[Folios. 131 blank.]
Folio 131 b.
Monday the Feast of St. Matthew [21 Sept.], 12 Henry VI.
[A.D. 1433], in the presence of John Perneys, the Mayor, John
Symond, the Recorder, Nicholas Wottone, Thomas Fauconer,
John Michell, John Gedney, William Estfeld, John Reynwell,
John Welles, Ralph Barton, Robert Whityngham, Thomas
Wandesford, Henry Frowyk, John Brokle, Robert Ottele,
Stephen Broun, William Melreth, John Pattesle, Robert Large,
and William Rus, Aldermen, and very many Commoners
summoned to the Guildhall for the election of Sheriffs, Thomas
Chaltone was elected one of the Sheriffs by the Mayor, and
John Lynge was elected the other Sheriff by the Commonalty,
for the year ensuing.
Eleccio Johannis Brokle in Maiorem London'.
Wednesday the Feast of St. Edward [13 Oct.], 12 Henry VI.
[A.D. 1433], in the presence of John Perneys, the Mayor, the
Prior of Christchurch, John Symond, the Recorder, Henry
Bartone, Nicholas Wottone, Thomas Faukener, John Michell,
John Reynwell, John Gedney, William Estfeld, John Welles,
Ralph Bartone, Thomas Wandesford, Henry Frowyk, John
Brokle, Robert Large, John Pattesle, Robert Ottele, William
Melreth, William Rus, John [sic] (fn. 1) Bernwell, John Lynge [struck
through], and Thomas Chaltone, Aldermen, and an immense
Commonalty summoned to the Guildhall for the election of a
Mayor for the year ensuing, John Brokley was elected Mayor.
Afterwards, viz., on the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude
[28 Oct.], he was sworn at the Guildhall, and on the morrow
was presented, admitted, and accepted before the Barons of the
Exchequer at Westminster.
Names of Masters of divers Misteries sworn anno 12 Henry VI.
Copersmythes: Thomas Bedell, Simon Gamme, sworn 19 Sept.
[The rest of the folio and also fo. 132 b blank.]
6 Dec., 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433], John Parys, tailor, discharged by John Brokle, the Mayor, and the Aldermen from
serving on juries, &c., owing to increasing old age.
Donewyche de Antiquo Dominico Corone Anglie.
Writ to Sheriffs, Mayors, Bailiffs, &c., that they allow men
of the King's vill of Donewich alias "Degeleswiz" (fn. 2) to be quit
of all toll, inasmuch as the said vill is of the ancient demesne of
the Crown, and as such the men of the vill should be so quit
according to the custom of the realm.
Folio 133 b.
13 Nov., 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433], came Thomas Coper
and John Hecheman, Wardens of the Mistery of Dyers, and
John Lacy, John Wilby, William Hoker, John Horell, Thomas
Cokys, Thomas Warvyle, John Ludford, Thomas Basset, John
Cresaltone, Thomas Wylershey, John Becke, Robert Brembille,
Richard Haryet, Bartholomew Corsse, Thomas Coldam,
William Danyell, and William Neubolt, good men of the said
Mistery, and complained to John Brokley, the Mayor, and the
Aldermen, of "wolde" that was imported being forestalled
and engrossed by certain men of the Mistery to their own
profit and to the prejudice of the poorer members. They
prayed, therefore, that it might be decreed that no one of the
Mistery should be allowed to buy woad (waldam) except the
Wardens, under penalty of 100s., viz., 63s. 4d. to the use of
the Commonalty, and 36s. 8d. to the use of the Mistery, and
that the woad so bought should be fairly distributed among
all the members, both poor and rich. They further prayed
that no one of the Mistery should thenceforth pay more than
a yearly salary of 40s. to any servant, besides victual and
clothing, under a like penalty. Their petition granted.
15 Jan., 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433-4], William Twyere, draper,
discharged by John Brokle, the Mayor, and the Aldermen
from serving on juries, owing to increasing old age.
To the illustrious and discrete lords William Cheyne, William
Babyngton, and John Juyn, Justices and Knights appointed
to hear the evidence of parties and causes subscribed and to
report their finding to the Lords of the Council, the Mayor
and citizens humbly submit a report to the following effect:-
That from time immemorial a certain custom called
"scawang" or "scawagium," charged on all merchandise
brought by foreigners by land or water to the City for sale,
has belonged to the Sheriffwick of the said City, and that the
Kings of England in succession, when the Sheriffwick was in
their hands, were seised of the said custom as one of the
principal appurtenances to the said Sheriffwick.
