Roll A 22
1376-77

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Centre for Metropolitan History

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Author

A.H. Thomas (editor)

Year published

1929

Pages

231-244

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'Roll A 22: 1376-77', Calendar of the plea and memoranda rolls of the city of London: volume 2: 1364-1381 (1929), pp. 231-244. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=36686 Date accessed: 31 July 2014.


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ROLL A 22

Membr. 1

Roll of Memoranda and Pleas held before Adam Stable, Mayor, in the Chamber of the Guildhall from the Feast of SS. Simon and Jude [28 Oct.] A o 50 Edw. III [1376], that being the day when he took up office, to the same Feast next year

26 Nov. 1376

Lodewyc Gentyl of Genoa came before the Mayor about 2 o'clock after dinner, and complained that before dinner his seal with divers letters in a purse had been cut from his girdle and stolen—he thought on Westminster Bridge. The seal bore his name " Lodewyc " and also his arms on a shield after this manner... (fn. 1) . He prayed that any deed sealed with his seal after to-day might be treated as void.

Peter atte Pole, vintner, sued Martin Pedeler in a plea of debt on demand of £4, as security for which the defendant had pledged to him a silver girdle and a mazer cup. The debtor having made four defaults, the said Peter prayed that the pledge might be valued as a foreign attachment and delivered to him. The girdle was valued at 46s 8d and the cup at 20s by the oath of John Hygon and Henry Merkeby, goldsmiths, and delivered to him to answer therefor if the debtor should come within a year and a day and be able to disprove the debt.

Membr. 1 b

20 Nov. 1376

Writ to the Mayor and Sheriffs to restore to Peter de Brumose and William Megge, merchants of Bordeaux and Lybourne, and their partners certain casks of wine captured at sea in two cogs, or their value, which wine had been found by an inquest held by the late Sheriffs to have come into the hands of divers persons, viz. William Ermyn, clerk, for the King's use, 74 casks; William Ermyn and John Hatfeld, clerks, by gift from the mariners of the barges of London and Hethe (fn. 2) , 2 casks; the Mayor of London, 49 casks, 1 pipe; John Paul and John Colshull, 24 casks, and one lost; John Michel and Roger Stanleye, paltokmaker (fn. 3) , 20 casks, 1 pipe; William Storton, vintner, Henry Vanner and John Colshull, 26 casks; Roger Stanleye, 5 casks, 1 pipe; John Donyngton, skinner, 4 casks; John Home, called "Blake," fishmonger, 27 casks, 1 pipe; Hugh Sadyngburne, 4 pipes bought at Sadyngburne (fn. 4) ; a squire of Lord de Nevyle, 2 casks; Thomas Langeton and John More of Hethe, 3 casks; Alice Perrers, by gift from the mariners aforesaid at Sandwich, 10 casks; John Paul, 18 casks; and the Castle of Dover, sent by the mariners, 11 casks. Dated at Westminster, 20 Nov. Ao 50 Edw. III. [1376]

Return by the Mayor and Sheriffs to the effect that several of the persons above mentioned could not be found in their bailiwick and had neither goods nor wine there, whereby they could be forced to make restitution. No information could be gained as to wine sent to the Castle of Dover or that such wine was ever in the City of London. Henry Vanner, John Colshull, John Donyngton, John Home and John Michel had already come to terms with the claimants in the presence of the Mayor. Alice Perrers had appeared and denied receipt of any wine. As regards the 49 casks and 1 pipe which came into the hands of the late Mayor, 3 casks were found empty and 6 casks and 1 pipe were used in ullage and curison of the other casks, leaving 40 casks which the late Mayor handed over to the Chamberlain for custody. The Chamberlain had paid various expenses on the wine: for freightage from Sandwich to London, £7 15s; for cranage and the drawers of the wine, 23s 3d; to a cooper for mending the casks, 14s 4½d; to the cellarers for housing the wine, £4 11s; for cantels (fn. 5) , tapons (fn. 6) , faucettes and other small necessaries, 5s 4d; total £14 9s 3½d. Afterwards, in obedience to writs directing payment to William Colle and Hermann Yngelyn of Campe (fn. 7) for freightage, the late Mayor offered them the 40 casks, which they refused. He then had the casks valued at £35 and sold them to a certain Paul Lumbard for £40. This sum, together with another 40s, was paid to the said William and Hermann and accepted by them. Thus the Chamberlain altogether paid out £16 9s 3½d in expenses, and was consequently unable to restore to the merchants either the wine or the value of it.

