Townships
Salford

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Victoria County History

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Author

William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1911

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Pages

204-217

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'Townships: Salford', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4 (1911), pp. 204-217. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41407 Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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SALFORD

Salford, Dom. Bk. and usually; Sauford, 1168; Shalford, 1238; Chelford, 1240.

Ordeshala, 1177; Ordeshale, 1240 and common; Ordesalle, 1292; Urdeshale, 1337; Ordessale, 1338; Hurdeshale, 1354; Ordesale, 1358.

The township of Salford lies in a bend of the Irwell, which, except for a few deviations caused probably by changes in the course of the river, still forms its boundary except on the west, where a line, 2 miles long, drawn from one part of the stream to another, divides Salford from Pendleton. The area is 1,329 acres. (fn. 1) The surface is comparatively level, rising on the north-west side; on the south-west is a low-lying tract along the Irwell. The population in 1901 was 105,335.

There are five bridges across the river into Manchester, and a railway bridge; two into Cheetham, (fn. 2) and another railway bridge; two into Broughton; (fn. 3) a footbridge into Hulme, and a swing bridge into Stretford. Starting from Victoria Bridge, on the site of the ancient bridge connecting Manchester and Salford, (fn. 4) and proceeding west along Chapel Street, Trinity Church—formerly Salford Chapel—is seen on the north side. At this point the street is crossed by the road from Blackfriars Bridge to Broughton, which is afterwards joined by the old road towards Broughton from Victoria Bridge by way of Greengate. Further on, Chapel Street is joined by the road from Albert Bridge and Irwell Bridge. On the north side may be seen the Town Hall, and a little further on the Roman Catholic Cathedral. Then the hospital, (fn. 5) in what used to be known as White Cross Bank, is passed, and the Irwell is reached. The land on its bank has been formed into a park (Peel Park (fn. 6) ), in which stand the museum and technical school. Soon afterwards the boundary is touched. Windsor is the local name for this district.

Turning south by Cross Lane, the Cattle Market is passed on the west side. (fn. 7) After passing the railway station and crossing Regent Road, the entrance to the great Salford Docks of the Ship Canal Company is seen. Cross Lane, as Trafford Road, continues as far as the swing bridge over the Irwell, the docks lying on its west side, and Ordsall Park (fn. 8) on the east. Part of the dock site was formerly the New Barns racecourse, where the Manchester races were held.

Turning to the east before reaching the bridge, a cross street leads into Ordsall Lane, which takes a winding course to the north-east for over a mile and a half, joining Chapel Street near the Town Hall. On the west side of the lane stands Ordsall Hall, an ancient seat of the Radcliffe family. A little distance to the north, Oldfield Road branches off from Ordsall Lane to join Chapel Street opposite the hospital. There is a recreation-ground between Oldfield Road and Ordsall Lane.

Regent Road, a great east and west thoroughfare already mentioned, begins at Regent Bridge over the Irwell, and after passing Cross Lane is called Eccles New Road; on the north side is the Salford workhouse. (fn. 9)

The Manchester and Bolton Canal crosses Salford between Chapel Street and Regent Road, and joins the Irwell by Prince's Bridge. The London & North Western Company's Exchange station, Manchester, lies in Salford, in a bend of the Irwell. From this the line runs south-west, mostly on arches, to Ordsall Lane station, at which point it is joined by lines from Manchester, and then proceeds west by Cross Lane station to Liverpool. There are large goods yards at this part of the line. The Lancashire and Yorkshire Company's line from Manchester to Bolton and Bury runs parallel with the other as far as Salford station, (fn. 10) situated to the south of Chapel Street, on the road to Albert Bridge; it then proceeds west and north to Pendleton, having large goods yards along the south side, as well as a cattle station. There is a branch line to the Ship Canal docks.

Some Roman and other early remains have been discovered at various times. (fn. 11)

Woden's Ford was 'a paved causeway across the Irwell from Hulme to Salford.' (fn. 12)

The oldest part of the town is the triangular area formed by Chapel Street, Gravel Lane, and Greengate; much of it is occupied by the Exchange station. Greengate was continued north by Springfield Lane. In the centre of Greengate, near the junction with Gravel Lane, stood the Court House, with the cross at the east end. The Hearth Tax return of 1666 records a total of 312 hearths liable. The largest house was Ordsall Hall, then Colonel John Birch's, which had nineteen hearths, and there were a number of other considerable mansions. (fn. 13) A plan of the town in 1740 shows a line of houses along the west side of Cross Lane; also the mill and kiln to the north-west of Ordsall Hall.

The present St. Stephen's Street, which was not then formed, may be taken to represent approximately the western boundary of the town a century ago. The New Bailey prison, built in 1787–90 and taken down in 1871, near the site of the Salford station, was at the edge of the town. The plan of 1832 shows a considerable development to the west of Ordsall Lane, between Chapel Street—then known as White Cross Bank, Bank Parade, and Broken Bank—and Regent Road. Houses also stood by the Irwell, between Adelphi Street and the river. The Town Hall and market had been built; there were numerous churches and schools, also an infantry barracks, which stood till about ten years ago to the south-west of the junction of Regent Road and Oldfield Road. There is no need to dwell on the later history; new streets have been opened out and lined with houses and business premises, and a great improvement was effected by opening the straight road above-mentioned from Blackfriars Bridge to Broughton Bridge.

Railways and docks now occupy a considerable share of the area. There are also numerous factories and mills, many large engineering works, breweries, and other very varied industries.

Salford retains very few old buildings of any architectural interest, the only one necessary to mention here being the Bull's Head Inn in Greengate, a picturesque timber-and-plaster building on a stone base with four gables to the street. It has suffered a good deal from restoration and alterations, however, and the roofs are now covered with modern slates. The south gable is built on crucks, an interesting survival in a wilderness of brick and mortar. The house, once the abode of the Allens, has lost the projecting porch and gable, which formerly gave it an air of distinction, and has fallen on evil days.

The town can boast no public buildings of architectural importance. The Town Hall in Bexley Square, of which the foundation stone was laid by Lord Bexley in August 1825, is a plain building with a rather dignified classic front of the Doric order, erected in 1825–7, but now found entirely inadequate for the purposes of the borough. It was extended in 1847, 1853, and 1860, but in 1908 a proposal for the erection of a new and adequate building was put forward. The Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. John is a good specimen of the decorated Gothic style of the middle of the last century (1855), and contains some fine work by E. W. Pugin. At the west entrance to Peel Park are the handsome wrought-iron gates formerly belonging to Strangeways Hall, and bearing the arms of Lord Ducie. A great number of good well-built early 19th-century brick houses yet remain in the town, many of them with well-designed doorways, but the majority have now been abandoned as town residences, and are occupied as offices and for other business purposes.

Henry Clarke, LL.D., a mathematician, was born at Salford in 1743; he became professor in the Military Academy, and died in 1818. (fn. 14) William Harrison, a distinguished Manx antiquary, was born at Salford in 1802; he died in 1884. (fn. 15) Richard Wright Procter, barber and author, who did much to preserve the memories of old Manchester, was born in Salford in 1816, and died in 1881. (fn. 16) James Prescott Joule, the eminent physicist who determined the mechanical equivalent of heat, was born at Salford in 1818. He died in 1889. (fn. 17) Henry James Holding, artist, was another native, 1833–72. (fn. 18) Joseph Kay, economist, was born at Ordsall Cottage in 1821; he was judge of the Salford Court of Record from 1862 till his death in 1878. (fn. 19) William Thompson Watkin, born at Salford in 1836, became an authority on the Roman remains of the district, publishing Roman Lancashire in 1883 and Roman Cheshire in 1886. He spent most of his life in Liverpool, where he died in 1888. (fn. 20)

MANOR

Before the Conquest SALFORD was the head of a hundred and a royal manor, being held by King Edward in 1066, when it was assessed as 3 hides and 12 plough-lands, waste, and had a forest 3 leagues square, containing heys and eyries of hawks. (fn. 21) The manor was thus much more extensive than the present township. Since the Conquest Salford proper has always been retained by the lord of the land 'between Ribble and Mersey' as part of his demesne, and has therefore descended with the honour of Lancaster, remaining to the present day a manor of the king as Duke of Lancaster. The headship of the hundred has likewise been retained by it.


Duchy of Lancaster. England differenced with a label azure.

The men of Salford in 1168 paid £14 10s. to the aid for marrying the king's daughter. (fn. 22) An increase of 4s. for the halfyear appears in the rent of the manor of 1201. (fn. 23) In 1226 the assized rent of Salford was 23s., (fn. 24) and the vill, with its dependencies—Broughton, Ordsall, and a moiety of Flixton—paid 112s. tallage. (fn. 25)

The waste included wide strips along Oldfield Road, the road leading to Pendleton, and others. The inhabitants' pigs used to stray at will on this waste. (fn. 26)

The 'town of Salford and the liberties of the same' are frequently referred to in the Court Leet Records. Oldfield Lane seems to have been the most important liberty; in 1601 it had a separate bylaw man. (fn. 27)

BOROUGH

About the year 1230 Ranulf Blundeville, Earl of Chester, erected his vill of Salford into a free borough, the burgesses dwelling therein being allowed certain privileges. (fn. 28) Each burgage had an acre of land annexed to it, and a rent of 12d. had to be paid to the lord at the four terms—Christmas, Mid-Lent, Midsummer, and Michaelmas. Succession was regulated, (fn. 29) and right of sale admitted. (fn. 30)

A borough-reeve was to be freely elected by the burgesses, and might be removed at the end of a year. A borough court or portman mote (fn. 31) was established, in which various pleas affecting the burgesses were to be decided before the earl's bailiffs by the view of the burgesses. (fn. 32) No one within the hundred was to ply his trade as shoemaker, skinner, or the like, unless he were 'in the borough,' the liberties of the barons of Manchester, &c., being reserved. The burgesses were free from toll at markets and fairs within the earl's demesnes, but were obliged to grind at his mills to the twentieth measure and to bake at his ovens; common of pasture and freedom from pannage were allowed them, as also wood for building and burning.

A little earlier, viz. on 4 June 1228, the king had granted a weekly market on Wednesdays and an annual fair on the eve, day, and morrow of the Nativity of St. Mary, at his manor of Salford. (fn. 33)

By encouraging the growth of the borough as a trading place the lord derived an increasing rent; in 1257 it amounted to about £12 a year. (fn. 34) The extent made in 1346 shows that there were then 129⅓ burgages in addition to 12 acres in the place of another burgage, each rendering the 12d. yearly rent. There were also a number of free tenants paying over £8 10s. for lands in Salford and adjoining it. The profits of the portmote were valued at 12s. a year. The total was therefore nearly £16 a year. (fn. 35)

The records of the portmote court from 1597 to 1669 are in the possession of the corporation. The head of the Molyneux of Sefton family, as hereditary steward of the hundred, presided, except during the Commonwealth period. The courts were held at Michaelmas and April. The officers appointed in 1597 were borough-reeve, constables, mise layers, mise gatherers, bylaw men, affeerers, and ale-founders; in 1656 the following additional ones were elected: scavengers for the Greengate and Gravel Hole, scavengers for the Lower Gate, apprisers, officers for surprising and robbing of coals, for pinning of swine trespassing, for mastiff dogs, for the pump, and for measuring of cloth. (fn. 36)

A number of grants of tenements and tolls in Salford are found in the Duchy Records, (fn. 37) and some private charters are accessible; (fn. 38) the Plea Rolls have some records of disputes among the inhabitants. (fn. 39)


Borough of Salford.Azure semée of bees a shuttle between three garbs or, on a chief of the second a woolpack proper between two millrinds sable.

