Folios 241 - 264
Feb 1487-8 -

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Centre for Metropolitan History

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Author

Reginald R. Sharpe (editor)

Year published

1912

Pages

248-260

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'Folios 241 - 264: Feb 1487-8 - ', Calendar of letter-books of the city of London: L: Edward IV-Henry VII (1912), pp. 248-260. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=33662 Date accessed: 26 November 2014.


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Folio 241.

Custodia pueror' Steph'i Gibson mer cer'.

21 Feb., 1 [sic] Henry VII. [A. D. 1485-6], came John Redy, mercer, John Hille, draper, William Heton and William Redy, mercers, and entered into bond in the sum of £500 for payment into the Chamber by the said John Redy of a like sum to the use of John, Thomas, William, Margaret, Juliana, and Stephen, children of Stephen Gybson, late mercer, when they come of age or marry. (fn. 1)

Folio 241 b.

Custodia pueror' Will'i Rowsemerceri.

12 Feb., 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1487-8], came Richard Hadley, grocer, John Clement, goldsmith, William Campion, grocer, and John Corbet, sherman, and entered into bond in the sum of £200 for payment into the Chamber by the said Richard of a like sum to the use of Robert, Elena, William, John, Agnes, Alice, Margaret, Margery [sic], and Richard, children of William Rowse, late mercer, when they come of age or marry. (fn. 2)

Folio 242.

Custod' Johanne fi." Johannis Wheteley.

13 Feb., 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1487-8], came John Wheteley, grocer, James Smyth, fishmonger, Thomas Masse, writer of court-letter, and Thomas Dawne, tallow-chandler, and entered into bond in the sum of £20 for payment into the Chamber by the said John of a like sum to the use of Johanna, daughter of John Wheteley, grocer, when she comes of age or marries. (fn. 3)

Folio 242b-244.

Ordinacio de "Grey tawiers."

5 March, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1487-8], came the Wardens and good men of the Mistery of "Graytawiers" (fn. 4) of the City into the Court of the lord the King in the Chamber of the Guildhall, before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain ordinances for the better regulation of their Mistery (fn. 5) might be approved.

Their prayer granted.

Folio 244.

Custodia Elisabeth' filie Rog'i Arnold.

12 March, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1487-8], came William Weston, Hugh Cawode, mercers, John Gawsem, "vynter," and Walter Smert, skinner, and entered into bond in the sum of £300 for payment into the Chamber by the said William of a like sum to the use of Elizabeth, daughter of Roger Arnold, late haberdasher, when she comes of age or marries.

Folio 244 b.

A proclamacion for usury.

Proclamation by order of the Mayor and Aldermen for all those who have suffered from "unlawful and ungodly contractes and unclene bargains" of usury and "fals chevesaunce," to lay their complaint before the Mayor and other Commissioners appointed to hear and determine such complaints, and justice should be done. (fn. 6)

Folio 245.

Custodia pueror' Thome Hille milit'.

28 March, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came Dame Elizabeth Hille, widow, Ralph Tilney, Alderman, William Hille, Richard Hille, and John Hille, grocers, and entered into bond in the sum of £1,885 12s. 4d. for payment into the Chamber by the said Dame Elizabeth of a like sum to the use of Agnes, Elizabeth, Johanna, Robert, Edward, and Alice, children of Thomas Hille, Knt., late Alderman, when they come of age or marry. (fn. 7)

Folio 245b-247.

Ordenaunce for kepyng of prisoner swith in Newgate.

Ordinances of the Common Council held on Friday, 19 April, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], touching the custody of prisoners in Newgate, Ludgate, and the Compters, the same to be inscribed on tables as follows (fn. 8) :—

Folios 247-8.

Ordinances and Rules concerning the keeping and demeaning of the prisoners within Ludgate, the first ordinance being as follows :—

"FORASMOCHE as the Gaole of Ludgate is called a free prison, and so longe tyme hath been called and hath of olde tyme been ordeyned for the ease of fremen and frewomen of this Citee (fn. 9) It is ordeigned that all Fremen and frewomen of this Citee for almaner accions and causes for the which they owne to be imprisoned treson and Felony oonely except shalbe committed unto the Gaole of Ludgate there to abide unto they be lawfully delivered And that no foreyns for any maner cause be committed to the same gaole Provided alway that it shalbe lefull to the Maire or the Maire and Aldermen for the tyme beyng to sende any Freman or Frewoman to the prison of Newgate for their chastisement."

