Constitutions to be observed within the City
(nos 198-268)


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Helena M. Chew & Martin Weinbaum (editors)

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'Constitutions to be observed within the City: (nos 198-268)', The London eyre of 1244 (1970), pp. 82-113. URL: Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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(nos 198–268)

De seriantiis. (fn. 1)

198. De seriantiis dicunt quod Otto films Willelmi tenet de domino rege in Civitate Londoniarum xlv s. redditus assisi et extra Civitatem in comitatu Essexie manerium de Lillestone, per seriantiam ad sculpandum cuneum monetarie in Civitate Londoniarum. Item Robertus de Sotebrok tenuit in Civitate Londoniarum quoddam mesuagium de domino rege per seriantiam ad inveniendum carbonem ad fabricandum coronam domini regis et suum regale. Et Robertus obiit. Et Laurencius le Draper tenet seriantiam illam, nescitur quo waranto. Ideo capiatur in manum domini regis seriantia illa cum omnibus pertinenciis. Et maior et vicecomites respondeant de omnibus exitibus predicte seriantie a tempore ultimi itineris usque ad diem istum, quia in ultimo itinere preceptum fuit maiori et vicecomitibus quod seriantiam illam similiter caperent in manum domini regis, eo quod seriantia illa vendita fuit sine domino rege. Item heres Roberti de Levelaund quam Radulfus de Grendone desponsavit tenet seriantiam gaole de Flete cum Portsoka, et valet per annum xviij libras et amplius. De seriantiis nichil sciunt plus dicere. Postea convictum fuit quod seriantia illa valet per annum xviij marcas et dimidiam. (fn. 2)

Of serjeanties.

Of serjeanties, they say that Otto fitz William, holds of the lord king 45s. rent of assize in the City of London, and the manor of Lilystone outside the City in the county of Essex, by the serjeanty of engraving the die of the coinage in the City of London. Also, Robert de Sotebrok held a messuage of the king in the City of London by the serjeanty of finding the coal to make the king's crown and regalia. Robert has died and Laurence le Draper holds that serjeanty, it is not known by what warrant. Therefore let it be taken into the king's hand, with all its appurtenances; and the mayor and sheriffs are to answer for all the issues of the said serjeanty from the time of the last eyre to the present, because at the last eyre they were similarly ordered to take them into the king's hand, and the serjeanty has since been sold without the king's licence. Also the heiress of Robert de Levelaund whom Ralph of Grendon married, holds the serjeanty of Fleet Prison with Portsoken, and it is worth £18 and more a year. The mayor and citizens say that they have nothing to add concerning serjeanties. Afterwards it was proved that that serjeanty was worth yearly 18½ marks.

199. De ecclesiis dicunt quod dominus rex est patronus ecclesie Sancti Pauli Londoniarum, et etiam Sancti Martini Magni Londoniarum, scilicet decanatus ecclesie Sancti Pauli (fn. 3) de Ballio. (fn. 4) Capella Sancte Marie in Judaismo fuit de donacione domini regis. Dicunt etiam quod videtur eis quod ecclesia Sancti Magni Martiris, que sita est in regis strata domini regis, ad [sic] quam advocacionem abbas Westmonasterii et prior de Bermundseye tenent que valet per annum xx libras, debet esse de donacione, nisi iidem abbas et prior aliquod warrantum inde habuerunt. (fn. 5) Dicunt etiam quod ecclesia Omnium Sanctorum de Fancherche que similiter sita est in regia strata, et que valet xl solidos et quam priori Sancte Trinitatis confert. Et ecclesia Sancti Andree Huberd sita est in regia strata cuius advocacionem heredes Thome de Barewe tenent. Et similiter ecclesia Sancti Michaelis in Foro que sita est in regia strata et valet per annum xl s. quam advocacionem decanus et capitulum Sancti Pauli Londoniarum tenent. Et similiter ecclesia Sancti Petri super Tamisiam, que sita est in regia strata et valet v marcas, quam advocacionem iidem decanus et capitulum tenent. Et similiter ecclesia Sancti Elphegi que sita est super murum Civitatis et valet xl solidos quam advocacionem decanus Sancti Martini tenet. Et similiter ecclesia Omnium Sanctorum que sita est super murum Civitatis et valet xl solidos. Et similiter ecclesia Sancti Augustini super murum et valet xx s. quam prior Sancte Trinitatis tenet. Et super [hoc] venit prior de Bermundeseye et profert literas domini Henrici regis patentes in hec verba. Henricus dei gratia etc. priori de Bermundeseye salutem. Sciatis quod occasione cuiusdam terre quam concessimus persone et parochianis ecclesie Sancti Magni in Civitate nostra Londoniarum ad ampliacionem dicte ecclesie nichil iuris vendicamus aut vendicabimus nobis et heredibus nostris in advocacione predicte ecclesie. In cuius rei testimonium has litteras fieri fecimus patentes. Teste meipso apud Westmonasterium xxj° die Novembris anno regni nostri xix. (fn. 5) Et ideo tenent in pace.

Concerning churches they say that the king is patron of the church of St. Paul's, London, and also of St. Martin le Grand, viz. the deanery of the church of St. Paul [ ? (? and St Martin's) and the church of St. Peter] in the Bailey. The chapel of St. Mary in Jewry was also in the king's gift. They say further that it seems to them that the church of St. Magnus the Martyr, worth £20 a year, which stands on the king's highway, and the advowson of which the abbot of Westminster and the prior of Bermondsey hold, ought to be in the king's gift, unless the abbot and prior can show any warrant for it. They say also that the church of All Hallows de Fancherche [St. Gabriel Fenchurch], which is likewise situated on the king's highway, is worth 40s., and is in the gift of the prior of Holy Trinity. And the church of St. Andrew Hubbard, of which the advowson belongs to the heirs of Thomas of Barrow stands on the king's highway, as does the church of St. Michael in Cheap [le Querne], which is worth 40s. a year, and of which the advowson belongs to the dean and chapter of St. Paul's, London, who also hold the advowson of St. Peter upon Thames [Paul's Wharf], which stands on the king's highway and is worth 5 marks. The advowson of the church of St. Alphege, which stands upon the wall of the City, and is worth 40s., belongs to the dean of St. Martin's, as does the advowson of All Hallows, which is likewise situated upon the City wall, and is worth 40s. The church of St. Augustine upon the Wall [Papey] is worth 20s. and is held by the prior of Holy Trinity. And thereupon comes the prior of Bermondsey and proffers letters patent of King Henry, the tenor of which follows:- Henry by the grace of God etc. to the prior of Bermondsey, greeting. Know that, by reason of certain land which we have granted to the parson and parishioners of the church of St. Magnus in our City of London for the enlargement of the said church, we do not and will not claim for ourselves or our heirs any right in the advowson of the same church. In witness whereof we have caused these letters patent to be made. Witness myself at Westminster 21 November in the nineteenth year of our reign [1234]. Therefore they are to hold [the advowson] in peace.

200. De thesauris inventis. Dicunt maior et cives quod nichil inde sciunt. Of treasure trove. The mayor and citizens say that they know of none.

201. De vicecomitibus et aliis ballivis qui tenuerunt placita et que placita, dicunt quod nichil sciunt. Et quia dictum est quod vicecomites tenuerunt et tenere debent placita mensurarum ponderum et huiusmodi que pertinent ad coronam domini regis, ideo omnes vicecomites in misericordia et ad iudicium de maiore et civibus qui istud celaverunt. (fn. 6)

Of sheriffs and other bailiffs who have held pleas, and what pleas, they say that they know of none. But because it is said that the sheriffs have held and ought to hold pleas concerning weights and measures and the like, which belong to the Icing's crown, they are all in mercy; and to judgment with the mayor and citizens who concealed the fact.

202. De usurariis Christianis mortuis, dicunt quod nichil inde sciunt. Of Christian usurers who have died, they say that they know of none.

203. De catallis mortuorum mercatorum de potestate regis Francie retentis, quis ea habuit, dicunt quod per preceptum domini regis iverunt Willelmus de Haverhille thesaurarius, (fn. 7) Willelmus Hardel et Edwardus de Westmonasterio una cum vicecomitibus Civitatis per totam Civitatem ad inquirendum de huiusmodi catallis secundum quod inquisierunt, eadam catalla attachiaverunt et inrotulaverunt. Et ideo ipsi inde respondeant.

Of the chattels of dead merchants belonging to the dominion of the king of France which have been detained, who has them. They say that, by order of the king, William of Haverhill, treasurer, William Hardel and Edward of Westminster, together with the sheriffs of the City, went all through the City to enquire concerning such chattels, and according to the results of their enquiry, attached the same and enrolled them. Therefore they are to answer for them.

204. [m. 5d] De catallis judeorum occisorum, dicunt quod inde nichil sciunt. Of the chattels of Jews who have been killed. They say that they know of none.

205. De malefactoribus nichil sciunt. Of malefactors they know nothing.

206. De falsonariis et retonsoribus, dicunt quod nichil sciunt. Of coiners and clippers of coins, they say that they know none.

207. De moneta et escambio, dicunt quod nichil sciunt. Of money and exchange, they say that they know nothing.

De eschaetis. (fn. 8)

208. De eschaetis domini regis tam de tenementis christianorum quam iudeorum et quis illas teneat et per quem et per quod servicium et quantum valeant, dicunt maior et cives quod quidam [Martinus] (fn. 9) de Virly Normannus tenuit duo messuagia in Civitate Londoniarum que capta fuerunt in manum domini regis Johannis tanquam eschaete sue postquam recesserat de fide sua. Ita quod dominus Johannes rex tradidit messuagia illa cuidam Bunrunco in Rothomago qui unum ex mesuagiis illis dimisit Leoni Judeo. Et dominus rex qui nunc est, dimisit aliud mesuagium Josceo Lespicer civi Londoniarum una cum xx solidis redditus in Vinetria ad voluntatem suam. Mesuagium Leonis valet per annum v m.; aliud mesuagium fuit et est quasi vastum; capiatur in manum domini regis. Et tenentes veniant et ostendant warentum si quid habuerunt etc. Et super hoc venit Christiana que fuit uxor ipsius Joscei Lespicer et profert cartam domini regis Henrici qui nunc est, que confecta fuit v to die Junii anno regni sui xj° per quam dat concedit et confirmat predicto Josceo et heredibus suis xx solidatas annuas et predictum mesuagium in Civitate Londoniarum. Et quia dominus rex tunc fuit infra etatem, ideo loquendum cum domino rege. Mesuagium Christiane valet per annum ij marcas. (fn. 10)

Of escheats.

Of the king's escheats, as well of the tenements of Christians as of Jews, and who holds them, and by whose authority, and by what service, and how much they are worth; the mayor and citizens say that one Martin de Virly, a Norman, held two messuages in the City of London which were taken into the hand of King John as escheats when he withdrew from his allegiance. King John gave them to one Bunrunc in Rouen, who demised one of them to Leo the Jew. The present king demised the other messuage to Joce Lespicer, citizen of London, with 20s. rent in Vintry, to hold at his good pleasure. Leo's messuage is worth 5 marks a year, the other was and is as if waste. It is to be taken into the king's hand. The tenants are to come and show their warrant if they have one. Thereupon Christine, relict of Joce Lespicer comes and proffers a charter of King Henry, made on 5 June in the eleventh year of his reign [1227], in which he gave, granted and confirmed to Joce and his heirs 20s. annual rent and the aforesaid messuage in the City of London. But because the king was then under age, let the matter be discussed with him. Christine's messuage is worth 2 marks yearly.