Membr. 2

John Rote and William Pountfreyt, Wardens of the Skinners, brought into court four furs of bysses which they had seized in the shops of Henry Mulsho of Gedyngton (fn. 8) and John Romseye of Thames Street as falsely and deceptively made, contrary to the ordinance of the aforesaid mistery. Being summoned to appear, the said Henry and John made three defaults. Thereupon precept was given to summon two good men of the mistery to certify as to the furs. John Donyngton and John Colle duly appeared and testified on oath that all the furs were falsely made, and valued them at 20s. Judgment that they be forfeited to the use of the Commonalty.

28 Nov. 1376

Richard Lichfeld, who confessed to having sent four dozen caps to the fulling-mill after the order made by the Hurers forbidding it, was adjudged to pay 13s 4d forfeiture for the caps and a fine of. 6s 8d to the Chamberlain.

23 Jan. 1377

Walter atte Court, who had sued John Parker for detinue of a sheep, of which charge the said John had cleared himself as a freeman by making his law with the seventh hand, was fined 12d for calling the oath false and perjured.

6 Feb. 1377

Robert Kendal, servant of Thomas Kyngeston, was fined, as an example to others, because he had grossly abused and slandered Robert Thornhegge and Walter Gyngyure, Masters of the Cordwainers, when they were executing their office.

4 Sept. 1374

Letter of attorney from Jacob Jacomyn, merchant of Florence, to Lodewic Andreu, merchant of Florence, to recover a debt of £10 from William de Hoo, knight, and £44 from Francis Gras of Milan. Dated at London, 4 Sept. 1374.

Membr. 3

A list of goods belonging to merchants of Amiens arrested by Adam Stable and other merchants.

In the hands of John Norwych: 6 or 7 cloths belonging to John Panehet and Robert Damyas, valued at £20 in a suit brought by John Phelipot; money borrowed from John Contye and Robert Damyas, £30, from Bartholomew Collayn, £10, from the same by four citizens of Norwich, £40; 6 tuns of woad bought by John Norwich from Firmyn Andelwye for £52, less £4 freightage, and not yet paid for; 4 tuns of woad on sale, value £22; and two ships at his wharf.

In the hands of John Rydere: 10 cloths of sangwyn, tauny, blew, black, red, and russet medle, 22 yards of blanket and 5 dozen caps belonging to Gilliem de Seint Aubin, £9 belonging to Nicholas Muret, £60 belonging to Robynet Peyntsegle, £22 belonging to Henry le Vadlet.

In the hands of John Churcheman: £54 belonging to Nicholas Muret.

In the hands of John Haddele: £30 belonging to Michelet Cadyf, 20 dozen scarlet caps, 2 cloths of blew and one of russet.

In the hands of John Iclyngham: £16 6s 8d belonging to Henry le Vadlet. [French]

5 Nov. 1376

The following vintners were sworn to make a scrutiny of wines, vinegar and sauces and to pour out in the streets such as they found unsound: For the east (of Walbrook), William Tonge, John Chivele, Gilbert Bonet, Richard Sprot, Nicholas Rote and Thomas Neel; for the west, John Hedrope, Richard Blake, Thomas Medelane, Walter Doget, William Stokesby and Thomas Heyward.

1 Jan. 1377

Grant by Torellus Gascoygn, merchant of Lucca, to John Walssh, goldsmith, of all his goods and chattels in part satisfaction of a debt of £30. Dated at London on the Feast of the Circumcision [1 Jan.] Ao 50 Edw. III [1376-7].

