Parishes
Baddesley Clinton

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Victoria County History

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Author

L. F. Salzman (editor)

Year published

1947

Pages

13-19

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'Parishes: Baddesley Clinton', A History of the County of Warwick: Volume 4: Hemlingford Hundred (1947), pp. 13-19. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=42646&strquery=baddesley Date accessed: 26 November 2014.


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BADDESLEY CLINTON

Acreage: 1,366.

Population: 1911, 140; 1921, 150; 1931, 170.

Baddesley Clinton lies near the post road from Birmingham to Warwick, a short distance east from Lapworth station on the Great Western Railway; the northern and western boundaries are formed by small streams, and the Warwick and Birmingham canal runs parallel with and just inside the western boundary of the parish. A road running north from Rowington, at a little over 400 ft., as far as Park Farm divides the parish in two, the eastern half being mainly occupied by the extensive Hay Wood; in the western half, in which lies the Hall, the ground slopes gently to a level of 350 ft. at the canal. At Park Farm this road branches westward to Parkwood, and eastwards and then north by the Roman Catholic church to join the Birmingham-Warwick road. The Roman Catholic church of St. Francis of Assisi, erected in 1793, was rebuilt in 1870 in the French Gothic style. It is ajdoined by a convent, a Roman Catholic school, and a burial ground, where Marmion Edward Ferrers, lord of the manor 1830–84, is buried.

The Hall was built as a semi-fortified manor-house surrounded by a moat, and approached by a drawbridge. It now consists of three sides (or ranges) of an approximate rectangle, having lost its west range. The internal courtyard was originally about 57 ft. north to south and 37 ft. east to west, and was not a true rectangle, the west and north sides being a little longer than those opposite them; the ranges are roughly 25 ft. deep. The moat averages about 30 ft. in width on three sides and about half that width on the east. The entrance front with a gatehouse is towards the north. (fn. 1) All the ranges are of two stories.

The building is said to go back to the 14th century. Perhaps the thicker walls in the east half of the south side are relics of this period, but most of the fabric now seen is of mid- to late-15th-century date and probably the work of John Brome. Considerable alterations were made late in the 16th century. The porch wing was heightened, the upper story and most of that of the north range remodelled and new windows inserted, the rooms fitted with panelling and chimney-pieces, &c., probably all done by Henry Ferrers (the Antiquary), who was seventy years the owner and died in 1633. Further alterations were carried out in the first half of the 18th century, especially to the east range, which has no windows earlier than this period. Brick was used for the walls instead of stone. About the same time, the west range was demolished. (fn. 2) A parallel wing against the inner side of the south range was added c. 1890.

There is a cellar passage (reached by a trap-door in the brew-house) under the south range within the wall towards the moat from east to west; it continued under the former west range to the north-west angle and possibly to the north gateway. It is lighted in the south wall by a contemporary series of loops in the plinth; another loop is in the west end of the north range. Definite evidence was discovered by Mr. Oliver Baker in 1890 that it was used as a secret means of retreat in the 15th century, and again in the 17th century, when access to it was obtained from a 'hiding hole' in the south range (see below).

The north front is built of grey stone ashlar and has a 15th-century moulded plinth and at the first-floor level a moulded string-course that is lifted at the windows to form labels. In the middle is the projecting porch, with a similar plinth and string-course, and an upper string-course and a tall embattled parapet added in the 19th century. At its angles are diagonal buttresses of two stages with moulded offsets. The outer entrance has two arches in the thickness of the wall: the outer arch is a tall one with double-ogee moulded jambs and a flattened four-centred head and hood-mould. Its reveals are 2½ ft. deep to receive the former drawbridge. (fn. 3) The inner and lower has moulded jambs and a four-centred arch in a square head with traceried spandrels. The entrance is flanked by two oillets or loopholes with enlarged embrasures inside for the use of defending bowmen. In the side-walls are 15th-century windows, now unglazed, of two four-centred lights under a square head and below them are similar oillets and stone benches. A large stone, probably a counterweight for the drawbridge, is preserved in the porch. The inner entrance admitting to the gate hall contains the original oak door (fn. 4) with chamfered styles and muntins and five panels with ridged centres and ogee ends; in it is a wicket door. The upper story has a large Elizabethan window of six lights with moulded stone-work, lighting the Banqueting Hall, and in the side walls are shorter windows of four lights.