The township continued to be governed in the same way until 1791, when a Police Act was obtained for Manchester and Salford, and the administration of the town by commissioners appointed under it to a great extent superseded the manorial system. (fn. 40) In 1832 the parliamentary borough came into existence, one representative being assigned; (fn. 41) and in 1844 the municipal borough was created by charter. The area included the township of Salford, together with that small part of Broughton lying south of the Irwell, and it was divided into four wards, each with two aldermen and six councillors. At the same time a court of record was established, debts up to £20 being recoverable. (fn. 42) A coat-of-arms was granted in 1844. The town hall, built in 1825–6, (fn. 43) was purchased by the commissioners in 1834. The borough was extended in 1853 to include the adjacent townships of Broughton and Pendleton, (fn. 44) from which time the area has remained unchanged, except for some minor adjustments. (fn. 45) The borough is now divided into sixteen wards, each with an alderman and three councillors; there are seven wards in Salford proper, (fn. 46) three in Broughton and six in Pendleton. In 1891 an Act was obtained to unite the district, so that a uniform rate is levied throughout the borough. A separate commission of the peace was granted in 1870 and again in 1886, and quarter sessions were established in 1899.

The council has provided police and fire brigade. The cattle market is the principal one for the district. The gas supply (fn. 47) is in the hands of the corporation, which also has electric light works. Water is supplied by the Corporation of Manchester. There are four public baths, two within the township of Salford; a sanatorium, two cemeteries, both outside the township —at Weaste and Agecroft—and sewage disposal works at Mode Wheel, opened in 1883. A school board was formed in 1870. A Tramways Act was obtained in 1875, (fn. 48) and the cars are now driven by electricity; the lines extend as far north as Whitefield in Pilkington, and west to Monton. Four parks and a large number of recreation-grounds have been acquired and opened.

The museum and library was established at Peel Park in 1850, a lending department being added in 1854. It claims to be the first free public library. Queen Victoria, as lady of the manor, was patroness; hence the epithet Royal. (fn. 49) The natural history exhibits have been removed to Buile Hill, so that the museum at Peel Park is now an art collection. There are seven branch libraries, of which two are in Salford. (fn. 50) There is also a technical institute.

Queen Victoria passed through the town on her visit to Manchester in 1851. The king in 1905 unveiled the memorial to the soldiers who died in the Boer war.

Apart from the Radcliffes of Ordsall the Salford families recording pedigrees at the Heralds' visitations were those of Booth, 1613, (fn. 51) Byrom, 1613 (fn. 52) and 1664, (fn. 53) and Davenport, 1664. (fn. 54) Richard Pennington and Nicholas Hewett were ordered to attend the last visitation. (fn. 55)

Other land-holders are recorded in the inquisitions (fn. 56) and court leet records; (fn. 57) many Manchester people also held land in Salford, (fn. 58) as did several of the sur rounding gentry. (fn. 59) The freeholders of 1600 were: John Radcliffe of Ordsall, Adam Pilkington, Edward Bibby, (Ralph) Byrom, Thomas Byrom, and Adam Massey of Oldfield Lane. (fn. 60) The following contributed for their lands to the subsidy of 1622: Sir John Radcliffe, Dame Anne Radcliffe, Humphrey Booth, Adam Pilkington, Adam Byrom, Thomas Hartley in right of Margaret his wife, and John Duncalf. (fn. 61)

The Protestation of 1641 was agreed to by 341 persons. (fn. 62)

The Crown was accustomed to lease out the profits of the market, mills, &c. (fn. 63)

ORDSALL

ORDSALL, which may then have included Pendleton, appears in the Pipe Roll of 1177 as contributing 2 marks to the aid. (fn. 64) The manor of Ordsall was in 1251 granted by William de Ferrers to David de Hulton, together with a moiety of Flixton, (fn. 65) in exchange for Pendleton. (fn. 66) It descended for some eighty years in the Hulton family, (fn. 67) and on the partition of his lands made by Richard de Hulton about 1330 Ordsall was given to one of the Radcliffes, probably as near of kin. (fn. 68)

About 1354 John de Radcliffe obtained possession after long disputing. (fn. 69) He had many lawsuits, (fn. 70) but appears to have prospered, as his son Richard, (fn. 71) who died in 1380, held not only the manor of Ordsall and a portion of Flixton, but also the adjacent estates of Hope and Shoresworth, together with lands in Salford and Tockholes. (fn. 72)


Radcliffe of Ordsall. Argent two bendlets engrailed sable and a label gules.

John de Radcliffe, the son and heir of Richard, was twentyseven years of age on succeeding. (fn. 73) In 1385 he had the king's protection on his departure for Normandy in the retinue of Thomas de Holand, Earl of Kent and Captain of Cherbourg. (fn. 74) His title to Ordsall seems to have been called in question in 1399. (fn. 75) He was afterwards made a knight, (fn. 76) and died in 1422 holding the manor of Ordsall and the rest of the patrimonial estate, except Shoresworth and Hope, which he had in 1396 granted to his son John on his marriage with Clemency daughter of Hugh de Standish. (fn. 77)

Sir John Radcliffe, who was forty-four years old on succeeding, (fn. 78) died on 26 July 1442, holding Ordsall by the ancient services. He had given his moiety of Flixton to his son and heir Alexander on marrying Agnes daughter of Sir William Harrington. He left a widow Joan. (fn. 79) Of Alexander, then thirty years of age, little is recorded, though he was knight of the shire in 1455; (fn. 80) he died in 1475–6, leaving a son and heir William, forty years of age. (fn. 81) William died in August 1498, holding Ordsall and the other manors; his son John having died shortly before him, the heir was his grandson Alexander the son of John, of full age. (fn. 82) Alexander, who was made a knight at Lille in 1513, (fn. 83) was one of the most prominent men in the county, being high sheriff four times. (fn. 84) He died on 5 February 1548–9, holding Ordsall and the other hereditary manors with some additional lands; Sir William Radcliffe his son and heir was forty-six years of age. (fn. 85)

Sir William Radcliffe, made a knight in the Scottish expedition of 1544, (fn. 86) appears to have added to his patrimony; he died on 12 October 1568, and was succeeded by his son John, then thirty-two years of age, an elder son Alexander having died before his father. (fn. 87) Sir John Radcliffe (fn. 88) died on 19 January 1589–90; the inquisition describes his lands in the counties of Lancaster, Chester, York, Lincoln, Nottingham, and Derby. (fn. 89) He had been knight of the shire in 1571 and 1572. (fn. 90) Alexander his son and heir was only twelve years of age. He was knighted at the sacking of Cadiz in June 1596, (fn. 91) and died on 5 August 1599 without issue, his brother John, seventeen years of age, succeeding him. (fn. 92)

John Radcliffe was made a knight in the following year, during the Irish wars, (fn. 93) and thereby freed from wardship. (fn. 94) He was knight of the shire in three Parliaments, 1620 to 1625, (fn. 95) but in 1627 was killed, or died of his wounds, during the Duke of Buckingham's expedition to the Isle of Rhé. (fn. 96) By his wife Alice daughter of Sir John Byron he left a son and heir Alexander, twenty years of age. (fn. 97) Though so young, he had been created a Knight of the Bath at the coronation of Charles I. (fn. 98) The dispersal of the family estates began about this time; a moiety of Ordsall was mortgaged in 1634 to Humphrey Chetham. (fn. 99) Sir Alexander married the step-daughter of Robert Radcliffe, fifth Earl of Sussex, and had with her by the earl's gift the manor of Attleborough in Norfolk. (fn. 100)

At the opening of the Civil War he, in conjunction with Lord Derby, took an active part in favour of the king, and was in 1644 committed by Parliament to the Tower. (fn. 101) He afterwards made his peace. (fn. 102) He was buried at Manchester on 14 April 1654, leaving several children, (fn. 103) of whom a younger son, Robert, became ancestor of the Radclyffes of Foxdenton in Chadderton. (fn. 104) The remainder of the Lancashire estates of the Radcliffes appears to have been disposed of by Sir Alexander or his son. (fn. 105)

The Chethams did not secure the whole of Ordsall; (fn. 106) their estate descended to the Clowes family. The hall was sold in 1662 to John Birch of Ardwick. (fn. 107) His issue failing, the manor passed through various hands, and is now the property of Earl Egerton of Tatton. (fn. 108)

Ordsall Hall has been in its best days a very fine example of a mediaeval half-timbered house, and is still of unusual interest. Within the last two generations it has suffered greatly from neglect and its gradual envelopment in a wilderness of mean and dirty streets. Leland mentions the beauty of its surroundings, when it stood in a pleasant park through which ran a clear stream, now hardly recognizable in the dirty waters of the modern Irwell, and even as late as sixty years ago Ordsall Lane ran between fields and hedgerows, with no buildings in sight except the Throstle Nest Paper Mills, the Blind Asylum, and some houses in Chester Road. The house stood within a rectangular moated inclosure, among gardens and orchards, and there were a number of detached outbuildings, barns, shippons, &c. The north and east arms of the moat still contained water, but the other two were dry. The entrance was from the north, through an embattled doorway in the brick boundary wall, which dated from 1639, being contemporary with the still existing brick west wing. The house was let in three parts, and much cut up by added partitions, the floor levels altered, and a floor inserted at half-height in the great hall, while all the ornamental timber work was hidden by lath and plaster. Some attempt at freeing the old work from its modern obstructions was made about thirty years since, when it was converted into a club for the workmen employed in a neighbouring cotton mill, the great hall being opened out and other parts of the house fitted up as reading and billiard rooms. In 1898 it became a theological college, and in 1904 a clergy training school; and in 1896–8 it was thoroughly repaired, and in part rebuilt, by Lord Egerton of Tatton, the church of St. Cyprian being built in 1899 on the site of the long-destroyed east wing. The lines of the moat are now represented by streets, and the boundary wall and gateway have vanished, together with the orchards and gardens and everything which once went to form a pleasant setting to the old hall; but a few hundred yards away a farmhouse yet stands, hidden among modern buildings and used as a lodging-house. One of the principal outbuildings was the Great Barn, with a nave and aisles divided by great oak posts, and sharing, with several others in the district, the entirely unfounded reputation of having formed part of an early wooden predecessor of the present cathedral church of Manchester.

At the present day the house consists of a central block standing east and west, a west wing running northward from it, and some outbuildings at the south-east. There was formerly an east wing, taken down in 1639, balancing the west wing, which with the boundary wall on the north inclosed a court measuring about 80 ft. by 75 ft. The boundary wall is said to have been set up in 1639, at the same time as the still existing west wing, and it appears that before this time a range of buildings existed on the north side of the court, forming a complete quadrangle, about 64 ft. by 75 ft.; part of its foundations was found in 1898. There is nothing to show of what date the eastern wing was, as its foundations only have remained to modern times, and the oldest part of the building is the central block, or, in other words, the south range of the original court. It is still in great part of timber construction on a stone base, the main beams being of the usual 10-in. scantling. The chief feature of it is the great hall, now, after the clearing away of the partitions which encumbered it, a very noble and impressive piece of 15th-century timber construction, 43 ft. by 25 ft., built in two wide bays of 14 ft. span and two narrow of 7 ft., one at the east to form the dais and one at the west for the passage through the screens. The roof is high pitched and open timbered, 32 ft. to the ridge, with three purlins aside and two intermediates in each of the wider bays, dividing the flanks into rectangular compartments each inclosing a quatrefoil. There are three principal trusses, the middle one springing from wooden moulded responds set against the side walls, with moulded octagonal capitals and large arched braces below a cambered and embattled tie-beam. The space over the tie-beam is filled in with a series of fourteen arched openings with traceried spandrels. The western truss forms the head of the hall screens, and its tie-beam is cambered over a central arched opening 15 ft. wide, but runs horizontally over the narrow screens or 'speres' which flank the opening, and are made of two tiers of solid square-headed panels, two in each tier. Originally a movable screen, much lower than the 'speres,' must have stood across the opening, like that still existing at Chetham's Hospital, leaving passageways at either end of it. The truss at the upper or dais end of the hall is closed in above with quatrefoiled panels, and has a flat ceiling over the dais at the plate level, replacing a panelled cove.