209. Preceptum est maiori et vicecomitibus, quod capiant in manum domini regis omnes domus et edificia que fuerunt Bernardi de Salette in Civitate Londoniarum quia fuit extraneus nec fuit in [lotto] (fn. 11) et scotto nec de libertate Civitatis, et quod inquirant de catallis que idem Bernardus habuit et de illis respondeant; domus capiantur in manum domini regis donee inde voluntatem suam perceperit; valent per annum xx s.

The mayor and sheriffs are ordered to take into the king's hand all the houses and buildings which belonged to Bernard de Salette in the City of London, because he was a stranger [ ? alien] and not in lot and scot, and did not belong to the liberty of the City; and they are to enquire concerning the chattels which the same Bernard had and to answer for them. The houses are to be taken into the king's hand until he makes known his pleasure concerning them. They are worth 20s. yearly.

210. Willelmus Martel Normannus (fn. 12) tenuit quamdam sokam in Civitate Londoniarum que postea cecidit in manum domini regis Johannis tanquam escaeta sua, quam sokam idem dominus Johannes rex dedit Willelmo de Wortham qui illam postea dedit Josceo filio Petri. (fn. 13) Josceus obiit et magister Nicholaus films suus eam modo tenet; capiatur in manum domini regis donee etc. Et interim inquiratur quantum etc. Soka valet per annum xj s. viij d.

William Martel, a Norman, held a soke in the City of London which afterwards came into the hands of King John as his escheat. The king gave it to William de Wrotham, who afterwards gave it to Joce fitz Peter. Joce has died and master Nicholas his son now holds it. Let it be taken into the king's hand until etc. and meanwhile let enquiry be made how much etc. The soke is worth yearly 11s. 8d.

211. Quidam Hamo Pincerna habuit duas marcas redditus et dimidiam in Corvestrete et recessit de fide domini regis Ricardi tempore gwerre et redditum ilium per longum tempus antequam recessit de fide domini regis scilicet per tres annos vel plus, vendidit cuidam Willelmo le Chamberlenge qui redditum ilium postea vendidit Johanni Travers cuius heredes redditum ilium tenent; redditus capiatur etc. Post venit Galfridus de Wintonia qui modo redditum ilium tenet. Et preceptum est vicecomiti quod faciat ei habere seisinam suam donec plenius inquiratur. Venient cras cum cards suis si quas habuerint.

Hamo [king's] butler had 2½ marks rent in Cordwainer Street and withdrew from his allegiance to King Richard during the war, and long before he did so, viz. three years or more, sold it to William le Chamberlenge, who afterwards sold it to John Travers, whose heirs hold it. Let the rent be taken etc. Afterwards Geoffrey of Winchester who now holds it comes and the sheriff is ordered to give him his seisin until a fuller enquiry has been held. Let them come tomorrow with their charters if they have any.

212. Quidam Galfridus Buscy usurarius tempore regis Ricardi tenuit quamdam terram in Civitate Londoniarum que cecidit in manum eiusdem domini regis Ricardi tanquam escaeta sua, quam terram idem dominus rex dedit Willelmo de Suthwerk cuius films et heres postea eam dedit priori de Mertone et quam idem prior dedit Andree Trentemars cuius heredes eam modo tenent; capiatur in manum domini regis. Et heredes veniant et ostendant warantum si quod inde habuerunt etc. Et super hoc venit prior de Mertone et profert cartam regis Ricardi que testatur quod idem rex Ricardus dedit concessit et carta sua confirmavit dilecto et fideli suo Willelmo de Suthwerk pro servicio suo totam terram que fuit Radulfi de Buscy in Corveyseria in parochia Sancte Marie des Arches. Profert etiam cartam Lucie [sic] filii et heredis predicti Willelmi de Suthwerk, que testatur quod idem Lucas dedit etc. deo et ecclesie Beate Marie de Mertone et canonicis ibidem deo servientibus totam predictam terram cum pertinenciis etc. (fn. 14) Ideo consideratum est quod tenentes teneant in pace, et dictum est vicecomitibus quod faciat [sic] eis habere seisinam suam etc.

Geoffrey Buscy, a usurer, held land in the City of London, which came into the hands of King Richard as an escheat. The king gave it to William of Southwark, whose son and heir afterwards gave it to the prior of Merton, who gave it to Andrew Trentemars, whose heirs now hold it. Let it be taken into the king's hand. The heirs are to come and show their warrant, if they have any etc. Thereupon the prior of Merton comes and proffers a charter of King Richard attesting that the same king gave, granted and confirmed to his beloved and faithful William of Southwark, for his service, all the land that belonged to Ralph de Buscy in the Cordwainery in the parish of St. Mary le Bow. He also proffers a charter of Luke, son and heir of William of Southwark, which attests that Luke gave etc. to God and to the church of St. Mary of Merton and the canons there serving God all the aforesaid land with its appurtenances etc. Therefore it is adjudged that they hold it in peace, and the sheriffs are ordered to cause them to have their seisin etc.

213. Quidam Galfridus le Sauser domini regis Johannis habuit de dono eiusdem regis Johannis tria mesuagia in vico judeorum (fn. 15) que valuerunt xl s. per annum et obiit. Et Willelmus le Sauser domine regine qui nunc est tenet mesuagia illa; capiantur in manum domini regis donec etc.

Geoffrey le Sauser of King John had of his gift three messuages in Jewry worth 40s. a year. He has died, and William le Sauser of the present queen holds the messuages. Let them be taken into the king's hand until etc.

214. Rogerus films Rogeri et Petrus filius Alani tenuit quamdam terram in Colemannestrete que fuit eschaeta domini regis Johannis per feloniam Roberti filii Edithe, reddendo domino regi vij solidos per annum ad scaccarium; terra capiatur in manum domini regis donee etc. Et quia in ultimo itinere preceptum fuit vicecomitibus quod similiter caperent etc., ideo inquiritur de exitibus etc. Rehabeant seysinam suam donec aliud inde habeant preceptum. Et quia postea convictum fuit quod terra non valet plus per annum, ideo teneant in pace.

Roger son of Roger and Peter son of Alan held some land in Coleman Street which escheated to King John because of the felony of Robert son of Edith. It rendered to the king 7s. yearly at the exchequer. The land is to be taken into the king's hand until etc. And because at the last eyre the sheriffs were similarly ordered to take it etc. enquiry is to be made concerning the issues etc. Seisin is to be restored to Roger and Peter until further orders. And because it was afterwards proved that the land is not worth more yearly, they are to hold it in peace.

215. Orfilia filia Alani Ceyl de Laron tenet quoddam mesuagium in vico de Graschirche, quod fuit predicti Alani convicti felonie. Et quod fuit eschaeta domini regis per feloniam illam, et quam escaetam dominus Johannes rex dedit Huberto de Burgo, mesuagium illud capiatur in manum domini regis donee etc. Et quia postea convictum fuit quod predictus Alanus nunquam convictus fuit de aliqua felonia set obiit in prisona, ideo ipsa teneat in pace.

Orfilia daughter of Alan Ceyl of Laron holds a messuage in Gracechurch Street which belonged to her father, who was convicted of felony, and thus it became the king's escheat. King John gave the escheat to Hubert de Burgh. Let the messuage be taken into the king's hand until etc. But because it was afterwards proved that Alan was never convicted of any felony but died in prison, she is to hold it in peace.

216. Prior de Bermundeseye tenet unum mesuagium in Civitate Londoniarum quod fuit Willelmi cum Barba convicti de felonia; capiatur in manum etc. donec etc. Et similiter capitur in manum etc. medietas cuiusdam mesuagii quod Osbertus Clericus legavit predicto Willelmo filio suo. Et quam medietatem idem Willelmus dimisit ad terminum cuidam Ricardo fratri suo infra quern terminum convictus fuit de felonia donec tenentes etc. Et interim inquiratur de valore. Et quia istud non fuit plene presentatum coram justiciariis per maiorem et aldermannos, ideo dictum est eis quod plenius inde inquirant. Postea convictum fuit per maiorem et aldermannos quod Felicia que fuit uxor Joscei le Joefne tenet predictam medietatem et Ricardus Russel tenet predictum mesuagium tanquam eschaete. Ideo capiantur in manum etc. Medietas mesuagii valet xx s. per annum. [Aliud] mesuagium valet per annum xx s.

The prior of Bermondsey holds a messuage in the City of London which belonged to William with the Beard, who was convicted of felony. Let it be taken in hand etc. until etc. And likewise let the moiety of a messuage which Osbert the Clerk devised to the above-named William, his son, and which William demised for a term to Richard his brother, during which term he was convicted of felony, be taken in hand until the tenants etc. Meanwhile enquiry is to be made concerning the value. And because the matter had not been fully presented to the justices by the mayor and aldermen, they are ordered to make a fuller enquiry. Afterwards it was proved by the mayor and aldermen that Felicia, relict of Joce le Joefne holds the aforesaid moiety, and Richard Russel the messuage, as escheats. Therefore let them be taken in hand etc. Value of the moiety 20s. a year, and of the messuage likewise 20s.

217. Rex Ricardus dedit Roberto le Herre quoddam celarium in parochia Sancti [Petri] (fn. 16) Parvi in quo idem dominus rex solebat vina sua reponere, tenendum per servicium j marce vel j galee ad scaccarium per annum. Terricus de Staunford tenet modo celarium illud, nescitur quo warranto. Capiatur in manum domini regis donee idem Terricus etc. Et super hoc Terricus profert cartam domini regis Johannis que testatur (fn. 17) quod idem dominus rex dedit concessit et carta sua confirm avit Roberto le Herre de Saxonia quamdam domum cum pertinenciis in Londoniis in qua vina sua solebant reponi, tenendam ei et heredibus suis etc. reddendo inde annuatim unam galeam etc. Et profert aliam cartam per quam idem Robertus eum feoffavit. Et ideo inde loquendum coram domino rege. Et dictum est vicecomiti quod interim permittat ipsum habere seysinam suam. Et habeat etc. Et quia convictum est quod predictus Robertus toto tempore suo nichil solvit de predicta firma nec Terricus similiter, ideo capiantur pro arreragiis etc.

King Richard gave Robert le Herre a cellar in which he used to keep his wine in the parish of St. Peter the Less, to hold by the service of 1 mark or a helmet yearly at the exchequer. Terry of Stamford now holds the cellar; it is not known by what warrant. Let it be taken into the king's hand until the same Terry etc. Thereupon Terry proffers a charter of King John which attests that the king gave, granted and by his charter confirmed to Robert le Herre of Saxony a house with its appurtenances in London in which he used to keep his wine, to hold to him and his heirs etc. rendering therefor yearly a helmet. He proffers another charter by which Robert enfeoffed him. Therefore let the matter be discussed with the king. The sheriff is told that in the meantime he is to allow Terry to have his seisin. And he is to have etc. And because it is proved that Robert paid nothing of the aforesaid farm throughout his tenure, and neither did Terry, they are to be taken into custody for the arrears etc.

218. Radulfus Bureward tenuit quamdam terram in parochia Sancti Michaelis versus fullones et fuit utlagatus; terra illa capiatur in manum domini regis donec tenens etc., et ostendat etc. warrantum suum si quod inde habuerit. Terra illa valet xxij s. viij d. per annum, capiatur in manum domini regis etc.

Ralph Bureward held land in the parish of St. Michael ( ? Crooked Lane) and was outlawed; let the land be taken into the king's hand until the tenant etc., and he is to show etc. his warrant if he has one. The land is worth 22s. 8d. yearly. Let it be taken into the king's hand etc.

219. Adrianus Asshwy tenet unam domum que fuit Joscei judei in vico Sancti Martini Londoniarum; istud non fuit presentatum per maiorem et aldermannos et super hoc venit Adrianus et dicit quod predictus judeus non obiit (fn. 18) seiseitus de predicta domo, quia dicit quod vendidit situm illius domus antecessori ipsius Adriani per longum tempus ante gwerram et ante mortem suam et inde profert starrum ipsius Joscei et similiter starrum Florie filie et heredis ipsius Joscei.

