob' ti Russell ab assis', etc.

The same day Robert Russell, goldsmith, similarly discharged for like cause.

Exon' Will' i Haddon ab assis'.

15 Oct., 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], William Haddon, draper, similarly discharged for like cause.

Exon' acio custod' Walleri Haydon.

17 March, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461-2], came Walter, son of William Haydon, an orphan of full age, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before Hugh Wyche, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and acknowledged satisfaction for his patrimony.

Finis pro barganeo fact' int' forinsecum et forinsic'.

3 April, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], ordinance by the Mayor and Aldermen that inasmuch as certain woollen cloths, of the manufacture of "Northcuntre," had been claimed by Richard Styherst as his property, when they were not his property, but belonged to Antony Centurion, a foreign merchant, and had been sold to George Folkeryn, a merchant of Venice, through the medium of Leonell Centuryon and Astelyn de Caneto, the said cloth should be forfeited to the use of the Sheriffs. But because the aforesaid George did not know that the cloth belonged to some foreigner, and was not the property of the said Richard Styherst, as he asserted, it was adjudged that the said cloth should be returned to the said George, who should pay a fine of £10 for the same.

Folio 9.

De custod' libror' et Rotulor'.

7 May, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], ordinance by the Mayor and Aldermen that all Rolls and Records in the custody of the Chamberlain or Under Chamberlain should be delivered by indenture to the Common Clerk, and remain in the custody of the same in the upper Chamber, so that in future he shall be responsible for them, and not deliver any Record without his undertaking to be responsible for it; and that other books and Records shall be delivered to him by indenture, as is ordained on his election. (fn. 24)

Exon' acio custod' Will' mi Thornell.

21 May, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], came William, son of William Thornell, late mercer, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before the Mayor and Aldermen, and acknowledged satisfaction for his patrimony. Wherefore Robert Strother and William Denton and their sureties are quit.

Licenc' concess' Laur' Test ad desponsand Johannam Style.

16 July, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], licence granted to Laurence Test, draper, to marry Johanna, daughter of Thomas Style, late mercer, a City orphan.

Concess' fact' Johi' Goode subcos ervatori aque Thamis' de h'end' duos servientes, etc.

6 Aug., 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], it was adjudged by the Mayor and Aldermen that John Goode, Bailiff of the water of the Thames, should have 10 marks yearly for himself and his two servants (serjeants ?), and a yearly reward of 5 marks during the pleasure of the Court And, further, that Yon Machyn, his servant (serjeant?), should be discharged, and that he should elect two others, who should have a livery.

Exon' acio custod' Philippi Bulwyk.

4 Sept., the same year, came Philip, son of Henry Bulwyk, late grocer, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, being a City orphan of full age, and acknowledged satisfaction for his patrimony.

L' ra de privato sigillo pro m' cat' de Hanza Alem'.

Letter of Privy Seal reciting a grant made by the King to the merchants of Almaine that they may enjoy all their former privileges until Christmas A.D. 1462, and bidding [the Mayor, &c.] not to molest them. Dated at the King's manor of Grenewiche, 26 Dec., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461]. (fn. 25)

Folio 9b.

Custod' pueror' Will' mi Wellys.

19 Jan., 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462-3], came John Saverey, "irmonger," John Aleyn, goldsmith, Robert Cambleyn, "peautrer," William Spencer, grocer, and Robert Studley, scrivener, into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall before Thomas Cook, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, and acknowledged themselves bound to Thomas Thorndone, the Chamberlain, in the sum of £106 13s 4d, for the payment of certain sums to Alice, Margaret, and Isabella, daughters of William Wallis, as soon as they come of age or marry. (fn. 26)

Licenc' dat' Joh' i Asshwell ad desponsand' etc.

24 Jan., 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462-3], licence granted to John Asshwell, late apprentice to John Worshop, draper, to marry Yda, daughter of Robert Colby, draper, a City orphan.

Licenc' dat' Tho' e Kelet ad desponss'.

1 Feb., the same year, a similar licence granted to Thomas Kelet, grocer, to marry Petronilla, daughter of Robert Stokker, draper.

Ordinac' de exon' ab assis' et enquest'.

The same day, it was ordained that no freeman should be discharged from serving on juries, &c., except with the consent of the Mayor and Aldermen or the greater part of them.

Folio 10.

Arbitrium redditum int' Galfr' m Boleyn Aldr' m et Wili' m Redknappe.

28 April, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], judgment given by Hugh Wyche, the Mayor, the greater part of the Aldermen, and the City Council, acting as arbitrators in a dispute between Geoffrey Boleyn, Alderman and mercer, and William Redknappe, mercer, touching a wall and chimney (caminus) which the said William had pulled down in the parish of St. Mary de Aldermarie Chirche in Cordewanerstrete. (fn. 27)

Officium garbellag' concess' Joh' i Stokes.