At the north-east of the hall is the great bay window of unusual character, being in plan seven sides of a decagon, with pairs of square-headed lights on each side, and a transom at half height, carved with a running vine pattern. The wooden framing stands on a stone base, with a band of quatrefoils on the inside below the sill of the window, and over the bay is a rectangular chamber or upper story, apparently contemporary with it, its angles projecting in a somewhat awkward manner over the canted sides of the window. The bay opens to the hall by a four-centred arch of wood, and the room over it is also open for its full width, and is reached by a stair contrived in the north-east angle of the hall, within the lines of the passage at the north end of the dais leading to a north-east doorway on the ground floor. The west wall of the hall is framed in square panels inclosing quatrefoils and has at the plate level a wooden cove, the gable above which is similarly treated. In this wall are now two doorways, but traces of the third, making the triple arrangement of buttery, pantry, and kitchen passage, were discovered in 1896. The heads of the doorways, only one of which now remains, were four-centred, cut from a single piece of wood, and with carved spandrels, and at either end of the passage through the screens were similar but wider doorways, that to the north, which still is preserved, being the most ornate, and having a band of quatrefoils above the spandrels. The external north elevation of the hall, though now much repaired, preserves its original design with little alteration. The wall surface is divided into square panels inclosing quatrefoils filled in with plaster, and a continuous line of narrow lights, six between each pair of uprights, runs along the upper part of the wall forming a sort of clearstory to the hall. The upper story of the bay is similarly panelled, but has lost its original window, if such existed. Its gable is also panelled and sets forward on a cove, and a similar cove existed below the eaves of the hall. The framing of the bay window is warped and leans to one side, but is otherwise sound; small shafts ending in crocketed pinnacles run up the face of the mullions. The south wall of the hall was of the same character as the north, but has been entirely rebuilt in grey brick, with two very unattractive four-light windows in terra cotta.

At either end of the hall are buildings which contain work contemporary with it, those at the east end, which were the principal living rooms, being the more interesting. They are of two stories, the original part being one room thick, and having two rooms on each floor. The rooms on the south front are the principal ones, that on the ground floor being known as the Star chamber, from the gilt lead stars with which its ceiling of moulded oak beams is studded. It is doubtless to be considered as the Great Chamber, with a solar over, the name of chapel which has been given to the upper room being entirely fanciful. Its walls are covered on three sides with plain oak panelling with a cresting of Tudor flowers, and from the arrangement of the panelling it seems that the room has been originally wider from north to south. In the south wall is now a modern rectangular bay containing a window, the successor of a very picturesque and interesting bay window of wood two stories in height, which survived, though in a mutilated state, till 1896. In plan it formed half of a twelve-sided figure, the alternate sides being treated as projecting semicircular bays with seven tall narrow square-headed lights in each. The plain sides were treated as windows of two lights, that in the middle being pierced in later times as a doorway to the garden. The room on the first floor over the Star chamber is also panelled, but with early 17th-century panelling with a modillion cornice and narrow oblong upper panels, the others being square. Above its canted plaster ceiling the mediaeval roof remains, with cambered tie-beam and arched braces beneath, and it was formerly lighted by a continuation of the bay window, ending under a rectangular projecting gable filled in with wooden studding. This room and the Star chamber have fireplaces on the east side, and the chimney-stack was found in 1896 to show clear signs of having been external, proving that at the time of its building the house extended no further eastward. An interesting theory worked out in some detail by the late E. W. Cox that this chimney belonged to a 14th century house seems to rest on too slight a basis of probability. The north side of this part of the house is now occupied by an entrance hall and stairs, the latter having newel posts of an ornamental baluster type, the lower one dated 1699. These are, however, only the posts of a bedstead, and the stairs are not ancient. The partition between these rooms and the great hall is of timber framing, and apparently modern, replacing a brick wall, which in itself cannot have been mediaeval. Adjoining the Star chamber to the east is a threestory block—or rather one of two stories with a low attic—which seems to be of 16th-century date, having on the first floor a room with panelled walls and a ceiling with a geometrical pattern of moulded ribs. The fireplace is of late Gothic type, and has over it four linen-pattern panels of oak. The groundfloor room beneath has no old features of interest, but in the attic, which seems to be an addition, probably of c. 1620, there is a good plaster panel of Jacobean style over the fireplace with the quarterly shield of Radcliffe between four roses: 1. Two bends engrailed, with a label of three points (Radcliffe); 2. Two bars, and over all a bend (Leigh); 3. Three billets and a chief; 4. A fesse between three garbs (Sandbach).

The block to the north of this shows no traces of antiquity, and the south-east wing already mentioned is also of no interest.

The buildings at the west end of the hall have been completely modernized on the south side, and their outer walls rebuilt in brick, and most of the old partitions on the upper floor removed. They are of two stories like the rest, and on the north, towards the courtyard, have a very picturesque timber-built elevation, with a large two-storied 17th-century bay window set against a Gothic front which is probably of the date of the hall, and has the same quatrefoil panels. The bay window is a half hexagon in plan, with square-headed transomed windows of four lights in each side, and quatrefoil panels below them to match the older work. They end below the springing of the gable, which is also panelled with quatrefoils and set forward on a coved cornice with a moulded and embattled string at its base. West of the bay the ground story has a range of narrow windows like those in the hall, now modernized, and on the first floor a very pretty six-light window projecting from the wall, and carried on a coved and embattled sill with Gothic tracery on the cove and a shield with the Stanley badge of an eagle's claw. Its gable on the south front was of half-timber work before its destruction, and the east side of the gabled wing was panelled with quatrefoils, which were cut into by the south wall of the hall. It does not, however, seem likely that the wing was earlier than the hall. The interior of this block is unfortunately modernized, and its original arrangements can only be inferred, as that the kitchen stood at the south-west, with a lobby or entry on the north towards the court, and between these and the hall were the buttery, pantry, and kitchen passage, while the floor above was divided into chambers, perhaps five in all. These arrangements must have been modified when the existing west wing was added, on the site of an older wing, about 1639. It is to be noted that the passage into the screens of the hall is on the axial line of the former courtyard. being halfway between the 17th-century west wing and the foundations of the destroyed east wing. The west wing was designed for the kitchen and servant's quarters, &c., and the old buttery and pantry were perhaps at this time converted into living rooms and the bay window towards the courtyard added. The wing is of plain character, in red brick, with squareheaded mullioned windows, now to a great extent renewed in terra cotta, and having towards the court a projecting bay containing a stair to the first floor, on which was formerly a panel with the arms and initials of Sir Alexander Radcliffe, a garter encircling the arms, and the date 1639. Its place is now taken by the arms of Lord Egerton of Tatton. The angles of the bay are cut away below, but corbelled out above to the square. The roof of this wing preserves its stone slates, and with its several gables is still very attractive; one of the original brick chimney stacks remains, with single bricks set herring-bone fashion between the shafts, as in other 17th-century work in the district. Near the north end of the wing the east wall sets back on a line so nearly coinciding with that of a foundation discovered in 1896, running westward from the old east wing, that it may be taken as marking the width of an original north wing, and also suggests that this wing was still in existence when the 17th-century work was begun.

There was formerly a fair amount of old coloured glass in the windows of the hall and elsewhere, but much jumbled together; among other things the coat of Radcliffe quartered with Fitz Walter in a garter, and figures of Our Lady and St. Katherine, since removed to Barlow Hall. Other things, including a lead statue of Mercury, after John of Bologna, which stood in the garden, were removed to Tatton.

The land tax in 1787 amounted to £210 (fn. 109) ; to this the principal contributors were Samuel Clowes, William Egerton, John Gore Booth, and Jonathan Bury, in all contributing about a fourth part. (fn. 110)

CHURCH

SACRED TRINITY CHURCH was originally built in a debased Gothic style in 1635. The tower was added early in the 18th century, but in 1748 the vibration of the bells which were then hung in it having brought down a part of the body of the church, (fn. 111) the whole of the building, with the exception of the tower, was taken down in 1751 and rebuilt in the following year. It is a simple parallelogram in plan, with a west tower, and architecturally uninteresting, being built in stone in a plain classic style with two tiers of semicircularheaded windows on each side, and entrances at the west end of each aisle facing north and south. The east end has two similar windows, above which externally is a niche said to have been intended for a figure of Charles I, in whose reign the church was founded. The interior has side and west galleries supported by square pillars panelled in oak, with stone pillars above carrying the roof. The old high pews were cut down and made into open seats in 1886. At the same time other improvements were effected, including the opening out of a baptistery under the tower and the removal of the old flat ceiling; and the organ was brought down from the west gallery and a quasi-chancel formed at the east end. (fn. 112) The arms of Booth and those of Kenyon (the Rev. Robert Kenyon was a former rector) are carved on the ends of the two front seats in the nave.

The tower, which originally had a short steeple or conical roof, is Gothic in form with buttresses and pinnacles and an embattled parapet, but with a classic cornice between the buttresses and other original renaissance detail. The tower was, however, largely rebuilt in 1859, when a large four-light mullioned and transomed window with ogee head was inserted on the west side in the lower stage. (fn. 113) The upper stage has a two-light louvred belfry window and a clock on each face.

There is a ring of six bells, hung in 1748.

The plate consists of two chalices, a paten, and an almsdish of 1635 (?), one of the chalices inscribed 'The Gift of Humphrey Booth unto Trinity Chapel in Salford;' a paten, 'The Gift of Humphrey Oldfield late of Manchester, gent.'; a flagon of 1697 inscribed 'Anno 1697, given to Trinity Chappell in Salford for ye Vse of ye Holy Sacrament, by John Higinbotham of Salford, merchant'; and a chalice presented in memory of the Rev. H. F. Gore-Booth, 1908. (fn. 114)

The registers begin 1709. (fn. 115)

ADVOWSON

Apart from the private chapel of Ordsall (fn. 116) there does not appear to have been any place of worship (fn. 117) in the township until Humphrey Booth built and endowed the chapel as above. (fn. 118) The patronage has descended with the Booth estates to Sir J. A. R. Gore-Booth. A district chapelry was assigned to it in 1839. (fn. 119) The present income is given as £1,340. The following have been curates and rectors:— (fn. 120)

1636 Richard Hollinworth, (fn. 121) M.A. (Magdalene Coll., Camb.)
1648 William Meek (fn. 122)
1658 Robert Brown, (fn. 123) B.A. (Emmanuel Coll., Camb.)
1667 John Hyde, B.A. (fn. 124)
1694 Robert Assheton, M.A. (fn. 125) (Magdalene Coll., Camb.)
? 1731 Richard Assheton, M.A. (fn. 126) (Brasenose Coll., Oxf.)
1764 Thomas Barker, M.A.
1766 Robert Oldfield, M.A. (Brasenose Coll., Oxf.) Robert Kenyon, M.A. (fn. 127) (Brasenose Coll., Oxf.)
1787 John Clowes, M.A. (fn. 128) (Trinity Coll., Camb.)
1818 Samuel Booth, M.A. (Balliol Coll., Oxf.)
1859 Joseph Nelsey Pocklington, M.A. (St. Catharine's Coll., Camb.)
1861 Edward Allen, M.A. (Oriel Coll., Oxf.)
1876 Capel Wolseley, B.A.
1885 Henry Francis Gore-Booth, M.A. (Corpus Christi Coll., Camb.)
1902 Peter Green, M.A. (St. John's Coll., Camb.)