Adrian Asshwy holds a house in St. Martin's Lane, London, which belonged to Joce the Jew. This was not presented by the mayor and aldermen; but thereupon comes Adrian and says that the aforesaid Jew did not die seised of the house in question, because he sold the site to Adrian's ancestor long before the war, and before his death, and he produces the starr of the said Joce and likewise the starr of Floria his daughter and heiress.

220. Loquendum est de terris que fuerunt Constantini filii Anulphi (fn. 19) suspensi cuius domus et tenementa dominus rex reddidit postea de gratia sua filio suo. Et similiter loquendum est de domibus que fuerunt Johannis Herlizun quas dominus rex assignavit conversis.

Let there be a discussion concerning the lands of Constantine fitz Alulph, who was hanged, and whose house and tenements the king afterwards returned to his son as an act of grace; and likewise concerning the houses which belonged to John Herlizun, which the king assigned to the (Jewish) converts.

221. De fugitivis, (fn. 20) si quis rediit post fugam sine warrento, et utlagatis, et catalla eorum quis ea habuit. Dicunt maior et aldermanni quod Walterus Bukerel (fn. 21) abiuravit regnum pro domo Henrici de Wautham, et postea rediit; si autem warantum habuit necne, dicunt quod intelligunt quod dominus rex perdonavit ei abiuracionem regni sui et recepit ipsum ad pacem suam sicut alias presentatum fuit coram justiciariis, set dicunt quod nesciunt si aliquod aliud inde habuerit warrantum necne. Et quia maior et aldermanni presentant quod credunt quod istud presentatum et terminatum fuit in ultimo itinere, ideo plenius inquiratur in rotulis ultimi itineris. Et Walterus arestetur donec warrantum suum inde ostenderit. Et quia convictum est quod idem Walterus receptatus fuit in Civitate Londoniarum scienter et sine warranto post dictam abiuracionem, ideo tota Civitas in misericordia domini regis. Post veniunt maior et cives et sponte se ponunt in misericordia domini regis. Post venerunt maior et barones et reddiderunt domino regi Civitatem cum omnibus libertatibus pro predicta transgressione. Et dominus rex eam cepit. Postea de gratia sua reddidit eis Civitatem usque ad certum diem ut interim loquatur cum consilio suo. Postea ad ilium diem venerunt cives apud Westmonasterium coram domino rege et consilio suo, voluntatem domini regis super predictis audituri. Et quia dominus rex arduis negociis intendebat, iter suum cum exercitu versus partes Scocie, ita quod negociis Civitatis ad presens non potuit intendere, terminum usque ad reditum suum de partibus Scocie eis prefixit, ut tunc eis voluntatem et gratiam suam super predictis faciat. Ita tamen quod Civitas sit in manum domini regis eodem statu quo prius fuit quando predictam Civitatem de gratia sua liberavit eisdem. Et sic recesserunt. Catalla ipsius Walteri quedam domus in parochia Sancti Laurencii super Tamisiam que remanet in manum domini regis tanquam eschaeta, et valet per annum iiij marcas set reddit dominis feodi ij marcas ut dicitur.

Of fugitives, whether any have returned after flight without warrant, and of outlaws, and the chattels of such as had any. The mayor and aldermen say that Walter Bukerel abjured the realm before the house of Henry of Waltham, and afterwards returned: as to whether he had a warrant or not, they say that they understand that the king pardoned him his abjuration of the realm, and received him into his peace, as was previously presented before the justices; but they say that they do not know whether he had any other warrant or not. And because the mayor and aldermen say they believe that the case was presented and terminated at the last eyre, fuller enquiry is to be made in the rolls of the said eyre. Walter is to be arrested until he shows his warrant. And because it is proved that he was received into the City of London knowingly and without warrant after his abjuration, the whole city is in the king's mercy. Afterwards the mayor and citizens come and voluntarily surrender to the king's mercy, and thereafter the mayor and barons came and handed over to him the City with all its liberties, for their transgression, and the king accepted it. Later, as an act of grace, he restored the City to them until a fixed date, so that he might in the meantime consult with his council. On the day appointed, the citizens appeared at Westminster before the king and council to hear the king's decision on the matter; but because he was engaged in urgent business connected with his expedition to Scotland, he could not then attend to the affairs of the City. He therefore fixed a time, after his return from Scotland, when he would make known to them his will and good pleasure thereon; on the understanding that, in the meantime, the City should remain in his hand as previously, before he graciously restored it to them. And thus they withdrew. Walter's chattels comprise a house in the parish of St. Lawrence upon Thames [Pountney], which remains in the king's hand as an escheat. It is worth 4 marks yearly, but is said to render 2 marks to the lords of the fee.

222. Matheus Bukerel rectatus de receptamento Galfridi de Taxstede utlagati, venit et defendit receptamentum illud et ponit se super veredictum maioris et aldermannorum Civitatis de bono et malo. Et maior et aldermanni dicunt super sacramentum suum quod fecerunt domino regi et in fide qua ei tenentur, quod predictus Matheus non est culpabilis de receptamento illo. Ideo inde quietus.

Matthew Bukerel, charged with harbouring Geoffrey of Thaxted, an outlaw, comes and denies the harbouring, and puts himself upon the verdict of the mayor and aldermen of the City for good and ill. The mayor and aldermen say upon the oath which they made to the king and the faith in which they are bound to him, that Matthew is not guilty of the habouring. Therefore he is quit.

223. De vinis venditis contra assisam dicunt maior et aldermanni quod Ricardus de la Persone et alii vendiderunt vinum contra assisam, ideo omnes in misericordia.

Of wines sold contrary to the assize, the mayor and aldermen say that Richard de la Persone and others have sold wine contrary to the assize. Therefore all are in mercy.

224. De mercede capta pro blado et aliis catallis dimittendis ne caperentur ad usus ballivorum domini regis pro minori precio quam valerent ad castra, similiter de prisis, dicunt maior et cives quod nichil inde sciunt. Ideo inde nichil.

Of bribes taken for sending away corn and other goods lest they should be taken for the use of the king's bailiffs at castles for a lower price than they are worth, and likewise of prises. The mayor and citizens say that they know of none. Therefore nothing.

225. De pannis venditis contra assisam, dicunt quod Martinus Juvenelle et alii plures contra assisam vendiderunt. Ideo omnes in misericordia.

Of cloth sold contrary to the assize, they say that Martin Juvenelle and many others have sold contrary to the assize. Therefore all are in mercy.

226. De novis consuetudinibus levatis in Civitate in terra sive sint in aqua, dicunt maior et cives quod nichil inde sciunt.

Of new customs levied in the City whether by land or water, the mayor and citizens say they know of none.

227. De defaltis (fn. 22) scilicet de illis qui sumoniti fuerunt coram justiciariis primo die et non venerunt, dicunt quod Johannes Viel junior, Gervasius le Cordwaner, Johannes de Wylehale, Robertus Hardel non venerunt primo die. Ideo omnes in misericordia.

Of defaults, viz. of those who were summoned before the justices on the first day and did not come, they say that John Viel junior, Gervase le Cordwaner, John de Wylehale, and Robert Hardel did not come on the first day. Therefore all are in mercy.

228. De gaolis deliberatis sine waranto domini regis vel justiciariorum tempore pads, dicunt quod nichil aliud sciunt quam predictum est in rotulis de novis placitis corone.

Of gaols delivered without warrant of the king or the justices in time of peace; they say that they know nothing more than is recorded in the rolls of the new pleas of the Crown.

229. De inprisonatis ad voluntatem ballivorum sine causa racionabili et deliberatis sine warranto domini regis vel justiciariorum, dicunt quod nichil inde sciunt.

Of those imprisoned at the will of the bailiffs without reasonable cause, and released without warrant of the king or the justices, they say that they know of none.

230. De evasione latronum, dicunt quod nichil inde sciunt. Of the escape of thieves, they say that they know of none.

231. De christianis usurariis vivis, qui sunt, que catalla habeant et quantum valeant, dicunt quod inde nichil sciunt nisi de quibusdam in partibus transmarinis.

Of living Christian usurers, who they are, what chattels they have and what they are worth, they say that they know of none, unless of some in foreign parts.

232. De dampnis et prisis factis extraneis, per quos hoc factum fuit et quando et ubi et in cuius potestate de quibus rebus, dicunt quod inde nichil sciunt.

Of damages and prises taken from strangers by whom this was done and when and where, and in whose dominions, and of what things, they say they know of none.

[m. 6] De constitutionibus provisis et observandis in Civitate Londoniarum. (fn. 23)

233. Provisum est per dominum regem et justiciarios suos et a civibus Londoniarum concessum, quod si archiepiscopi, episcopi, comites, barones et alii qui redditus habent in Civitate Londoniarum in aliquibus tenementis, et redditus sui a retro fuerunt nec ad redditus illos possint recuperare, quod bene liceat eis distringere tenentes suos pro arreragiis suis quamdiu aliquid inveniatur in feodo per quod distringi possint. Si autem nichil inveniatur in feodo per quod distringi possint, tunc ipsi tenentes implacitentur de gaveleto per quoddam breve de consuetudine et servicio, quod bene potest fieri per sokerevos eorum in hustengo presentatos ad custodiam sokne sue et redditus suos colligendos, ita quod si tenentes cognoverunt servicium suum, statim et sine omni difficultate satisfaciant dominis suis de arreragiis illis et serviciis suis. Si autem servicia sua eis denegaverint, petentes eis statim nominabunt sectam suam, scilicet duos testes. Et abbreviabuntur. Et habebunt diem producendi eos ad proximum hustengum, ad quem diem si ipsos testes produxerint, et per eos in plena curia ostendatur ut de visu suo et auditu, quod ipsi querentes aliquando perceperint redditus quos petunt de tenentibus suis, tunc ipsi tenentes amittent feoda sua per judicium curie. Et querentes recuperabunt tenementa sua in dominico. Si autem ut predictum est cognoverunt dominis suis servicia et similiter arreragia, tunc per iudicium dicte curie dupplicabunt arreragia et dabunt vicecomitibus pro iniusta detencione si ad hoc sufficiunt sine gravamine c solidos. Si autem tenentes post debitam summonicionem ad hustengum non venerint, tunc feoda illa in pleno hustengo querentibus liberabuntur, tenenda in manibus suis per unum annum et unum diem infra quem terminum si tenentes venerint ad eos et optulerint eis satisfacere de arreragiis suis dupplicandis et vicecomitibus de misericordia ut predictum est, tunc rehabebunt tenementa sua, sin autem, post annum et diem completum, remanebunt tenementa illa dominis feodorum illorum per judicium eiusdem curie in dominico suo imperpetuum. Et tunc vocantur tenementa illa forshort, eo quod imperpetuum remanent in dominico dominis feodorum pro defectu servicii. Idem autem tenendum et observandum est si tenentes cognoscant arreragia sua et non possint inde satisfacere secundum quod predictum est.

Of constitutions provided and to be observed in the City of London.