The two lower windows in the main wall west of the porch are of two and three lights, of the 15th century. The two upper windows are Elizabethan, of three and four lights with plain square heads. In the plinth is a rectangular loop to a cellar. The lower window east of the porch, lighting the Dining Room, is of five square-headed lights with moulded mullions; it is probably an Elizabethan enlargement of an original window, indicated by a straight joint east of the window. The upper window of four lights is similar. Another straight joint and the stopping of the original plinth and string-course tally with the end of the east range, which is of modern ashlar and has 18th-century windows.


BADDESLEY CLINTON HALL

BADDESLEY CLINTON HALL

The west end of the range is gabled and has a projecting stone chimney-stack with tabling, and a shaft in thin bricks of star-shaped plan, partly on corbelling. South of the chimney-stack is a 15th- or 16th-century stone window of three square-headed lights. In the upper story are two Elizabethan windows of three lights. Below the lower window is a small rectangular light to a cellar, and under that in the plinth is a loop to the basement passage.

The archway from the gateway into the courtyard has a segmental and square head with a label. A large Elizabethan window over it is like that over the porch: the gable-head over it has close-set timber studding. The two windows to the Dining Room, east of the gateway, are probably original, and the upper windows Elizabethan. Most of these windows have ancient lead lattice glazing. The two internal chimney-stacks on this range have 17th-century octagonal shafts of brick above the roof.

The east front is of plain 18th-century brickwork and has square-headed windows with wood mullions and frames. In the north half is a projecting chimney-stack, to the Great Hall, of stone. At the south-east angle is a kind of low tower projecting to both east and south. The lower story is of plain 15th-century ashlar and has a small original four-centred light in each of the east, south, and west walls. Below the east window is a square aperture which Mr. Oliver Baker found to contain a sliding stone at this end of the cellar passage. External corbels at the angles probably supported a jettied upper story. This is now flush with the lower walls and is cemented.

The inner face of the range to the courtyard is also of brick, but at the top is a range of five timber-framed gable-heads projecting on cambered bressummers. The northern three have herring-bone framing of the 16th century and the southern two are of square framing. All the windows and the doorway to the Little Hall are of 18th-century and later date. The middle window of the three to the Great Hall was formerly a doorway. An internal chimney-stack over the State Bedroom fire-place has two 17th-century diagonal shafts of brick.

The south range is of 15th-century stone-work except perhaps near the east end, where the wall is much thicker and may be earlier. Below the moulded member of the plinth is the series of loop-lights to the cellar passage. There are three 15th-century windows, each of three lights. Of the range of five upper windows the western three are each of two four-centred lights; the eastern two, lighting the chapel, are probably later alterations of three square-headed lights under a square head with a label. At the east end are two taller and narrower windows, each of two pointed lights under a square head; they are deeply recessed, especially the lower, in the above-mentioned thick wall, and are probably much earlier. West of the upper is a diminutive four-centred light and below this another, with a plain loop west of it: there is little doubt that these originally served a staircase. The roof of the east range terminates in a gable on this front.

The west end of the wing is of ashlar like the other wing. There are near the outer angle straight joints indicating a former doorway which probably served some purpose in connexion with the old brewhouse within.

The interior of the north gateway is paved with ancient stone set in an interlacing octagon pattern, and it has a chamfered beam in the plastered ceiling. In the west wall is a four-centred doorway leading to the west rooms, and two other square-headed doorways lead to steps down to cellars.

The entrance from the courtyard opens into the 'Little Hall' in the east range; it has a high dado of carved 17th-century panelling and a little with linenfold panels.