In recent times, owing to the growth of the town, a number of new churches have been erected, those in connexion with the Establishment being St. Stephen's, near the Town Hall, 1794; (fn. 129) St. Philip's, more to the west at White Cross Bank, 1825; (fn. 130) Christ Church, near the Crescent, 1831, enlarged 1847; (fn. 131) St. Matthias, Broughton Road, (fn. 132) and St. Bartholomew's, Oldfield Road, (fn. 133) 1842, enlarged in 1863 and 1887 respectively; St. Simon's, in the extreme north corner of the township, 1849; (fn. 134) the Stowell Memorial Church, 1869; (fn. 135) St. Clement's, (fn. 136) and St. Cyprian's, both in Ordsall, 1878 and 1899; and St. Ignatius, 1903. All are entitled rectories. The patronage is in most cases in the hands of different bodies of trustees, but to St. Simon's the Crown and the Bishop of Manchester present alternately, while the Dean and canons of Manchester are patrons of St. Philip's and St. Stephen's. There are mission rooms in connexion with nearly every church.

The Wesleyan Methodists had a chapel in Gravel Lane as early as 1790; a new one close by has replaced it. The same denomination has other churches in Irwell Street, built in 1827, and now used for the Manchester Mission; Regent Road, 1870, Ordsall Park, and Bedford Street. The Primitive Methodists have a church in Trafford Road, near the docks; the United Free Church has two in Salford, and another in Eccles New Road; the Independent Methodists, who had one near Cook Street in 1807, now have one near the cattle market. (fn. 137)

The Baptists have a church in Great George Street, founded in 1833 and rebuilt in 1851.

The Congregationalists appeared in Windsor in 1797, when one John Joule built a chapel there. Another was built in Salford proper in 1819, and is now the Central Mission church. These have been followed by Hope, to the south, in 1837, and Richmond to the north in 1846. (fn. 138)

The Welsh Calvinistic Independents had a chapel in Jackson's Square, now under Exchange Station, in 1824, their present one is near Cross Lane. The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists had a chapel called Salem in Rigby Street in 1866, but have removed to Pendleton.

The Presbyterian Church of England has a place of worship in Chapel Street, built in 1847. (fn. 139)

The Unitarians built the above-named chapel in Jackson's Square, but had by 1824 removed to an adjacent one in Dawson's Croft; their present place of worship, known as Pendleton Unitarian Free Church, is at the extreme west end of the township, at Windsor.

The Swedenborgians had a New Jerusalem church in 1815 and later, but have removed to Wallness Road. The Bible Christians, a branch of the same denomination founded by the Rev. William Cowherd, (fn. 140) worshipped at Christ Church, King Street, from 1809; this about 1869 they abandoned for a new building in Cross Lane. A noteworthy member and minister was Joseph Brotherton, a local cotton spinner, who was the first member of Parliament for Salford, 1832 to 1857. A statue of him was erected in Peel Park in 1858.

The principal Roman Catholic church is St. John's Cathedral. The mission was not begun until 1844; the church, opened in 1848, was consecrated in 1890. The other churches are St. Peter's, begun in 1863, church built 1874; the Patronage of St. Joseph, 1871; Mount Carmel, 1880; and St. Anne's, Adelphi. There is a convent and school of the Faithful Companions of Jesus at Adelphi House.