It is provided by the king and his justices, and allowed by the citizens of London, that if archbishops, bishops, earls, barons and others who have rents in the City of London in any tenements, and their rent is in arrears, nor can they recover it, they may freely distrain their tenants for their arrears, as long as anything can be found in the fee by which they can be distrained. But if nothing can be found in the fee whereby they can be distrained, then the tenants may be impleaded of gavelet by a writ of custom and service, which may freely be done by their soke-reeves presented in the husting to have custody of their sokes and collect their rent. Provided that, if the tenants have acknowledged their service, they shall at once and without raising any difficulty, satisfy their lords of both arrears and services, but if they deny their services, the demandants shall forthwith nominate their suit, viz. two witnesses, whose names shall be enrolled. And they shall have a day to produce them at the next husting; and on that day, if they produce their witnesses and it is shown in full court, both by sight and hearing, that the plaintiffs at any time received the rent which they demand from their tenants, then the tenants are to lose their fees by judgment of the court, and the plaintiffs are to recover their tenements in demesne. But if, as above said, they acknowledge their service and arrears, then by judgment of the court the arrears are to be doubled, and they are to give the sheriffs, for unjust detention, 100s. if they can afford to do so without grave inconvenience. If, however, the tenants, after due summons, fail to appear at the husting, their fees shall be handed over, in full husting, to the plaintiffs to hold for a year and a day. If within that time the tenants come to them and offer to satisfy them for the double arrears and the sheriffs for the amercement, as aforesaid, their tenements shall be returned to them; but if not, after a full year and day, they are to remain in perpetuity to the lords of the fee in demesne, in accordance with the judgment of the court. Those tenements are then to be known as 'forshort', because they remain permanently in the demesne of the lords of the fee for default of service. The same procedure is to be followed and observed where the tenants acknowledge their arrears but cannot make satisfaction for them, as is said above.

234. De attornatis. Provisum est etiam et concessum quod omnes tenentes in Civitate si inplacitati fuerint in aliqua curia Civitatis de tenementis (fn. 24) suis sive residentes fuerint in Civitate sive non, bene poterunt facere attornatum in predicta curia et se (fn. 25) per attornatos suos defendere et hoc tam per breve quam sine brevi, quod nondum concessum est petentibus, maxime cum petentes possent per attornatos suos quemlibet civem gravare et vexare iuste et iniuste indifferenter sicut cives testantur.

Of attorneys. It is also provided and allowed that all tenants in the City who are impleaded in any of the City courts concerning their tenements, whether they are resident in the City or not, shall freely appoint an attorney in the court concerned, and defend themselves by their attorneys, as well with as without a writ—a privilege which is never granted to plaintiffs, particularly since plaintiffs could burden and annoy any citizen by their attorneys, whether justly or unjustly, as the citizens testify.

235. De curiis hustengalibus. (fn. 26) Provisum est etiam et concessum quod curia de placitis terre [teneatur] (fn. 27) de quindena in quindenam, et quod teneatur per sex aldermannos et unum vicecomitem si alii aldermanni et alius vicecomes ibi non intersint vel causa racionabili interesse non possint vel odio vel amore se subtraxerint per quod iusticia differatur. Et similiter teneatur curia per eos si maior ibidem non interfuerit vel interesse non poterit (fn. 28) vel predicto modo se subtraxerit. Ita quod si iudicium fuerit clarum, illi sex aldermanni et vicecomes non exspectatis maiore et aliis aldermannis et alio vicecomite statim et sine dilacione faciant iudicium et reddant in eadem curia. Si autem judicium obscurum fuerit et ambiguum, tunc ponant iudicium illud in respectum (fn. 29) usque ad proximam curiam sequentem, et tunc fiat judicium si certi sint de iudicio faciendo et reddendo; si vero tunc incerti fuerint de iudicio reddendo, bene licebit eis adhuc differre iudicium usque ad proximiorem curiam post secundam que erit tercia curia et non ultra, cum satis infra tres curias que continent sex septimanas, de iudicio faciendo et reddendo possint certiorari.

Of the husting courts. It is further provided and allowed that the court of pleas of land shall be held from fortnight to fortnight, and that it shall be held by six aldermen and one sheriff if the other aldermen and the other sheriff are not present, or for any reasonable cause cannot come, or from malice or favour absent themselves, whereby justice might be delayed. And likewise the court shall be held by them if the mayor is not present, or cannot come, or in the manner aforesaid absents himself. If the case is clear, those six aldermen and one sheriff, without awaiting the mayor and the other aldermen and sheriff, shall at once pronounce and render judgment in that same court; but if it is obscure and ambiguous, then they are to put it in respite until the next court, and then give judgment if they are satisfied as to how it should be given. If, however, they are still uncertain of the judgment to be given, it is fully allowable for them to defer it until the next court after that viz. the third court, but not further, because in the time which elapses between three courts, which is six weeks, they should be able to satisfy themselves fully concerning the judgment to be given and rendered.

236. De Judiciis. Provisum est etiam et concessum quod nullus aldermannus sit ad iudicium faciendum et reddendum inter partes postquam fuerit in consilio alicuius partis et cum parte illa steterit ubi pars illa aliquem in curia placitaverit, maxime cum non possit esse pars et iudex; provisum est etiam et concessum quod nullus advocatus aut placitator in aliqua curia Civitatis in loquela ubi fuerit advocatus aut placitator faciat iudicium aut reddat, aut alicui iudicio in eadem curia faciendo vel reddendo intersit. Provisum est etiam quod nullus implacitans vel implacitatus in aliqua curia Civitatis per suasionem aut per minas alicuius cogatur quod capiat diem amoris cum adversario suo, ex quo ambo presentes fuerunt in curia, nisi utraque pars tarn petens quam defendens, diem amoris cum instancia pecierit. Provisum est etiam (fn. 30) et concessum quod si decetero aliquis cadat in aliqua curia Civitatis versus aliquem de falsa querela sua, quod non recedat inprimis de eadem curia set sit in misericordia pro falso clamore. Et vicecomites capiant misericordias de huiusmodi falso querentibus secundum quod culpa eorum fuerit magna vel parva.

Of judgments. It is further provided and allowed that no alderman shall be permitted to pronounce and render judgment between parties when he has been in consultation with either, or has supported one of them in a plea in court, especially since no one can be at the same time a party and a judge. It is also provided and allowed that no advocate or pleader shall give judgment in any City court in a case in which he has acted as advocate or pleader, or participate in the giving of judgment in the same court; and that no one, whether plaintiff or defendant, shall be induced by persuasion or threats to agree to a love-day with his adversary unless both parties are present in court, plaintiff and defendant alike, and he asks for it with insistence. It is further provided and allowed that in future if anyone fails in any of the City courts by reason of a false plaint, he shall not withdraw from the court forthwith, but shall be in mercy for a false plaint; and the sheriffs shall take amercements from those who make false plaints, according to the degree of their guilt, whether great or small.

237. De essoniis. Provisum est etiam et concessum quod si petens se falso vel maliciose essoniaverit, et tenens presens fuerit in curia, quod essonium petentis non allocetur nec audiatur in querela sua infra annum et diem pro malicia et falsitate sua, set si post annum et diem ad proximam curiam venerit, et versus tenentem sequi voluerit, asscultetur et tenens summoneatur quod sit ad proximam curiam ei responsurus. Ita tamen quod loquela illa tunc sit ibi in eo statu in quo fuit quando remansit sine die per falsum essonium ipsius petentis. Si autem petens post annum et diem ad proximam curiam non venerit nec versus tenentem sequi voluerit et tenens presens fuerit in curia, tunc per iudicium eiusdem curie tenens eat sine die et petens sit in misericordia pro falso clamore. Si autem tenens se essoniaverit et presens non fuerit, tunc allocetur essonium et detur essoniatori dies ad proximam curiam. Si autem tenens se essoniaverit et sanus sit infra libertatem Civitatis tunc statim mittatur pro eo et capiatur ubicumque inventus fuerit et ducatur ad curiam et respondeat, et essonium suum non allocetur. Si autem fuerit infra libertatem Civitatis infirmus (fn. 31) et sane mentis et se essoniaverit, tunc statim mittantur ad ipsum aldermanni ad videndum quem loco suo in loquela illa attornare voluerit. Et coram eis faciat attornatum suum. Qui (sc. attornatus) (fn. 32) cum eis incontinenti eat ad curiam et respondeat. Et si fuerit infirmus (fn. 31) et non sit sane mentis et se essoniaverit, statim allocetur essonium suum. Idem tenendum est de muliere in partu laborante.

Of essoins. It is also provided and allowed that if the plaintiff essoins himself falsely or maliciously, and the tenant is present in court, an essoin shall not be granted to the plaintiff nor shall his plea be heard for a year and a day because of his malice and deceit; but if after the year and a day he comes to the next court and wishes to proceed against the tenant, he is to be heard, and the tenant is to be summoned to answer him at the next court, provided that the plea remain at the same stage as when it was adjourned sine die because of the false essoin of the plaintiff. If, however, the plaintiff does not come to the next court after the year and day, and does not wish to proceed against the tenant, and the tenant is present, then, by judgment of the court he shall be sine die and the plaintiff in mercy for a false plaint, but if the tenant has essoined himself and is not present, then his essoin shall be allowed, and the essoiner be given a day at the next court. If the tenant is within the liberty of the City in good health and essoins himself then he shall be sent for at once and taken wherever he is found and led to the court and he shall answer and his essoin shall not be allowed. If the tenant is within the liberty of the City and is sick, but of sound mind, and essoins himself, then the aldermen shall at once be sent to him to see whom he wishes to put in his place in that plea, and in their presence he shall appoint his attorney, who is to go at once with them to the court and answer. If he is sick and not of sound mind and essoins himself, his essoin shall be at once allowed. The same applies in the case of a woman in child-birth.

238. De attornatis. Provisum est etiam et concessum quod omnes implacitati tenentes, sive residentes fuerint sive non, possint facere attornatum suum, tam per breve domini regis quam in pleno hustengo in presentia adversarii sui. Provisum est etiam quod si placitum motum fuerit in curia, nec petens nec tenens distringatur per minas aut per suasiones ad diem amoris capiendum nisi utraque pars pari voluntate hoc pecierit.

Of attorneys. It is provided also and allowed that all tenants impleaded, whether resident or not, may appoint an attorney, either by the king's writ or in full husting in the presence of their adversary. It is provided also that if the plea has been moved in court, neither the plaintiff nor the tenant may be constrained by threats or persuasion to agree to a love-day, unless both parties desire it equally.

239. Ricardus de Totenasse queritur, quod cum quadam nocte Veneris, hoc anno ante quindenam Natalis Domini esset in domo sua apud Londonias in pace domini regis venerunt ad domum suam de domo Hugonis Blundi tunc vicecomitis Willelmus Aurifaber, frater ipsius Hugonis, Jordanus serviens ipsius Hugonis, Johannes Shep, bedellus ipsius Hugonis, Radulfus clericus ipsius Hugonis, Johannes clericus ipsius Hugonis, Johannes clericus films capellarii, Adam serviens Thome de Stanes, Petrus frater ipsius Ade, Philippus de Enefeud, Simon Vinetarius de Milkstrete et Johannes de Haneford et vi hostium domus sue fregerunt et garcionem suum ceperunt et ligaverunt, et postea venerunt ad hostium camere sue et illud fregerunt et ipsum per pedes extraxerunt super gradus solarii et ipsum male verberaverunt et in corpore et sub talos et quamdam plagam ei fecerunt in capite, et postea zona sua manus suas post tergum suum ligaverunt et eum turpiter per vicos de nocte [duxerunt] apud Newegate, eodem Hugone presente et hoc precipiente, ubi ipsum primo spoliaverunt et postea ipsum in sola camisia sua in fundum carceris miserunt et ipsum nudum super terram scobis mundatam sedere fecerunt et ipsum ferro carceraverunt et inceppaverunt et sic eum per tres dies et tres noctes contra pacem domini regis detinuerunt in prisona. Ita quod replegiari non potuit nec aliquis amicus suus ad eum accedere nec victum invenire, donec justiciarii domini regis ad gaolam predictam deliberandam missi ipsum ut clericum archidiaconi Londoniarum liberaverunt. Ita quod postquam fuit deliberatus, dedit gaolario iiij d. et predicto Hugoni pro custodia equi ipsius Ricardi quern predicta nocte de domo sua abduci fecerat, sex denarios scilicet pro custodia trium dierum etc. Et Hugo venit et alii non venerunt. Et Hugo defendit vim et iniuriam et quicquid est contra pacem domini regis. Et dicit quod idem Ricardus habet quamdam uxorem Beatricem que est receptatrix latronum, et datum fuit intelligi, quod latrones fuerunt ibi hospitati illa nocte, ubi misit predictos servos ad predictos latrones capiendos et cum venerunt ad domum illam et liberum non [potuerunt] (fn. 33) habere ingressum, hostia fregerunt et ignem et magnum incendium in domo illa invenerunt, predictis Ricardo et uxore sua et garcione suo in predicta domo existentibus. Et quia predictus Ricardus noluit stare paci domini regis nec plegium invenire, set extraxit gladium suum et amputavit duos digittos cuiusdam servientis etc.