19 Oct., 1 Edward IV. [A.D. 1461], appointment of John Stokes, grocer, to the office of Garbeller. (fn. 28)

Ric' us Grene admiss' in Attorn' in Cur' Vic'.

6 April, 2 Edward IV. [A.D. 1462], Richard Grene, gent, admitted Attorney in the Court of the lord the King in the City (fn. 29) by Thomas Cook, the Mayor, and the Aldermen.

Folio 10 b.

Presentacio ad cant' Joh' is Pulteney.

Letter under the Mayoralty seal to the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's, presenting William Asshille for admission to the second of the three chantries founded in the said church by Sir John Pulteney, Knt., vacant by the resignation of Sir Thomas Polton, chaplain Dated 22 April, A.D. 1463.

Presentacio ad Cantariam sup' ossamenta mortuor' in Cimiterio sc' i Pauli.

Letter under the Mayoralty seal to Thomas [Kempe], Bishop of London, presenting John Burbage, Rector of the church of St. Faith in criptis, for admission to the chantry founded by Roger Beyvyn in the chapel over the charnel-house in St. Paul's churchyard (fn. 30) in exchange with Sir John Couper, perpetual chaplain of the said chantry. Dated 11 May, A.D. 1463.

Carta domini Reg' concess' tenent ville de Walshale.

Writ to all Sheriffs, Mayors, Bailiffs, &c., not to exact toll from men of the manor of Walshale [Walsall], that manor being of the ancient demesne of the Crown, and therefore free of toll. Witness the King at Westminster, 12 Jan., 2 [Edward IV., A.D. 1462-3].

The above was allowed by Thomas Cook, the Mayor, and the Aldermen whose names appear in the Journal for the 9th May, 3 Edward IV. [A.D. 1463], (fn. 31) and ordered to be carried into execution within the City.