The Great Hall north of it is lighted by three windows towards the courtyard and one east window, north of the chimney-stack. It is lined with 17th-century oak panelling. The massive chimney-stack projects well into the room and has a fine stone chimney-piece of the late 16th century that was formerly in the Banqueting Hall over the gateway. The square fire-place is flanked by shaped pilasters of halfbaluster type carved with scrolls, conventional foliage and flowers, and lions' masks, and surmounted by a similarly enriched rounded moulding. The overmantel has, between terminal figures in Elizabethan costume, a panel enclosing a carved achievement of arms of Ferrers of Baddesley quartering Brome, Hampden, and White, with a crest of a unicorn, and affixed on the frame are six small shields of arms.

The recess south of the fire-place is partitioned off and contains the lower half of the main staircase rising southwards. The stair was formerly in the Little Hall, and this arrangement was probably an 18th-century or later alteration. The chamber formerly contained some fine furniture, including a table 21 ft. long with a top 2 ft. 8 in. wide consisting of two 2 in. planks supported by four moulded middle balusters on cross-sills and with scrolled brackets carrying a long middle beam. This was removed to Packwood House in 1939.

The Drawing Room in the north-east angle is lined with late-16th-century panelling and has a west fireplace flanked by fluted oak pilasters and with a contemporary overmantel with carved shafts and a shield of Ferrers impaling White.

The Dining Room, next west, has similar wall lining. The east fire-place has a richly carved chimney-piece of three bays with four heavy pilasters, the outermost continued down to the floor. The middle bay has an achievement of arms of Ferrers (only). The plastered ceiling has a late-16th-century moulded beam.

Behind (east of) the Little Hall is the Butler's Pantry, separated by plain panelling from the Servants' Hall, in the south-east angle, which is lighted by the deeply set window in the south wall as well as an east window. It is lined with late-16th-century panelling. In this is a doorway to the chamber in the south-east tower, and it conceals another strong door of ridged battens set in a four-centred stone doorway of the 15th century: the door is furnished with a latch, a bolt, and a draw-bar on the tower side and was obviously used for defensive purposes. (fn. 5)

The lobby south of the Little Hall has a south doorway, now only serving a cupboard, with a 15th-century four-centred head with carved spandrels. The stairway to which it opened was obliterated when the kitchen fire-place was made. The Kitchen has a ceiling of c. 1500 with moulded cross-beams and panels with moulded ribs. West of the kitchen are offices terminating in the old Brewhouse at the west end, which retains some large cauldrons.

On the upper floor the 'State Bedroom', over the Butler's Pantry, has a west arched fire-place of stone with rusticated pilasters and an oak overmantel with early-17th-century arched alcoves and above these three oak panels. The middle panel has an achievement of arms of Ferrers of Groby quartering Hampden and a shield of pretence of White. The room is lined with contemporary panelling: it is entered from halfway up the main staircase. At the top landing a doorway with an ancient ribbed door opens southward into a wide passage west of the State Bedroom: it has a moulded panelled ceiling. Four 15th-century arched doorways at the south end open into the 'Blue Room', Sacristy, Chapel, and passage of the south range. The 'Blue Room', in the south-east angle, is lined with late-16th-century panelling with a carved frieze. It has the upper deeply recessed window in the thick wall, and a fire-place with moulded jambs and lintel. A doorway hung with cocks' heads hinges opens into the Powder Closet, the upper chamber of the south-east tower. This is lined with similar panelling, with a moulded and carved cornice, and has a west fire-place of moulded stone carved with roses and fleurs-de-lis, now painted. The oak overmantel has two roundheaded panels and pilasters with terminal figures, and the letters EF. The small narrow chamber next west, on the site of the former stair, is lighted by two of the former tiny lights and is used as the Sacristy to the Chapel. In the floor was a trapdoor from which a shaft leads down to the cellar-passage. The Chapel, next west, was created in 1634 by Edward Ferrers. It is lined with plain panelling filled with old Spanish stamped leather. A plain fire-place in the south (outer) wall has a panelled overmantel with a raised shield of arms. There are also 57 other shields, comparatively modern, of Ferrers armorials. A small late-15th-century brass of the wife of Nicholas Brome is also preserved here, but a window with the arms of Henry Ferrers, the Antiquary, 'Lord of Baddesley Clinton for 70 years', died 1633, has recently been removed.