Richard of Totnes complains that one Friday night this year, before the quindene of Christmas [8 Jan. 1244] he was in his house in London in the king's peace, when there came from the house of Hugh Blund, then sheriff, William the Goldsmith, Hugh's brother, Jordan, Hugh's serjeant, John Shep, his beadle, Ralph and John his clerks, John the Clerk, son of the capper, Adam servant of Thomas of Staines, Peter, Adam's brother, Philip of Enfield, Simon the Vintner of Milk Street and John of Hanford and broke the door of his house, seized and bound his servant, and afterwards came to the door of his chamber and broke it down. They dragged him by his feet on to the stairs of the solar, beating him severely about the body and under the feet, and wounding him in the head. Afterwards they bound his hands behind his back with his girdle, and led him ignominiously through the streets by night to Newgate, Hugh himself being present and ordering it. There they first despoiled him, and afterwards sent him, clad only in his shirt, to the lowest part of the prison, and made him sit naked upon ground which had been cleaned with brooms, and loaded him with irons and put him in the stocks, and thus detained him in prison for three days and three nights against the king's peace; in such wise that he could not obtain bail, nor could any of his friends get access to him or bring him food, until the king's justices of gaol delivery freed him as a clerk of the archdeacon of London. After his release he gave 4d. to the gaoler and to Hugh for his horse which he had caused to be taken from his house, 6d. for three days' keep. Hugh comes but the others do not. He denies the force and injury and whatever is against the king's peace, and says that Richard has a wife called Beatrice who is a harbourer of thieves, and he had been given to understand that thieves were lodging there that night, so he sent his servants to arrest them. When they came to the house and could not get free entry, they broke down the doors and found a great fire therein, Richard and his wife and servant being present in the house. And because Richard would not stand to the king's peace or find a pledge, but drew his sword and cut off two fingers of one of the servants etc.

240. Intrusio. Radulfus la Justice et Agnes uxor eius queruntur (fn. 34) de Johanne Clerico le chapeler, quod idem Johannes iniuste et contra pacem domini regis intrusit se in quoddam mesuagium ipsius Agnetis in Estchep, et [ipsam] (fn. 35) Agnetem inde eiecit, unde dicunt quod deteriorati sunt et dampna habent ad valenciam v m. etc. Et producunt sectam etc. Et Johannes venit et defendit vim et iniuriam et totum etc. et dicit quod non intrusit se in predictum mesuagium sicut ipsi dicunt, set habuit ingressum in predictum mesuagium per priorissam Sancte Marie de Clerckenwelle quam vocat inde ad warrantum qui (fn. 36) venit et ei warrantizavit et dicit quod predicti Radulfus et Agnes nichil clamare poterunt in predicto mesuagio quia dicit quod predictum mesuagium est de feodo suo, et quod ipsa dedit predictum mesuagium per cartam cuidam Rogero le Cordwaner et Avicie uxori sue. Ita quod post mortem ipsius Rogeri venit predicta Avicia apud Clerkenewelle et in pleno conventu reddidit eis cartam predictam et mesuagium et eis quietum (fn. 37) clamavit totum jus et clamium quod habuit in predicto mesuagio. Ita quod eadem priorissa et conventus predictam resignacionem ceperunt de predicto mesuagio et predictum Johannem inde feoffaverunt.

Radulfus et Agnes dicunt quod verum est quod ipsa priorissa et conventus feoffaverunt predictum Rogerum et Aviciam set dicunt quod post mortem ipsius Rogeri venit predicta Avicia in ligia potestate et viduitate sua dedit predictum mesuagium in maritagium cum predicta Agnete cuidam Ricardo de Abeville primo viro suo qui inde fuerunt in pacifica seisina per magnum tempus donee idem Johannes ipsos inde eiecit. Et quod eadem Agnes talem habuit seisinam et prius fuit feoffata quam idem Johannes ponit se super veredictum visneti et Johannes similiter. Et ideo dictum est Roberto Hardel eiusdem visneti aldermanno (fn. 38) quod iam faciat venire in predicto loco xij ad inquisicionem illam faciendam, ubi statim et eodem die facta fuit inquisicio per xij aldermannos qui venerunt coram justiciariis apud ecclesiam Sancte Marie prope predictum mesuagium et super sacramentum suum et in fide qua tenentur domino regi dixerunt quod predicta Avicia post mortem viri sui confecit predictis Ricardo et Agneti cartam suam de predicto mesuagio, set postea venit predicta Avicia ad predictam priorissam et conventum et in presentia eorum se dimisit de predicto mesuagio omnino et illud eis reddidit. Ita quod eadem priorissa et conventus predictum Johannem de predicto mesuagio feoffaverunt et ipsum inde in plenariam et [separatam] (fn. 39) seisinam posuerunt. Et ideo consideratum est quod predictus Johannes teneat in pace. Et Radulfus et Agnes in misericordia. Loquela de ista intrusione nunquam fuit in hustengo et tamen terminatum est coram justiciariis unde manifeste patet (fn. 40) quod hoc quod maior et cives superius dixerunt de intrusione locum non tenet, set sciendum quod predictus Johannes sponte intravit in responsionem predicte intrusionis.

Intrusion. Ralph la Justice and Agnes his wife complain that John Clerk, the capper, unjustly and against the king's peace, intruded into a messuage belonging to Agnes in Eastcheap, and ejected her, to their damage 5 marks etc. They produce witnesses etc. John comes and denies the force and injury and all etc., and says that he did not intrude himself into the messuage as the plaintiffs allege, but had entry through the prioress of St. Mary Clerkenwell, whom he vouches to warranty. The prioress comes and warrants him, and says that Ralph and Agnes can claim nothing in the messuage in question because it belongs to her fee, and she gave it by charter to one Roger le Cordwaner and Avice his wife. After Roger's death Avice came to Clerkenwell, and in the presence of the whole convent returned to them the charter and the messuage, and quit-claimed to them all the right and claim which she had in the said messuage. The prioress and convent accepted the resignation of the messuage and enfeoffed the above-named John therewith. Ralph and Agnes say that it is true that the prioress and convent enfeoffed Roger and Avice, but that after Roger's death, Avice in her lawful power and widowhood, gave the messuage in marriage with the abovenamed Agnes to one Richard de Abbeville, her first husband, and they remained in peaceful possession for a long while until John ejected them; and that Agnes had such seisin and was enfeoffed before John they put themselves upon the verdict of the venue. John does likewise. Therefore Robert Hardel, alderman of the venue, is ordered to cause twelve to appear in that place to hold an inquest; and forthwith, that same day, an inquest was held by twelve aldermen, who appeared before the justices in the church of St. Mary [ ? at Hill] nearby, and said upon their oath and in the faith in which they are bound to the king that Avice, after her husband's death, made out a charter concerning the messuage in dispute to Richard and Agnes, but afterwards came to the prioress and convent, and in their presence surrendered the messuage completely, and returned it to them; whereupon they enfeoffed John therewith and put him in full and separate possession. Therefore it is adjudged that John is to hold it in peace. Ralph and Agnes are in mercy. There was never any discussion concerning this intrusion in the husting, yet it was terminated before the justices. Thus it is manifest that what the mayor and citizens said above on the subject does not hold; but be it known that John appeared to answer to the plea of intrusion of his own volition.

241. Magister de Monasterio Cornuto frater domus de Mundgon, petit versus Matheum Bukerel 1 solidos qui ei (fn. 41) aretro sunt de annuo redditu xxxj solidorum reddendo per annum de quadam terra et quibusdam parietibus in parochia Sancti Swithuni Londoniarum que idem Matheus tenet de predicta domo per predictum servicium per annum, unde idem magister dicit quod per detentionem illius redditus deterioratus est et dampnum habet ad valentiam xx solidorum. Et inde producit sectam. Et Matheus venit et bene cognovit ei redditum predictum et quod decetero ei solvet predictum redditum ad terminos in carta nominatos. Et idem magister acquietabit et defendet predictum Matheum et heredes suos versus Editham filiam Terrici Blound et heredes suos de xxxj solidis per annum. Et residuum redditus illius remanet eidem magistro. Post venit predictus Matheus et finem fecit pro predictis arreragiis per xx solidos quos ei solvet in octabis Sancti Johannis Baptiste. Et nisi fecerit, concedit quod vicecomites faciant de terris et catallis etc.

The master of the monastery of Hornchurch, a brother of the house of Mountjoy, claims against Matthew Bukerel 50s., being the arrears of an annual rent of 31s. due for some land and party walls in the parish of St. Swithin, London, held of his house by the same Matthew by the said annual service. The plaintiff says that as a result of the withholding of the rent he has suffered damage to the value of 20s., and he produces witnesses. Matthew comes and freely acknowledges that he owes the said rent, and promises that in future he will pay it at the times specified in the charter; and the plaintiff undertakes to acquit and defend him and his heirs against Edith, daughter of Terry Blound and her heirs of 31s. a year, and the rest of the rent is to remain to him. Afterwards Matthew came and made fine for the arrears in 20s., which he is to pay on the octave of St. John the Baptist [1 July]; and unless he does so, he grants that the sheriffs may levy the money from his lands and chattels etc.