4 Jan. 1377

Letter of attorney from the same to the same to recover a debt of £70 18s due on a bond from Thomas Willshire, skinner, and to retain the money thus recovered in satisfaction of his debt. [French]

26 Jan. 1377

Proclamation made on 26 Jan. 1377 to the effect that no one within the franchise sell wine of Gascony, red or white, at a greater price than 6d the gallon, nor Rhenish wine in a tavern at more than 10d a gallon; that no hostiller sell hay for a horse for a night and a day at more than 2d nor oats at more than 6d a bushel; that no hupkster of ale be resident within the liberties; and that no one sell the best ale for more than 2d a gallon, and the second best for 1d the gallon, and only by sealed measures. [French]

Membr. 3 b

14 Jan. 1377

Henry Dorant, barber, was attached to answer John Cok, chandler, in a plea of trespass, wherein the latter complained that, whereas by the custom of the City every person was bound to guard his fire so that no damage might thereby happen to another, and was bound to make good such damage, a fire broke out in the parish of St Peter Cornhill by default of the defendant whereby two of his own shops were burnt, and thereupon by order of the Aldermen and Sheriffs, so as to prevent the fire spreading, the tiles and laths were removed from the plaintiff's shop and a solar lying over a gate, and several pieces of timber were torn out with chains and hooks, to his damage £40.

The defendant pleaded that the plaintiff had no ground of action, because there was a house and a wall between their properties, and there was so large a number of people present extinguishing the flames, that there was no danger to the plaintiff's premises. Moreover it was by his own consent that the tiles, timber and laths were removed.

The plaintiff answered that the defendant had not denied the custom, nor that the fire had arisen from his own default, nor that the tiles etc. were removed from fear of the fire by advice of the Aldermen and Sheriffs. The only defence put forward was that there was a house between, and that the plaintiff's premises would not have been burnt even if he left the roof alone, which defence, the plaintiff contended, was not matter sufficient to exclude him from his action. He prayed judgment.

Afterwards on 31 Jan. the defendant renounced the above defence and asked leave to plead to a jury, which the plaintiff conceded. He then pleaded that the tiles, laths and timber were not removed because of a fire arising from his negligence. On this issue both parties demanded a jury, which found that the tiles etc. were removed from fear of a fire, which broke out by negligence of the defendant, and they assessed damages at 50s. Judgment accordingly.

13 Feb. 1377

Richard Cheyndut was committed to prison for having undertaken to cure Walter, son of John del Hull, pinner, of a malady in his left leg, whereby, owing to his lack of care and knowledge, the patient was in danger of losing his leg, as was testified by John Donhed, John Garlikhuth and Nicholas the Surgeon, three surgeons who had viewed the leg by order of the Mayor. The latter reported that it would require great experience, care and expense if the leg were to be cured without permanent injury. A jury in this action found for the plaintiff with 50s damages.

Membr. 4

5 Dec. 1376

William Fitz Hugh was attached to answer Robert Fraunceys, John Forster, Thomas atte Hay and Thomas Exton, masters of the mistery of Goldsmiths, in a plea of trespass, wherein the latter complained that, whereas the masters of every mistery were empowered to make searches so that the people should not be deceived by false work secretly and deceptively wrought, they had examined the defendant's shop in the parish of St Matthew Friday Street and found there six silver chargers, of which two were of inferior alloy than they ought to be, to the amount of 8d each, and that they had broken the chargers and arrested the defendant. Afterwards at his request they had forgiven his offence, but he then began to defame them and to treat them with rebellion and contempt.

The defendant, when questioned on the above charge, put himself on the mercy of the Court. Pending judgment he was committed to the custody of the Sheriffs. He was again brought up on Thursday after the Feast of the Conception B.M. [8 Dec.], when judgment was given that he be imprisoned for eight days and pay a fine of 10s. As. he had secured his release on mainprise by a writ directed to the Sheriffs, the Court ordered his imprisonment to begin from the present day.