Folios 248-9.

Ordinances and Rules concerning the keeping and demeaning of the prisoners within the Compters.

Folios 249-251b.

Ordinacio de Cowpers.

16 April, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came the Wardens and good men of the Mistery of "Cowpers" before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain ordinances for the better government of the Mistery might be approved. (fn. 10)

Their prayer granted.

Folio 251 b.

An orde naunce for tanned Lether to be brought to the selde at Ledenhall.

28 April, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], ordinance by the Common Council that tanned leather brought to the City for sale shall be brought "wholly" to the seld at the Ledenhall, (fn. 11) so that it may be viewed and assayed by seven persons specially appointed, viz., 3 Cordwainers, 2 Girdlers, and 2 Curriers, or by (at least) three, viz., one from each of the said Crafts; and, further, that well tanned leather and falsely tanned leather be distinguished by "markes and signes of iron." (fn. 12)

Folios 252-253 b.

Ordinacio de Plommers.

20 April, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came the Wardens and good men of the Art or occupation of "Plommers" before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain articles for the better rule of the Craft might be approved. (fn. 13)

Their prayer granted.

Folio 254.

Ordinacio de Powche makers.

26 April, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came good folk of the Crafts of "Powchemakers," "Galeggemakers," (fn. 14) and "Patynmakers," enfranchised by the name of "Powchemakers," before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain ordinances (fn. 15) for the good rule of the said Craft might be approved, to the following effect :—

That no work be done on Sundays or Double Festival days.

That no member go to any Fair outside the City with any ware belonging to the Craft unless it be first examined by the Wardens to see if it be well made.

That the Wardens be authorized to oversee all work made by members of the Craft, to wit "Belows," Lanterns, Sconces, Bags, and "Powches," wheresoever found.

That one-half of all fines go to the Chamberlain and the other half to the use of the Craft.

Their prayer granted.

Folios 254b-255 b.

Ordinacio de Purcers.

The same day came the Wardens of the Craft of "Purcers" complaining to the Mayor and Aldermen that whereas the search of all manner of purses had formerly been made by the said Wardens, such search had recently been undertaken by the Wardens of the Craft of "Powchemakers," who searched all manner of bags and "powches" with the "purces" belonging thereto, although they exercised only the "Fete of makyng of Sconces, Bowgettes, Patens, Males, and Belows," and thus great dissension and debate had arisen. They therefore pray that certain articles (fn. 16) for the better regulation of the Craft may be approved, to the following effect :—

That no purses of leather put to sale be lined thenceforth with "lynnen clothe as [sic] roten clothe, paper," or other kind of cloth, but only with leather, under penalty.

That the Wardens may elect every two years four able persons of the Craft to have a view and oversight of all things concerning the honour and profit of the same Craft.

That no one be presented to the Chamberlain by a member of the Craft for admission to the Freedom of the City without being sworn by the Wardens immediately after admission to obey the rules and ordinances of the Craft.

That no member admit any one into the Craft by way of redemption until he be approved by the Wardens and the aforesaid four persons.

That a solemn Mass be yearly kept at the Grey Friars within Newgate on Trinity Sunday, and that every brother shall offer a penny and every sister a halfpenny.

That on the decease of any brother or sister "all suche Torches as be belongyng to the same Crafte be at buryall to brynge the body honestly to therthe."

"Also it is ordeigned the day and yeere abovesaid by the Maire and Aldermen to pacifie the stryfe and debate the which was late moved betwix the Fealishippe of the Purcers and Powchemakers for the Serche of bagges and powches that the Wardeyns of the said Fealiship of Purcers for the tyme beyng shall have the serche of alman' purces not joyned nor annexed to any bagge or pouche And the Wardeyns of the said Crafte of Powchemakers for the tyme beyng shall have the Serche of alman' bagges and powches with purces joyned and annexed unto the same."