242. [m. 6d] De forma et modo inquisicionum, appellorum et attachiamentorum. Quoniam hucusque inquisiciones de morte hominis et attachiamenta de appellis et similiter alia attachiamenta de novis placitis debito modo et recto facta non fuerunt, provisum est per dominum regem et justiciarios suos et a maiore et civibus concessum quod decetero quando aliquod infortunium accident in Civitate de morte hominis submersi et huiusmodi, statim et sine dilacione nuncietur camerario qui pro tempore fuerit et postea vicecomitibus; et similiter fiat de inquisicione de morte hominis et de appellis et de attachiamentis appellatorum et omnibus aliis ad coronam domini regis spectantibus, ita quod omnes huiusmodi inquisiciones, appella et attachiamenta sine dilacione fiant per camerarium et vicecomites et, secundum quod acciderint, suo ordine statim inrotulentur; et sine ulteriori dilacione attachiamenta et inquisiciones de morte hominis fiant in locis ubi huiusmodi acciderint et alibi ubicumque veritas melius inquiri poterit et si necesse fuerit fiat inquisicio per tres vel per quatuor aldermannos et wardas suas propinquiores et viciniores predictis locis. Et si vicecomites noluerint interesse inquisicioni, nichilominus camerarius qui recordum habet hec faciat et dicat vicecomitibus ex parte domini regis quod faciant attachiamenta que ad huiusmodi pertinent. Et si vicecomites aliquas fecerint inquisiciones de huiusmodi sine camerario, inquisiciones ille pro nullis habeantur. Inquisiciones, appella, et attachiamenta statim fiant non exspectato hustengo vel aliqua alia curia Civitatis. Et si vicecomites de attachiamentis faciendis necgligentes fuerint, camerarius hoc inrotulet in rotulo suo et ostendat justiciariis ut tunc de negligentia sua debitam penam reportent. Et camerarius semper inrotulet nomina plegiorum de attachiamentis secundum quod velit inde respondere et secundum quod transgressio fuerit magna vel parva, fiant attachiamenta. Et si aliquod infortunium contigerit in aldermanneria aliqua et aldermannus hoc celaverit per duos dies vel plus vel minus quominus incontinenti nuncietur camerario per ipsum vel per sokam ubi illud accident, aldermannus et soka sint in misericordia. Et si aldermannus vel soka aliquem receptaverint in soka sua ultra tres noctes, nisi sit mercator extraneus iens et rediens, nullam certain mansionem habens in Civitate nec certum receptamentum, vel sit homo pepudrus vel aliquis qui sit cum aliquo magnate Anglie et moram faciat in Civitate ad providendum domui domini sui vel ad alia negocia facienda, vel si aliquis inplacitatus apud Bancum vel stet in Civitate pro negociis suis vel alicuius in curia domini regis expediendis extra francum plegium et talis receptatus deliquerit et fugerit et non stet recto, aldermannus et tota soka sua sint in misericordia, pro receptamento. (fn. 42)

Of the form and method of inquisitions, appeals and attachments. Because inquests concerning the death of a man, and appeals and likewise attachments for New Pleas have not been made in a due and correct manner, it was provided by the king and his justices and allowed by the mayor and citizens that in future, when any accident occurs in the City, such as the death of a man by drowning, it shall at once and without delay be reported to the chamberlain for the time being, and afterwards to the sheriffs; and the same shall be done in the case of an inquest of homicide and of appeals and attachments of appellors and all other matters belonging to the king's crown, so that all such inquests, appeals and attachments may be made without delay by the chamberlain and sheriffs, and at once enrolled in the order of their occurrence; and attachments and inquests for the death of a man, shall be held without further delay in the places where the incident occurred, and elsewhere, wherever the truth can best be ascertained; and if necessary, an inquest shall be held by the three or four aldermen and their wards most closely adjoining those places. If the sheriffs do not wish to take part in the inquest, the chamberlain, who has the record, shall nonetheless hold it, and order the sheriffs, on behalf of the king, to make the required attachments. If the sheriffs hold any inquests of this kind without the chamberlain, they shall be adjudged null. Inquests, appeals and attachments shall be made at once, without awaiting the meeting of the husting or any other City court; and if the sheriffs are negligent in making attachments, the chamberlain shall make a note of it on his roll and show it to the justices, that then their negligence may receive its due punishment. The chamberlain shall always enrol the names of the pledges of attachments according as he wishes to answer therefor, and attachments shall be made in proportion to the gravity of the offence, whether it be great or small. If any misadventure occurs in any aldermanry, and the alderman conceals it for two days, or more or less, so that it is not reported forthwith to the chamberlain by him or by the soke where it occurred, the alderman and soke are to be in mercy. And if the alderman or soke harbour in their soke for more than three nights anyone other than a foreign merchant, coming and going, having no settled home in the City nor any certain lodging, or a traveller, or someone in the household of an English magnate, staying in the City to provision his lord's house or do some other business, or someone impleaded in the Bench, or remaining in the City to conduct his own affairs or those of someone in the king's court, and the person thus harboured and not in frankpledge commits a crime and flees and will not stand his trial, the alderman and the whole of his soke shall be in mercy for harbouring.

243. De Intrusionibus qualiter debent placitari. Provisum est etiam et concessum, quod, si quis disseisitus fuerit de tenemento suo infra libertatem Civitatis et venerit ad hustengum vel curiam infra xl septimanas post disseisinam vel intrusionem illam et queratur vicecomitibus de disseisina illa, statim audiatur et disseisitor, si inventus fuerit, vel ballivus suus pro eo, si ipse inventus non fuerit, attachietur quod sit ad diem, quem vicecomites ei dabunt, ad locum ubi disseisina facta fuerit, una cum uno vicecomite, si alius interesse non possit, et aldermanno loci et ibidem coram vicecomitibus et aldermanno et aliis de visneto statim et sine dilacione plenariam justiciam exhibeant querenti. Ita quod, si disseisitor vel intrusor convictus fuerit per veredictum xij de visneto de disseisina vel intrusione illa, tunc querens rehabeat seisinam suam una cum dampnis que habuit per disseisinam illam et que ei adiudicabuntur per veredictum predictorum xij. Et tunc idem intrusor vel disseisitor attachietur per xij bonos plegios quod sit coram justiciariis nostris in primo adventu suo apud Turrim Londoniarum ad respondendum ibidem de transgressione illa. Et bene provideant vicecomites interim quod plegii tales sint quod unusquisque possit respondere domino regi de dimidio marce ad minus, si predictus disseisitor vel intrusor coram justiciariis non venerit. Si autem disseysitor vel intrusor vel ballivus suus ad locum et diem quos vicecomites ei dabunt non venerit, nichilominus plena iusticia fiat querenti in forma predicta, et plegii sui si attachiati fuerint sint in misericordia etc. Si autem querens cadat pro falsa querela sua, sit in misericordia vicecomitum et dampna que adiudicata fuerint ipsi disseisito, inrotulentur in rotulis camerarii et vicecomitum. ut secundum dampna illa coram justiciariis apud Turrim Londoniarum amercietur. Et camerarius habet omnia attachiamenta que spectant ad disseysinam vel intrusionem inrotulata in rotulis suis.

Of intrusions, how they ought to be pleaded. It is provided further and allowed, that if anyone is disseised of his tenement within the liberty of the City and comes to the husting or court within 40 weeks after that disseisin or intrusion and complains of that disseisin to the sheriffs, he shall at once be heard, and the disseisor, if he can be found, or his bailiff for him if he cannot be found, shall be attached to appear on a day given him by the sheriffs, at the place where the disseisin was done, together with one of the sheriffs, if the other cannot be present, and the alderman of the place; and there, in the presence of the sheriffs and alderman and others of the venue, at once and without delay, full justice shall be done to the plaintiff. If the disseisor or intruder is convicted by verdict of twelve of the venue of that disseisin or intrusion, then the plaintiff shall recover his seisin together with the damages which he incurred thereby, and which shall be awarded him by the verdict of the aforesaid twelve. And then the intruder or disseisor shall be attached by twelve good pledges to appear before our justices at their first coming to the Tower of London to answer there for that offence. And in the meantime the sheriffs are to take care that the pledges are such that each can answer to the king for half a mark at least, should the disseisor or intruder fail to appear before the justices. If, however, he or his bailiff do not come at the time and place appointed by the sheriffs, full justice shall none the less be done to the plaintiff in the form aforesaid, and his pledges, if they were attached, are to be in mercy etc. But if the plaintiff fails by reason of a false plaint he shall be in the sheriffs' mercy, and the damages awarded him as having been disseised are to be entered on the rolls of the chamberlain and of the sheriffs, so that, in accordance with them, he may be amerced before the justices at the Tower of London. And the chamberlain shall have enrolled on his rolls all the attachments belonging to the disseisin or intrusion.

244. De morte antecessoris qualiter debeat placitari. Provisum est etiam quod si aliquis obierit in Civitate seysitus de aliquo tenemento ut de feodo, ita quod tenementum illud ante mortem suam non legaverit, quod heres eius incontinenti succedat et habeat eandem seysinam quam antecessor suus tenuit die quo obiit, et si aliquis alius post mortem antecessoris eiusdem heredis intruserit se in tenementum illud ante successionem suam et idem heres recenter venerit ad vicecomites et querelam suam fecerit de eadem intrusione, statim inquisita veritate per aldermannum et visnetum coram vicecomitibus, idem intrusor per iudicium eiciatur et sit in misericordia vicecomitum pro transgressione et pro iniusta detencione et heres habeat seysinam antecessoris sui. Si autem heres non venerit ad vicecomites infra annum et diem post intrusionem illam nec querelam fecerit de predicta intrusione et intrusor infra annum et diem alium de eodem tenemento feoffaverit, heres nullum habeat recuperare versus tenentem per querelam suam nisi tantum per breve de recto et tunc illud breve de recto terminetur in curia per modum possessionis, ut de feodo in forma assise mortis antecessoris et non in forma brevis de recto ut de iure. Et quoniam similiter nullum breve de ingressu locum habet in Civitate set omnino breve de recto, provisum est quod breve de recto in tali casu impetratum placitetur et terminetur secundum formam et naturam brevis de ingressu et non in formam vel naturam brevis de recto, salvis warrantis suis tenentibus si quos vocare voluerint tarn in processu istius brevis quam brevis tangentis naturam mortis antecessoris.

Of mort d'ancestor, how it ought to be pleaded. It is provided also that if anyone dies in the City seised of any tenement as of fee, and has not devised that tenement before his death, his heir shall immediately succeed him, and shall have the same seisin as his ancestor had on the day of his death, and if anyone else intrudes himself into that tenement, after the death of the ancestor of the heir, before his succession, and the heir promptly comes to the sheriffs and makes his plaint concerning that intrusion, enquiry concerning the truth having been forthwith made by the alderman and venue in the presence of the sheriffs, the intruder shall be ejected by judgment, and be in the sheriffs' mercy for his offence and for unjust detention, and the heir shall have the seisin enjoyed by his ancestor. If, however, the heir does not come to the sheriffs within a year and a day of the intrusion or make complaint of the same, and the intruder has in the meantime enfeoffed another with the tenement, the heir shall have no recovery against the tenant by his plaint, but only by writ of right; and then that writ of right shall be terminated in court by the mode of possession, as of a fee in the form of an assize of mort d'ancestor and not in the form of a writ of right, as of right. And since likewise no writ of entry runs in the City but only the writ of right, it is provided that a writ of right sued out in such a case shall be pleaded and terminated according to the form and nature of the writ of entry, and not according to the form or nature of the writ of right; saving to the tenants their warranties, if they wish to vouch them, as well in the procedure upon this writ as upon the writ touching the nature of mort d'ancestor.

245. Convenit inter Johannem Renger custodem Alicie filie et heredis Thome Bukerel querentem et Johannem Thoiosan de quodam debito quo predictus Thomas obligaverat eidem Johanni Tholosan quasdam domus et redditus in Civitate Londoniarum, et de quibus eidem Johanni Thoiosan cartam suam de feoffamento fecerat, videlicet quod idem Johannes Tolosan remisit eidem Johanni Renger quicquid exigebat in predicto debito usque ad lx libras sterlingorum. Et cartas de feoffamento predictarum domuum et reddituum eidem Johanni reddidit. Et pro hac etc. idem Johannes Renger concessit eidem Johanni Tolosan et heredibus suis vel assignatis suis, quod habeant vel teneant predictas domus et redditus usque ad legitimam etatem ipsius Alicie pro sex marcis per annum que computabuntur eidem Alicie in solucione predictarum lx librarum. Ita quod cum predicta Alicia ad etatem pervenerit, et quod residuum fuerit de solucione predictarum lx librarum, eidem Johanni Tholosan vel heredibus suis vel assignatis suis pacare voluerit, statim et sine difficultate habebit seysinam suam de predictis domibus et redditibus. Si autem pacare noluerit, idem Johannes Tholosan et heredes sui vel assignati tenebunt predictas domus et redditus donee plenarie receperint predictas lx libras de predictis domibus et redditibus. Ita quod exitus predictarum domuum et reddituum computentur et allocentur predicte Alicie et heredibus suis quolibet anno pro sex marcis. Et erit in optione ipsius Alicie vel heredum suorum cum ad etatem pervenerint, quandocumque voluerint, residuum predictum acquietare et domos predictas habere ut predictum est. Et idem Johannes Tholosan reddet eidem Alicie predictas domus et redditus in adeo bono statu sicut eas recepit die Sancti Johannis hoc anno, scilicet anno regni regis Henrici filii Johannis xxviij°.