They say also that the term "scawang" is a Saxon term
meaning in English "shewing," Latin demonstracio, and that
the custom is so called because all foreign merchants bringing
merchandise to the City for sale showed the same to the Royal
officers there in order that the custom due thereon might be
levied before it was sold. They also say that King John and
King Henry III. his son, ancestors of the present King, granted
and confirmed to the citizens inter alia the said Sheriffwick of
London and Middlesex with all its appurtenances, among
which was, and is, the said custom of "scawang," to hold the
same at an annual rent of £300 payable to the Exchequer, and
that the said citizens choose Sheriffs from among themselves
whom they will and remove them at will, and those whom they
choose they present to the Exchequer to answer there for
things appertaining to the Sheriffwick, and failing this the
citizens render satisfaction for the fine and ferm. Moreover,
they say that the said Henry granted by charter that no one
should expose merchandise for sale until the custom thereon
had been paid, under penalty of forfeiture. By virtue of which
grants the citizens are seised of the said Sheriffwick, of which
the custom of scawage, as charged on the aforesaid men of
Janua and all other foreign merchants, forms part and parcel. (fn. 3)
Folio 134 b.
Afterwards the said King Henry III., by the great charter
mentioned in the case (libello) submitted to the Justices on
behalf of the said merchants of Janua, (fn. 4) ordained that the City
of London should have all its liberties and customs in full, and
that the men of Janua and all other foreign merchants might
trade freely in England (unless already publicly prohibited),
subject to ancient customs, of which scawage is one, as proved
by inquisition preserved in the Exchequer, and hence the said
charter, on which the said men of Janua rely, proves that they
ought to be so charged rather than be relieved of the duty.
Moreover, the said Sheriffwick and the City's liberties and
customs had been confirmed by later Kings down to Henry VI.,
and were not subject to forfeiture by non-use or abuse.
As to the act (actum) mentioned in the case, the Mayor and
citizens say that it had not the authority of Parliament as stated,
but was a special edict of King Henry IV., without seeing or
hearing the parties concerned, and could not derogate from the
City's ancient liberties without loss to the Exchequer.
Also, the said Mayor and citizens say that by the terms of
the peace late confirmed between the King of England and
the Duke of Janua (as mentioned in the case) all merchants of
Janua were to be allowed to trade freely in England on the
express condition that they paid all accustomed dues, of which
the custom of scawage is one.
Also, whereas it is stated in the case that John Welles, late
Mayor, and Stephen Broun and John Atherle, then Sheriffs,
had caused eight bales of woad belonging to merchants of
Janua to be seized for the said custom of scawage, and still
detained them, the present Mayor and citizens say that the
late Mayor and Sheriffs were willing to prove the justice of
the arrest whenever required.
Also, as to the arrests (mentioned in the case) made by John
Pattesle and John Olney, late Sheriffs, during the Mayoralty,
of John Perneys, the present Mayor and citizens say that
long after the arrest-viz., on the 20th Aug., 11 Henry VI.
[A.D. 1433]-certain merchants of Janua, named Amphrion
Spinula and Simon Cataneus, satisfied the said Sheriffs in
respect of the custom of scawage and other dues for merchandise hitherto brought to the City, and undertook by indenture to pay the same in future, which indenture the Mayor and
citizens are ready to produce before the said Justices.
In consideration of the foregoing the Mayor and citizens
pray the Justices to make a favourable report to the King or
12 Feb., 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433-4], John Pope, "sherman,"
discharged by John Brokley, the Mayor, and the Aldermen
from serving on juries, &c., owing to increasing old age.
3 March, 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433-4], came William, son of
Walter Kyng, and acknowledged satisfaction for patrimony
which had been committed in trust to Johanna his mother.
Folio 135 b.
11 Feb., 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433-4], came John Cok,
"wevere," before John Brokley, the Mayor, the Aldermen, and
Commonalty in Common Council assembled in the Chamber of
the Guildhall, and showed that whereas he had been admitted
to the freedom of the City in the Art of Weveres and sworn
when Richard Merlawe was Mayor and John Hille Chamberlain, viz., on the 2nd March, anno 5 Henry V. [A.D. 1417-18],
he had long used, and was now using, the art of Drapers, and
not the art of Weveres. He therefore prayed to be admitted
to the freedom of the City in the said Art of Drapers. His
9 March, 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433-4], John Byfeld,
armourer, discharged by John Brokley, the Mayor, and the
Aldermen from serving on juries, &c., owing to increasing old
3 March, 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433-4], William Edward,
"salter," similarly discharged for like cause.
18 June, 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434], Walter, son of Walter
Adam, of Kersyng, co. Essex, late apprentice to Thomas
Godham, late "Foundour," discharged from serving on juries,
&c., owing to infirmity.
26 April, 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434], Henry Aslokby, "Wexchaundeler," similarly discharged for like cause.
Letters patent appointing R[obert Fitz-Hugh], Bishop of
London, and John Reynwell, John Welles, John Hatherley, and
Thomas Catworth, the City's representatives in the last Parliament, to be Commissioners for allotting the sum of £76 15s. 6¼d.