Their prayer granted.

Folios 255b-256b.

Ordinacio de Wexchaundelers.

13 June, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came the Master, Wardens, and good men of the Craft of "Wexchaundelers" before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain articles for the good order of the Craft might be approved, to the following effect :—

That due obedience be paid to the Master and Wardens.

That no member of the Craft make, or cause to be made, "any torches, quarerrers, (fn. 17) prykettes, (fn. 18) Sises, (fn. 19) Chambre morters, (fn. 20) Tapers, Candelles, nor Imagery but of good and hable wexe and sufficient wyke, that is to say not puttyng thereto any Rosen, Code, (fn. 21) Turpentyne ne Talowe whereby the Kynges liege people may be deceyved," under penalty prescribed.

That no member "occupie any prynte mark or seale to marke their ware with but oonely suche as the Maister and Wardeyns of the saide Crafte have imprynted in wexe before theym and put both it and the name of the owners in the Indenture therefore ordeigned and made." Default in marking wax put to sale to be punished by fine.

No "foreyn" or alien to be set on work in the Craft.

Young men who refuse to work for reasonable hire or wages to be brought by the Wardens before the Mayor or Aldermen to be punished as vagabonds.

Their prayer granted.

Folios 256b-257 b.

Ordinacio de Netmakers.

The same day came good men of the Craft of Netmakers of the City before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain articles for the better government of the Craft might be approved, to the following effect :—

That once a year two Wardens be elected who shall have power to search and oversee all manner of work belonging to the Craft.

No member to take any apprentice that has not been presented to and approved by the Wardens.

No member to put any foreigner to work without licence of the Wardens.

One-half of fines, forfeitures, and penalties to be applied to the use of the Chamber and the other to the use of the Craft.

Their prayer granted.

Folio 257 b.

Ordinacio de Lez Pynners.

3 July, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came good men of the Mistery of "Pynners" before the Mayor and Aldermen, and complained that the Fellowship of the Craft. enfranchised within the City had become greatly impoverished by the presence of "foreyns," who not only took away the living and sustenance of themselves, their apprentices and servants, but paid nothing towards the relief of the poor members of the Craft They prayed, therefore, that such "foreyns,' when presented to the Masters of the Craft for the purpose of being allowed to work, should be made to pay a sum of 3s. 4d., one-half to be applied to the use of the Chamber and the other to the use of the Craft. They further prayed that an ordinance forbidding all work by night and on certain days might be amended so far as to allow every freeman of the Craft, their servants and apprentices, to work at all times from 5 A. M. from Michaelmas until 8 P. M. until Lady Day [sic], excepting Saturdays and the Vigils of Double Feasts "after none rongen," (fn. 22) as formerly excepted.

[Result not recorded].

Folios 258-259 b.

Ordinacio de Hatt' merchauntes.

5 July, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came the Wardens and other good men of the Art or Mistery of "Hatt' merchauntes" before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain articles for the better government of the Craft might be approved, to the following effect :—

That a Common Beadle for summoning the Commonalty be appointed.

That no member thenceforth keep open house or shop "to make an open shewe of any maner wares concernyng the said Crafte or Mistere nor hange outeward in to the stretes any maner of the said Wares to selle any Sonday in the yeere nor any Fest whereof the vigill is commaunded by the chirche to be fasted nor uppon Cristmas day nor the two days next followyng nor the two dayes next folowyng the Festes of Ester and Whitsontyde," (fn. 23) under penalty prescribed.

That apprentices be presented to the Wardens on entering service and on becoming freemen.

That every member of the Craft attend a Mass, &c., on the eve of St. James, Ap. [25 July], and the Sunday after Lammas Day [1 Aug.] for the souls of the "Brethern" and "Sistern" of the Craft deceased, under penalty prescribed.

That the Wardens be elected every two years on the Feast of St. James aforesaid.

That any one being duly called to be of the clothing or livery and refusing pay 20s.

Their prayer granted.

Folio 259 b.

Ordinacio Cultellarior'.