Agreement between John Renger, guardian of Alice, daughter and heiress of Thomas Bukerel, plaintiff, and John Tholosan concerning a debt for which Thomas pledged to John Tholosan certain houses and rents in the City of London. John Tholosan drew up a charter of feoffment concerning these things in which he remitted to John Renger whatever he had exacted for the said debt, except for £60 sterling, and he returned to the same John Renger the charters of feoffment of the houses and rents; and for that etc. John Renger granted to John Tholosan and his heirs or assigns that they might have and hold the said houses and rents until Alice came of age, for 6 marks a year, which should be accounted to her towards the repayment of the said £60; on the understanding that when Alice came of age, if she was willing to pay to John Tholosan or his heirs or assigns the outstanding sum of the said £60 she should at once and without difficulty have seisin of the aforesaid houses and rents. But if she would not pay, John Tholosan and his heirs or assigns were to continue to hold the houses and rents until the £60 had been fully repaid; on condition that the issues of the houses and rents should be accounted and allowed to her and her heirs at the rate of 6 marks yearly. And Alice or her heirs, whenever they come of age, are to have the option of paying off the residue and have possession of the houses as above said; and John Tholosan is to return the houses and rents to Alice in as good condition as he received them on the feast of St. John [the Baptist] 28 Henry III [24 June 1244].

246. Memorandum quod maior et cives dicunt quod omnes tenentes in Civitate sive sint residentes in Civitate sive extra et ipsi fuerint inplacitati de tenementis suis, quod bene possunt facere attornatos suos in hustengo et defendere se per attornatos suos. Set non concedunt quod petentes hoc facere possint.

Memorandum that the mayor and citizens say that all tenants in the City, whether residents in the City or outside, if they are impleaded concerning their tenements, may freely appoint attorneys in the husting, and defend themselves by their attorneys; but they do not agree that plaintiffs may do so.

247. De Intrusionibus. (fn. 43) Prior hospitalis extra Bysshoppesgate queritur quod Cristina que fuit uxor Stephani de Blounnie ipsum iniuste eiecit de uno mesuagio cum pertinenciis extra Bysshoppesgate quod habuit de dono cuiusdam Stephani Marescalli qui ipsum inde feoffavit, per quod feoffamentum idem prior fuit in seisina per unum annum donee eadem Cristiana ipsum inde eiecit ad dampnum suum etc. Et Cristina venit et defendit vim et iniuriam et totum etc. et dicit quod predictum mesuagium fuit maritagium suum et Stephanus quondam vir suus dedit mesuagium illud cuidam Ade Fabro qui inde obiit seysitus. Et de eodem Ada descendit mesuagium illud cuidam Roberto filio et heredi qui mesuagium illud eidem Cristiane postea in morte sua legavit, ita quod post mortem suam fuit ipsa in seysina per tres annos donee idem prior etc. Et prior dicit quod verum est quod predictus Adam obiit seisitus de predicto mesuagio et quod Robertus films eius fuit inde in seisina post mortem patris sui, set dicit quod idem Robertus non obiit seisitus de predicto mesuagio nec mesuagium illud legavit eidem Cristiane nec legare potuit, quia idem Robertus per longum tempus ante mortem suam dedit predictum mesuagium predicto Stephano le Mareschal qui inde fuit in seysina per longum tempus ante mortem ipsius Roberti, ita quod idem Stephanus dedit mesuagium illud predicto hospitali. Et quod ita sit, ponit se super veredictum aldermannorum et visneti. Et Cristiana similiter. Et ideo preceptum est aldermannis quod faciant venire iam xij de visneto per quos etc. ad recognoscendum super sacramentum suum si predictus Robertus obiit seisitus de seisina de predicto mesuagio, ita quod mesuagium illud legavit eidem Cristiane sicut eadem Cristiana dicit, vel si predictus Robertus per longum tempus ante mortem suam mesuagium illud predicto Stephano dedit, ita quod idem Stephanus predictum priorem inde feoffavit sicut idem prior dicit. Post venerunt aldermanni visneti predicti una cum xij de melioribus et legalioribus de visneto apud Turrim Londoniarum et recognoverunt coram justiciariis in presencia partium super sacramentum quod fecerunt domino regi et in fide qua ei tenentur quod predictus Robertus obiit seisitus de predicto mesuagio, ita quod mesuagium illud legavit predicto Stephano qui postea dedit predicto hospitali. Ideo consideratum est quod prior rehabeat seisinam suam. Et Cristina in misericordia. Et quia convictum est quod predictum mesuagium fuit maritagium predicte Cristiane, nec vir suus illud de iure dare potuit vel vendere, dictum est sibi quod inquirat sibi breve de recto si voluerit cum nullum aliud breve currat in Civitate.

Of Intrusions. The prior of the hospital outside Bishopsgate complains that Christine, relict of Stephen de Blounnie unjustly ejected him from a messuage with its appurtenances outside Bishopsgate which he had of the gift of one Stephen the Marshal who enfeoffed him therewith, as a result of which feoffment he had possession of the messuage for a year until Christine ejected him, to his damage etc. Christine comes and denies the force and injury and all etc., and says that the messuage was her marriage portion, and Stephen, her late husband, gave it to one Adam the Smith, who died seised thereof; and from Adam it descended to his son and heir Robert, who afterwards, at his death, devised it to her, and that after his death she was seised of it for three years until the prior etc. The prior says it is true that Adam died seised of the messuage, and that Robert his son had possession of it after his father's death; but he says Robert did not die seised of it, nor did he devise it to Christine, nor did he nor could he so devise it, because Robert, long before his death, gave it to Stephen the Marshal who was in possession of it a long time before Robert's death and gave it to the hospital. And that this was so he puts himself upon the verdict of the aldermen and venue, and Christine likewise. Therefore the aldermen are ordered to cause to appear twelve of the venue by whom etc. to declare upon their oath whether Robert died seised of the aforesaid messuage and devised it to Christine as she alleges, or whether Robert gave it, long before his death, to the above-named Stephen who enfeoffed therewith the prior, as he asserts. Thereafter there came the aldermen of the venue with twelve of the most honourable and lawful men of the venue to the Tower of London and declared before the justices in the presence of the parties, upon the oath they had made to the king and the faith in which they were bound to him, that Robert died seised of the messuage in question and devised it to Stephen, who afterwards gave it to the hospital. It is therefore adjudged that the prior recover his seisin, and that Christine be in mercy. But because it was afterwards proved that the messuage was Christine's marriage portion, and that her husband could not lawfully give or sell it, she was told that she might sue out a writ of right, if she so desired, since no other writ runs in the City.

248. Dominus rex mandavit domino Willelmo de Eboraco preposito Beverlaci et sociis eius justiciariis itinerantibus apud Turrim Londoniarum quod omni diligentia et modis quibus poterunt inquiri faciant, que consuetudines (fn. 44) pertinebant ad Hetham Regine Londoniarum anno proximo ante gwerram motam inter dominum Johannem regem patrem suum et barones suos Anglie. Et [quod] (fn. 45) de consuetudinibus illis et aliis que ad predictam hetham pertinebant tempore predicto eis constiterit, et que postea mutata fuerunt et alienata, omni sollicitudine et cautela quibus (fn. 46) poterint laborent ad predictam hetham in statum debitum reformandam; et quod teneatur in eisdem consuetudinibus quibus teneri consuevit tempore predicto.

The king commanded the Lord William of York provost of Beverley and his colleagues justices itinerant at the Tower of London that with all diligence and every kind of enquiry which they can make they should certify him what customs belonged to Queenhithe London in the year before the outbreak of war between King John his father and his barons of England. And with all solicitude and care they should work to reduce the aforesaid hithe to its former state in which it used at that time to be, and which with other customs seemed to them to prevail and those which afterwards were changed and alienated.

249. Coram quibus convictum fuit per maiorem et aldermannos Civitatis, quod tempore predicto fuerunt tales consuetudines ad predictam hetham spectantes, scilicet de qualibet siffa j mensura continente v quarteria salis, que fuerunt hominis extranei, et etiam si fuerint alicuius hominis de V Portibus et applicuerit aut venerit ubicumque fuerit inter Woroparth et Anedeheye (fn. 47) vel ultra, dabit ij d. ad firmam dicte ripe. Item si aliquis de civibus Londoniarum partem habeat in dicta sippa salis nichil dabit de porcione sua, set residuum quod pertinet ad forinsecos dabit consuetudinem secundum quantitatem rei sue.

Before whom it was proved by the mayor and aldermen of the City that certain customs belonging to the aforesaid hithe, to wit: from every sieve [i.e. a basket used as a measure], one measure containing five quarters of salt [ ? fish], which belonged to a stranger or even to a man of the Cinque Ports mooring or coming anywhere between Woroparth and Anedeheye or beyond, he shall give 2d. to the farm of the aforesaid hithe. Item if any of the citizens of London have a share in the sieve of salt [? fish] he shall pay nothing for his portion but the rest which belongs to the foreigners shall pay custom according to the quantity of the cargo.

250. Item si aliquis forinsecus allec, bladum, vel huiusmodi, simul cum sale in una navi duxerit, licitum est ballivo Regine (fn. 48) capere de apparentiori parte catallorum predictorum.

Item if any foreigner brings herring or corn or the like with salt [ ? fish] in a ship it is permissible for the bailiff of Queenhithe to take from the uppermost part of the chattels.

251. Item si aliquis forinsecus et etiam de Quinque Portibus fuerit et venerit cum salmone, si c vel amplius attulerit, dabit duos salmones ad firmam Regine, et si in soka Regine applicuerit, unum dabit de melioribus et unum de mediocribus. Et si minus quam c attulerit, dabit secundum quantitatem rei usque ad quartam partem c. Et si minus quam quartam partem centene attulerit, nichil dabit nisi strandagium.

Item if any foreigner or even anyone of the Cinque Ports comes with salmon if he brings 100 or more he shall give two salmon to the farm of Queenhithe and if he moors in the soke of Queenhithe he shall give one of the better and one of the middling kind and if he brings fewer than 100 he shall give according to the quantity of the cargo down to a fourth part of 100 and if he brings fewer than a fourth part of 100 he shall give nothing save strandage.

252. Item de milvello salso eadem capienda est consuetudo ad firmam Regine in eadem soka, quam vicecomes capiat ad opus domini regis apud Billinggesgate.

Item of salt cod the same custom is taken for the farm of Queenhithe in the same soke as the sheriffs take to the king's use at Billingsgate.

253. Item si forinsecus et etiam de V Portibus allec album salsatum in navi sua duxerit in soka Regine, capienda est de navi j centena. Et si aliquis de civibus Londoniarum partem habeat secum, nichil de porcione sua.

Item if a foreigner and also one of the men of the Cinque Ports brings salt white herring in his ship to the soke of Queenhithe 100 are to be taken from the ship and if any citizen of London has a share with him he pays nothing for his portion.

254. Item quicumque forinsecus primum rubeum allec adduxerit non fraellatum, dabit j centenam et alii qui supervenerint cum eodem genere allecis, sive sit fraellatum sive non, nichil dabunt per totum annum preter strandagium navis.

Item whichever foreigner brings first red herrings not packed in frails [i.e. rush baskets] he shall give 100 and those who come afterwards with the same kind of herring whether in frails or not shall give nothing for the whole year except for the strandage of the ship.