Walter Fitz John, who was charged with aiding and abetting the foregoing defendant, as well as with the same offences, received a similar judgment.

The same day, the masters of the Goldsmiths complained that on Saturday, 15 Nov., when they and other good men of their mistery were assembled in their, common hall, Robert Prentice with others of his covin entered into the hall with drawn knives, threatening those present and interrupting the business, in breach of the King's peace and contrary to the ordinances against congregations and covins.

The defendant put himself on the mercy of the Court and promised to obey the ordinances made by the masters of the mistery, whereupon he was set free Afterwards, on Tuesday, 3 Feb. 1377, he was again brought up for rebellious conduct and was sentenced to prison for 10 days and to pay a fine of 10s, according to the ordinance.

Membr. 4 b

Mayoral precept to John Northampton and Robert Launde, Sheriffs. As it had been found by an inquest in the Wardmote of Nicholas Twyford, Alderman of Colmanstrete, held on Sunday after Michaelmas, that the houses of John Conyngton, Thomas atte Ramme, Geoffrey Puppe, Robert Lucas, Henry Neel and Adam Wymonham and the hoggesty of John Pondere were thatched with straw against the ordinance (fn. 9) , the Sheriffs were ordered to warn the above persons to strip their roofs within forty days, on pain of having the work done for them at their expense and paying the Sheriffs 40s for their trouble.

3 Feb. 1377

Memorandum that on Tuesday the morrow of the Purification [2 Feb.] Ao 51 Edw. III [1377], on the complaint of divers persons living round London Bridge or resorting there that the necessary houses or wardrobes annexed to the Bridge were in a dangerous state of disrepair (fn. 10) , it was agreed by the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty assembled in council that John Cogeshale and Henry Yevele, Wardens of the Bridge, should have them repaired and that the cost should be allowed to them in their next account.

7 Feb. 1377

Memorandum that on Saturday after the above Feast, John Forster, carter, servant of Robert Parys, was brought up for having failed to convey four casks of wine to Kenyngton for the use of the Prince, contrary to an agreement which he had made in the Vintry with the Prince's butler that he and three other carters would carry the wine. It was alleged that he had taken the two horses from his cart and removed the linch-pins (lynses), and had not loaded the other three carts, with the result that one loaded cart and three casks of wine stood in the street for a day and a night—in contempt of the Prince and to the manifest scandal of the City.

The accused person, who made no excuse for his action, was committed to Newgate until etc.

Membr. 5

13 Nov. 1376

Robert Hales, Prior of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem in England, Friar John Barneby, confrater of the same, and John Strengere, porter, were attached to answer Thomas Duke in a plea of trespass, wherein the latter complained that whereas he had had a lease of a tenement in the parish of St Dunstan in the East next to Temple Bar from Richard Elys, brother of John Elys, late citizen and pepperer, to which tenement there belonged a lane (fn. 11) leading from Fleet Street to a bridge called " Templebrugge" on the Thames, used by occupants of the tenement from time immemorial for bringing victuals, fuel and wood between sunrise and sunset, nevertheless the said Robert, John and John had come with sticks and knives and prevented him from carrying fifty faggots through the lane, and had closed the gate called " Templeyate," which gave access to it.

The defendants appeared by Gilbert de Meldebourne their attorney and after saying that they did not acknowledge the alleged right of way, pleaded that they possessed a manor called the " New Temple " formerly belonging to the Templars, within which there was a church, close, churchyard and other dedicated places. This manor, formerly occupied forcibly by the younger Hugh le Despenser, had on forfeiture been granted by the King to a certain William de Langeford for an annual payment of £24 to the Exchequer. Afterwards, as the result of a petition preferred by Philip de Thame, late Prior, to the King and Council in Parliament, the King had granted a charter to the following effect:

Whereas the King had lately caused the churchyard, close and other dedicated places, and the buildings thereon, to the annual value of £12 4s 1d, to be rejoined to the Temple Church and delivered to the Prior and brethren of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem, and further had ordered that a sum of 60s 10d, annually paid to the janitor of the Temple Gate, and a rent-charge of 30s due from the Bishop of Chichester, whereof he had been released, should be deducted from the rent of William de Langeford, the King now grants in pure and perpetual alms to the Prior the residue of the manor, in return for the sum of £100 contributed towards the King's expenses abroad, the annual value of the residue being £7 5s 2d, thus completing the total sum of the aforesaid annual rent of £24, on condition that if the residue of the manor was found to produce more than £10 a year, the excess should be paid to the King. Dated at Ipswich, 18 June Ao 12 Edw. III [1338].

Membr. 5 b

The defendants, by virtue of the above charter, claim to possess not only the larger part of the manor, including the church, close etc., but also the smaller part, and said that the lane in question was parcel of the smaller part. They submitted that the Court could not proceed further without consulting the King, and they demanded the King's aid.

The plaintiff answered that his own lease was now at an end and that he was not attempting to recover a right of way, but damages for a trespass done to him, and he prayed judgment as to whether the Prior could demand the King's aid in such a case. As regards the defendant John Strengere, who had made no other reply than that he was janitor of the gate, he prayed judgment as to whether this pleading could hinder him in his action. [Breaks off.]

Schedule of goods, belonging to enemy subjects of France, which were arrested by order of the Mayor on account of divers injuries inflicted on English merchants during time of truce. The goods, which were found in the hands of John Calthorpe, shearman, Henry Grenecobbe, dyer, Gilbert Walderne, draper, and John Norwich, comprised 49 short and long cloths of russet medle, bryt bleu, draw bleu (fn. 12) , black, red, tawne, sanguine, russet, scarlet, red medle, broun tawne, sanguine medle, green, bukhorn medle, blew medle, green russet, grene tawne medle, morre medle, tawne broun, broun of green, 3 cloths of blanket, 7 yards of blanket of Gildeford (4s), a mantle (40d) and 4 yards of faldyng (fn. 13) (5s). They were valued by Andrew Vyne, Gilbert Walderne, Walter Lodewell, John Glemesford, Simon Shereman, William Huwett and William Werkworth at a total of £279 19s 8d.

Membr. 6

7 Feb. 1377

Robert Tolyot of co. Cambridge came into the Chamber of Guildhall before the Mayor, Recorder and certain Aldermen and testified that to his own knowledge John Pylet of Cambridge was the lawful son and heir of Henry Pylet and Margaret his wife, and added that otherwise he himself would have been the true heir.

John Morse of Cambridge testified to the same effect.

John Payne of Cambridge testified the same, for the reason that the said John held divers tenements in the town as son and heir, of the said Henry, and further that there was a custom in the town that tenements were devisable, and that when one possessed of lands and rents died after making a will, that will was proclaimed in the Guildhall, so that if any one wished to assert any claim or right in the tenements he might be heard, and further, that after the decease of the aforesaid Henry his will was thus proclaimed and enrolled and the said John entered upon the tenements, no one having made any claim to them either then or afterwards.

The following persons testified that the people dwelling in the place (patria), where the said John was born, regarded him as the lawful son and heir: Master William Gootham, Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, Master John Donwych, John Wroth, William Petteworth, clerk, Thomas Hemynton, William Castellacre, Simon Cotenham, Master James Cotenham, Master John Bernard, John Lopham, Simon Romayn, Thomas Cokefeld, Walter Bruton, John Goucy, Edmund Lakynghithe, Edmund Walsyngham, William Bateman, Thomas Grainfelde, John de Wawton, Simon Wighton and John Wysebech.

28 Feb. 1377

John More and Richard Norbury, mercers, were mainprised by William Knightcote and William Kestevene to keep the peace with Stephen Woderove.