18 July, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came the Master and Wardens of the Craft and Mistery of Cutlers of the City before the Mayor and Aldermen, bringing with them their book of ordinances pursuant to a recent order, the said ordinances not having yet been duly authorized by the Court, (fn. 24) and prayed that they might have and enjoy the same by authority of the Court like as they had used and enjoyed them by their own authority and common assent. The ordinances are to the following effect :—

That every freeman of the Mistery, being in the clothing, shall pay quarterly four pence to the Master and Wardens for their search, and every freeman not being of the clothing, and occupying a shop, two pence.

That every "allowe" or "covenant servant" of any of the Fellowship who withdraws himself from his master's service, by night or day, or lies out of his Master's house without licence, shall pay to the Master and Wardens for the time being the value of a week's wages towards the maintenance of the poor men of the Craft; and every master who permits a servant to leave his house and fails to report the matter shall pay 3s. 4d., one-half to the use of the Chamber and the other for the maintenance of poor craftsmen.

That every freeman of the Craft pay yearly to the Clerk of the Craft 20d., if he has served as Master, and 12d. if he has been Warden; and that those of the Clothing shall pay 8d., and those not of the Clothing 4d.

Their prayer granted.

Folio 260-1.

Ordinacio de Paynters.

The same day came good men of the Mistery of "Paynters" before the Mayor and Aldermen, complaining that they had become so impoverished by the influx of foreigners that they could not bear the charges of the City as heretofore, and prayed that certain articles for the better rule of the Craft might be approved, to the following effect :—

That no member of the Craft "take any assay of any persone that shalbe his apprentice above a moneth day at the fermest," but that the same apprentice shall be bound and presented to the Wardens by his master, who shall pay for the apprentice 20d. to the common box.

Unruly apprentices to be reported to the Wardens.

An apprentice to appear before the Wardens and four honest men of the Craft at the end of his term, in order to be examined as to his qualifications. "And if it so be [that he be found not qualified] that the said Wardeyns, and the iiij men assigne the same persone as a Covenaunt man to an honest man of the same crafte not by the day woke moneth nor quarter but by the space of an hoole yeere And that the same persone shall chose his maister hym self whether he wilbe with his old Maister orelles with a newe And that the Wardeyns shall make his covenaunt so as the Maister may live And the said servaunt may have his lernyng."

The above Wardens and four men to them assigned to search and oversee all manner of work belonging to the Craft.

Every one of the Clothing or Livery to pay yearly 4d. towards "Barge hyre" to wait upon the Mayor and Sheriffs when they go to Westminster, &c., and those not of the Clothing, 2d.

The Wardens to cause these ordinances to be read twice a year, and to incur a penalty of 13s. 4d. for neglect of their duties.

Their prayer granted.

Folio 261 b.

Ordinacio de Curriours.

18 July, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came good men of the Art or Mistery of "Curriours" of the City before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain articles for the better rule of the Craft might be approved, to the following effect :—

Any one refusing to undertake the duties of Warden to incur a penalty of 40s.

The Wardens to have the right of search, and any work they find defective by default of the worker they are to help and amend, when possible, at the cost of the worker; if impossible of amendment, the work is to be forfeited, and brought into the Chamber of the Guildhall, there to be judged according to the laws of the City.

No member to set on work any person of the Fellowship who had wilfully refused to obey the ordinances of the Craft, under penalty.

No member to attempt to sell any work untruly wrought.

Any member having a grievance against another to lay the matter before the Wardens before going to law. (fn. 25)

The Wardens and Fellowship to meet at the four quarter days to see that the ordinances have been observed.

One-half of all fines, forfeitures, and penalties to go to the Chamber of the City, and the other half to the use of the Fellowship.

Their prayer granted.

Folio 262-263 b.

Ordinacio de "Bowyers."

The same day came the Wardens and good men of the Art or Mistery of "Bowiers" of the City before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain articles for the better rule of the Craft might be approved, to the following effect :—

That penalties as prescribed might be imposed on those not appearing when summoned by the "Bidell" of the Craft.

Fines to be imposed for working on Saturday or the Vigil of any "double" Feast after "none" rung.

That servants and "allowes" be not enticed away from their masters.

That Wardens be elected every two years about the Feast of Michaelmas.