(part of the sum of £4,000 set apart by the said Parliament out
of the subsidy granted for the relief of poor towns, cities, and
boroughs (fn. 5) ) to the poorer Wards of the City, and certifying
particulars of allotment to the tax-collectors. Witness the
King at Westminster, 27 Dec., 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433].
Fos. 136 b-137.
Letters patent appointing Thomas Wandesford, Thomas
Bernewell, Thomas Canynges, and Robert Cloptone, merchants,
to be Commissioners for collecting in the City the subsidy of a
fifteenth and a tenth granted by the last Parliament, making
allowance for the above sum of £76 15s. 6¼d. Witness the
King at Westminster, 1 Feb., 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1433-4].
Folio 137 b.
10 March, 12 Henry IV. [A.D. 1433-4], return made by John
Reynwell and John Welles, Aldermen, John Hatherle and
Thomas Catworth, Commoners, the City's representatives in the
last Parliament, with the assent of Robert [Fitz-Hugh], Bishop
of London, of their apportionment of the above sum of
£76 15s. 6¼d. among the poorer Wards of the City, in
alleviation of the payment of the tenth granted to the King
in the last Parliament, viz., Cordewanestret, £20; Vintry, £9;
Tower, £8; Dougate, £8; Chepe, £4 15s. 6d.; Bisshopesgate,
£4; Farndon Within, £4; Colmanstret, £3; Portsoken, £3;
Bridge, £3; Walbrok, 40s.; Crepilgate, 40s.; Bredstret, 40s.;
Billingesgate, 20s.; Bradstret, 20s.; Langborn, 20s.; Quenhithe, 20s.; Lymstret, ¼d.
Total reduction, £76 15s. 6¼d.
Certificate thereon to the King's Collectors. Same date.
Writ to the Mayor, Sheriffs, and Aldermen (pursuant to a
request by the Commons) to appear before the Chancellor
on Saturday next, and make oath that they would observe a
certain article which the Knights of the shires, citizens, and
burgesses attending the last Parliament had sworn to keep, (fn. 6)
under penalty of £200. Witness the King at Westminster,
24 April, 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434].
Folio 138 b.
Pleas at Westminster before William Babyngtone and his
fellow-justices of the King's Bench, Trinity term, 12 Henry VI.
Writ to the Mayor and Sheriffs to bring up the body of
Thomas Langshote, who had been arrested by the Sheriffs
whilst engaged with Elizabeth his wife and Juliana Swyft in
prosecuting a plea of debt against Walter atte Reye de
Hadly, co. Essex, "husbondman." Dated at Westminster,
26 June, 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434].
Pursuant to the above, the said Thomas Langshote appeared
at the bar in the custody of the Sheriffs on the day appointed,
and John Brokle, the Mayor, and John Chaltone and John
Lyng, the Sheriffs, explained that the said Thomas had been
charged with making false vessels in his trade as "couper"
by John Trendeler and John Dunstaple, Wardens of the
Mistery, and had been committed to prison until he caused the
said vessels, which he had removed to avoid examination, to be
brought back. They further say that this was the cause of
Thomas's detention, and not a plea of debt before the said
Mayor and Sheriffs as alleged.
Thereupon the Justices ordered that the said Thomas should
be remitted to prison until, &c.
Mandamus to the Mayor and Sheriffs not to summon barbers
to attend inquests in Sheriffs' Courts, pursuant to an order
made on the 20th May, anno 31 Edward III. [A.D. 1357], by
Henry Pycard, the Mayor, and the Aldermen, discharging
scriveners writing court-hand and text, limners, and barbers
from such duties. (fn. 7) Witness the King at Westminster, 21 April,
12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434].
12 June, 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434], came William Colman,
fuller, before John Brokle, the Mayor, and the Aldermen in the
Chamber of the Guildhall, and showed that whereas he had
been admitted to the freedom of the City and sworn in the Art
of Fullers temp. John Welles, Mayor, and John Bederenden,
Chamberlain, viz., on the 19th Jan., 9 Henry VI. [A.D. 1430-1],
he had long used, and was now using, the mistery or
art of Shermen, as was testified by good men of that
mistery. He prayed, therefore, that he might be admitted to
the freedom of the City in the Art of Shermen. His prayer
granted at the instance of good men of the same.
Folio 139 b.
2 Sept., 13 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434], Richard atte Perie,
sherman, discharged by John Brokle, the Mayor, and the
Aldermen from serving on juries, &c., owing to increasing
9 Aug., 12 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434], the guardianship of John
and William, sons of Baldewin Laurence, late baker, together
with their property, acquired from their late father and by
the decease of Alice and Johanna their sisters, committed
by John Brokley, the Mayor, the Aldermen, and John
Bederenden, the Chamberlain, to John Gate, baker, for a
term of five years. (fn. 8) Sureties, viz., Thomas Morstede, surgeon,
John Frankleyn, "taillour," and Thomas Belgrave, "sergeaunt."