Footnotes

1 1,354 acres, including 93 of inland water; Census Rep. of 1901.
2 Waterloo Bridge, by Exchange station, was built in 1817, under an Act obtained the previous year: 56 Geo. III, cap. 62.
3 The first bridge was built by Samuel Clowes of Broughton, in 1806; it was rebuilt in 1869. Springfield Lane Bridge, an iron bridge, was first built in 1850, and renewed in 1880.
4 Rebuilt in 1837–9.
5 Founded in 1827. There is also a dispensary in Garden Lane. Another charity is the Day Nursery in Broughton Road.
6 Peel Park was purchased in 1845 from William Garnett; it had been known as the Lark Hill estate. The park, with library and museum, was opened in 1849. A statue of Sir Robert Peel was placed there in 1852, and there are others.
7 Opened in 1837. An earlier cattle market was established in 1774; Axon, Manch. Annals, 102.
8 The park was formed in 1879.
9 This was built in 1852. The older workhouse in Greengate was built in 1793.
10 This station was the terminus of the line when first formed in 1838; the extension to Victoria Station was effected six years later.
11 Watkin, Roman Lancs. 38; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 329; x, 251.
12 Thus Barritt the antiquary, who invented the name. The ford is marked on the plan of 1740. 'Woden's Cave,' in Ordsall, was near the Salford end. See Manch. Guardian N. and Q. no. 749; Hibbert-Ware, Manch. Foundations, i, 5–7.
13 Subs. R. 250–9. Dr. Chadwick had 12 hearths, Robert Birch and Alexander Davie 10 each, Major John Byrom 9, Richard Pennington and Hugh Johnson 8, William Tassle 7, Joshua Wilson, William Higginbotham, James Johnson, Mr. Hewitt, and Dr. Davenport 6 each; there were four houses with 5 hearths, ten with 4, and fourteen with 3.
14 There are notices of him in Baines' Lancs. and in Dict. Nat. Biog.
15 There is a notice of him in Dict. Nat. Biog.
16 His works include Mem. of Manch. Streets and Bygone Manch. To the posthumous edition of his Barber's Shop (1883) is prefixed a memoir by Mr. W. E. A. Axon; see also Pal. Note Bk. i, 165, and Dict. Nat. Biog.
17 See Dict. Nat. Biog.
18 Ibid.
19 Ibid.
20 Ibid.
21 V.C.H. Lancs. i, 287.
22 Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 12.
23 Ibid. 131.
24 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 137. A toft in Salford by the bridge produced an additional 12d.; ibid. 138.
25 Ibid. 135.
26 Encroachments on the waste are frequently noticed in the Ct. Leet Rec. (Chet. Soc.); e.g. an encroachment in 1634 between the lands of Mr. Prestwich and the highway leading to the Irwell, 9 yds. in breadth and 50 yds. in length; ibid. ii, 15.
27 Ibid. i, 28. In 1631 it was forbidden to allow swine to 'go abroad in the streets within the liberties of the White Cross bank and Shawfoot stile' (leading to Broughton Ford); ibid. i, 239.
28 The original charter, with seal appended, is in the possession of Salford Corporation, at Peel Park Museum. It was printed, with notes and translation, by J. E. Bailey in the Pal. Note Bk. 1882; and more recently by Professor Tait in his Mediaeval Manch. 62, &c., with annotations which have been freely used in the present account of it.
The privilege of immunity from tolls in other fairs and markets of the county was claimed in 1541 against the mayor of Preston; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 161.
29 On the death of a burgess his widow might remain in the house with the heir, so long as she remained unmarried. As relief the heir gave arms—a sword, or bow, or spear.
30 A burgage might not be sold to religious. In any sale the heir had a right of pre-emption. A burgess who sold his burgage was free to leave the vill, taking all his goods, on paying 4d. to the lord.
31 It is called 'Laghemote' in clause 3.
32 The pleas belonging to the borough included robbery, debt, and assault if no blood was shed. The fines were restricted in amount. For breach of the assize of bread or ale the offender forfeited 12d. to the lord for three offences, but on a fourth he was put in the pillory (facet assisam ville). A debtor who failed to appear paid a fine of 12d. to the lord and 4d. to the reeve. If one burgess assaulted another the former might make his peace 'by the view of the burgesses,' i.e. by a composition approved by them; he paid 12d. to the lord.
33 Cal. Close, 1227–31, p. 54. In 1588 the fairs were said to be on Whit Monday and 6 Nov.; Lancs. and Ches. Hist. and Gen. Notes. ii, 131.
34 Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 205. The receipts for a half year were: Assized rent of the borough, 65s. 3d., and 40d.; toll of the borough, at farm, 40s.; perquisites of courts, 5s. 3d.—113s. 10d.; to which was added 6s. 8d. paid by Agnes, the reeve's widow, for the wardship of her daughter's land.
35 Add. MS. 32103, fol. 145, &c. The free tenants were:—
Henry de Pilkington, three islands of land by the bank of the Irwell, by charter of William de Ferrers to Robert son of Thomas de Salford, at 6s. 8d. rent.; John Bilby [Bibby], the common oven, with 4 acres, at 4s.; John de Radcliffe, 63 acres approved from the waste in Salford, Pendleton, and Pendlebury, at 31s. 6d.; Thomas de Strangeways, 15 acres from the waste; John de Leyland, 5 acres, at 2s. 6d.; Robert Walker, John de Stanlow, and Adam Wright, in common 3 acres, at 1s. 6d.; Henry de Bolton, 34 acres, at 17s. 3d.; Roger de Manchester (?), 6½ acres, at 3s. 3d.; Henry Marche, 1 acre, at 6d.; Robert de Hur', 2 acres, at 1s.; William Magotson, 1 acre, at 6d.; Thomas de Pilkington, 2 acres, at 12d.; Thomas Geoffreyson, 5 acres, at 7s. 6d.; Henry son of William de Salford, 5½ acres, at 2s. 9d.
All the above tenants were obliged to grind the corn growing on those lands to the twenty-fourth measure, but had rights of pasture and turbary.
Other tenants were Roger Dickeson, Maud Linals, Ellen Shokes, and Henry son of William de Salford. John de Radcliffe and Henry de Pilkington held some other lands; the latter claimed the right to keep the pinfold, but had to provide lodgings at the lord's will in two of his burgages.
Many of the free tenants held burgages also. The most considerable burgageholders, however, were John de Prestwich, with fourteen and a fraction, and Henry de Worsley, with about the same. The other holdings ranged from half a burgage up to five. Among the burgesses were Adam de Pendleton, Alexander de Pilkington, John de Oldfield, James de Byrom and John his brother, and the heir of Geoffrey de Trafford.
The sheriff's compotus of 1348 shows a similar total; it states that John de Radcliffe had the water-mill at a rent of 66s. 8d.
36 The 1597–1669 records have been printed in full by the Chetham Soc. (new ser. 46–8), the late Alderman Mandley being editor; a few earlier ones are at the Record Office, and that for 1559 was in 1857 in possession of Stephen Heelis, mayor of the borough; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxxvii, 389.
The business at the courts was of the usual kind: admitting new tenants, adjudging on assaults, breaches of the laws regulating ale-selling, keeping swine, &c. In 1656 a man was ordered to remove, with his wife and children, or give security to hold the town harmless.
The danger of fire claimed attention in 1615, but it was not till twenty years later that expenditure was incurred on buckets of leather, hooks, and long ladders for use in emergency.
In 1608 the jury found that there was no cuckstool, but 'unreasonable women' might be put in the stocks or the dungeon. A general lay was ordered in 1619 to defray the cost of the cuckstool. The bridle was ordered to be placed on a scold in 1655. In the same year two men were fined for profaning the Sabbath. The laying of stalls upon the Sabbath Day had been forbidden in 1615. Three ingrossers were presented in 1658.
Among other offences it was reported (in 1650) that there was 'great abuse committed by divers persons' who brought coals for sale, 'by gelding and robbing their loads before they come to town.' Milk dealers (in 1646) were warned against selling it except 'by true measures, as quart, pint, and gill.'
The inhabitants were about 1606 annoyed by Manchester people driving their swine into 'the Wastes of Salford, there to depasture,' and officers were appointed to impound such swine.
In 1655 it was ordered that the constables should have 'that little house upon the bridge, formerly called Sentry house,' paying 2d. a year to the lord. 'Madam Byrom of Salford, widow,' in 1696 laid claim to the watch-house at the end of the bridge, which had been built by the Salford burgesses; Peel Park D. no. 4.
A number of place-names occur in the records: Galley Lane, Cross Lane, Garnet Acre in Oldfield Lane, High Lane, the Broad Gate towards Ordsall Hall, White-cross Bank and Sandivall Gate, Back Street, Parker Pits, Clay Acre, Docky Platt, Bird Greatacre, Penny Meadow, Lady Pearl, a spring called the Pirle, Hanging Meadow, Barrow Brook, Barley Croft, and Middlefield. Mrs. Byrom had 'two doles in the Oldfield' in 1621.
The footway to Ordsall (from Pirle Spring along the riverside) occasioned much disputing about 1610. One Richard Knott had stopped up a way 'over Goodsteele,' which, it was asserted, had been open for sixty years. Sir John Radcliffe had more recently opened a way over George Croft, 'for the ease of his children which went to school to William Debdall in Salford.'
William Freeman was in 1634 ordered to gravel the way 'where he makes ropes.' A logwood mill is mentioned in 1660; the 'great ditch in the Gravel Hole' passed the northern end of the mill.
It was ordered in 1635 that all burgesses holding lands within the borough of Salford should attend the steward at the fairs, sending every man a halberd and a man to carry the same.
The keeper of the king's fold in 1639 enforced poundage for the burgesses' cattle, to their great grievance, as they considered themselves protected from it by their charter. There are several entries as to the custody of the charters; 'a sufficient box with lock and key' was ordered in 1655. In 1650 a rental of the borough was ordered; and in 1656 a translation of the charter.
One of the Peel Park D. (no. 2) is an acknowledgement by Anthony Giles, founder, of London, dated 1672, that he had received from the Treasury Commissioners on behalf of the burgesses and constables of Salford several weights and measures of brass, 'sized and sealed by his Majesty's measures and standards' at the Exchequer. These were to be used in the borough.
37 In 1337 Alexander de Pytington (? Pilkington) released to Henry, Earl of Lancaster, his right in the waste for his two burgages, reserving turbary and free entry and exit; similar releases were given by other burgesses, and are mentioned in the extent of 1346 already referred to; Duchy of Lanc. Great Coucher, i, 66, 67, no. 32–5. In return for a similar release by John son of Ellen Chokes, the earl in 1339 granted him 15 acres of the waste at a rent of 7s. 6d.; ibid. no. 36; see also ibid. no. 40, and Duchy of Lanc. Anct. D. L1216, 1219.
Some other grants may be seen in the appendices to the Dep. Keeper's Rep. e.g. xxxii, 331, &c., to 334; xl, 528, 529; the Holtfield, Windlehey, and Shawfoot are mentioned by name, and among the surnames are Oldfield, Highfield, Bird, and Grant.
In 1402 Ralph de Prestwich and Alured de Radcliffe had a licence to build two mills on the Irwell, which seems to have been renewed to the former in 1425 in the form of a lease for ninety years at 13s. 4d. a year; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 39; xl, 533.
Henry de Buckley in 1414 had a lease of the toll of Salford at the rent of 5½ marks; Towneley's MS. CC. (Chet. Lib.) no. 476. James de Prestwich succeeded him in 1425 at the lower rent of 60s.; ibid. no. 327.
38 Cecily widow of William the Couper of Salford in 1317 released to Randle the Miller her dower from 5 roods in the Oldfield; Lord Wilton's D.
The Hunts of Audenshaw and Manchester (see Dods. MSS. clxviii, fol 163, &c.) had lands in Salford. Their charters include the following of interest: 1397— Regrant of a half-burgage to Ellen daughter of Alexander de Pilkington, lying between the burgage of Henry son of John de Strangeways of Manchester and that of Henry del Helde, with remainder to John Lancashire; no. 21. 1399—Emmota de Glazebrook gave to Henry del Helde and Emmota his wife a burgage between the burgage of John de Radcliffe of Chadderton (called the Cornel Orchard) and that of John Bibby (called the Neldurs Acre); no. 12. 1423—Edmund de Trafford granted to Ralph son of Ralph de Prestwich his claim in land called the Gledeyard; no. 11. 1447—Grant by feoffees to Roger Brid (or Bird) of Salford, of 3 acres of arable land and a meadow called Merevall; no. 22. 1467—Demise to James Brid, no. 23. 1513—Roger son and heir of James Brid granted to Richard Hunt a burgage called the Cornel Orchard; no. 64. In 1653 an exchange was made, John Byrom of Salford giving a close called Great Oldfield for William Radley's close called 'Mary Mould meadow, otherwise Merryvalls meadow;' W. Farrer's D.
Among the Clowes deeds are a number referring to Garnet's Acre. In 1519 it was granted by Hugh Lathom to Edward Pendleton, and in 1573 by Robert Pendleton to Edmund Goldsmith; Edward Chetham of Smedley held it in 1642.
Two closes in Oldfield called the Dawce Latts were leased by Richard Gilbody of Stretford in 1647; Mr. Earwaker's note. They were probably the same as the Dockie Flatt mentioned in October 1624 in the Salford Portmote Rec. i, 183. Part of the inheritance of Adam Byrom of Salford, a 'dole' called the Little Breere riddings, of about 1 acre, was sold to John Lightbowne in 1688; Hulme D. no. 114. The Higher Croft, messuages near the Court House, and a cottage in Sandywell Field with a little lane leading thereto from Greengate, were in 1723 sold by Alexander and Edward Davie (sons of Alexander Davie of Salford), the former being described as of Sidney-Sussex College, Cambridge; Manch. Free Lib. D. no. 49. A dye-house and land called the Royles are named in a lease of 1726; Mr. Earwaker's note.
39 John de Broughton and Agnes his wife, in the latter's right, in 1274 and 1275 recovered certain messuages and land in Salford; De Banco R. 5, m. 97 d.; 9, m. 40.
In 1292 Geoffrey de Worsley and Agnes his wife were nonsuited in a claim against Richard the 'Leycestere,' and others respecting a tenement in Salford; Assize R. 408, m. 7 d.
William de Holland and Joan his wife claimed various lands in Salford, Haydock, Heaton by Fallowfield, and Eccles in 1324–5; Assize R. 426, m. 6.
John son of Geoffrey Walker claimed two messuages and lands against Ellen daughter of Richard de Salford, Roger the Barker, and Margaret widow of Richard de Worsley in 1346; De Banco R. 348, m. 14.