That every householder of the City using the Craft pay quarterly 3d to the common box for the maintenance of a light before "the Rode and Seint George" in the Chapel of St. Thomas on London Bridge.

No member of the Craft to deliver to any enfranchised Fletcher any bows to sell in the country, but a Fletcher may have 3 or 4 bows for his own use and disport.

No freeman of the Craft to open a shop without licence of the Wardens.

No freeman to work beyond the franchise of the City except by the King's authority, but in cases where any "Chaffer" has become soiled on its way to fair or market, the owner of the "Stuf" may clean it again.

A penalty of 6s. 8d. to be paid by any one refusing the office of Warden.

Their prayer granted.

Folio 263b-264b.

Ordinacio de Wolmen et Wollepaclers.

29 July, 3 Henry VII. [A. D. 1488], came good men of the Craft of "Wolmen" and "Wollepackers" of the City before the Mayor and Aldermen, and prayed that certain articles for the better rule of the Craft might be approved, to the following effect :—

That on the 3rd May, yearly [sic], there shall be elected a Master and two Wardens to be Rulers of the Craft for the space of two years [sic].

No foreigner to be set on work so long as a freeman or freeman's apprentice can be obtained, and no apprentice to be set on work when a freeman can be obtained, under penalty of 20s.

No member of the Craft to have more than two apprentices at a time, except it be a child of 14 years of age at the most.

Wardens neglecting their duties to pay 40s.

Their prayer granted.

Folio 264 b.

Proclamacio proretib' et sordibus non projviendis in Thamisia.

Proclamation by the Mayor and Aldermen forbidding the casting of refuse into the Thames, and commanding "that no maner persone Fyssher nor other drawe any Nette betwene Ratclyff Mille or Wapping Mille westward toward London brigge nor from London brigge unto the Nasshe (fn. 26) ayenst the Bysshop of Derehams place (fn. 27) uppon the payne that may falle thereof. Also that no maner persone fysshe in the said water of Thamyse with any maner Nette from the temple brigge (fn. 28) unto the toure of London nygh any wharf on bothe sydes of the same Thamyse by the space of xx fadom' (fn. 29) Also that no maner persone fysshe in the said water with any Castyng Nettes or Angles or with any maner Nettes but yf they holde thassise uppon payne of Imprisonament of their bodies and losyng of the said Nettes and Angles and the Fysshes taken with the same and also the same Nettes and Angles to be brent in Chepe."

The proclamation, further, notifies the appointment of John Petite, grocer, as overseer of the Thames from London Bridge westward, and Robert Lilly as overseer from London Bridge eastward. Moreover, butchers are forbidden to cast any "inwardes of Bestes" into the river, "but if they be cutte in to small pecys." (fn. 30) [No date.]