255. Item si aliquis forinsecus salmonem vel mulvellum salsatum emerit in navi et illud in altera navi posuerit, (fn. 49) de quolibet millenario dabit obulum.

Item if any foreigner buys salt salmon or cod in one ship and transfers it to another he shall give ½d. for every 1,000.

256. Item de salmone et mulvello empto in shopis sitis in eadem soka de quolibet c capiendi sunt ij d. sicut predictum est de navibus.

Item of salmon and cod bought in shops situated in the same soke 2d. is to be taken from every 100 as is said of the ships.

257. Item de allecibus emptis in shoppis de quolibet millenario capiendum j d. ob. sicut de navibus.

Item of herring bought in shops l½d. is to be taken from every 1,000 as of the ships.

258. Item de omni genere piscium recencium veniencium in soka Regine eadem consuetudo capienda est que capitur de eisdem generibus piscium ad firmam domini regis ad Pontem Londoniarum.

Item of all kinds of fresh fish coming to the soke of Queenhithe the same custom is to be taken as is taken from the same kind of fish to the king's farm at London Bridge.

259. Item de qualibet navi que navigatur infra orloccos capiendi sunt ij d. ad firmam Regine nisi tamen sit de Londoniis vel de V Portibus.

Item of every ship which is navigated between rowlocks 2d. is to be taken for the farm of Queenhithe unless it belongs to a Londoner or a man of the Cinque Ports.

260. Item de navi que navigatur cum tollis capiendum est j d. ob. Item of the ship which is navigated with tholes l½d. is to be taken.

261. Item de qualibet shuta descendente in soka Regine cum blado capiendi sunt iij d. ob. Si autem cum busca sine blado, capiendus est j d. Omnes consuetudines prescripte conservande sunt et tenende tam in portu de Douegate quam in Ripa Regine ad opus domini regis.

Item of every shout putting in at the soke of Queenhithe with corn 3½d. is to be taken; if however she is laden with brushwood without corn 1d. is to be taken. All the aforesaid customs are to be observed and kept in the port of Dowgate as well as in Queenhithe to the king's use.

262. Item bladum quod applicuerit inter guteram de Gyldhalle Colonensium et sokam archiepiscopi Cantuariensis non solet mensurari per aliud quarterium quam per quarterium de soka Regine.

Item the corn which is delivered between the gutter of the guildhall of the men of Cologne [Steelyard] and the soke of the archbishop of Canterbury is not accustomed to be measured by any measure save that of the soke of Queenhithe.

263. Item licitum est ballivo Regine capere scawingam in selda Wintonie ad opus Regine, sub eadem forma quam vicecomes Londoniarum alibi in Londoniis scawingam capit ad opus domini regis.

Item it is permitted for the bailiff of Queenhithe to take scavage in the seld of Winchester to the use of Queenhithe in the same way that the sheriffs of London take scavage elsewhere in London for the king's use.

264. Item si aliquis consuetudinem suam detinuerit et a Civitate cum eadem consuetudine recesserit, incidit in misericordiam ballivi.

Item if anyone detains his custom and retires from the City with it he shall fall in the mercy of the bailiff.

265. Item si quis consuetudinem suam ballivo vel eius ministro obtulerit persolvendam, et illi ipsam capere noluerint, ballivus, quamvis a Civitate recederit, non est amerciandus.

Item if anyone brings his custom to pay to the ba liff or his assistant and they do not wish to take it, even if he has left the City, the bailiff is not to be amerced.

266. Item omnes assise Civitatis in hustengo provise et statute ad emendacionem Civitatis statuende sunt et observande in soka Regine. Et ideo consideratum est quod dominus rex habeat seisin am suam de omnibus consuetudinibus predictis secundum quod per eur dem maiorem et cives recognitum est.

Item all assizes of the City provided and enacted in the husting for the amendment of the City are to be enacted and observed in the soke of Queenhithe and therefore it is adjudged that the king is to have his seisin of all the customs aforesaid according to how it is recognised by the mayor and citizens.

267. Post venerunt ballivi (fn. 50) predicte hethe et conqueruntur quod post predictam recognitionem applicuerunt xiiij naves forincece cum piscibus apud Billyngesgate que debuerunt applicuisse apud predictam hetham. Et ideo consideratum est quod si aliqua navis forinseca cum piscibus in forma predicta applicuerit alibi quam ad predictam hetham, sit in misericordia domini regis scilicet ad xl s. Et hec pena locum habeat usque ad unum mensem post festum Sancti Michaelis hoc anno. Et interim secundum transgressionem suam providebitur de graviori pena infligenda si formam predictam observare noluerint.

Afterwards the bailiffs of the hithe came and complained that after the aforesaid recognition fourteen foreign ships with fish moored at Billingsgate which ought to have moored at the aforesaid hithe and therefore it is adjudged that any foreign ship with fish which in like manner moors elsewhere than the hithe is to be in the king's mercy to the value of 40s. and this penalty is to be valid for a month after the feast of St. Michael this year [1244] and meanwhile according to their transgression a more serious penalty shall be provided if they do not observe this form.

268. Post veniunt maior et cives et dicunt quod omnes naves extraneorum cum omnibus piscibus salsis exceptis spindelbot (fn. 51) applicuerunt ad predictam hetham tempore predicto. Set naves que fuerunt civium Londoniarum applicuerunt alibi ubi voluerunt. Et ideo dominus rex habeat seisinam suam donee aliud inde preceperit etc.

Afterwards the mayor and citizens come and say that all ships of foreigners with all salt fish except 'spindelbot' have moored at the hithe at the time aforesaid but the ships which belonged to the citizens of London have moored elsewhere where they wished and therefore the king shall have his seisin until he otherwise orders etc.

[m. 7] Rotuli de itinere de anno Regis Henrici xxx°. (fn. 52)

269. Capitulum I. De veteribus placitis corone que alia vice fuerunt coram justiciariis domini regis et non fuerunt terminata. Civitas respondit: Quod oportet ut Civitas per rotulos justiciariorum certificetur et tunc eis inde dicetur rectum secundum leges Civitatis.


1 Inserted in a later hand.
2 Cf. the lower valuation in 320.
3 Some words missing; for a suggestion of their sense see the translation.
4 Cf. 276.
5 See C.P.R. 1232–47, 82 where the grant to Bermondsey is followed by a similar one to Westminster.
6 Margin: Nota quod vicecomites non debent tenere placita de mensuris.
7 William Hardel, Edward of Westminster and Haverhill were, at times, associated, T. F. Tout, Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England (6 vols. 1920–33) i, 260–1, 267–70; iv, 361.
8 Heading referring to 208–20. Margin: Nota. Coram Rege Roll 199 of 1310 (printed in Weinbaum, Verfassungsgeschichte, 74) cites the particulars of these escheats from the eyre roll of 1221 thus showing that the record of the earlier eyre was still extant in the 14th century.
9 Supplied from Coram Rege Roll cited above.
10 Another inquisition was held in 1249, Cal. of Inquisitions Miscellaneous, i, 19, no. 63.
11 laico in original.
12 For Martel's earlier career see Weinbaum, London, ii, 16.
13 Supplied from 279.
14 See Records of Merton Priory, ed. A. Heales (1898), 113.
15 vicus Sancti Laurencii in Judaismo in 283 and 308; Weinbaum, Verfassungsgeschichte, 74–5.
16 Supplied from 293.
17 Rotuli Chartarum, i, pt. i, 151, dated 25 May 1205.
18 non obiit repeated.
19 Alulphi in 287 and 294.
20 Margin: Nota de Civitate reddita in manum regis pro eo quod quidam Walterus Bokerel receptatus fuit in Civitate sine waranto postquam regnum abiuraverat. Liber Ordinationum, ff. 221 d and 222 (printed in Weinbaum, Verfassungsgeschichte, 110–11) contains a less satisfactory text.
21 Matthew Paris takes the side of London in the Bukerel affair, Chronica Majora, ed. H. R. Luard, iv (Rolls Series, 1877), 395–6.
22 See also 176.
23 General heading referring to 233–8 which were copied in Liber Ordinationum, ff. 222–3 (printed in Weinbaum, Verfassungsgeschichte, 82–7). For the heading in Liber Horn, see 235 n. 1. On the subject of arrears of rent and recovery of seisin see M. Bateson, Borough Customs, i, 297–300.
24 Suggested by 246 and Liber Albus, i, 62, tenentibus in original.
25 Suggested by 246, eos in original.
26 Liber Horn, f. 302d contains the full text but there it is introduced by: De constitutionibus provisis et observandis in Civitate Londoniarum in itinere justiciariorum regni regis Henrici xxviii° and has the marginal note: in rotulo H. de Waltham ex'. An abbreviated copy in Liber Ordinationum (printed in Weinbaum, Verfassungsgeschichte, 85).
27 teneantur in original.
28 Suggested by Liber Ordinationum f. 222d; poterint in original.
29 Suggested by Liber Ordinationum f. 222d; respectu in original.
30 Margin: Nota de misericordia.
31 Suggested by Liber Ordinationum, f. 223, infirmius in original.
32 scilicet is interlined.
33 poterunt in original.
34 Copied in Liber Ordinationum, ff. 223d–4.
35 ipsarum in original.
36 Liber Ordinationum reads que.
37 Supplied from Liber Ordinationum.
38 Bridge Ward according to Beaven, i, 372.
39 seperatem in original.
40 Liber Ordinationum has the following marginal gloss: Nota quod xij aldermanni fuerunt in inquisicione de intrusione.
41 Suggested by Liber Ordinationum, f. 224, et in original.
42 242–4 copied in Liber Ordinationum, if. 224d–5d (printed in Weinbaum, Verfassungsgeschichte, 115–18).
43 Copied in Liber Ordinationum, ff. 225d–6.
44 248–68 were entered as Consuetudines Veteres de Ripa Regine in Liber Horn, ff. 342d–3d from which were copied Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson B 356, B.M. Vespasian D XVI and Nero A VI, and Guildhall Liber Memorandorum (see Weinbaum, London, i, 24–5 and ii, 100–1 and 109). Riley printed them from Liber Memorandorum (with commentary based on Liber Horn) in Liber Albus, iii, 445–9. They were less well copied in Liber Ordinationum, f. 226 r & d where another hand added in the margin: de consuetudinibus ripe Regine. Liber Horn adds a marginal gloss not repeated in the other custumals: anno proximo ante guerram videlicet, anno Regis Johannis xiiij et anno grade mccxv. A different set of customs of a later date but prior to 1244 is printed in Liber Albus, i, 238–41. Several months after the eyre Richard of Cornwall granted the customs at Queenhithe in fee-farm to the City (confirmed in Henry III's charter of 1247, see Liber Custumarum, i, 46–7 and Cal. of Letter Book C, 15).
45 cum in original.
46 Suggested by Liber Memorandorum, que in original.
47 Liber Horn (quoted in Liber Albus, iii, 446 n. 3), f. 342d adds: Memorandum quod Werepath, vel Worpath, est in orientali parte de Flete de Berkynge, a Londoniis in orientem per vij millia passuum; et Andehethe est juxta Westmonasterium, in parte occidentali Londoniarum.
48 i.e. ripe Regine, here and in subsequent entries.
49 Liber Horn (see Liber Albus, iii, 447 n. 1), f. 343 adds: ad ducendum per aquam, de quolibet centeno dabit ij denarios; et si minus quam centum, dabit secundum quantitatem rei capte. Si aliquis forinsecus allec emerit in una navi et posuerit in altera etc.
50 Suggested by Liber Albus, iii, 448, venit ballivus in original.
51 Possibly a sailing boat with a mast (O.E.D. spindle, sb. 11) too tall to pass under London Bridge.
52 The heading is written in a different hand from the rest of the membrane.