Townships
Broughton

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Victoria County History

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William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1911

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217-222

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'Townships: Broughton', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 4 (1911), pp. 217-222. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=41408&strquery=Broughton Date accessed: 31 October 2014.


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BROUGHTON

Burton, 1177; Borton, 1257; Burghton, 1332, 1450; Bourghton, 1572; Broughton, Brughton, xvi cent.

Kereshale, Kershal, 1200; Kereshole, 1212.

Tottelawe, Tettelagh, 1302; Tetlawe, 1368.

In the west and south this township is bounded mainly by the winding Irwell. The northern and eastern portions are hilly, the ground sloping west to the river, and also to the south. The old hamlet of Broughton lay on the western side of the township, close to a ford across the Irwell. The higher ground in the north is known as Broughton Park and Higher Broughton; the more level tract to the south as Lower Broughton, while the north-western arm, in a bend of the Irwell, is Kersal. (fn. 1) Almost the whole township is covered with buildings, there being many handsome residences in it. (fn. 2) The area is 1,426½ acres. (fn. 3) The population numbered 49,048 in 1901.

The principal road is that from Manchester to Bury, joined by another road from Salford, crossing the Irwell by Broughton Bridge. (fn. 4) From the Bury Road others branch off to the west, crossing the Irwell into Pendleton by Wallness (fn. 5) and Cromwell Bridges. (fn. 6) There is no railway in Broughton, but the district is served by the Salford electric tramways. Albert Park, close to Cromwell Bridge, was opened in 1877; there are several recreation grounds.

Some neolithic implements and other pre-Roman remains, as also some Roman coins, have been found. (fn. 7) The Roman road from Manchester to Bury passed through the township. (fn. 8)

Broughton was incorporated with Salford borough in 1844; there are now three wards—Grosvenor, Albert Park, and Kersal. A branch library was opened in 1890 and a reading-room 1905. (fn. 9)

William Crabtree, the astronomer and friend of Horrocks, lived in the township, at Broughton Spout it is supposed. (fn. 10) There were ninety-five hearths paying to the hearth tax in 1666. (fn. 11)

The Manchester races were held on Kersal Moor from 1730 till 1847, with a short interruption. (fn. 12)

A duel was fought on the moor in 1804. (fn. 13) Great reviews were held there in 1831 and 1835, and Chartist meetings in 1838 and 1839. (fn. 14)

There were zoological gardens in Higher Broughton from 1838 to 1842. (fn. 15)

MANOR

BROUGHTON was formerly ancient demesne of the honour of Lancaster, (fn. 16) being a member of the royal manor of Salford, (fn. 17) but was about 1190 granted by John, Count of Mortain, to Iorwerth de Hulton. On becoming king in 1199 John did not confirm this grant, but gave Iorwerth the vill of Pendleton instead of it. (fn. 18) Restored to its former position it remained in the hands of the lord of the honour, yielding a varying rent, (fn. 19) for perhaps a century longer. About 1324 Broughton proper was held by Katherine daughter of Adam Banastre by a rent of 27s., (fn. 20) and descended to the Harringtons of Farleton (fn. 21) and their successors in title, the Stanleys, Lords Mounteagle. In 1578 the manor of Broughton and lands there were sold by William, Lord Mounteagle, to Henry, Earl of Derby, (fn. 22) who gave the estate to his illegitimate son Henry Stanley. (fn. 23) Ferdinando Stanley, the son and successor of Henry, as a Royalist, had to compound for his estates in 1646. (fn. 24) He recorded a pedigree in 1664. (fn. 25) Ferdinando and his son Henry having mortgaged the manor and lands to the Chethams of Turton and Smedley, it finally, about 1700, came into the hands of this family. (fn. 26)

The manor then descended in the same way as Smedley, and on the partition of the Chetham estates in 1772 became the property of Mary younger sister of Edward Chetham of Nuthurst and Smedley, and wife of Samuel Clowes the younger. (fn. 27) She died in 1775, having survived her husband about two years, and by her will left Broughton and other estates to her eldest son Samuel, who died in 1801, having survived his eldest son Samuel, high sheriff in 1777, and being succeeded by his grandson, also named Samuel. This last died without issue in 1811, and was, in accordance with a settlement he had made, succeeded by his brother the Rev. John Clowes, one of the fellows of Manchester Church, who made Broughton Hall his chief residence till his death there in 1846. (fn. 28) A younger brother, Lieut.-Colonel William Legh Clowes, who had served in the Peninsular War, then inherited the estates, and dying in 1862 was followed by his son, Samuel William, who in turn was in 1899 succeeded by his eldest son Captain Henry Arthur Clowes, late of the First Life Guards, born in 1867; he resides at Norbury near Ashbourne.


Clowes. Azure on a cheveron engrailed between three unicorns' heads erased or as many crescents gules.

TETLOW

TETLOW was an estate partly in Broughton and partly in Cheetham, held in the 14th century by a family using the local surname, (fn. 29) the service due being the fortieth (later, the sixteenth) part of a knight's fee and a rent of 6s. 8d. It passed by marriage to the Langleys of Agecroft, (fn. 30) and then descended with Reddish to the Cokes. (fn. 31) The name Tetlow has long been disused, but is preserved in Tetlow Lane.

KERSAL

KERSAL was in 1142 given to the priory of Lenton, (fn. 32) and a small cell called St. Leonard's was established there. (fn. 33) On the suppression of monasteries it was in 1540 sold by Henry VIII to Baldwin Willoughby, (fn. 34) and some eight years afterwards was sold to Ralph Kenyon, apparently acting for himself and for James Chetham and Richard Siddall. (fn. 35)


Lenton Priory. Quarterly or and azure a Calvary cross of the first fimbriated sable standing on steps of the last.

The Kenyon third descended in that family for some time. (fn. 36) It included the cell or monastic buildings. The Siddall third (fn. 37) was alienated in 1616 to William Lever of Darcy Lever, (fn. 38) and descended to Rawsthorne Lever of Kersal, who died in 1689 without issue, (fn. 39) having bequeathed it to the Greenhalghs of Brandlesholme in Bury. (fn. 40) This part was purchased by Samuel Clowes in 1775. (fn. 41) The Chetham third (fn. 42) had already come into the hands of the Clowes family, (fn. 43) whose descendants retain their estate in Kersal.

The Kenyon third was about the year 1660 alienated to the Byroms of Manchester, (fn. 44) whose line terminated in the death of Miss Eleanora Atherton on 12 September 1870. It had one famous holder— John Byrom of Kersal, Jacobite, hymn-writer, and shorthand inventor; he was born in 1692, educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he became a fellow, and died at Manchester in 1763. (fn. 45) Like the manor of Byrom it was bequeathed to Mr. Edward Fox, who took the name of Byrom.


Byrom of Manchester. Argent a cheveron between three hedgehogs sable, a canton azure.

The house now called Kersal Cell occupies the site of the old religious house. It is a small two-story building of timber and plaster, much altered from time to time, but probably dating from the middle or end of the 16th century. It stands on low ground near a bend of the River Irwell, facing south, with the heights of Broughton and Kersal Moor immediately to the north and east. In more recent times a large brick addition has been made on the north, and extensions have also been made on the east in a style meant to harmonize with the timber front of the older part. The original house, which possibly is only a fragment of a larger building, has a frontage of about 56 ft. and consists of a centre with a projecting wing at each end. The west wing has a bay window in each floor, but the east wing has an eight-light window and entrance doorway on the ground floor and a slightly projecting bay above. Both wings have gables with barge boards and hip knobs, but the timber construction is only real up to the height of the eaves, the black and white work in the gables being paint on plaster. This is also the case with the east end and the whole of the front of the later extension on the same side. The roofs are covered with modern blue slates, and the west end is faced with rough-cast. The general appearance at a distance is picturesque, but at close view the house is too much modernized to be wholly satisfactory, and it is dominated by the brick building on the north, whose roof stands high above that of the older portion.

In the interior, however, Kersal Cell preserves some interesting features, many of the rooms being panelled in oak and some good plaster-work remaining. The ground floor is now below the level of the garden, the ground apparently having risen something like 3 ft. The plan has been a good deal altered to suit modern requirements, but preserves a centre apartment or hall about 18 ft. long with a seat against its west wall, which is oak-panelled for 6 ft., and has an ornamental plaster frieze. The lower room in the east wing has oak panelling all round to a height of 7 ft., and in one of the upper lights of the window is a circular piece of heraldic glass with the arms and name of Avnesworthe. The lower room in the west wing has a bay window 8 ft. 8 in. across and 5 ft. 6 in. deep. The lead lights in this and in other rooms of the house are of good geometrical patterns, and in one of the upper lights of the bay is an interesting glass sundial so fixed that the shadow is visible from the inside. The staircase is of Jacobean date with square oak newels and open twisted balusters, now varnished. It goes up to the top of the house, which in the centre has an attic. The most interesting room, however, is that usually called the chapel, on the first floor at the west end. It is a small room about 18 ft. long and 13 ft. wide with a five-light window facing west. It occupies the rear portion of the west wing, the room in front with its bay window being sometimes known as the priest's room. What authority there is for these names does not appear, and at present the only indication of the back room having been used for religious purposes is a small square of 17th-century glass in the window depicting the crucifixion. The two side lights of the window are plain, but the three centre ones contain fragments of 16th-century heraldic glass. In the second light is a shield, with the arms of Ainsworth, with helm, crest, and mantling. The centre light has two small diamond quarries in brown stain, over the crucifixion already mentioned. On a beam in front of the window is an elaborate plaster frieze with three shields of arms, somewhat similar to those at Slade Hall, Rusholme. The centre shield bears the royal arms (France quartered with England) with crown and supporters, dexter a lion, sinister a dragon. The left-hand shield is of six quarterings, encircled by a garter, and originally with crest and supporters, but the dexter support and the crest have been cut away, when the plaster panel over the angle fireplace was inserted. The arms are those of Ratcliffe, Earl of Sussex, who quartered FitzWalter, Burnel, Botetourt, Lucy, and Multon of Egremont with his paternal coat.

The right-hand shield has the arms of Stanley, Earl of Derby, encircled by a garter, with crest (eagle and child) and supporters. There is a frieze in the south wall apparently of the same date with Tudor roses and fleurs-de-lys. Over the angle fireplace is a plaster panel of later date, with a shield bearing the arms of Byrom (a cheveron between three hedgehogs) with crest (a hedgehog), and the initials E. B. over. On each side of the shield is a fleur-de-lys, and below is the date 1692. The south and part of the north wall are panelled to the height of 6 ft. in oak, and the door is set across the south-east angle, balancing the fireplace.

There is a tradition that Dr. Byrom wrote 'Christians, Awake' in Kersal Cell, and that it was first sung in front of the house on Christmas Eve 1750, but both events are more likely to have taken place at Byrom's house in Manchester.

North of Kersal Cell, facing west towards the road, is Kersal Hall, a two-story gabled timber building, the front of which has been rebuilt in brick and painted black and white. The back of the house, however, shows the original timber construction above a lower story of brick with stone mullioned windows. The house preserves the central hall type of plan with passage and porch at the north end, and has north and south wings. It is a picturesque building with stone slated roof and brick chimneys. The hall has three windows to the front, and in the lower room of the south wing is some good 17th-century panelling.

William Ravald purchased land in Kersal in 1548. (fn. 46) About 1619 this, or part of it, was sold to James Chetham of Crumpsall. (fn. 47)

Apart from the families named, little is known of the early landowners. (fn. 48) Allen of Broughton recorded a pedigree in 1665. (fn. 49) In 1798 Samuel Clowes paid three-fifths of the land-tax, and a small additional sum in conjunction with Elizabeth Byrom, whose separate estate was but small. (fn. 50) The Protestation of 1641 found eighty-three adherents. (fn. 51)

In 1836–9 St. John the Evangelist's was built for the worship of the Established Church; (fn. 52) St. Paul's, Kersal Moor, followed in 1852; (fn. 53) and to these have been added the churches of the Ascension, Lower Broughton, in 1869; (fn. 54) St. James, Higher Broughton, in 1879; (fn. 55) and St. Clement, Lower Broughton, in 1881. (fn. 56) The residence of the Bishops of Manchester, known as Bishop's Court, was fixed in Broughton by Bishop Fraser.

The Wesleyan Methodists have four churches in Higher and Lower Broughton, (fn. 57) the Primitive Methodists one, and the Methodist New Connexion also one, called Salem. The Baptists have a church in Great Clowes Street, 1868; and the Congregationalists one in Broughton Park, an offshoot of Richmond Chapel, Salford, in 1874–5. (fn. 58) The Presbyterian Church of England has a place of worship in Higher Broughton, founded in 1874. The Unitarians have a school chapel. The Swedenborgians have a New Jerusalem Church in Bury New Road.

For Roman Catholic worship there are the churches of St. Boniface in Lower Broughton, and St Thomas of Canterbury in Higher Broughton. The latter mission, which includes Cheetham, was founded in 1879; the present church dates from 1901.

There is a Greek church in Bury New Road, founded in 1860. (fn. 59)

A Jewish synagogue was opened in 1907 in Duncan Street.

Footnotes

1 For Kersal generally see Mr. E. Axon in Bygone Lancs. A hill in the centre was known as Castle Hill or Cross Hill.
2 The following from the Manch. City News of 20 Jan. 1906 gives a pleasant picture of Broughton as the correspondent saw it seventy years ago: 'At the Strangeways end of Broughton Lane were a few residences, whilst in the near fields was a nest of working men's lock-up gardens, wherein many a rare pink and picotee, and many a swelling stock of celery were nourished with fond and jealous care. The lane was knee-deep in sand, and the resort of numerous red and brown butterflies, till it joined the lower road from Broughton Bridge near the suspension bridge. So by a few cottages to the Griffin Inn, the Cheetham Arms, and its opposite ford —a noted bathing-place for Manchester youths. Round about this locality were several farms, one especially (now covered by Albert Park) lives in our remembrance as the pasture to which was taken each evening, more than a century ago, our ancestor's old mare, the first horse used in Manchester in a gin to turn the mill which perched or straightened the nap on the back of fustian pieces.
'Some little distance beyond the "Griffin," in Lower Broughton Road, opposite Castle Irwell, a clough dipped into the Stony Knolls, and down it came the rain water and found its way to the Irwell across the road. This watercourse gave the clough the descriptive name of Broughton Spout. From Broughton Bridge, right and left of the new cut, Great Clowes Street, were fields. In the centre of one stood a mansion on an artificially raised mound. Being thus the exceptional house above the floods, it was called Noah's Ark, and was the residence of James Whitlow, solicitor, of St. James's Square, Manchester.'
3 1,418 acres, including 32 of inland water; Census Rep. 1901.
4 Built in 1806–69. Springfield Lane Bridge, to the east, was made in 1850–80.
5 Opened in 1880. There is a footbridge to the south, from the end of Hough Lane into Pendleton. The suspension bridge, to the north, was opened in 1826; it is close to the old Broughton Ford, which was reopened in 1841.
A bridge called Littleton Bridge has recently been erected by the Clowes family to develop the Kersal estate.
6 Opened in 1882.
7 Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. v, 296, 328, 330; x, 250, 251; xii, 118; ii, 146; viii, 127.
8 Watkin, Rom. Lancs. 52.
9 a Information of Mr. B. H. Mullen.
10 Pal. Note Bk. ii, 262.
11 Subs. R. Lancs. 250/9. William Allen's house had 12 hearths, Elizabeth Lever's 9, and George Kenyon's 8.
12 'A strange, unheard of race' for women in 1681 is noticed by Oliver Heywood as a sign of the times; Diaries, ii, 284.
The earliest record of horse-racing at Kersal is contained in the following notice in the Lond. Gaz. of 2–5 May 1687: 'On Carsall Moore near Manchester in Lancashire on the 18th instant, a 20£. plate will be run for to carry ten stone, and ride three heats, four miles each heat. And the next day another plate of 40£. will be run for at the same moore, riding the same heats and carrying the same weight. The horses marks are to be given in four days before to Mr. William Swarbrick at the Kings Arms in Manchester.'
The races were interrupted from 1746 to 1759 owing to the opposition of Edward Byrom; note by Mr. E. Axon; see further in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. xxv.
13 W. Axon, Manch. Ann.
14 Ibid.
15 Manch. Guard. N. and Q. no. 235.
16 Broughton in 1176–7 paid ½ mark to the aid of the vills of the honour; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 36. In 1200 it is found among the other demesne manors paying an increment of 6s. (ibid. 131), which is given as 12s. a year in later rolls; ibid. 148, 163. It paid 2 marks to the tallage in 1205–6; ibid. 202.
17 In the 17th century Broughton was still regarded as a member or hamlet of Salford, and in 1640, on account of disputes as to the apportionment of taxes laid upon Salford and its members, it was agreed that when the whole paid 20s. Broughton, Kersal, and Tetlow should pay 5s. 5d. as their share of the 20s. Salford Portmote Rec. ii, 63.
18 Chart. R. (Rec. Com.), 27.
19 Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 13—in 1226 48s. assized rent. Ibid. 207—in 1257 assized rent of Broughton and Pendleton 78s. 6d., while other rents and profits, including the farm of the mill, and corn and other produce sold, brought the receipts up to £19 4s. 9d.
20 Dods. MSS. cxxxi, fol. 39. Kersal and Tetlow had been separated from it. The tenure suggests a grant by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, to Margaret sister of Sir Robert de Holland; see the next note and the account of Great Bolton, also Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 100–1.
21 In 1346 John de Harrington held Broughton by the sixteenth part of a knight's fee, and Salefield Hey, taken from the waste, by a rent of 27s. 4d. by charter of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster; Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146b. To the aid of 1378 Sir Nicholas de Harrington paid 15d. for the sixteenth part of a knight's fee in Broughton; Harl. MS. 2085, fol. 422. Margaret widow of Sir William de Harrington held it in 1445–6, the relief for it being 6s. 3d.; Duchy of Lanc. Knights' Fees, 2/20. It is named among the Harrington of Farleton manors as late as 1572; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 34, m. 76, 80.
22 A settlement of the manor of Broughton and 60 messuages, &c. in Broughton and Hayfield was made in 1574 by Sir William Stanley, Lord Mounteagle; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 36, m. 146. The sale in 1578 included the manor and 30 messuages, &c. in Broughton; ibid. bdle. 40, m. 152.
23 The grant is recited in the Inq. p.m. of Ferdinando, Earl of Derby, in 1595; Add. MS. 32104, fol. 424.
24 He was taken prisoner by Lord Fairfax at Selby and took the National Covenant on 10 Aug. 1644, being thereupon enlarged; afterwards he conformed to all the ordinances of the Parliament and took the Negative Oath; Cal. of Com. for Compounding, ii, 1446. The particulars of his estate show that Broughton Hall and the demesne lands were held by his sister Jane for her life; his estate brought in £20 5s. a year. His mother Jane was living. He had never been a member of Parliament, nor held office in the state; nor was he a popish recusant; State P. Com. for Compounding, vol. G, P, E, 186, fol. 708.
Nathaniel Atkins, physician, who married Mrs. Stanley of Broughton—she was Jane daughter and co-heir of Nicholas Gilbert and sixty years old in 1651—had been noticed among the garrison at Lathom, 'very conversant and familiar with the officers' while it was held against the Parliament; his estate, therefore, being his wife's jointure from her former husband, was sequestered by the Commonwealth authorities; Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 114; Cal. of Com. for Compounding, iii, 2352.
25 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 285; Henry Stanley is said to have died in 1640, Ferdinando being forty-four years of age in 1664. Among the Clowes Deeds is a grant of the manor made in 1678 by Charles II to Ferdinando Stanley; Pat. 30 Chas. II, pt. 72, no. 8.
26 Some documents connected with these transactions are among the Clowes Deeds.
In 1661 Ferdinando Stanley pledged the manor of Broughton and its appurtenances to George Chetham of Turton in consideration of a loan of £250, for which £280 was to be repaid within two years.
Pleadings of 1691, in reply to a claim by Henry Stanley the younger, recite an indenture of 1626 between Henry Stanley and others concerning the marriage of his son and heir apparent Edward Stanley, whose issue failed, leaving Ferdinando the heir. The last-named was twice married, and had by his second wife a son and heir Henry, besides other children. He died about 1684, when Henry succeeded to the encumbered estate. The loan of £250 had been increased by 1667 to £800, which by failure in paying interest quickly grew to £1,600. In 1685 the debt was £2,194, and James Chetham, as mortgagee, seems to have taken possession. Henry Stanley agreed in 1696 to sell the manor to George Chetham for £3,600.
The following fines relate to the manor, some being in connexion with the various mortgages: In 1625 Henry Stanley and Joan his wife were deforciants; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 108, m. 1. In 1661 George Chetham (as above) secured the manor from Ferdinando Stanley and Ursula his wife; ibid. bdle. 166, m. 148; followed by a similar fine in 1667, James Chetham being the plaintiff and Ferdinando Stanley deforciant; ibid. bdle. 179, m. 119. In a recovery of the manor in 1700 Henry Stanley was called to vouch; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 471, m. 4d.
27 See the account of Smedley in Cheetham.
The statements in the remainder of the paragraph in the text are derived from an elaborate abstract of title prepared in 1844, which recites settlements, wills, &c., from 1769 onwards; and from the pedigree in Burke, Landed Gentry. From the abstract it appears that the ancient chief rent of 27s. 4d. was in 1772 paid to Sir George Warren. The first Samuel Clowes mentioned was son of Samuel Clowes, Manchester merchant, who first appears in the Ct. Leet Rec. in 1685 (vi, 192). He purchased the Booths in Worsley.
Among the Clowes Deeds is an extract from the manor Court Roll of 1742.
28 His long tenure of the estate at a time when Broughton was rapidly becoming a residential suburb of Manchester, made him a somewhat important personage. He built and endowed St. John's Church, Broughton, in 1836. He is said to have been one of the first cultivators of the orchid. He was educated at Trinity Coll. Cambridge (M.A. 1805), and elected fellow of Manchester in 1809; he resigned in 1833. He was 'a man of unimpeachable conduct, of sober piety, and of great benevolence'; Raines, Fellows of Manch. (Chet. Soc.), 322–7.
29 Adam de Tetlow in 1302 paid 12d. to the aid for the fortieth part of a fee in Tetlow; Lancs. Inq. and Extents, i, 314. In 1324 Adam de Tetlow held 10 acres in Broughton, formerly held by Jordan de Crompton, by homage and the service of the sixteenth part of a knight's fee; Dods. MSS. cxxxi, fol. 37b. It thus appears that in Broughton as well as in Crompton Adam succeeded to the inheritance of others. In 1346 Robert de Tetlow was tenant, paying a rent of 6s. 8d.; Add. MS. 32103, fol. 146b.
30 See the account of Agecroft in Pendlebury. Several Tetlow families are met with in the Manchester and Rochdale district.
In 1346–55 Richard de Langley and Joan his wife held the fortieth part of a knight's fee in Crompton and Broughton, formerly held by Adam de Tetlow of the Earl of Ferrers; Feud. Aids, iii, 91. In 1358 Richard son of Richard de Tetlow laid claim to it, alleging that Joan wife of Richard de Langley was a bastard. It was, however, decided that Joan was the lawful daughter of Jordan de Tetlow and Alice his wife, which Jordan (brother of Richard de Tetlow, father of the claimant) had held Tetlow. The mother of Jordan was named Anabil; she survived her son; Assize R. 438, m. 4 d.
The Langleys seem to have granted it to the Strangeways family, who held it by knight's service and the rent of 6s. 8d.; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Chet. Soc.), i, 24, 50. Afterwards it reverted to the Langleys, and is named in their inquisitions, though the tenure is variously described; e.g. ibid. ii, 145, where the estate is described as eight messuages, 40 acres of land, 4 acres of meadow, and 10 acres of pasture in Tetlow in the vill of Broughton, held of the king as duke by the fortieth part of a knight's fee, and worth 4 marks yearly. In the time of Henry VIII the lands in Tetlow and Cheetham were said to be held in socage by a rent of 1d., but in 1562 the tenure was again described as the fortieth part of a knight's fee; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. vi, 7; xi, 16.
Margaret wife of Roger Langley in 1445–6 held the sixteenth part of a fee in Tetlow, the relief for which was 6s. 3d.; Duchy of Lanc. Knights' Fees, 2/20.
31 It is named in fines relating to the share of John Reddish and his wife in 1567; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 28, m. 279; 29, m. 126. Also in the inquisition after the death of Sarah Coke, taken in 1630; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvi, 53. It is included in fines relating to the Cokes' estate in 1667 and 1685; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 179, m. 92; 217, m. 20.
32 Lancs. Pipe R. 326. The grant of the 'hermitage of Kersal' was confirmed by Henry II about thirty years later; ibid. 327.
The 'wood (boscus) of Kersal' was included in the grant of Broughton to Iorwerth de Hulton as above described.
Some notes on the priory are given in Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. i, 39.
33 a V.C.H. Lancs. ii, 113.
34 Pat. 32 Hen. VIII, pt. 8; the price mentioned is £155 6s. 8d.
A settlement was in 1543 made by Baldwin Willoughby and Joan his wife of the manor and cell called Kersal, with twenty messuages, a water-mill, 1,000 acres of land, &c., and 20s. rent; the remainder was to Ralph Sacheverell and Philippa his wife, and the heirs of Philippa; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 12, m. 103. From a later fine it appears that Philippa was Baldwin's daughter and heir. Another fine was made in 1548; ibid. bdle. 13, m. 166. In the following September Ralph Kenyon purchased the whole; ibid. bdle. 13, m. 152.
35 As soon as Kenyon had purchased Kersal he transferred one-third to James Chetham of Crumpsall and another third to Richard Siddall of Withington; indenture of 10 Sept. 1548, among the Chetham Papers. Each paid Kenyon £132. From this deed it appears that parts of the land had been sold to Richard Radcliffe of Langley and Robert Ravald of Kersal.
36 The king in November 1548 granted to Sir John Byron the custody of a third part of the third part of the manor of Kersal, 6 acres in Manchester, and 14s. 4d. rent in Ashton, the estate of Ralph Kenyon deceased, whose son and heir George was a minor; George's wardship and marriage were included; Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. xxiii, 60 d. A settlement of messuages and lands in Kersal with a third part of the mill, and 4s. 9d. rent in Oakenshaw, was made by George Kenyon in 1581; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 53, m. 151. George Kenyon and Robert Ravald were in 1582 charged by Ralph Byrom and Adam Pilkington with depriving the queen's tenants of Salford of their common pasture in Kersal Wood, stated to be 100 acres; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 270, m. 12, 12 d.
George Kenyon died in 1613 holding a third part of the manor or cell of Kersal, a third of the mill and wood, and various messuages and lands; George his son and heir was thirty years of age; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 234. A settlement had been made in 1590 by the father in favour of George the son and Ellen his wife, daughter of Richard Whitworth, with remainders to Ralph younger son of George; to Hugh brother of George the elder, and his son Ralph; Earwaker MSS. The Smethurst fields and Bradshaw meadow are named.
In 1623 George Kenyon sold the middle Michael meadow and a lane from Madgewell to the Moorgate to William Lever of Kersal; ibid. In 1624 he made a settlement on the marriage of George his son and heir apparent with Katherine daughter of John Trevett of Middlewich, mercer; ibid. Of these Georges the elder died between 1659 and 1664; the younger in the latter year made a conveyance of his capital messuage and lands, &c., in Kersal and Audenshaw to Leonard Egerton of Shaw and John Ashton of Shepley; Thomas Kenyon, his son, joined in the conveyance; ibid. Thomas Kenyon of Kersal had in 1692 a lease of a cottage there for the lives of himself, Jane his wife, and Anne his daughter, Edward Byrom being the grantor; ibid. The lease was surrendered in 1709.
37 Richard Siddall died in 1558, leaving a son and heir Edward, who purchased Slade Hall in Rusholme, where a fuller account of the family will be found; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 42. Edward Siddall died in 1588 holding a third part of Kersal Manor and wood, with various lands and houses there, his son George being the heir; it was held of the queen by the twelfth part of a knight's fee; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, 32.
38 Booker, Birch Chapel (Chet. Soc.), 132; the details given show that the mill was then occupied by Richard Holland. George Siddall had in 1613 sold part of his land to George Kenyon; ibid. From one of the Clowes deeds it appears that in 1618 James Chetham and George Kenyon leased their part of Kersal mill to Richard Holland of Denton; a new mill was to be built. William Lever of Darcy Lever in 1616–17 granted a close lately owned by George Siddall to James Chetham.
39 The family recorded a pedigree in 1664; Dugdale, Visit. 185, 186. Another pedigree in the Piccope MS. Pedigrees (Chet. Lib.), i, 351, states that William Lever, who married a daughter of George Kenyon of Kersal, died in 1646, and was succeeded by a son William, who died in 1661, leaving as his heir his son Rawsthorne Lever. Rawsthorne married Alice, daughter of Edward Chetham of Smedley, but died without issue 18 Oct. 1689; by his will he gave all his messuages, lands, &c. in Kersal to trustees, until Henry son of Thomas Greenhalgh of Brandlesholme should pay £300, on which Henry was to have the estate. The money was paid in Dec. 1689; Piccope's notes and Manch. Free Lib. D. no. 52.
40 In 1697 James Chetham of Turton, Henry Greenhalgh of Brandlesholme, and Edward Byrom of Manchester 'seised as tenants in common' of the land called Kersal Wood 'and now or late called Kersal Moor,' about 100 acres in extent, made an agreement preparatory to a division; Earwaker MSS. In 1702 Samuel Chetham of Turton and Henry Greenhalgh leased their parts of the mill for 99 years to Edward Byrom of Manchester, linen-draper; the parties had lately made a brick-kiln; ibid.
In 1704 land called Dauntesey's Warth was sold by Christopher Dauntesey and others to Henry Greenhalgh; Piccope's notes. Another piece of this land, called Gooden's Warth, was in 1703 sold by Thomas Gooden of Little Bolton (in Eccles) to Otho Holland of Pendleton; Manch. Free Lib. D. no. 53. The fields took their name from a ford across the Irwell to Whit Lane in Pendleton.
The Dauntesey interest in Kersal, indicated by the last paragraph, arose from a 21-years' lease in 1539 from Henry VIII to John Wood, one of his 'Oistringers,' of the site of Kersal cell and its lands, including Redstone pasture, Danerode meadow, with sufficient housebote, firebote, &c. to be taken from the king's woods adjacent; a rent of £11 6s. 8d. was to be paid; Agecroft D. no. 109. The lease was at once transferred to Robert Langley of Agecroft; ibid. no. 110. Disputes arose between the lessee and the owners in 1560— James Chetham, Edward Siddall, and George Kenyon—which were submitted to arbitration; ibid. no. 126.
41 The Greenhalgh estate in Kersal appears to have come into the hands of the Hopwoods of Hopwood by a foreclosure, and was in 1775 sold as the 'lands, messuages, and tenements late belonging to Anne Greenhalgh' to Joseph Matthews, who at once sold them to Samuel and John Clowes for £4,260, as 'one undivided third part of the manor or lordship of Kersal, and the whole of the capital messuage called Kersal Hall, with the appurtenances belonging,' with third parts of the moor and mill. Samuel Clowes at the same time conveyed a moiety of an undivided third part of the manor to Elizabeth widow of John Byrom, M.A.; Piccope's notes.
42 See the accounts of Crumpsall and Turton for this family. James Chetham died in 1571, holding a messuage in Kersal, a third part of the water-mill, and various other lands, &c.; also of the third part of a rent of 14s. 4d. from Ashton under Lyne; and six messuages or burgages in Manchester. A settlement made in 1567 of Kersal Hall, &c., is recited in the inquisition, which states that Kersal and the rent from Ashton were held of the queen by the third part of the fourth part of a knight's fee and a rent of 13s. yearly. Henry the son and heir was twenty-eight years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiii, 19. For Henry Chetham's inquisition, showing the same estate, see Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 2. He was succeeded by his son James, who from 1613 to 1619 made further purchases in Kersal; Clowes D.
43 This was agreed upon by the partition of 1772 between the sisters and coheirs of Edward Chetham of Nuthurst; Mary the wife of Samuel Clowes received the third part of Kersal, together with Broughton; Axon, Chetham Gen. (Chet. Soc.), 63. To this was added a moiety of the third part purchased in 1775, as above stated, so that a moiety of Kersal descended like Broughton.
44 No record of the transfer has been seen, but Edward Byrom, who died in 1668, was the earliest described as 'of Kersal.'
For this family see the Byrom Pedigrees, with notes by Canon Raines (Chet. Soc. xliv). The earliest known member of it is Alice widow of Ralph Byrom, whose will (1524) mentions her sons Adam, Robert (a priest), Ralph and Thomas; Piccope, Wills, ii, 180. Adam Byrom of Salford died 25 July 1558, holding twelve burgages, &c., in Salford, houses and lands in Little Lever, Bolton le Moors, Manchester, and Ardwick; the tenements in Salford were held of the queen as of her duchy in free burgage by a rent of 21s. 3d. and the burgage in Manchester of the executors of Lord La Warre. The heir was his grandson Ralph, son and heir of George son of Adam, then three years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, 65. Adam's will is printed in Piccope, Wills (Chet. Soc.), i, 44; it mentions his three sons, George, Henry, and Adam. George Byrom was living in 1554, when he purchased a house in Manchester from Adam Holland; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 9. He died very soon after his father, before Mar. 1559; ibid. i, 43. The inventory of his goods is preserved at Chester. Margaret Byrom, daughter of George, was a victim of witchcraft; Byrom Ped. 23.
Ralph Byrom, the heir, came of age in 1577; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. i, 183, 187. He died in 1598, holding much the same estate as his grandfather, and leaving a son and heir Ralph, twenty years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, 71; see also Wills (Chet. Soc. new ser.), i, 206. Ralph died at Salford the year after his father, without issue; his brother Adam, fourteen years of age, was the heir; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, 39.
There are numerous references to Adam Byrom in the Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. (see ii, 141, 152), from which it appears that he came of age in 1608 (ii, 234). He recorded a pedigree in 1613, showing that he married a daughter of Edmund Prestwich of Hulme, and had then four children—Adam, Ralph, Ellen, and Margaret; Visit. of 1613 (Chet. Soc.), 35. In 1619 he sold a messuage in Hanging Ditch, Manchester; Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 11; and in 1641 conveyed all his lands in Manchester to his son Adam; ibid. iii, 333. The younger Adam died about this time, and the father in 1644 at Chester; a younger son, John, an active Royalist, succeeding. His estates were sequestered in 1646, but he compounded in 1651, paying a fine of £201; in 1661 he was described as 'that worthy and valiant gentleman Major John Byrom, whose fidelity hath been sufficiently testified by his great sufferings in his Majesty's service'; Ct. Leet Rec. iv, 282 and note; Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 267. He recorded a pedigree in 1664, having then by his wife Mary Radcliffe of Foxdenton a son Adam, nine years of age; Dugdale, Visit. 68. John Byrom died in 1678 and his son in 1684, when the heirs at law were John's sister Penelope Hey, and his nieces Margaret Ainsworth and Elizabeth Jenkinson; Byrom Ped. 26, 27. The estate was purchased in 1703 by Edward Byrom of Kersal; ibid. 39.
The Kersal family decended from Henry younger son of Adam Byrom of Salford (1558) already mentioned; Henry's will, dated and proved in 1558, is printed in Piccope, Wills, ii, 113; his brother Adam and sons Robert and Lawrence are named in it. The son Lawrence (wrongly called son of Adam) heads the visitation pedigree; see Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Notes, ii, 140, and Byrom Ped. 30, 31. Robert Byrom of Salford held burgages there of the queen by a rent of 5s. 5d. a year; he died in 1586, leaving his brother Lawrence as heir; ibid. xiv, 45.
Edward the son of Lawrence comes into note about 1620, and in 1626 purchased lands in Hanging Ditch; Manch. Ct. Leet Rec. iii, 112. He adhered to the Parliament's side in the Civil War; Byrom Ped. 32; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc.), 233. One of his sons, John, was accidentally killed in 1642 while serving with the Parliamentary forces, and the eldest son, William, was active on the same side, being a member of the Manchester classis; Byrom Ped. 33; Ct. Leet Rec. iv, 14, 282. William married Rebecca daughter of Captain John Beswick, and left issue; he recorded a pedigree in 1664; Dugdale, Visit. 67. For his will see Byrom Ped. 34.
It was his younger brother Edward who acquired Kersal; his will is given in Byrom Ped. 37. For his widow see ibid. 37, 38; by her second marriage she was an ancestor of the Clowes family. He is frequently mentioned in the Ct. Leet Rec. and dying in 1688 left two sons, Edward of Kersal, who purchased the estate of the Byroms of Salford, and Joseph, who acquired that of the Byroms of Byrom. Edward's son was the John Byrom noticed in the text; he married his cousin, Elizabeth daughter of Joseph Byrom, and their son Edward by the will of his uncle Edward (son and heir of Joseph) received Byrom Hall. Edward Byrom the younger was a banker in Manchester, residing in Quay Street, and built and endowed St. John's Church there. Ann, his daughter, married Henry Atherton, and their daughters and coheirs were Eleanora, unmarried, and Lucy wife of Richard Willis of Halsnead, who had no issue. Miss Atherton founded and endowed Holy Trinity Church, Hulme, founded an almshouse at Prescot in memory of her sister Mrs. Willis, and in other ways showed herself pious and munificent. She was also a liberal patron of the Chetham Society.
45 His Diary and other Remains have been published by the Chet. Soc. There is a life in Dict. Nat. Biog.
46 The Ravald family can be traced back in Manchester to the middle of the 15th century. In 1473 William Ravald was tenant of a parcel of land near Irk Bridge at a rent of 4d.; Mamecestre, iii, 491. This or an adjacent parcel was granted to him by Thomas West, lord of Manchester, by charter in 1474; Lancs. and Ches. Antiq. Soc. iii, 109 (from an abstract of title of Sir Watts Horton and others, 1792). William son and heir of John Ravald in 1530 agreed with his brother Robert concerning a burgage in Manchester and a piece of land called the Cockpit at the south end of Irk Bridge; ibid.
In 1548, before the sale of Kersal Manor, William Ravald purchased a messuage, 22 a. of land, &c., in Kersal from Baldwin Willoughby, Joan his wife, Ralph Sacheverell and Philippa his wife (daughter and heir apparent of Baldwin); Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 158. He died in April 1560, holding the messuage &c. in Kersal of the queen by knight's service; also three burgages &c. and a house called a Cockpit place in Manchester, of Lord La Warre by a rent of 22d. His son and heir William was nineteen years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xi, 53; Court Leet Rec. i, 52; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxix, App. 558. A settlement of the estate in Kersal and Manchester was made by William Ravald in 1566; the remainders were to his wife Katherine for life, to his issue, to his sister Elizabeth wife of Edward Siddall, and to Robert Ravald of Kersal; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 28, m. 236.
William Ravald of Kersal died in 1587, holding lands in Kersal and Manchester and leaving a son and heir William, eight years old; the Kersal lands were held by the hundredth part of a knight's fee; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xiv, no. 23; Court Leet Rec. ii, 8. The son came of age in 1600; ibid. ii, 155. He died in 1623, holding the same estate and leaving a son William, aged sixteen; ibid. iii, 77; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 409. This son about 1635 sold part of his property in Manchester, and more in 1660; Court Leet Rec. iii, 223, 228; iv, 260.
Robert Ravald of Kersal, mentioned in the remainders of 1566, died in 1578, leaving a son and heir Robert, aged fifteen; he held a messuage and land in Kersal of the queen by knight's service; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xii, no. 15. His will is printed in Piccope, Wills, iii, 43– 45. Robert Ravald died in June 1629 holding messuages and land in Kersal by the 200th part of a knight's fee; Margaret his wife survived him at Kersal; Robert his son and heir was twenty years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxvii, 41.
The Protestators of Kersal, 28 Feb. 1641–2, included William Ravald, William Ravald (son), Richard Ravald, Robert Ravald, William Ravald (Pal. Note Bk. iv, 125); and Mr. J. E. Bailey notes that the first-named William was baptized in 1607, married in 1632 Elizabeth Bale, and in 1633 (on the occasion of the birth of his son George) and subsequently was styled 'gentleman.' Richard his son was buried 1 Feb. 1641–2, being described as a yeoman of Broughton. Another branch of the family lived in an adjoining farm and comprised Robert Ravald senior, his son Robert whose wife was Alice, and a servant; ibid. iv, 124.
In 1642 the will of Richard Ravald of Broughton, yeoman, was proved at Chester; and in 1725 the will of Robert Ravald of Kersal, yeoman, was proved for effects under £40.
The Broughton manor court records, which are only extant from 1707, show that Robert Ravald was then a tenant; Samuel Ravald was a juror in April 1711, when he and 'Mr. Oswald Ravald' were returned as 'teneants newly found.'
The surname long continued known in Manchester and the neighbourhood. The will of Robert Ravald, linen-draper, 1718, mentions his wife Mary, his sons John, Thomas, and Robert, his brother Oswald, and others.
Elizabeth wife of John 'Raffald' of the Exchange Coffee House published the first Manch. Dir. in 1772; she also wrote a book of cookery, The Experienced Engl. Housekeeper, which went through many editions. She died in 1781. See Dict. Nat. Biog.; Harland, Manch. Coll. i, 119; ii, 144–73; Pal. Note Bk. i, 141. John Raffald is said to have been a Cheshire man, and not related to the Manchester Ravalds.
47 Clowes deeds.
48 In 1322 Matthew de Abram and Joan his wife obtained a messuage and lands in Broughton from Thomas son of Roger del Green; Final Conc. ii, 46. John son of Richard de Radcliffe complained in 1332 that Adam and Richard sons of Henry de Broughton and their wives had carried off his goods and chattels at Broughton; De Banco R. 291, m. 235.
In 1396 Hawise de Castlehill owned lands in the centre of Broughton called the Knolles and Kyperfield, which along with Ouse Croft were described as 'in Manchester' and were by her granted to Robert Collayne, chaplain, who thereupon conveyed to Sir Richard de Holand, for life. One of the witnesses was Henry de Strangeways; Harl. MS. 2112, fol. 146d.; Mamecestre, 422 m. 465.
John Bradshaw in 1595 purchased a messuage &c. in Broughton from John Oldham and Anne his wife; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 57, m. 57; see Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), iii, 309.
The Bent family had an estate at Kersal; a valuation of it exists in the Clowes deeds. In Manchester Cathedral is a monumental inscription of Edward Bent of Kersal, who died in 1719.
49 a Dugdale, Visit. 2.
50 Returns at Preston.
51 Pal. Note Bk. iv, 123.
52 A district was assigned in 1840, and reformed in 1854; Lond. Gaz. 15 June 1854.
53 For district see ibid. Edwin Waugh is buried in the churchyard.
54 Ibid. 7 June 1870.
55 Ibid. 22 Aug. 1879.
56 Ibid. 29 July 1881.
57 That in Lower Broughton was built in 1869.
58 Nightingale, Lancs. Nonconf. v, 195.
59 A church in Waterloo Road, Strangeways, had been opened in 1849.