Footnotes

1 The term "piepowder" ("piepoudres," "pede pulverosi") was applied to a court frequented by merchants hurrying on their way with dusty feet. "Querelas transeuntium per villam qui moram non poterunt facere qui dicuntur pepoudrous." ('Liber Albus,' i. 67.) It was a court where matters were speedily determined according to the law merchant. See paper on 'The Court of Piepowder,' by the late Dr. Charles Gross of Harvard University, in The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol. xx. Feb., 1906.
2 Chief Justice of King's Bench; M.P. for the City, 1448; Recorder, 1450-4.
3 This is the common form of orphan recognizances, although, for brevity s sake, it has not always been fully set out in the Calendar. According to some authorities the Court here mentioned would appeal to be the Mayor's Court, over which the Mayor and Aldermen nominally, but not judicially, presided, and which exercised an equitable jurisdiction as a Court of Orphans. (Calthrop, 'Ancient Customs, &c., of the City of London,' 1670, p. 100.) On the other hand, however, the Court of Aldermen were by the custom of London guardians of all City orphans (Bohun, 'Privilegia Londini,' 1723, p. 315. Cf. Calthrop, op. cit., p. 46.) The fact that the Court is styled the "Court of the lord the King" favours the former view, whilst the fact that in later times orphans' recognizances were always recorded in the City's Repertones, or Minute Books of the Court of Aldermen, favours the latter.
4 This and the preceding grant are noted by Stow ('Survey,' ed Kingsford, i. 37, 108), but he omits the dates.
5 Figures of a Satyr or Wild man. See 'Cal. Letter-Book K,' p. 379.
6 Fleurs-de-lys.
7 Cf. 'Cal. Letter-Book K,' p. 104.
8 "The table being removed and meats withdrawn." 'Report Coronation Claims, 18 Aug., 1831.' (Printed.)
9 This date is not correct, for Matthew Philip was not elected Mayor until 13 Oct., 1463. Stow records the feast as having taken place in Michaelmas Term, 4 Edward IV., A.D. 1464, and names the Lord Gray of Ruthin as being Lord Treasurer at the time ('Survey,' ed. Kingsford, ii. 36). This appears to be correct. On the other hand, William Gregory states that the feast took place about Midsummer (1464), and names the Earl of Worcester as having supplanted the Mayor at a time when the Earl of Worcester had ceased to be Treasurer (Gregory's 'Chron.,' p. 222). The Serjeants' feasts (held on the occasion of new members to the order) usually took place at Ely House, Lambeth Palace, or the Priory of St. John, Clerkenwell. In 1464 the feast took place at Ely House, within the Liberties of the City. Hence the Mayor's insistence upon being granted precedence. (Pulling, 'The Order of the Coif,' pp. 236-7.) The entry in the Letter-Book is preceded by a florid account of the fabulous foundation of the City of London by Brut. Cf. 'Liber Albus,' i. 497.
10 This invitation to dine with the Serjeants on the following day is not mentioned either by Stow or Gregory. The latter, however, relates how a portion of the feast, including divers "sotelteys" (ornamental devices of sugar, pastry, &c.), was at once sent to the Mayor by way of a present, but when the messengers saw the Mayor entertaining at his own table with lavish hospitality, they retired with shame.
11 Here the marginal note does not correspond with the text.
12 The custom of recording the election of Sheriffs specifically as Sheriffs of London and Middlesex appears to have commenced in 1453. See 'Cal. Letter-Book K,' p. 361.
13 In similar terms to the Precept set out in 'Cal. Letter Book K,' p. 215.
14 The entries in this Letter-Book recording matters of fact are frequently introduced by a preamble of an affected and pedantic character. Cicero, for instance, is quoted touching the importance of bestowing special care upon children, in a matter relating to City orphans (supra, fo. 5). This affectation was introduced by John Carpenter (see 'Memorials,' p. 580), and was continued by William Dunthorn, who had succeeded to the office of Town Clerk in October, 1461 ('Journal' 6, fo. 7 b). The 'Liber Dunthorn,' preserved among the City's archives, was compiled by him chiefly from the Letter-Books, and he was the first Town Clerk who habitually signed public documents with his surname only, a mode of signature occasionally resorted to by John Carpenter (see 'Cal. Letter-Book I,' p. 197), and Roger Tonge alias Spicer ('Cal. Letter-Book K,' p. 397, note), and one which it eventually became customary for Town Clerks to follow, as at the present day.
15 Kennel or gutter. As regards the nature of his duties, see the terms of his oath of office, set out in 'Calendar Letter-Book D,' p. 201.
16 Notwithstanding this ordinance, the Tilers were restored to their franchises as a Fellowship in 1468. Vide infra, fos. 56-56 b.
17 See 'Cal. Letter-Book K,' p. 345. When the number of Serjeants was limited to eight.
18 See 'Liber Albus,' i. 485-8; 'Cal. Letter-Book C,' p. 41.
19 Probably clerical error for 2 Edw. IV.
20 The words in parenthesis added by a later hand. It is not improbable that these ordinances were passed at the instigation of William Dunthorn himself, who was ex officio Registrar of the Mayor's Court. The oath recorded in the City's 'Book of Oaths' (compiled temp. Eliz., see 'Repertory' 21, fo. 77) contains the following clause:— "Also ye shall kepe no Clerk under you but such as shalbe abled and admitted by the Maior and Aldermen of the said City for the tyme being and sworne before the said Maior and Aldermen, nor any such Clerke remove without the assent of the said Maior and Aldermen." By an earlier oath, recorded in the 'Liber Albus' (i. 311-12), the Common Clerk bound himself to be responsible for his clerks, whom he (apparently) appointed, but who had to be sworn before the Mayor and Aldermen.
21 More properly "Bakewell hall," the tenement deriving its name from the family of Bauquell (N.B. not Banquell) or Backwell. It was used at this time as a market to which foreigners were bound to bring their woollen cloth before being put to sale. See 'Cal. Letter-Book H,' p. 449. Stow's 'Survey' (ed. Kingsford), ii. 336-7.
22 The assize of cloth measured by the aulne or ell.
23 By Statute 15 Henry VI. cap. 6 [A.D. 1437] no ordinances of Guilds were to be carried into effect before being thus authorized. See 'Cal. Letter-Book K,' Introd. p. xli. In 1382 the Fishmongers had shown such great reluctance to lay their charters before the Court of Aldermen, that a peremptory order had to be made for bringing them in by a certain day.— 'Cal. Letter Book H,' p. 193.
24 This ordinance (like the one touching the appointment and removal of the clerks of the Mayor's Court, supra, p. 15) was probably passed at Dunthorn's suggestion.
25 Issued, apparently, in consequence of the Hanseatic merchants having been ejected from Bishops gate for failing to keep the gate in repair. Supra, pp. 13-14.
26 Marginal note to the effect that the above recognizance is void touch ing the said Margaret, inasmuch as she had entered the convent of St. Mary de Pratis, near the town of St. Albans; and further, that on the 20th February, 18 Edward IV. [A.D. 1478-9], came John Smale, who had married the above Alice, and acknowledged satisfaction.
27 Cf. infra, fo. 29.
28 Marginal note vacat quia antea. Vide sup., p. 8.
29 Generally known as the Mayor s Court; but here, apparently, it means the Sheriffs' Court.
30 Cf. 'Cal. Letter-Book I,' p. 91; 'Cal. of Wills Court of Husting,' i. 29.
31 Journal 7, fo. 27.