Joan daughter of Thomas de Pilkington in 1352 unsuccessfully claimed a messuage and land against Henry del Wood and Joan his wife; she alleged that her uncle, Richard de Pilkington, chaplain, had demised them to Joan with the stipulation that they might be redeemed on payment of £6; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 1, m. 1. Henry del Wood and Joan his wife were plaintiffs against William del Highfield in 1354; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 3, m. 5 d.; and in 1357 recovered a tenement in Salford against Joan daughter of Thomas de Pilkington, Cecily his widow, and William del Highfield; ibid. R.6, m. 2 d.
Matthew Newton in 1432 acquired a toft in Salford from Henry Chadwick and Cecily his wife; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 97.
40 See the account of Manchester. Though the Act was the same, the commissioners for Salford were quite distinct from those for Manchester, and always acted by themselves. The legal separation took place in 1829.
41 See Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre. of Lancs. 304; the parliamentary borough included the three townships of Salford, Broughton, and Pendleton. The number of representatives was increased to two in 1868, and in 1885 to three, selected by three divisions—North, West, and South.
42 The charter, dated 16 Apr. 1844, is printed in Reilly, Hist. of Manch. 553; it was confirmed by the Act 11 & 12 Vict. cap. 93. The wards were named Blackfriars, roughly the eastern part of the town between Chapel Street and Bolton canal; Crescent, the west and south-west; St. Stephen's, the north-west, and Trinity the north-east.
43 A market originally adjoined it, but gradually decayed, the site being in 1862 utilized for the enlargement of the town hall. The 'flat-iron market,' a sort of rag fair, is held on Mondays by Salford Church.
44 16 & 17 Vict. cap. 32.
45 Part of Pendlebury was added to Pendleton in 1883; Loc. Govt. Bd. Order 14672. An adjustment of the boundaries between Barton and Pendleton was made by the Salford Corporation Act, 1891.
46 These are named St. Matthias', Crescent, Regent, Trafford, Ordsall, Islington, and Trinity, proceeding round the township, north, west, south, and east.
47 The first gas works were started in 1820. These were purchased by the commissioners in 1832, and new ones were erected in 1835 and again in 1859.
It may be added that gas was first used in the Manchester district in 1805 to light the factory of Lee and Phillips at Salford; Axon, Manch. Ann. 136.
48 Tram lines on G. F. Train's system were laid in 1861, but abandoned.
49 Royal Museum and Libraries, Salford, by B. H. Mullen, librarian, to whom the editors owe other information.
50 a At Greengate, 1870; Regent Road, 1873.
51 Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 10; see also Booker's Blackley (Chet. Soc.), 26. Robert Booth, with whom the pedigree begins, purchased messuages and lands in Salford in 1563, from John Booth (of Barton) and Ellen his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 25, m. 261. His son Humphrey Booth, a successful trader, purchased various properties, including that known as Booth Hall in Blackley, and showed himself a pious and liberal dispenser of the wealth he had acquired. He made the gallery in Manchester Church in 1617, built Trinity Church, Salford, and left lands in Manchester and Pendleton for its maintenance and for the benefit of the poor of Salford, now producing an income of £17,000 a year. According to Richard Hollinworth he was 'just in his trading, generous in entertainment of any gentlemen of quality that came to the town, though mere strangers to him, bountiful to the church and poor, (and) faithful to his friends'; Mancuniensis, 117, 118. Humphrey Booth occurs in the Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. from 1606 onwards (ii, 222). He died on 27 July 1635, seised of twenty-four messuages, &c., 20 acres of land, 10 acres of meadow, and 15 acres of pasture in Salford and Oldfield Lane, and a rent of 34s. 11d. from other lands there, all held of the king as of his manor of Salford; other messuages, &c., in Pendleton, Pendlebury, Oldfield, Oldfield Lane, Cross Lane, Little Bolton, and Salford, in the occupation of James Pendleton and others, also in Manchester, Ancoats, Ardwick, and Chorlton, in Blackley and in Royton. His heir was his deceased son Robert's son Robert Booth, nine years of age. Just before his death Humphrey Booth had settled his estates with remainders (after Robert the grandson) to Humphrey brother of Robert; and to George Booth of Middleton, son of John brother of Humphrey the elder; and another part was devoted to the use of Robert the grandson's brothers and sisters, Humphrey, John, Anne, and Elizabeth. Blackley had been given to the elder Humphrey's son of the same name; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvii, m. 44. Humphrey Booth's will is printed in Booker, op. cit. 23–5; and his funeral certificate in vol. vi of the Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches. 199.
Robert Booth, the grandson and heir, became Chief Justice of the King's Bench in Ireland, and was made a knight; he died in 1680, leaving a daughter Susan, wife of John Fielding. For an account of him see Dict. Nat. Biog.; N. and Q. (6th Ser.), x, 275. There were disputes as to his lands; Exch. Dep. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 92. His younger brother Humphrey, who eventually succeeded to Blackley, left a son Robert, who had sons Humphrey and Robert. The last-named died in 1758, having devised to his cousin John Gore, who, on succeeding, assumed. the surname Booth; dying unmarried in 1788, he was succeeded by his elder brother, who also assumed the surname of Booth and became ancestor of the present Gore-Booth family; Booker, op. cit. 26.
Robert Booth of Salford in 1726, as heir-at-law and devisee of his brother Humphrey Booth, which Humphrey was eldest son and heir of Robert Booth, made a lease of a dye-house, &c.; Mr. Earwaker's notes.
52 Visit. 35. Some account of this family, with inquisitions, will be found under Kersal in Broughton. The following fines refer to them: George Byrom in 1547 acquired eight burgages, &c., from Gabriel Gibbons and Katherine his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle 13, m. 300. Adam Byrom in 1552 purchased three messuages, &c., from John (? Richard) Gibbonson; ibid. bdle. 14, m. 115. George Byrom in 1557 purchased some land from Ralph Radcliffe; ibid. bdle. 17, m. 65. Shortly afterwards Henry Byrom acquired three messuages, &c., from George Byrom and Margaret his wife; ibid. bdle. 17, m. 106. In the following year Adam Byrom purchased ten messuages, &c., from Joan Brereton, widow, and Geoffrey her son; George Byrom purchased messuages in Salford, Manchester, Barton, and Hulme, from Ralph Brown and Jane his wife, Adam Holland and Ellen his wife; and Henry Byrom acquired land from Ralph Radcliffe; ibid. bdle. 19, m. 58, 80, 89. Adam Byrom, in 1559 purchased a messuage, &c., from Richard Gibbonson, Lawrence Ward, and Isabel his wife; ibid. bdle. 21, m. 102. Two years later he obtained another messuage from Thurstan Tyldesley; ibid. bdle. 23, m. 173. Later fines refer to the estate of Lawrence Byrom and Mary his wife; ibid. bdle. 49, m. 107; 50, m. 198; 53, m. 268; 56, m. 118.
From a subsequent note it will be seen that Adam Byrom's house was known as Salford Hall. It stood in Serjeant Street, now Chapel Street, between the old bridge and the chapel, but on the river side. The mill was probably near it. Note by Mr. H. T. Crofton.
Deeds in the possession of W. Farrer show that James son and heir of Robert Walker (afterwards called 'of Withington') in 1536 leased his burgage in Salford to Ralph Brown, and sold it in 1545; in 1554 the purchaser sold to George Byrom, and the fine of 1557 confirmed the transfer.
The Worsley family long held lands in Salford. In 1343 Henry de Worsley leased to Robert the Miller 1½ roods upon Sandywell, a rood in the Whitacre, 1½ acres on Ollerschagh and on Kolleschot, and 3 roods in the Middlefield between lands of John de Prestwich and Richard de Pilkington, chaplain, deceased, at a rent of 6s.; Earl of Ellesmere's D. no. 118. Joan Brereton, widow, of Worsley, was found in 1511 to have held six burgages, 23 acres of land and 3 acres of meadow in Salford of the king as of his duchy by the service of 14d.; Lancs. Tenures (Towneley) MS., fol. 28b.
53 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 68.
54 Ibid. 96. Edward Davenport, bachelor of physic, a grandson of Sir William Davenport of Bramhall, was 'of Salford,' in right of his second wife Mary, a daughter of Humphrey Booth.
55 a Ibid. v.
56 William son of Walter de Salford gave a messuage in Salford (held of the king by a rent of 12d.) to his sister Agnes. She married one Roger Dikeson of Manchester, and had a daughter Emma, wife of Robert Bibby, whose son John Bibby claimed in 1393–4. Roger Dikeson, however, gave the messuage to Stephen the Cook and Joan his wife and Emma their daughter (died s.p.); Joan as widow transferred it to William de Radcliffe, the occupier under him being Ellis del Helde, in or before 1359. Ellis was outlawed for trespass, but his bastard son Henry obtained possession and held it in 1393–4; Towneley MS. DD. no. 1452.
Possibly it was this messuage which was in 1338 the property of William son of Thomas de Salford, and in 1455 as 'Salford hall' that of Edmund Radcliffe and Elizabeth his wife, it being then settled on their daughters Cecily and Ellen for life, with remainder to their son Ralph; Raines MSS. (Chet. Lib.), xxiv, 13, 22. In 1540 Andrew Barton of Smithills and Agnes his wife sold Salford Hall to Adam Byrom; ibid. 35. Robert Barton of Smithills died in 1580, holding messuages, &c., in Salford; the tenure is not stated; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 24.
In 1420 a messuage, &c., in Salford was granted to Thomas son of William Massey of Salford and Beatrice his wife, with reversion to William the father and Joan his wife; Harl. MS. 2077, fol. 216g. Adam Massey died in 1559, leaving a sister and heir Isabel about sixteen years of age, who paid relief; Ct. R. Another Adam Massey held four burgages, &c., of the king in socage by a rent of 17s. 1d.; he died in 1604, leaving as heir his grandson John Olive, son of Joan daughter of Adam; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 29. John Olive (printed Clive) died in 1620, holding the same estate and leaving a widow Margaret and an infant son Roger; ibid. ii, 243. Roger died without issue in December 1640, his uncle Rayner Olive being the heir, and fifty years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, 60. A settlement of 1599 made by Adam Massey, 'late of Oldfield,' is recited in the inquisition.
The Pilkington family was of old standing in Manchester and Salford. Some incidental references to it have been made in preceding notes. In 1533–4 Adam son of Nicholas Pilkington of Manchester complained that Thomas Langford of Didsbury, Elizabeth his wife, and Margaret widow of Richard Hunt the younger, had taken possession of fourteen messuages and 60 acres of land in the towns and fields of Salford and Manchester. From his statement it appeared that one Nicholas Pilkington had settled the property on his son Richard, with remainder to another son Thomas, and that Richard's son Edmund having died without male issue, Adam succeeded as son of Nicholas son of Thomas, son of Nicholas; Duchy Plead. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 28. It was probably a later Adam Pilkington of Salford who occurs frequently in the Manch. Ct. Leet Rec.; he, with Margaret his wife, made a settlement of five messuages, &c., in Salford and Manchester in 1574; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 36, m. 212. Adam died in 1596, leaving a son and heir Adam, of full age, and younger sons William, Thomas, and Edward; in Manchester he had held half a burgage in Shudehill and a burgage, &c. in Millgate; Ct. Leet Rec. ii, 114–15; an abstract of his will is given in the note. The younger Adam died in 1605, holding ten messuages or burgages, with 10 acres of land, &c., the Pinfold, land called Oatfield and Checkers (improved from the waste), and 'the Island' by the Irwell, in Salford, also a burgage and garden in Manchester. The Salford lands were held of the king—the burgages, &c., in socage by 17s. rent, the Oatfield and Checkers by the hundredth part of a knight's fee, and the Island by knight's service and 6s. 8d. rent. Adam, the son and heir, was eight years of age; ibid. ii, 214; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), i, 64. In 1638 Adam Pilkington of Salford the elder, and Adam his son joined in selling messuages and tanpits near the Millgate in Manchester, to Lawrence Owen; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 281.
The Pendletons were another old family. In 1536 Adam (son of William) Pendleton, Ellen his wife, and Hamon Bibby were holders of three messuages, &c., in Salford; Raines, Byrom Ped. (Chet. Soc.), 19; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 11, m. 47. Robert Pendleton sold parcels of land in Salford in 1566 and 1571; ibid. bdles. 28, m. 239; 33, m. 167. He, with Isabel his wife and George his son, concurred in the sale of an acre of pasture to Edmund Goldsmith in 1574; ibid. bdle. 36, m. 188. A Robert Pendleton died at Salford in 1641 holding three burgages of the king in socage and free burgage as of the manor of Salford; also 4 acres in Pendleton. His heir was his daughter Margaret, wife of William Rodley, and twenty-three years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, 52. Other Pendleton and Rodley or Radley families are noticed under Manchester. In Salford Robert Rodley in 1595 purchased a messuage from John Rodley and Emma his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 57, m. 14.
57 These records show the succession to burgages and lands; for instance, that of Sept. 1599, names Radcliffe, Strangeways, Cook, Byrom, and Partington. The juries also show the names of the principal inhabitants; the list for 1559 is as follows:—Sir William Radcliffe, Richard Hunt, and Adam Pilkington, gentlemen, Gilbert Bibby, Adam Byrom, George Proudlove, Robert Pendleton, Thomas Bolton, James Siddall, Thomas Ainsworth, Ralph Partington, Thomas Sorocold, Peter Seddon, and Thomas Hunt.
58 For instance, the Gees, Hunts, Bibbys, and many others.