6 Feb. 1377

William Yakesle, parson of the Church of St Martin Oteswych, was attached to answer John Churcheman, William Palmer, Richard Hervy and John Neweby, churchwardens, in a plea of trespass, wherein they complained that, whereas it was the common custom of the City that every parson should make good to the parishioners any ornaments or vestments removed and eloigned by any priest appointed by him to serve in the church, a certain John Drayton, chaplain, whom he had inducted to serve as a priest and hear confession in the vestry, where the ornaments and vestments were kept, had eloigned an amyce (fn. 14) , value 6s 8d; an altar-cloth, 6s 8d; a silver-gilt foot from a reliquary of the saints Cosmas and Damianus, 13s 4d; a silver-gilt chalice with cover, 26s 8d; a veil (velum) for Lent, 10s; two new surplices, 10s; and 40 lbs of wax, 20s; and the parson had refused to make them good.

The defendant pleaded that he never appointed the chaplain as alleged, and put himself on the country. A jury from the parish and venue found for the plaintiffs with £8 damages. A day was given for judgment, that the Court might be advised as to the custom of the City, there being doubt as to whether such a custom existed. Afterwards the parties came to an agreement on terms that the parson enter into a recognizance to pay 100s by instalments to the churchwardens.

Membr. 6 b

Nicholas Brembre, Mayor, A o 51 Edw. III [1377]

11 Jan. 1377

Writ of certiorari as to whether Alan Scarnyngg, clerk, was a freeman of the City of London, contributing lot and scot at the time of his death. Dated 11 Jan. Ao 50 Edw. III [1377]. No return made.

Previous writ to the same effect dated 10 Dec. 1376, to which return was made by Nicholas Brembre, Mayor, William Cheyne, Recorder, and William Eynesham, Chamberlain, that an examination of the rolls, books and memoranda had been made, and it had not been found that the said Alan was a freeman of the City at the time of his death.

16 April 1377

Letter of attorney from Stephen de Alibertis, merchant of Milan, to Augustine Beneton and John Bochansoch, merchants of Lucca.

20 April 1377

Letter of attorney from Stephen Alibert of Milan to Lowys Recouche of Lucca to recover from Nicholas Hoibourne, merchant of London, the sum of 400 scudos, valued at 26d English each scudo, that amount being due on an exchange made at Bruges by Francis and Antoine Marcadel to Thomas Bak, servant of the said Nicholas on 21 Sept. 1376. [French]

2 May 1377

Memorandum that on 2 May 1377 William Eynesham, Chamberlain, and Ralph Strode, Common Pleader (Narrator), took possession in the name of the Commonalty of a tower (fn. 15) built immediately to the north of Ludgate, which Mary de Seint Poul, late Countess of Pembroke, had been allowed to occupy for the term of her life.

4 May 1377

Letter of attorney from John Sters of Lyghterfeld in Flanders to Giles his son and Peter Vandecloistre.

Cedula

Schedule of the names of persons sworn in fifty-one misteries, viz.: mercers, grocers, drapers, orfeverez, pessoners, vynters, pelleters, taillours, sellers, haberdasschers, armourers, cordwainers, wexchandelers, ismongers, girdlers, salters, cotillers, brouderers, lethersellers, pouchemakers, schermen, brewers, fullers, plomers, hatters, sporiers, bowyers, flecchers, horners, wodemongers, dyers, peautrers, joignours, bakers, chandelers, tapicers, hurers, bochers, masouns, webbes, tanners, peyntours, curreours, lorimers, fustours, whitawyers, foundours, cardmakers, pynners, smiths and braciers.

By the above persons (apparently being the Common Council) (fn. 16) the following were elected for the conservation of the peace, the custody and repair of the gates, walls and ditches, the assessing of tenements for the same, and to take measures that victuals and armour should be sold at a reasonable price: Aldermen: Adam Carlel, John Boseham, Thomas Welforde, William Baret, John Horn, Robert Lucas, William Kyng and Elias de Thorpe. Commoners: William Walworthe, John Philipot, Nicholas Twyford, William Culham, William More, William Kelshull, Simon Eylesham and John Coraunt.