Footnotes

1 Margin. 8 July, 9 Henry VII. [A. D. 1494], came Thomas Belle, mercer, who married the above Mar garet, and on 31 Aug., 19 Henry VII. [A. D. 1503], came John Garard, diaper, who married the above Juliana, and acknowledged satisfac tion for their wives patrimony.
2 A marginal note under date 28 Jan., 9 Henry VII. [A. D. 1493 4], mentions the above Robert, William, John, Richard, Agnes, and Alice, as being dead, and Thomas Balam, grocer, who married the above Elena, as acknow ledging satisfaction for his wife's property. On the 30th Aug., 18 Henry VII. [A. D. 1502], came Regi nald Reynold, who married the above Margaret, and acknowledged similar satisfaction.
3 Margin. 18 Nov., 21 Henry VII. [A. D. 1505], came John Pratte of Brandonferry, who married the above Johanna and acknowledged satis faction for the said sum.
4 Tanners of grey leather, in contradistinction to "Megucers,' or white tawyers (using alum in their work), and "Matri tawyers," or tanners using madder. See 'Memorials,' p. 85 n.; 'Cal. Letter-Book H,' p. 152 n.
5 The ordinances chiefly relate to the election of Master and Wardens and their right to oversee work, the number of apprentices to be allowed, the employment of journeymen, the setting up house or shop, and general obedience to the Master and Wardens for the time being.
6 A proclamation to similar effect is recorded circ. 1455-6; 'Cal. Letter-Book K,' p. 374.
7 Margin. 13 Dec., 6 Henry VII. [A. D. 1490], came John Croke, draper, who married the above Agnes, and acknowledged satisfaction for his wife's patrimony; 20 Jan., 6 Henry VII. [A. D. 1490 1], came Ralph Lathom, who married the above Elizabeth, and acknowledged satisfaction for his wife's patrimony, and, later, for money accruing to her by the death of Alice her sister.
8 These ordinances follow closely other ordinances promulgated in 1431 and 1463. See 'Cal. Letter-Book K,' pp. 124-7; and supra, pp. 40-3.
9 Cf. supra, p. 42 n., 'Cal. Letter-Book I,' p. 215 ('Memorials,' p. 673).
10 Set out in Firth's 'Hist. Memor. of the Coopers' Company,' pp. 17-23. A clause imposing a fine of 40s. a barrel on Coopers using unmarked and unlawful barrels was amended in 1491 and the fine reduced to 20d Infra., fo. 285.
11 An ordinance had been passed in 1438 that all leather brought to the City for sale should be lodged for the purpose of assay in a seld situate to the north of the Guildhall In 1443 that seld was ordered to be closed and another found to take its place. It appears that the Leaden hall was then made to provide the necessary accommodation See 'Cal. Letter-Book K,' pp. 285-6. In 1370 Adam Lovekyn obtained an order from the Court of Aldermen that foreign tanners should bring their wares to his seld known as Tanners' seld in Friday Street for purpose of assay and sale. See 'Cal. Letter-Book G,' p. 260.
12 Set out in Black's 'Hist. of the Leathersellers,' pp 118-19. In 1412 it was ordained that all tanned leather was to be taken to the "selds of old appointed," and the number of Assayers was to be eight, six, or (at least) four. See 'Cal. Letter-Book I,' p. 100.
13 The articles are of the usual kind, relating chiefly to Wardens searching for false weights and bad work, the taking of apprentices, the marking of "sowder" so that the maker may be identified, the tools to be provided by journeymen working in the Craft, the amount of quarterage to be paid, &c.
14 Makers of galoches either of leather or wood. The latter (makers of galoches de feust) were placed by the Mayor and Aldermen in 1400 under the supervision of the Pouch makers. See 'Cal. Letter-Book I, p. 9.
15 See Black's 'Hist. of the Leathersellers,' pp. 119-20.
16 See Black's 'Hist. of the Leathersellers,' pp. 120-2.
17 Square torches used it funerals Cf. cierges squarres, Letter-Book G, fo. 283 ('Memorials,' p. 359).
18 Wax candles for placing on a perk or spike of metal (Riley).
19 Great candles ?.
20 Candles used at funeral obsequies r "mortuaries." Cf. will of John de Wyngeffeld proved and enrolled in the Court of Husting in 1361, where he desires to be buried in church with nine tapres and five morters of wax 'Cal. of Wills,' ii. 48.
21 Cobbler's wax (Riley).
22 In or about 1435 the Girdlers complained that "noone" was some times rung at 11 o'clock, sometimes at 12, and sometimes at 1 P. M., and thus caused discord. See 'Cal. Letter Book K,' p. 198.
23 We may possibly here find a better explanation of the term "Double Feasts" than that given in 'Cal. Letter-Book K,' p. 198 n.
24 Vide supra, p. 246.
25 Margin :—nota contra co'em legem .
26 Naze ?.
27 "Durham house builded by Thomas Hatfielde, Bishop of Durham' The site is the present Adelphi. Stow's 'Survey' (ed. Kingsford), ii. 99, 373.
28 This was no more than a pier or jetty which the owners of the Temple were bound to maintain on the river side, as found by inquisition made in 1360. 'Memorials,' p. 306. Simi larly we find "Lambeth Bridge" mentioned by writers long before the erection of a real bridge at Lambeth in 1863. Vide supra, p. 48 n. We are reminded of the old landing stairs and ferry by the present Horse ferry Road.
29 Cf. supra, pp. 180-181 n.
30 See regulations of 1472 touching butchers. Supra, p. 104.