In 1295 Henry son of William son of Simon de Manchester claimed a messuage in Salford against Agnes widow of Adam the Fidler; De Banco R. 109, m. 38. About 1560 the Bibbys were concerned in the Chequers, Salford, and land called Bowbrook Head; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), ii, 231, 238, 256; see also iii, 213, 235. William Dowson in 1596 purchased a messuage from Edward Bibby and Elizabeth widow of Gilbert Bibby; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 59, m. 74.
59 Besides those already cited the inquisitions name John Strangeways of Strangeways, Robert Radcliffe of Radcliffe, Ralph Assheton of Great Lever, and Sir Edmund Trafford; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), i, 132; ii, 75, 288; iii, 327. Thomas son of Geoffrey de Strangeways in 1335 made an unsuccessful claim for land in Salford against Richard de Hulton and Maud his wife; De Banco R. 303, m. 83 d.; 304, m. 367 d.
In 1338 Cecily daughter of Roger the Barker ('Tannator') granted two burgages in Salford to Geoffrey son of Sir Henry de Trafford, and immediately afterwards Roger the Barker gave his lands to the same Geoffrey; De Trafford D. no. 99– 100.
60 Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 246–9.
61 Ibid. i, 148. It appears that John Duncalf was of Oldfield Lane; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc.), i, 284.
62 Pal. Note Bk. iv, 100.
63 In 1703–4 the mill, with power to grind corn, grain, and malt, was leased, along with part of the waste, to Edward Byrom, and the lease was renewed in 1733; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. 27, fol. 54d.
The tolls of the markets and fairs were leased to John Bennett in 1699 and to John Walmesley in 1739; ibid. 27, fol. 181 d.
64 Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 36. A halfyear's increment of 4s. from Ordsall appears in the roll of 1200–1; ibid. 131; and the full increment of 8s. in the following years; ibid. 148, 163. It contributed 29s. 8d. to the tallage in 1205–6; ibid. 202.
In 1226 the assized rent of Ordsall was 32s.; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 137.
65 Gregson, Fragments (ed. Harland), 347. The two were to be held by the service of 2 marks of silver and the sixth part of a knight's fee. Out of the rent 20s. was charged on Flixton and 6s. 8d. with the knight's service on Ordsall. The Hultons had some earlier connexion with the manor, for in 1240 Robert de Hulton was summoned to answer for assarting common land pertaining to the manors of Salford, Ordsall, and Broughton; he replied that he held by a grant from his brother Richard de Hulton, and called Richard's son (also named Richard), to warrant him, but this son being under age the trial was deferred; Cur. Reg. R. 107, m. 9 d.
66 See the account of Pendleton.
67 In 1292 Richard son of David (de Hulton) was non-suited in claims against Edmund the king's brother, and against Adam de Prestwich, for tenements in Ordsall; Assize R. 408, m. 3, 36.
Richard de Hulton for the sixth part of a fee in Ordsall and Flixton contributed 6s. 8d. to the aid of 1302; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 314.
Richard de Hulton granted an annuity of 26s. 8d. out of Ordsall to Richard de Reddish, and his widow Margery and son Richard were in 1313–14 accused of withholding it. The money was paid into court, and it was stated that Richard de Reddish had refused to give an acquittance; Assize R. 424, m. 6 d. In 1322 Richard de Hulton complained that Adam de Radcliffe had entered his manors at Ordsall, &c., illegally; Cal. Pat. 1321–4, p. 162.
Richard de Hulton was tenant in 1324 by the old services; Dods. MSS. cxxxi, fol. 38.
Robert son of Richard del Birches was a plaintiff in 1337 and 1338 against Richard son of Richard de Hulton, Maud his wife, and others respecting the Hulton inheritance in Ordsall, Flixton, Hulton, Lostock, Rumworth, and Halliwell; Assize R. 1424, m. 8 d. 9; 1425, m. 1 d. 5. Robert son of Roger de Radcliffe was plaintiff regarding Ordsall in 1338; Richard de Hulton, Maud his wife, and others defending; ibid. m. 1.
68 The details of the transfer are not clearly known. The Hulton estate in Blackburn went to another Radcliffe, whose descendants divided Flixton with the Ordsall Radcliffes.
In 1338 Robert son of Roger de Radcliffe and William son of Robert de Radcliffe claimed annuities from the manors of Ordsall and Flixton against Robert del Legh, Richard de Hulton the elder, Maud his wife, Richard de Hulton the younger, Margaret his wife, and others; Assize R. 1425, m. 1, 6 d.
From a later statement (1399) it appears that Ordsall and Flixton were held by Robert de Radcliffe, a bastard, until his death on 14 Feb. 1344–5; he had no issue, and John de Radcliffe of Ordsall took possession; Pal. of Lanc. Chan. Misc. 1/9, m. 117, 118. Robert de Radcliffe was sheriff from 1337 to 1342, being succeeded by Sir John Blount; P.R.O. List, 72. In the survey of 1346 it is stated that Robert de Radcliffe had paid 6s. 8d. for Ordsall, which had come into the lord's hands for lack of an heir; Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146b.
A claim for a rent of 20s. and a robe from Ordsall was in 1344 made by John son of William de Charnley against John son of Richard de Radcliffe and Robert son of Roger de Radcliffe; the plaintiff alleged a grant by Richard de Hulton; Assize R. 1435, m. 44. At the same time Sir Nicholas de Langford made his claim to the Hulton estates; Robert de Radcliffe, then bailiff of Salfordshire, replied concerning three plough-lands in Salford, and twenty messuages and 200 acres in Blackburn; while John de Radcliffe (bailiff of Blackburnshire) and Richard his son, also defendants, said they had nothing in the estates; ibid. m. 40. It might appear that Robert de Radcliffe was living and bailiff of Salfordshire in 1347, John de Radcliffe being his kinsman, but there is perhaps some mistake in the roll; ibid. m. 33 d. (cf. heading of m. 32 d.—21 Edw. III; the membranes are much mixed up, m. 34 being of 18 Edw. III). In the Radcliffe pedigrees Robert the bastard is called a son of Richard de Radcliffe of the Tower. There must therefore have been two Roberts.
It was found by an inquisition taken at Hulton in Aug. 1345 that Robert de Radcliffe, lately sheriff, who owed the king £149 14s. 8½d. for debts and licence to agree regarding the manor of Astley, had at Ordsall on the day of his death ten oxen (worth 100s.) which Thomas de Strangeways took, two oxen (20s.) which William son of Robert de Radcliffe took, and two horses (13s. 4d.) which Richard son of William de Radcliffe took; L.T.R. Memo. R. 117.
A Robert de Radcliffe was knight of the shire in 1334, and John de Radcliffe in 1340; Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre. of Lancs. 24, 28.
69 In July 1351 John de Radcliffe the elder claimed the manor of Ordsall, viz. a messuage, 120 acres of land, 12 acres of meadow, and 12 acres of wood. The defendants were John Blount of Hazelwood and Sodington, Robert de Legh the elder, and Thomas de Strangeways the elder. John Blount claimed by the charter of Henry, Earl of Lancaster (father of the duke), Ordsall having been forfeited by Robert de Radcliffe; it was held by the service of a rose. The recognitors found that a certain William de Hulton had held Ordsall for his life, with reversion to Richard de Hulton; and William granted his estate to John de Radcliffe the claimant. Richard de Hulton then released to John all his claim; but Robert de Radcliffe, Robert de Legh, and Thomas de Strangeways ousted John de Radcliffe and took possession on behalf of Robert. No agreement was come to before Robert's sudden death, after which John re-entered until the earl's officers took possession. John Blount had occupied for five years. The case went on until 1354, when judgement was given in favour of the claimant; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 1, m. 2.
A Sir John de Radcliffe who was at the siege of Calais in 1346 with a retinue of two knights, twelve esquires, and fourteen archers (Muster Roll in Windsor Castle Library) is usually identified with this John de Radcliffe of Ordsall.
70 In Dec. 1355 Robert de Legh and Maud his wife (widow of Richard de Hulton) claimed the manor of Ordsall against John de Radcliffe the elder; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 4, m. 6 d. The grant by Richard de Hulton to John son of Richard de Radcliffe was adduced, but it appeared that Robert and Maud had in 1339 re leased to Robert son of Roger de Radcliffe all their right in the manors of Ordsall and Flixton, whereby their claim against John de Radcliffe and Joan his wife should be barred, John having Robert's estate; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 5, m. 25 d.; see also 6, m. 1 (Mich.). The suits went on with varying fortune, until in 1359 Robert and Maud released their claim, in return for an annuity of 33s. 4d. for Maud's life; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 162.
In July 1356 John de Radcliffe made a claim against Richard de Langley, Joan his wife, and others, respecting lands in Salford and Pendleton; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 5, m. 17.
Thomas de Goosnargh in 1358 proved his right to an annuity of 13s. 4d. granted from Ordsall by Richard de Hulton; the defendants were John de Radcliffe the elder, Sir Henry de Trafford, John de Bold of Whittleswick and Katherine his wife; Assize R. 438, m. 18. In the same year Henry son of Richard de Bolton claimed a tenement in Ordsall against John de Radcliffe the elder; ibid. m. 9.
In the following year John son of Richard de Radcliffe (or John de Radcliffe the elder) was plaintiff; though he did not proceed against Henry del Wood and Joan his wife, and against Henry de Trafford and others, regarding lands in Salford; his pledges were: (1) John son of John de Radcliffe, Richard son of John de Radcliffe; (2) Richard de Windle, John de Radcliffe the younger; (3) John de Radcliffe the younger and Richard his brother; Duchy of Lanc. Assize R. 7, m. 7 (Lent, beginning 9 D.H.); m. 2 (Mich.); m. 4. (Lent).
71 a John de Radcliffe died in or before 1362, in which year his son and heir Richard claimed part of his inheritance in Ordsall, Livesey, and Tockholes, formerly in the possession of Robert de Radcliffe and Cecily his wife; L.T.R. Memo. R. 127, m. 8.
72 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 8. Ordsall was held by knight's service and a rent of 6s. 8d. there were there a hall with five chambers, kitchen, chapel, two stables, three granges, two shippons, garner (worth nothing), dovecote (worth 2s. a year), orchard (12d.), windmill (6s. 8d.), 80 acres of arable land (£4), and 6 acres of meadow (6s.). In Salford Richard held, by knight's service and 20s. rent, 40 acres of arable land (20s.). He was also bailiff of Rochdale.
He married Maud daughter and heir of John son of John de Legh, lord (in right of his mother Maud daughter of Sir John de Arderne) of a moiety of Mobberley; the marriage brought the manor of Sandbach and other lands in the county. The Cheshire inquisitions of the Radcliffes are printed in Ormerod's Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 415, 416; see also Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 603–9. His second wife was Sibyl daughter and heir of Robert de Clitheroe of Salesbury; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 149.
73 The escheator was ordered in Sept. 1380 to deliver the manor of Ordsall and other lands to John son and heir of Richard son of John de Radcliffe; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxii, App. 353.
74 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxix, App. 56. He did not go, and the protection was withdrawn; Cal. Pat. 1385–9, p. 117.
75 Dep. Keeper's Rep. xl, App. 528.
76 In 1413 Sir John de Radcliffe became bound to abide the award of Ralph son of Ralph de Radcliffe on the matters in dispute between Sir John and his sons John, 'Averey,' Edmund, and Peter; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxvii, App. 174.
77 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 147– 9; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App. 21. Ordsall was held by the sixth part of a knight's fee and 6s. 8d. rent; and 50 acres in Salford were held by knight's service and 54s. rent; the clear values were £10 and 50s. respectively.
From the Cheshire inquisitions it appears that he left a widow Margaret (who quickly married Robert de Orrell) and three younger sons—Alured, who died in 1462; Edmund, who died in 1446, leaving a son of the same name, aged eighteen; and Peter, who died in 1468.
78 He held Ordsall by the sixth part of a knight's fee in 1431; Feud. Aids, iii, 96. For some quarrels among the Radcliffes of Ordsall in 1428–9—John de Radcliffe being summoned for an offence against the sumptuary laws by Alured de Radcliffe—see Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 2, m. 2b, and Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, ii, 130.
79 Towneley's MS. DD, no. 1480; Joan the widow had had settled upon her lands, &c., in Flixton, Shoresworth, and Tockholes. It may be noted that according to the inquisitions after the deaths of his father and uncles, Alexander was thirty in 1442, forty-five in 1446, forty in 1462, and fifty in 1468.
80 Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 56. Alexander son of Sir John de Radcliffe in 1445–6 held the sixth part of a fee in Ordsall, paying 16s. 8d. as relief; he held Shoresworth and Flixton jointly with his wife; Duchy of Lanc. Knights' Fees, 2/20. Alexander Radcliffe in 1451 charged Lawrence Hyde of Barton and others with the death of Hugh Radcliffe his brother; Coram Rege, Mich. 30 Hen. VI, m. 92.
There are some pleas respecting the Radcliffe family about 1446 in Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 8, m. 5b, 38. Peter son of Sir John Radcliffe was charged with the death of Peter Cowopp; ibid. m. 22b.
81 Ormerod, Ches. i, 415.
82 Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), ii, 124. The value of the 50 acres in Salford had increased to 50s. a year. The bailiwick of Rochdale and the lands in Tockholes and Livesey are not named.
83 Metcalfe, Bk. of Knights, 55.
84 In 1523–4, 1528–9, 1538–9, and 1547; P.R.O. List, 72.
Sir Alexander was steward of the town of Salford in 1543, and arranged a muster in view of the expedition into Scotland; Duchy Plead. ii, 191.
85 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. ix, 26. In addition to Ordsall (where there were a water-mill, a windmill, &c.), Flixton, Hope, Tockholes, and Livesey, Sir Alexander held lands, &c., in Pendleton and Monton, and three parts of the manor of Newcroft in Urmston, with lands there. The inquisition recites the provision made for his wife Alice, his younger sons Edmund, Alexander, John, and his brother William; all of them were living at Ordsall in 1549.
A portion of the monumental brass of Sir Alexander and Alice his wife remains in Manchester Cathedral. The family burial-place was in the choir; see E. F. Letts in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. ix, 90–100.
The trustworthy part of the 1567 pedigree begins with Sir Alexander; Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 1. See also Visit. of 1533 (Chet. Soc.), 64.
86 Metcalfe, op. cit. 77; the arms are given as gules, a bend engrailed argent.
The will and inventory of Dame Anne, wife of Sir William Radcliffe, 1551, are in Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), i, 17, 226.
87 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, 33. The manor of Ordsall with two watermills, a fulling-mill, &c., and 20 acres of land, &c., in Shoresworth—which by this time seems to have been merged in the demesne—were held of the queen by the sixth part of a knight's fee and a rent of 69s. 8d. Seventeen burgages in Salford, 100 acres of land there, twenty burgages in Salford and Oldfield, and 30 acres in Salford, all held of the queen in free burgage and socage by a rent of 12s., were included in his possessions; also manors and lands, &c., in Flixton, Pendleton, Hope, Monton, Newcroft, Moston, Tockholes, and Livesey, Oakenrod and Spotland, and Radcliffe. In 1561 he had made provision for his wife Katherine, who survived him and lived at Hope; also for Richard Radcliffe, his younger son. It appears that Sir William's brothers Alexander and Edmund were still living, the former at Ordsall and the latter at Chenies in Buckinghamshire.
The pedigree of 1567 (referred to above) shows that Alexander Radcliffe, the eldest son, was at that date living.
Sir William's tomb in the cathedral, long ago destroyed, bore the following distich:—
'Sandbach cor retinet, servat Mancestria corpus, Caelestem mentem regna superna tenent.'
88 He was dubbed at Hampton Court in Feb. 1577–8; Metcalfe, op. cit. 131.
89 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xv, 45. There is recited his provision for William, a younger son, and Margaret, Jane, and Anne, his daughters, from lands at Normanby, &c.; John, another son, had lands in Notts. and at Moston. Anne his wife survived him at Ordsall.
In religion he was regarded by the authorities as a 'dangerous temporiser,' i.e. he believed the old religion, but conformed to the legally-established system; see Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 137–9.
Sir John's will, beginning with the Catholic motto 'Jesus esto mihi, Jesu,' orders his burial in the choir of Manchester. He wished his sons to be well brought up, and to be sent to Oxford or Cambridge when fourteen. One son was to be a lawyer and to be sent abroad to study. The inventory shows live stock and goods valued at £1,468; Piccope, Wills (Chet. Soc.), ii, 68–72.
90 Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 66.
91 This is a statement in a pedigree of 1633. He is called 'esquire' in the warrant for the livery of his father's lands in 1598; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxix, App. 558.
92 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, 35. His mother, Anne, was living at Tockholes. He had in 1599 granted to Mary Radcliffe and Thomas Gillibrand the manor of Ashby, with various lands in Lincolnshire and Derbyshire, for 2,000 years. His will, dated 22 Mar. 1598–9, confirms the dispositions he had made in favour of his brothers John, Thomas, and Edmund, and his sisters Margaret (one of the queen's maids of honour), Jane, and Anne; Mary Radcliffe, his cousin, one of the maids of the queen's bedchamber, was an executor; Chest. Epis. Reg. ii, 232.
93 On 24 Sept. 1600; Metcalfe, op. cit. 210.
94 Statement in a 17th-century pedigree. Ben Jonson wrote laudatory verses on Sir John: 'I do not know a whiter soul,' &c. See also Local Glean. Lancs. and Ches. i, 137, 152. There were fines relating to lands in Ordsall and the Radcliffe manors of Ordsall, &c., in 1613 and 1623, Sir John Radcliffe being in possession; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 81, no. 27; 104, no. 51.
95 Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 69, 70.
96 See Mr. Letts's article above quoted; and J. Palmer in Hibbert-Ware's Manch. Foundations, ii, 288, &c. Barritt the antiquary states that Sir John had started on the expedition as the result of a quarrel with his wife; and that both his legs were shot off in the fighting.
97 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxv, 6. The manor of Ordsall, with the watermill, &c., were held of the king by the twentieth part of a knight's fee and an unknown rent. The date of his death is given as 5 Nov. 1627.
98 Metcalfe, op. cit. 186.
99 Raines and Sutton, Humphrey Chetham (Chet. Soc.), 114. Various sums of money were advanced by Humphrey Chetham and his nephew Edward to members of the Radcliffe family, who were reduced to great distress; ibid. 115. On this obscure part of the story see Mr. C. Roeder in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xiv, 201–4.
100 G.E.C. Complete Peerage, vii, 337; his wife was Jane daughter and heir of Edward Shute; Ordsall D. no. 2. See also Chester, Lond. Marriage Lic. (ed. Foster), col. 1107. In spite of this it is commonly believed that Jane Shute was the illegitimate daughter of the earl.
101 Ormerod, Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 16, 34, &c.
102 Sir Alexander's estates, apparently in Essex only, were sequestered by the Parliament; this would complete the ruin of the family; Cal. of Com. for Compounding, iv, 2617. The manor of Henham was sold in 1651; W. Farrer's deeds.
103 Parties to a Manchester deed of 1663 (in possession of W. Farrer) were Humphrey Radcliffe late of Ordsall and now of Oldfield within Salford, gent., and Margaret his wife, one of the daughters of William Radley of the Hall upon the Hill; and from another deed it appears that Humphrey Radcliffe died before 1672. The will of his widow Margaret, dated 1674 and proved 1692, mentions her brother Stephen Radley, her lady Jane, wife of the late Sir Alexander Radcliffe, late of Ordsall, and her sister-inlaw Frances Wentworth, daughter of the said Dame Jane.
104 See the account of Chadderton. A settlement by Alexander Radcliffe of Foxdenton in 1652 gave successive remainders to Sir Alexander Radcliffe of Ordsall, K.B., and his sons John, Alexander, Humphrey, Charles, and Robert; Raines D. (Chet. Lib.), bdle. 4. The will of John Radcliffe, dated 1669, names his mother Jane.
105 In 1658 John Radcliffe of Attleborough, son of Sir Alexander, conveyed to Edward Chetham the manor of Ordsall, with the hall, water corn-mill, and lands in Ordsall, Salford, Pendleton, and Pendlebury. The price named is £3,600; Clowes D. This was a mortgage; Earl Egerton's deeds show various other dealings between 1654 and 1660. Edward Chetham in 1670 assigned his interest to John Birch; ibid. no. 23.
106 Humphrey Chetham rebuilt the barn at Ordsall in 1646. In the following year he paid half the chief rent due for the manor, the other moiety being due from Sir Alexander Radcliffe, whose interest in the manor therefore was not entirely lost; Raines and Sutton, op. cit. 115. An account of lays, &c., paid for Ordsall demesne, both in Salford and Shoresworth, is given; ibid. 147, 149; for the goods in 'the new barn' in 1653, see ibid. 273.
107 In Booker's Birch, 106, it is stated that Samuel Birch purchased Ordsall, and went to live there in 1662. From Earl Egerton of Tatton's deeds, however (no. 14–21), it is clear that the purchaser was his son, the celebrated Colonel John Birch, whose daughter Sarah became the heir; Booker, op. cit. 113. She married a relative, John Birch, and in 1699 there was a recovery of the manor of Ordsall and lands, &c., the vouchees being John Birch and Sarah his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 469, m. 5.
In 1691 Colonel John Birch had conveyed Ordsall Hall to Leftwich Oldfield; and in 1699 an indenture between John Birch and Sarah his wife (executrix of her father), Alice widow of Leftwich Oldfield, and others concerning the manor of Ordsall and the chapel of St. George in Manchester Church, sets forth that Leftwich Oldfield died soon after 1691, leaving a son and heir of the same name, a minor, and provides for the completion of the sale; Ordsall D. (Earl Egerton of Tatton), no. 24–28.
The manor next occurs in a fine of 1704, when John Stock was plaintiff and Alice and Leftwich Oldfield were deforciants; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 253, m. 54; Ordsall D. John Stock, one of the trustees of Cross Street Chapel (Baker, Memo. 73), died in Nov. 1732, leaving a son John and a daughter Rose. After the death of the son in 1755 Ordsall was sold to Samuel Hill, who in the following year sold to Samuel Egerton, a near relative. Samuel Egerton had an only daughter, who died without issue, and the Tatton estates on his death in 1780 went to his sister Hester, widow of William Tatton of Withenshaw. She at once resumed her maiden name of Egerton, and dying in the same year was succeeded by her son William, who died in 1806; the later descent being thus given:—s. Wilbraham, d. 1856;—s. William Tatton, created Lord Egerton of Tatton 1859, died 1883;—s. Wilbraham, created Earl Egerton of Tatton 1897, the present owner. See Ormered, Ches. (ed. Helsby), i, 446. For the Oldfield family see ibid. iii, 273.
108 See N. G. Philips, Old Halls, 15; Trans. Hist. Soc. (new ser.), vi, 260.
109 Land tax returns at Preston.
110 Ibid.
111 Picture of Manch. by Joseph Aston, 1816.
112 Glynne, Churches of Lancs. note of 1892.
113 The tower seems to have been repaired before this date. Booker, Hist. of Blackley Chapel (1855), 123, says 'the tower is a square pinnacled one, newly patched with red sandstones.'
114 Notes to Glynne, Lancs. Churches, 1892, p. 50.
115 Ibid. The Owen MSS. have copies of the gravestone inscriptions.
116 The following licences for this oratory are found in the Lich. Epis. Reg.:—
21 Mar. 1360–1, to John de Radcliffe, for two years; v, fol. 5.
7 Mar. 1364–5, to Richard son of John de Radcliffe, for two years; v, fol. 10.
19 Dec. 1366, to Richard de Radcliffe, for two years; v, fol. 15.
24 Oct. 1383, to John de Radcliffe, for two years; v, fol. 36b.
117 Henry, chaplain of Salford, is named in 1323; Coram Rege R. 254, m. 71b. The Earl of Lancaster may have had a chapel.
118 See the account of Humphrey Booth. Hollinworth states that he built it at his own cost, except that £200 was contributed by Sir Alexander Radcliffe and others, and endowed it with £20 in lands. Then Humphrey Booth, 'being in great weakness, earnestly desired that he might live to see the chapel finished, which he did; but immediately after the solemn dedication of it by the Bishop of Chester he more apparently weakened; then he earnestly begged that he might partake of the Lord's Supper there, and then he would not wish to live longer. It pleased God to revive him in such a measure as that he was able to go to the chapel constantly till he was partaker of the Supper (which could not be done for some months after the consecration) in the chapel, and was never able to go forth after, nor scarce to get home'; Mancuniensis, 117, 118.
Humphrey Oldfield in 1684 left his divinity books to be placed in the chancel of the chapel. Those left were in 1876 given to the Salford Free Library; Old Lancs. Lib. (Chet. Soc.), 107.
The surveyors of 1650 recommended that it should be made a parish church for the township; Commonwealth Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 6. An allowance of £35 10s. was made to the minister in 1655, and was continued to his successor; Plund. Mins. Accts. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 55, 224, 273.
The certified income in 1717 was £60, including the £20 given by the founder and £40 from seats; surplice fees and offerings came to about £2. The right of nomination had been given to Mr. Booth and his heirs by the Bishop of Chester, without any mention of the consent of the warden of Manchester. Two wardens were appointed; Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet Soc.), ii, 92.
119 The district was reconstituted in 1856; Lond. Gaz. 29 Mar. 1839, 1 July 1856.
120 This list is largely due to the late J. P. Earwaker.
121 See the notes on Manchester Church; Raines, Fellows of Manch. (Chet. Soc.), 138; Dict. Nat. Biog.
122 He was considered an 'able and sufficient minister'; Commonwealth Ch. Surv. 6; Manch. Classis (Chet. Soc.), iii, 441. He died in 1658.
123 He conformed at the Restoration and was presented to Hoole; Manch. Classis, iii, 421.
124 A He became vicar of Bowdon in 1690.
125 He was elected fellow of Manchester in 1699, and was buried at Salford in 1731. In politics he was a Jacobite; Fellows of Manch. 206.
126 Son of the Rev. Robert Assheton, whom he succeeded at Manchester; ibid. 216.
127 Librarian of the Chetham Library.
128 Also vicar of Eccles.
129 This church had a district assigned to it in 1839, which was reconstituted in 1856; Lond. Gaz. ut sup. The graveyard inscriptions are in the Owen MSS.
130 Built by the Parliamentary Commissioners at a cost of £14,000. A district was formed for it in 1822, which was reformed in 1858; ibid. 4 July 1822, 13 Aug. 1858.
131 A district was assigned in 1858; ibid. 13 Aug. The first incumbent— 1831–65—was Hugh Stowell, M.A., a leader of the Evangelical or Low Church party and a prominent No-Popery lecturer. He was a native of the Isle of Man. There is a Life of him by J. B. Marsden, and he is commemorated by a memorial church.
132 For district see Lond. Gaz. 13 Aug. 1858.
133 For district see ibid.
134 A district was assigned, with an endowment of £150 a year, in 1846; Lond. Gaz. 10 Feb.
135 A district was assigned in 1871; ibid. 19 May. The church is in Eccles New Road.
136 For district see ibid. 26 Aug. 1879. There is a seamen's mission attached, with a special chaplain.
137 These particulars are from Baines, Lancs. Dir. 1824–5, and Axon, Ann. of Manch. The Primitive Methodists had formerly a chapel in King Street, removed to Blackfriars Street in 1874. This was closed a few years since.
138 See B. Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. vi, 208–24. It appears that services begun in 1817 in the former Cloth Hall in Greengate led to the formation of the Chapel Street church. Richmond Church began in a secession from Chapel Street in 1843, the former Unitarian Chapel in Dawson's Croft being used for a time.
139 It was founded in 1844; there is a mission hall.
140 He was born at Carnforth; became curate of St. John's, Manchester, where he adopted the incumbent's Swedenborgian views, but added doctrines of his own, as in abstention from animal food; he died in 1816; W. Axon, Ann. 149.