13 Oct., 13 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434], John Swan, cordwainer,
discharged by John Brokley, the Mayor, and the Aldermen
from serving on juries, &c., owing to increasing old age.
27 Oct., 13 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434], came John, the Abbot of
the monastery of Chertsey, and acknowledged that he had
received from Thomas Haseley and Richard Osbarn, executors
of John Shawe, late vintner, the sum of £60, the property of
Philip, son of the said John, now a professed monk in the above
monastery, acquired by legacy of his said father and by the
decease of John, Edmund, and Alice, other children of the said
26 Feb., 13 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434-5], John Baron, chandler,
discharged by Robert Ottele, the Mayor, and the Aldermen
from serving on juries, &c., owing to increasing old age.
Grant by the Mayor and Commonalty to William Trymnell,
late one of the Wardens of the City's Bridge, and to William
Estfeld, mercer, of an annual rent of £50 charged on the great
tenement called "le Stokkes," and other lands and tenements
assigned to the use of the said Bridge, (fn. 9) in recognition of the
services and money expended by the said William Trymnel
whilst in office. Dated in the Chamber of the Guildhall under
the Common Seal, 26 Oct., 13 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434].
A similar grant to Hugh Wyche, mercer, who married
Johanna, widow of Robert Colbroke, late one of the Wardens
of the City's Bridge, and to Philip Malpas, draper, for similar
cause. Dated 26 Oct., 13 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434].
Folio 140 b.
23 Oct., 13 Henry VI. [A.D. 1434], ordinance by the Mayor,
Aldermen, and Commonalty, in Common Council assembled,
that the ancient privilege of Mayors admitting six persons to
the freedom of the City without fine or fee paid to the Chamber
should thenceforth cease and be annulled, and that the Chamberlain of the City for the time being shall give to the Mayor
for the time being, for surrender of such privilege, four (fn. 10) casks
of the best red wine of Gascony that can be found for sale in
the City, in the name and at the expense of the Commonalty.
Also it was ordained, there and then, that all freemen of the
City who have come with their wives and families to reside in
the City before the holding of this Council, or shall so come
before the Feast of Easter next, shall be esteemed and treated
as other citizens of the City, the recent ordinance touching loss
of their freedom if they came not before Michaelmas last
Also the same day, in order to prevent unlawful grants in
mortmain by wills of citizens, it was ordained that thenceforth
no will of any citizen devising lands or tenements in mortmain
shall be admitted for enrolment except after strict inquiry made
on oath before the Mayor and Recorder for the time being, or
one of them, together with an Alderman, whether the said
legacy be without deceit or fraud, and be concerned with lands
or tenements justly belonging to the testator by inheritance or
just acquisition, and not of lands or tenements belonging to
others conveyed to him by feoffment a latere for the purpose of
bequeathing the same in mortmain without the King's licence,
under colour of his franchise. (fn. 11) Provided always that during
the building of the new Chapel of the Guildhall, (fn. 12) at the expense
of the Commonalty at large, a reasonable fine shall be taken
for enrolment of such wills at the discretion of the Chamberlain
and Common Clerk of the City for the time being.
Also it was ordained that all amercements inflicted on those
not coming to the Common Council, if duly warned, viz., 2s. for
every default, shall be levied by the serjeants who summon the
Councils, and be delivered to the Chamberlain for the time
being in aid of the same building; and likewise the amercements for not attending Wardmotes, viz., 4d. each person, shall
be levied by the Constables and Beadles of each Ward, with
the assistance of Serjeants of the Chamber if need be, one
moiety thereof to go to the collectors for their trouble and for
providing ladders, iron hooks, and cords in case of fire, at the
discretion of the Alderman of the Ward, and the other to be
devoted to the above building.
Also it was ordained by the said Mayor, Aldermen, and
Commonalty that Piecers (Picticiarii
(fn. 13) ) or Cobblers (Cobularii)
residing within the liberty of the City may thenceforth make a
quarter for one piece (quartam partem pro una pecia) in an
old boot or shoe and sell to any one, according to the ordinance
made anno 12 Henry IV. [A.D. 1410], temp. Thomas Knolles,
Mayor, and recorded in Letter-Book I, fo. cvi, any petition of the
Cordwainers or other thing to the contrary notwithstanding. (fn. 14)
It was also agreed, the same day and year, that John
Houghton, Bailiff of the waters of the Thames and Medewaye,
should have a valet or serjeant to serve the Commonalty and
him in the execution of his office, receiving for his labour
yearly from the Commonalty four nobles, like other valets of
the Mayor and the Chamber, so long as it shall please the
Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonalty.