Winchester
The hospital of St Cross

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Victoria County History

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William Page (editor)

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1912

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59-69

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'Winchester: The hospital of St Cross', A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume 5 (1912), pp. 59-69. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=42051 Date accessed: 16 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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HOSPITAL OF ST. CROSS

The hospital of St. Cross was founded in 1136 by Henry of Blois, and consisted of a church with hospital buildings on the south side. Nothing remains of this building but the south sacristy of the present church.


Hospital of St. Cross. Argent a cross potent between four crosses formy gules.

The church of St. Cross consists of a quire, north and south chapels, north and south transepts, central tower, nave, north and south aisles and north porch with a parvise over. (fn. 1) The vestry on the south side of the south transept originally formed part of the west range of the hospital cloisters.

Of the present church the quire, the north and south chapels, the piers and arches of the central tower, the south transept, the lower portion of the north transept, the east bay of the nave, the two east bays of the north aisle and the eastern bay of the south aisle appear to have been built progressively within about thirty years from c. 1160. The north transept was completed and vaulted after a few years' interval. In the middle of the 13th century the tower, nave arcades and aisles were completed and the north porch was built. The clearstory and triforium of the two west bays and both clearstory windows of the eastern bay, together with the west window, date from 1334–5; the vault to the springers is of the same date, but was probably not completed till well into the 15th century. The upper stages of the tower were largely remodelled in the end of the 14th and beginning of the 15th century, and at the same time the columns of the quire arcade were altered and the roofs of the chapels were lowered, entailing the glazing of the triforium. With the exception of Butterfield's restoration, no change has taken place since the 15th century.


Winchester: St. Cross: East End of Church

The quire is vaulted in two bays, of which the easternmost is divided centrally in its eastern compartment by a rib supported on a shaft descending to the triforium string and there corbelled off. At the eastern and western angles of the quire are detached shafts of Purbeck marble, but the intermediate supports are of stone. The north and south arcades are of transitional pointed arches and have a triforium and clearstory above, continued across the east wall, which has two round-headed windows in the lowest stage with continuous internal cheveron mouldings, which were uncovered at the restoration of the church. The triforium gallery has an interlaced segmental arcade with cheveron ornament, with variously clustered or moulded shafts and foliated capitals, inclosing four lights. The clearstory has two round-headed lights of similar design, their heads rising into the eastern cells of the vault. The jambs are pierced by a passage, which is continued round the whole church except the north transept and west wall of the nave; at the latter point it descends by a stair on the north to the sill of the west window, but does not re-ascend to the south clearstory. The triforium originally opened into the north chapel roof, but now opens on to the leads. Except that there are four bays in each main bay of the triforium and no gallery, the upper stages of the sides of the quire are the same as those of the east wall. The arcade is supported on a central pier and square responds, with nook shafts of Purbeck marble on the quire side carrying the outer, and a corbelled keel shaft with foliated capital the inner order. The arches are four-centred, not stilted as they appear at first sight. The central pier was made octagonal in the 14th century, but was altered by Butterfield to match the responds. Under the eastern arches of the arcade are elaborate stone screens of the 15th century, said to have been brought from the church of St. Faith, which was destroyed in 1509. That on the north side has canopied niches, while that on the south has open arcades with gables. Against the eastern end of the latter is a panelled credence table of stone with an eagle with a scroll on its west face. The screens in the western arches are plain, each with two-centred doorways at their western end, and are probably of the 13th century.

The quire walls were coloured when the church was restored.

The north chapel has an east window and two north windows, all round-headed with a deep splay and rich continuous cheveron moulding. The sills, like those of all the 12th-century windows in the ground stage, are stepped. The string course below the east window sill, which has been cut away at either side, is of the same section and at the same level as that beneath the lower windows of the quire, and runs uninterruptedly round the north half of the church. At the west end of the chapel is a built-up doorway with joggled voussoirs forming a flat arch under the sill-string. Externally the head is twocentred, and has a cheveron-moulded outer order on shafted jambs with acanthus capitals. The chapel is vaulted in two quadripartite bays, divided by a plain two-centred transverse arch springing from the centre pier of the quire arcade, and from a keel roll shaft corbelled off below the string on the face of a respond, with nook shafts to carry the diagonals. At all four angles of the chapel the ribs descend to shafts springing from the pavement. The ribs have a roll between two cheverons. The shell of the vault is modified very considerably to clear the east window. An acutely-pointed arch, slightly stilted, opens to the north transept. At the east end of the north wall of the chapel a wide 15th-century niche is sunk, with a semi-octagonal bracket. In the south-east angle is an octagonal piscina shaft on a moulded base with leaf-spurs at the angles. At the three exposed angles are grotesques, and the west face is bridged by a small trefoiled arch to meet the north side of the parclose screen. Above, on the nook shaft of the respond, is a double image-bracket. Both are of early 15th-century date.

The south chapel corresponds to the north chapel, except for a greater enrichment of the vaulting ribs. The south windows, however, are blocked in the lower part, owing to the cloisters having been built against them. The blocking, being stepped like the sill, is not very noticeable. At the south-east is an early 13th-century double piscina, with trefoiled heads and an octagonal central shaft.

The four crossing arches are twocentred and of three orders; the nook shafts of the piers merely fill up the angle formed by the outer and middle orders, which are continuous. The inner order of the chancel arch is carried by triple clustered shafts with foliated capitals, tapered back a little below the triforium string, which is carried round the whole of the piers and shafts.

The north and south arches are similarly treated next to the quire, but next to the nave the inner order descends to a single keel-moulded shaft corbelled back above the triforium string as on both sides of the western arch. In the internal angles of the crossing are shafts of the same height as the piers, as if the original intention had been to vault the central space. The second stage consists of a tall arcade of four bays on each face, the corner bays containing windows and the central bays doors leading to the roofs. The jambs and angles are pierced by a passage stopped at each centre by a solid jamb between each pair of doors. The windows are known to have been made in 1383–5 by John de Campeden, who probably made the whole arcade and the stage above. Large octagonal corbels with sculptured heads support the floor of the bell-chamber above, which has a double wall, the outer having an arcade of five two-centred arches on each side, all now blocked except the central one on each side, which contains two uncusped lights with a pierced spandrel. Opposite this window in each face of the inner wall is a small single cinquefoiled light rebated for glass. The passage between the walls is roofed by stone slabs on plain corbels. The vice is at the south-east angle and is entered from the gallery above the crossing arches. The two upper stages of the tower rise above the parapet of the church and the angles are chamfered and rise from squinches on the east side. The tower has a plain parapet.


Plan of the Church of St. Cross

The north transept up to the level of the triforium gallery appears to be nearly contemporary with the quire. In the north wall are two round-headed windows, the northernmost being elaborately enriched, the outer order with the cheveron and a most naturalistically treated bird ornament, the inner with the lozenge. Between the windows is a mutilated 15th-century niche. The wall above the triforium gallery appears to be about twenty years later, and there is no division between clearstory and triforium and consequently no clearstory gallery, the upper row of windows being placed at an intermediate level. These windows, one in the north and two in both the east and west walls, are plain wide lancets, their jambs pierced by the triforium gallery and the sills of the lights. At the south end of the east wall is a doorway some distance above this level, and standing opposite an external doorway opening to the leads of the north chapel, and a similar arrangement prevails in the west wall opposite. There was once, probably, a loft running across the transept from one door to the other. In the lower part of the north wall are two semicircular-headed windows of two enriched orders. The infirmary of the hospital abuts on the eastern window, and below it, a little to the east again, is a four-centred doorway with a flat rear-arch of early 15th-century date opening into the cloister beneath the infirmary. There is only one window on the ground stage of the west wall, which is in the north bay and has shafted internal and external jambs to the outer orders and a cheveronmoulded head inside. The arch from the transept to the north aisle is like that opening to the north chapel. The vaulting is in two quadripartite bays, with a twocentred cheveron-moulded transverse rib. It is of a more advanced type than that of the quire with its chapels. Except at the south end, where the diagonals spring from the nook shafts of the tower piers, the ribs are supported by circular shafts carried by head corbels.

The south transept, though a little later in date than the quire, is of a regular transition character. The triforium and clearstory galleries divide the walls into three stages. Adjoining the arch to the south chapel is a two-centred drop-arch with a key moulding, apparently forming the rear-arch of the doorway in the angle of the chapel and transept walls, described later. The southern limb of the arch is stopped against a slight forward break in the wall which rises to the vaulting shaft. The label is formed by a continuation of the quire sill-string, which on leaving the arch is continued at a higher level as the transept sill-string. The arch is now filled up and occupied by four aumbries. Above it is a blocked round-headed window of the ground stage. South of this below the sill-string is an altar recess with a two-centred drop head and shafted jamb richly ornamented. In either jamb of the recess is a blocked niche about 18 in. square and above each a broken piece of iron, which is probably part of a fitting for altar hangings. Above is a blocked round-headed window with shafted jambs. At the east end of the south wall is a round-headed doorway leading to the vestry. Near the centre of the wall is a recess with a two-centred drop head and shafted jambs. At the south end of the west wall is a dropped two-centred doorway to a vice rising to the triforium, clearstory and roof. This vice also forms the only means of access to the first stage of the tower and the bell-chamber, by way of the transept vault. The arch to the south aisle is like that to the south chapel; the two windows of the ground stage are round-headed with the outer order on shafted internal jambs. The triforium gallery runs round the transept. At the north-east are two openings with two-centred cheveron-moulded heads and shafted jambs, the first with a parapet in the lower part and lighting the foot of a vice originally leading to the first stage of the tower, but now broken at the clearstory level; the second, blocked from the first by a solid jamb and without a parapet, stands opposite a door to the leads of the south chapel. In the west wall is a similar door to the aisle leads. There are two triforium openings in the south wall with twocentred heads. The five round-headed clearstory windows, two each in the east and west walls and one in the south, have a continuous passage through their jambs.

The vault is of two quadripartite bays. The transverse and diagonals at the centre spring from clustered shafts corbelled off below the clearstory string, which runs round them. The bell-caps of the shafts are fluted and the abaci square. The corbelled shafts at the south are single, with similar detail. The vault springs at the north end from the crossing piers. The ribs have a triple-roll moulding.

The vestry is all that remains of Blois' original building. It is a vaulted room, with a second narrow chamber to the south of it. The former was originally square, but was curtailed by the later transept wall, against which the ribs of the vault stop before reaching the angles. On the vestry side of the transept wall are two aumbries. The east wall has no openings, but a blocked round-headed doorway, probably an approach to the cloister, is visible externally. The west wall has a small round-headed window splayed internally. The vaulting ribs are moulded, and rest at the south on small shafts with scalloped capitals. The smaller chamber, originally part of buildings extending to the south and west, was formed in the 15th century by their demolition and the insertion of the present wall and doorway on the south. The junction of the earlier and later masonry is plainly visible on the south and west. The small west window of this room is of the same late date. Thus these two rooms formed the north-west extremity of the cloister, which originally lay alongside the south chapel. The original roof level is indicated by the lower of the two weatherings above the present roof. The uppermost, which cuts across the triforium windows, probably indicates John de Campeden's work in the 14th century, and the present roof line dates from Cardinal Beaufort's rebuilding of the hospital.

The nave is of three bays with arcades nearly similar in detail. The east bay is of the same date as the tower and transept, and the eastern responds repeat the type used in the quire arcade. The arches of this bay are two-centred and nearly plain. The inner orders are carried by corbelled keel shafts. The arches have labels on the nave sides. The piers are massive and circular with scalloped capitals and abaci carved with water-leaves, encircled by a small fillet. The 'Attic' bases stand on double plinths, and the northern base has large leaf-spurs, but the southern plinth is cut away at the angles. The lower portion of the two west bays is of c. 1240, with arches and piers like those of the east bay, but with fullydeveloped 13th-century arch-mouldings and moulded bell-capitals. The bases carry out the same plan of harmonizing the new with the old work, being of Attic type with leaf-spurs, here, however, carved in characteristic 13th-century style. In the same way the west responds, though similar to the east responds, have 13th-century foliated corbels to the shafts of the inner order, the sill-string being carried round the nook shafts. All have bell-capitals. The junction of the old and new work is shown by the change in section of the triforium string above the east piers of the arcades, masked by foliated bosses. The east bay of the triforium is blank. In the two western bays are 14th-century arched openings with shafted jambs and stopped labels.

The clearstory gallery runs through the jambs of six pointed and traceried 14th-century windows of two lights, one in each bay. These windows were made by William of Edington between 1334 and 1345. The tracery is of late geometrical type, and the reararches spring from shafts. The lower portion of the west wall is contemporary with the western bays of the nave. The west doorway consists of two trefoiled openings with a glazed quatrefoil over, inclosed in a two-centred arch, which externally has a stopped label, and a good moulding with dog-tooth enrichment in the inner sides supported on double jamb shafts. Over the openings are labels following their outline with a head-stop at the junction. The rear-arch has a dropped two-centred head. The 14th-century west window is of five trefoiled lights with fine geometrical tracery in a two-centred head. The centre light is slightly wider than the rest. The main mullions have shafts internally with foliated capitals. The ribbed rear-arch springs from similar shafts, and the jambs are pierced at the sill level by a passage approached from the north aisle and the north clearstory by a vice.


Winchester: St. Cross: the Church from the North-West

The nave is vaulted in three bays. The vaulting shafts at the eastern angles spring from the nook shafts of the crossing piers. The western vaulting shafts are a few inches east of the angles, and are semicircular, the sill-strings of the west window and triforium running round them. The intermediate vaulting shafts are carried on carved corbels below the clearstory level, which have foliated moulded capitals. The ribs are moulded and have bosses carved with the arms of Cardinal Beaufort and William of Wykeham and a shield of the Passion. The vaulting shafts and springers are contemporary with the clearstory windows, but the arms of Beaufort indicate that the vault was not completed till the 15th century. The two east bays of the north aisle are contemporary with the tower and transepts, while the west bay is of the same date as the nave arcades. The transept sill-string is carried along the first bay, but changes in the next to a half-round and again in the third to a fully developed 13th-century type; at this point it is not carried across the respond of the transverse. In the first two bays are round-headed windows with shafted jambs inside and out.

The north doorway is two-centred and externally has shafted jambs and mutilated dog-tooth enrichment in the inner order. Internally the jambs and drop two-centred rear-arch are simply moulded. The sill-string is carried over the arch to form a label. To the west of the doorway is a window with a twocentred head and a ribbed rear-arch and internal and external jamb shafts, the jambs being pierced by a passage leading eastward to the parvise and westwards round the west wall of the aisle, where a small stair gives access to it, entered by a small two-centred doorway at the north end of the west wall. Above this doorway is a window like that just described, through whose jambs the passage runs to a vice at the north-west angle of the nave leading to the triforium and clearstory gallery and referred to in describing the west window of the nave. Below the window in the east bay of the north wall is an elaborate late 13th-century tomb recess with cinquefoiled twocentred drop head and shafted jambs. The faces of the large cusps are panelled with trefoils and the jamb shafts are of Purbeck marble. The arch is elaborately moulded, and the crocketed and finialled label is stopped by panelled and gabled pilaster buttresses. Between these flanking buttresses the sill-string is replaced by a string carved with naturalistic foliage. The original tomb-slab and inscription have disappeared. The present stone is inscribed in Roman characters: 'Petrus de Sancta Maria 1295.' The aisle is vaulted in three compartments, the transverses springing on the north from responds with nook shafts for the diagonals and on the south from the nave piers. At the ends of the aisle the diagonals spring from shafts. The eastern bay, with the plain eastern transverse arch, belongs to the earlier date. The ribs are moulded with a roll between two cheverons, and the transverse arch is carried by a short corbelled shaft on the face of the respond. The shafts of this bay have foliated capitals. The transverse arches of the two western bays spring from the same plane as the diagonals and are moulded with a hollow chamfer. The diagonals have bosses at their intersections. The shafts have moulded capitals and bases of a developed Gothic type.

The south aisle corresponds in date and arrangement with the north aisle, though the middle bay is slightly later than the corresponding bay of the north aisle. The sill-string of the transept, however, is carried to the west end of the second bay before changing to a fully developed Gothic section. In the first bay it drops somewhat towards the south. There is a window in each bay—that in the first being round-headed with internal shafted jambs; in the second bay is a window with a round head, but with shafts and mouldings of a 13th-century character. Externally it is of two orders, the outer shafted. The window in the west bay and that in the west wall are like the corresponding windows on the north, but there is no wall passage on this side. The west bay is contemporary with the two west bays of the nave arcade. The south doorway is two-centred, and has external jamb shafts to the outer orders, but no external label. The rear-arch is two-centred and segmental, and the sill-string is carried over it to form a label. Below the sill-string of the west window is a four-centred 15th-century doorway, now built up. The vaulting is similar to that of the north aisle, but the eastern transverse of the last bay is more elaborately moulded.

The north porch is of mid-13th-century date and is vaulted in one quadripartite bay. The outer doorway is two-centred, with jamb shafts to the outer order. Above the vault is a parvise entered by a small twocentred doorway from the wall passage of the aisle. In the north wall over the doorway is a foliate-tracery window in a two-centred head with shafted jambs. Below the sill externally is a moulded string course. The wall is faced with ashlar to the level of a string below the sill, and above this with irregular flint and stone diapering. The roof is gabled with projecting eaves on the east and west, where the walls are faced with flint.

The quire and chapels, transepts and nave have high-pitched leaded timber roofs. The north porch and vestry roofs are tiled. The lean-to roofs of the nave aisles are high-pitched and slated.

Externally the general fabric of the church is of flint rubble with occasional ashlar, and the eastern portion, including the transept, has pilaster buttresses of normal type. The east wall is divided by a broad ashlar buttress rising to the apex of the gable. Below the string at the base of the gable a second buttress of three offsets is applied to its face. Similar but wider buttresses form the angles and are continued upwards into turrets of two stages, the lower arcaded with three round arches on each face and the upper similarly divided by annuleted shafts with capitals supporting a projecting cornice. Pyramidal stone spires must originally have completed the design. In the gable are two circular openings, one on each side of the central buttress. The walls of both chapels are carried up to form a parapet with a plain coping, which is returned along their side walls. The present slope of the roof dates from the alterations of John de Campeden in 1383–5.

A string course below the clearstory windows marks the position of the apex of the original chapel roofs. The heads of the clearstory windows on the north side are enriched with the cheveron. At the east end of the north wall is the doorway opening from the east triforium gallery on to the roof of the chapel. The walls are crowned by a plain parapet with a string course at the gutter level, plain on the south side and billet-moulded on the north.

Over the north doorway the marks of a steeppitched roof show that here was originally a porch. A string course is carried round below the sills of the windows on the north and east of the quire and chapels, but on the south side it is raised, originally to clear the cloister roof, of which it formed the weathering.

At the angle of the south chapel with the south transept a peculiar device is resorted to in order to form an entrance from the latter to the disappeared cloister. To clear some obstruction it was found necessary to set the north jamb of the doorway back into the external face of the south chapel wall, which is splayed back some 3 ft. to the required height. The transept doorway has a two-centred head, and abutting on it at right angles just to the north of its apex is a portion of a round arch, on which the overhanging portion of the chapel wall rests. Both arches are richly moulded with the cheveron and have a common label mitred at the intersection. The jamb of the chapel arch is shafted, with a capital of Romanesque foliation.

The original slope of the chapel roof is shown by a weather-mould on the east wall of the south transept. This first roof, removed at the end of the 14th century, probably had eaves with a considerable projection, as the sloping string is carried down about 2 ft. beyond the face of the south wall.

The sill-string is carried round beneath the windows of the ground stage of the north transept. At the triforium level there is a marked difference in the masonry. In the north gable is a small lancet opening, now glazed. The walls are finished with a plain parapet and coping.

The south transept has a string course below the sills of the clearstory windows, and the weather-mould of the former cloister roof is continued round the east wall. On the west wall there is no string course below the windows of the ground stage, a basement of slight projection extending to the height of their sills, where it is chamfered back to the wall face. The south wall is built against the ancient vestry, which occupies its lower third. The marks of two previous alterations of its roof can be plainly seen upon the transept wall. Immediately above the apex of the present sacristy roof is a round-headed opening, now blocked up. In the triforium story are two segmental-headed openings, also blocked up. In the apex of the gable, above the clearstory window, is a small opening, with a round head. The vice at the south-west is lighted by small loops in the buttress. There are similar loops in the slight projection which marks the position of the north-west vice at the quire end of the east wall. The walls are finished with a plain parapet and coping, which is continued round the nave.

The vice-chambers project slightly at the west ends of the nave clearstory wall, and there is a shallow buttress upon the face of the northern one. Below the sill-string of the west window the wall is of ashlar and of flint rubble above; in the gable is a small trefoiled light. At the north and south are large buttresses of four off-sets, and the vice-chambers are continued upwards for a short distance above them, as if the original intention had been to crown them with large pinnacles or turrets. The junction between the earlier and later work is clearly visible on the exterior of the south clearstory wall.

The north aisle wall has between the two eastern windows a shallow pilaster buttress of two off-sets, and there are large buttresses of two off-sets at the western angle. West of the gable of the north porch the wall is crowned by a plain parapet and coping; elsewhere there is no parapet, the roof having projecting eaves.

The walls of the south aisle are faced with flint rubble and have buttresses between the windows of the south wall. The eastern of these is a late 12thcentury shallow pilaster buttress and the western a mid-13th-century buttress of two off-sets. At the western angle are two similar buttresses. Above the west window is a small early 14th-century roof-light with a trefoiled ogee head. At the west end of the south wall there is a plain parapet and coping, the roof of the remaining portion having projecting eaves.

The bowl of the font, of black Tournai marble, is of 12th-century date. It is square and shallow and stands on a later stone base. A fine oak screen, probably of early 16th-century date, now divides the north transept from the space beneath the crossing, but is not in its original position. In the middle of its length are marks of a junction, as if the entrance had been originally in the centre instead of, as now, at the east end. The upper part has lights with vertical tracery, while the lower half has modern stalls against the south side; the easternmost stall end, with a half-poppy-head against the screen, appears to be original. In the quire are some 15th-century poppy-head bench ends. There is a 16th-century oak screen between the south chapel and south transept, with a four-centred central opening and enriched ogee canopy. The lower part is filled with linenpattern panelling; the upper part has open lights and a cresting. In the quire and south chapel are preserved some pieces of 16th-century (apparently French Renaissance) wooden canopy-work. In the north transept are two 16th-century canopied benches, with desks and linen-pattern panelling.

There are several remains of 13th-century wall painting in the eastern part of the church. On the south wall of the south transept are traces of a large painting of the Crucifixion. In the altar recess in the east wall of the same transept are two rows of trefoiled compartments each containing a figure, and a quatrefoil in the apex of the recess. In the north chapel, below the sill of the east window, are traces of an altar-piece consisting of figures in five trefoilheaded compartments. On the side of the south-east respond of the chapel is a figure with a halo. On the chapel side of the parclose in the west arch of the quire arcade are two layers of painting, the earlier consisting of two rows of trefoil-headed compartments containing figures, and probably dating from the 13th century, and the later of masonry pattern on a thin coat of plaster. In the south chapel the corresponding parclose also shows traces of masonry pattern. The 15th-century screens in the east bays of the quire arcade still retain traces of their former brilliant colouring.

In two of the nave clearstory windows is some good 14th-century glass. In the north-west window are figures of St. Katherine and St. Swithun. The background of both figures is diapered and the borders appear to have been put together of fragments. In the upper lights of this window is some 16th-century heraldic glass. In the south-west window of the clearstory are two figures. The eastern, probably intended for the Blessed Virgin, wears a blue robe with a jewelled border and has a red halo. The figure in the west light wears a green robe and red cloak and holds a book. The borders are here also of fragments, and the backgrounds are diapered. The north-east clearstory window of the south transept contains glass of the same date and style. In a window of the north transept are fragments of glass of various dates. In the pavements of the church are many original encaustic tiles.

In the chancel is the fine brass of John de Campeden, warden, placed here at the restoration of the church. The figure is in quire habit and above are shields of the Trinity and the Passion. Below is an inscription. From his mouth issue scrolls with the inscriptions 'Ihu cum venis judicare noli me condempnare' and 'Qui plasmasti me miserere mei.' The border inscription, an adapted 'Credo quod redemptor,' runs round the slab, with the symbols of the Evangelists at the corners.

In the south transept is a brass without an effigy to William Saundres, chaplain of the new foundation. who died in 1464. In the north side of the chancel is a brass to Richard Harward, master, who died in 1493. The figure wears a cloak with a fringed or furred border. Below the figure is an inscription.

In the pavement at the south-west end of the nave is a brass, of which the inscription only is left, to John son of John and Agatha Wayte, who died in 1502.

In the south side of the chancel is a brass to Thomas Laune (d. 1518), rector of Mottisfont, who is represented in mass vestment. In the pavement of the south transept is a brass black letter inscription to Alexander Ewart, a former brother of the hospital, who died in 1569. In the pavement of the chancel are slabs to William Lewis, 1667, and Abraham Markland, 1727, former masters of the hospital. There is also a slab to Catherine, the wife of Abraham Markland, 1695.

There are two bells—by Pack & Chapman of London, 1789; by Thomas Mears of London, 1811, respectively.

The church plate consists of five pieces: a silvergilt paten with foot bearing the date letter of the year 1660; on the underside of the foot are engraved the initials I.W.L. and the arms, a cross between four crosslets (this paten has been Gothicized by additional engraved ornament in modern times); a silver-gilt paten bearing the date letter of the year 1784, inscribed 'Beilby Porteus, D.D., Bishop of Chester and Master of St. Cross, 1785'; a modern silver-gilt chalice (the inscription states that it was recast in the year 1860, date letter 1859); a similar chalice bearing the date letter of 1859 (this is not stated to have been recast); a flagon of the same date, also silver gilt.

The registers (fn. 2) previous to 1812 are in three volumes: (1) baptisms 1674 to 1776 (there are fragmentary entries from 1670 to 1674), burials 1676 to 1775, marriages 1674 to 1753; (2) baptisms 1776 to 1812, burials 1776 to 1812; (3) marriages 1755 to 1812.

HOSPITAL BUILDINGS

The hospital buildings are grouped round an inner and outer quadrangle on the south side of the church. The porter's lodge, the gatehouse known as the Beaufort Tower, and, to the west of it, the great hall occupy the eastern two-thirds of the buildings surrounding the inner quadrangle. The remainder of the northern and the whole of the western range consist of the rooms occupied by the brothers of the hospital. The south side of the quadrangle is partly occupied by the nave of the church; a southern range of rooms abutting on the south-west angle of the south aisle was removed about 1789. The eastern side consists of the cloister and infirmary, which join on to the north wall of the north transept. The outer or entrance court has a gateway from the road on the north side. On the east side is the building known as the 'Hundred Menne's Hall,' on the south the north side of the hall and Beaufort Tower and on the west the kitchen and offices connected with it. All these buildings, with the exception of the eastern range of the inner quadrangle, appear to have been erected within a few years of 1445 by Cardinal Beaufort. The infirmary and cloister were built by Robert Sherborne in the early years of the 16th century, whose initials and motto 'Dilexi Sapientiam' are carved on the oriel window and also in the chimneypieces of the porter's lodge and the room above it. The master's lodging seems originally to have been in the Beaufort Tower and in the rooms over the porter's lodge; but from the early part of the 17th century onward fourteen of the brethren's dwellings, comprising all the northern range to the west of the Beaufort Tower, and part of the western range adjoining, were gradually appropriated to the use of the master, with consequent alterations. Recently a residence has been erected for the master to the north of the hospital.


Winchester: Hospital of St. Cross: The Quadrangle


Beaufort. FRANCE quartered with ENGLAND in a border gobony argent and azure.

The buildings generally are of flint and stone rubble, with the exception of the cloister and infirmary, which are of brick and stone and plastered timber.

The northern court is entered from the road by a 15th-century four-centred archway in the bounding wall. Over the arch is a gabled loft of half-timber with herring-bone brickwork, probably the work of Henry Compton (master 1667), whose initials, with the date 1675, are carved on an inserted stone left against the inner side of the wall east of the entrance. On the east side of the courtyard is the 'Hundred Menne's Hall,' now used as a lumber store. The original detail left here comprises a four-centred blocked doorway and two windows in the west face, and in the south wall two windows of two lights. The present large entrance at the north of the west wall and the two windows in the east wall are modern. On the west side of the courtyard the only feature of note is the much-restored square-headed kitchen window of two cinquefoiled lights with vertical tracery. The south side of the courtyard is formed by the Beaufort Tower or gatehouse and part of the north side of the hall. The gatehouse is built of ashlar and is externally of three stages, with an octagonal stair-turret at the south-west and two buttresses of four off-sets, the top stages finished with crocketed gables and finials, on the north and south faces. The gateway is four-centred and ceiled by a rich lierne-vault, the central boss of which is sculptured with a cross and crown of thorns. Above the arches, on both north and south faces of the gatehouse, is an enriched cornice carved alternately with heads and four-leaved flowers. The spandrels thus formed are traceried on the north face, and contain the arms of England on the east and of Cardinal Beaufort on the west. The spandrels on the south face are plain. The room over the archway, known as the Muniment Room, has square-headed transomed windows of two cinquefoiled lights on the north, and south. In the west wall is a fireplace with a straightsided four-centred head and moulded jambs. A moulded beam carries the floor of the chamber above, which is lighted by four small cinquefoiled windows, one in each face. Above is a room similarly lighted. Externally these two upper rooms are contained in one stage, divided from the middle stage by an enriched cornice. On the north face are three canopied niches with octagonal pedestals. In the western niche is a statue of Cardinal Beaufort, but the others are unoccupied. In the south face is only one niche, of similar design, placed centrally. The windows of the upper chambers are arranged to clear these niches. The whole is crowned by a moulded cornice with gargoyles at the angles and a parapet with weathered coping. On the west side an octagonal chimney-shaft with embattled capping rises above the parapet. On the east side is a plainer chimney-shaft. The stair-turret has a small four-centred doorway with a label and large head-stops. The hall adjoins the Beaufort Tower on the west side and has five windows, three in the south wall and two in the north wall, all twocentred and of two transomed cinquefoiled lights, with tracery above. There are buttresses of three off-sets between the windows, and the tiled roof is continuous with that of the brethren's dwellings, occupying the remainder of this and the whole of the west side of the inner quadrangle. At the east end is the dais, and at this end of the hall the sills of the windows are lowered and have seats against the jambs, which descend to the floor level. In the east wall is a four-centred doorway leading to the muniment room, approached by a flight of stairs with wooden handrailing and newel-post, with a pelican for finial. In the centre of the floor is a raised tile-hearth. At the west end are the screen and gallery. The gallery projects beyond the face of the screen, and the soffit has a plain plaster cove, while the centre portion has a still greater projection, similarly finished The screen is plain and has two doorways. In the north wall, immediately to the west of the screen, is a small doorway leading to the kitchen block. The collarroof is of four bays with arched four-centred principals, moulded purlins and wall-plates and curved windbraces, the space between the common rafters and the wall-plate being filled by trefoil-headed panelling. The principals rest on stone corbels, carved with angels holding shields of England and Beaufort alternately. The hall is entered at the south-west by a two-centred doorway beneath the gallery, approached by a flight of steps within a lierne-vaulted porch, having a moulded cornice and plain parapet, with a twocentred entrance and angle buttresses of two off-sets. The central boss of the vault is sculptured with the arms of Beaufort with a cardinal's hat. Beneath the hall is a cellar, vaulted in eight bays.


Winchester: Great Hall of Hospital of St. Cross

In the upper lights of the windows on the south side of the hall is some old glass, probably of the 15th century, comprising the arms of Beaufort with the cardinal's hat. In the fanlight over the entrance doorway at the south-west end of the hall are some fragments of glass, including the Beaufort arms and some pieces of black and white glass, probably of 14th-century date, and brought hither from the nave windows of the church.

The kitchen block runs out at right angles from the north-west end of the hall. The fireplace at the north end of the kitchen has been much modernized. In the south wall is a large serving-hatch to the buttery, with two four-centred openings and a large falling flap. The roof is supported by a truss with tie-beam and king-post, braced collar and central purlin. In the two-light window lighting the passage from the screens to the kitchen is a piece of original glass with the inscription 'R. S. Dilexi Sapienciam, 1497.' The initials are those of Robert Sherborne, the then master.


Winchester: Cloister of Hospital of St. Cross

To the west of the hall is the former residence of the master, modernized at various dates, which it is now proposed to restore to its original purpose. To the west of the entrance hall is a room containing some fine early 17th-century panelling, with a Latin inscription in ornate Roman characters on the frieze. The panelling now remains on the west wall only, but must formerly have extended round the room, to judge from the fragmentary nature of the inscription. In the window in the closet recess at the north side of the entrance hall are some fragments of 17th-century heraldic glass, including the arms of the hospital impaling those of Henry Compton. A modern stair at the north-east corner of the entrance hall leads to the first floor in two flights. On the east wall of the landing is carved in stone a shield which appears to be the arms of the town of Southampton impaling Courtenay with a label. The tinctures have disappeared. In the windows of the passage on the north side of the first floor are several pieces of heraldic glass, probably of 17th-century date, together with some small circular pieces, probably Flemish, of the 16th century, representing the Nativity, the Presentation in the Temple, Christ Crowned with Thorns and the Entombment. The heraldic glass includes the shields of William of Wykeham and of Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, 1531–56. The lettering on the garter surrounding the latter resembles the lettering on the frieze of the panelling mentioned above.

The brethren's dwellings, which occupy the remainder of the western range of buildings, each consist of a bedroom, living-room and scullery, and are arranged in fours, two on each floor, entered by a common doorway and staircase. They are lighted on the front towards the quadrangle by plain squareheaded two-light windows. The entrance doorways have four-centred heads, and the projecting chimney-stacks, with their octagonal flue shafts and embattled capping, form the main feature of this elevation.

A water-course known as the Lock Burn is carried round the rear of the buildings, and over this the garderobe projections are carried on small twocentred drop-arches. The water-course is no longer utilized as a drain. The partitions are original and still retain their four-centred doorways.

The ground floor of the short block of buildings to the east of the Beaufort Tower is occupied by the porter's lodge. The room over is floored with plaster and is lighted on the east by a square-headed window of four cinquefoiled lights with an external label. The fireplaces in this and the porter's lodge beneath are inscribed 'R S Dilexi Sapienciam anno Domini 1503.' There is a room in the roof lighted by a small window of two cinquefoiled lights in the east gable which terminates the northern range. This room is reached by a staircase in the north-east angle inclosed in the original framed and panelled partition.

The lower part of the eastern or infirmary range is occupied by an open-arcaded ambulatory. At the northern end both stories are of brick and stone with an embattled parapet, and the stairs to the infirmary are contained within an octagonal turret. The upper part of the southern portion is of timber and plaster and supported on the quadrangle side by a timber arcade of six bays with four-centred arches and traceried spandrels on a continuous brick plinth. The bay below the oriel window of the infirmary has a plain two-light window. The oriel window is of four trefoiled lights on the front face, with a similar light on each side. Below the sills of these latter are buttresses of two off-sets, standing on the ground, and the whole is carried by two two-centred droparches of brick supported by a central octagonal shaft and abutting upon the angle buttresses. The central shaft is of brick with stone base and capital, on which is carved Robert Sherborne's motto 'Dilexi Sapientiam.' The upper portion of the oriel is of brick with stone tracery in the light. Below the sill is a stone bearing the name of Henry Compton. The lower portion, including the angle buttresses, is of brick and flint diaper. The interior of the infirmary is quite plain, and the southern end is formed by the north wall of the north transept of the church, through the eastern window of which the interior may be seen. The old church clock, made by William Skikelthorp of London in the year 1737, is stored away here.

At the back of the western range, containing the brethren's dwellings, is a garden appropriated to their use. North of this, extending to the road, is the master's kitchen garden, and on the east side of the hospital is the master's private garden.

Footnotes

1 Dimensions: Quire, 33 ft. 9 in. by 21 ft. 9 in.; north and south chapels, 33 ft. 9 in. by 10 ft. 6 in.; north transept, 41 ft. 5 in. by 22 ft.; south transept, 41 ft. 7 in. by 21 ft. 11 in.; central tower, 22 ft. by 21 ft. 11 in.; nave, 57 ft. by 22 ft. 3 in.; north and south aisles, 57 ft. by 10 ft. 9 in.; north porch, 10 ft. 10 in. by 9 ft. 9 in.; inner vestry, 18 ft. 3 in. by 14 ft. 8 in.; outer vestry, 18 ft. 4 in. by 5 ft. 7 in.
2 On the first page of the first volume is a note in the handwriting of the then chaplain, John Hunt, dated 28 Sept. 1676, stating that to the best of his belief the former register book had been burnt by the widow of 'one Mr. Wright,' chaplain and steward of the Hospital in 'ye dayes of King James.' He adds: 'since which time to this there hath been no other bought.' A few entries of baptisms, burials and marriages in the years 1631 and 1632, 'found in two old rotten bitts of paper,' are copied into the beginning of the book.