Membr. 7

26 May 1377

Bond of Nicholas Exton in 40 marks to indemnify Richard Swafham of Bermondsey for any action that might be taken against him by James Lyouns and John Kyngeston in respect of a horse "Pomeley gray," which the said Richard had given up to the said Nicholas.

Writs of Protection, dated 12 April and 25 May 1377, in favour of Peter Ruspy, who was visiting the kingdom to sue in divers courts and on other business.

Membr. 7 b

5 June 1377

The sum of 20s, which Robert Brown, woodmonger, owed to Robert Wynge and John Colneye of Kingston for the hire of a boat, was attached because the men of Kingston had claimed divers customs from free brasiers of London and had taken the great distress from them on that account. The said Robert undertook to pay the money to the Chamberlain on Midsummer Day.

11 June 1377

Elias Garlond, woodmonger, Richard Merlawe and William Bythewode were mainprised to surrender a boat, of which one half belonged to the said Elias and the other to Richard atte Bruggende of Kingston, the latter's half having been arrested by way of withernam because distresses had been levied on free brasiers of London for toll and pickage at Kingston.

9 June 1377

Matilda Bakere, gurdlestere, of Broad Street Ward, was mainprised for her good behaviour, and that she would abandon proceedings in the Court Christian for defamation of character, which proceedings she had taken against certain wardmote jurors for having presented her before Thomas Noket, Alderman of Cornhill, as a woman of bad character.

Footnotes

1 The drawing shows a fess and a pale intersecting each other in the form of a cross.
2 Hythe.
3 A paltok was a short coat or sleeved doublet.
4 Sittingbourne.
5 Sc. cantle, a rest to support one end of a cask.
6 A plug or bung.
7 Probably Campen in Holland.
8 Geddington co. Northants.
9 In the regulations issued after the fire of 1212, it was enjoined that no new buildings should be covered with reeds, rushes, straw or stubble but only with tiles, shingles or boards, and that old buildings roofed with reeds or rushes should be plastered within eight days. Lib. Cust. 1, p. 87. Similar regulations were later incorporated in the Articles of the Wardmote Inquests; lead, tile or stone being the only roofing-material allowed. Lib. Alb. i, p. 334. But regulations were not always effective. In 1422 the jurors of St Andrew's Holborn complained that 15 cottages in Chancery Lane were thatched with straw. Plea and Mem. Rolls, A 50, m. 5 b.
10 A public convenience on the Bridge is mentioned in 1306. Cal. of Early Mayor's Court Rolls, p. 247.
11 The lane in question appears to be Middle Temple Lane, which the Benchers still claim as a private way, and the bridge or jetty to have been on the site of the later Temple Stairs. See Notes and Queries, 22 Jan. 1881. Previous stages in this contest may be traced in Rymer's Foedera, vol. 11, pt. ii, pp. 774, 805; C.C.R. 1337-9, p. 218; Foedera, vol. 111, pt. i, p. 273; Riley's Memorials, pp. 305-6, 376-7; Cal. of Letter Book G, p. 324. Apparently the lane was open in 1379 when a contract was made to land 20,000 tiles at Temple Bridge. C.C.R.. 1377-81, p. 345.
12 Apparently a dull blue.
13 A kind of coarse woollen cloth, frieze. N.E.D.
14 Sc. amice, an ecclesiastical hood.
15 This appears to have been an internal tower of London wall, lying a few yards north of the present Stationers' Hall. In 1235 it was granted for life to Alexander de Swereford, treasurer of St Paul's Church. C.P.R. 1232-47, p. 106. It was rebuilt in later centuries, and after being hidden by modern structures was rediscovered and described by Dr Philip Norman. Archaeologia, lxiii, pp. 299 seq.
16 This meeting of the Common Council must have taken place subsequent to 12 March 1377, when the new system of annual elections of Aldermen was adopted. Several of the persons here mentioned as Commoners were Aldermen until that date. Cal. of Letter Book H, p. 58.