Arched doorways open into the rooms in the south range. The westernmost rooms are known as the 'Soldiers' Rooms'.

The first floor over the Great Hall and in the north range is higher. One of the two bedrooms over the Hall has painted panelling. That over the Drawing Room has its west fire-place surrounded by twelve carved round-headed oak panels. The bedroom over the Dining Room has a Tudor stone fire-place and is lined with late-16th-century panelling.

The Banqueting Room over the gateway is an Elizabethan chamber, the upper part of the porchwing forming a deep bay to it. This room is also panelled and has a stone fire-place; the chimney-piece, now in the Great Hall, has been made good by old panelling from the Library. The room has a segmental barrel-vaulted ceiling, and the north and south walls have enriched cornices above the wide windows.

The Library—the north-west room—is similarly panelled and has a stone arched fire-place and an oak overmantel of three round-headed panels, dated 1634. A small chamber cut off the south of it in 1754 appears to have some traces of old wall-painting.

All roof construction is hidden by the plastered ceilings.

In the windows of the Hall and other rooms are reset 36 panels of coloured glass with 16th-century armorials of Ferrers and connexions by marriage. Three are dated 1560, 1585, and 1588. Many others are earlier and have coronets. Many of them also have the names below them. These names as well as some of the shields themselves were probably put in by Henry Ferrers the Antiquary. (fn. 6)

The stables, north-east of the house, are of 17th-century brickwork: they include a turret with the original clock and a weather-vane. The north forecourt has a 17th-century gateway with stone posts having acorn heads, and a lower stone wall with standards, also with acorn heads.

A farm-house about a mile to the north, now Chadwick Riding School, is a mid-17th-century house of square timber-framing and with a tiled roof and plain central chimney-stack.

MANOR

BADDESLEY CLINTON

BADDESLEY CLINTON finds no mention in Domesday. (fn. 7) Possibly at that time it was included in Hampton-in-Arden, with which it retained some connexion, so that at first it follows the descent of that manor (q.v.). Roger de Mowbray is said (fn. 8) to have bestowed the lands of Baddesley upon Walter de Bisege at some time between 1100 and 1135. The Mowbrays remained the overlords of Baddesley Clinton until early in the reign of Henry IV, (fn. 9) though subsequently Baddesley was held from the Clinton family. (fn. 10) It remained in the Bisege family for four generations, descending from Walter to his son Ralph and from him to his son James.

James (fn. 11) had a daughter and heir Mazera who married Sir Thomas de Clinton of Coleshill about 1225, and with this marriage Baddesley passed into the hands of the Clinton family, from whom it was called Baddesley Clinton to distinguish it from Baddesley Ensor. Thomas de Clinton, who died in 1277, (fn. 12) was succeeded here by his fourth son, James, who died after 25 March 1323; (fn. 13) but in 1316 the name of the lord of Baddesley is given as John de Clinton, (fn. 14) who was the heir of Sir Thomas and presumably held the mesne lordship.


Mowbray. Gules a lion argent.


Clinton. Argent a chief azure with two pierced molets or therein.

Thomas son of James de Clinton was dead by 25 March 1336, when a grant was made of certain lands by his mother and his widow; (fn. 15) his son Leonard died without issue before 1349 (fn. 16) and the manor came into the hands of Thomas's two daughters, Joan and Parnel, who married John de Coningsby and John Wodard of Solihull respectively. In 1355 (fn. 17) John and Parnel made over all Parnel's claim to the manor to John Coningsby, whereby the whole manor came into his hands. After the death of John Coningsby, Joan married John Foukes of Dry Marston, co. Gloucester. On 25 July 1394, (fn. 18) they sold the whole manor to Nicholas Dudley, a merchant of Coventry. The extent of the manor is given (fn. 19) as a messuage, 3 carucates of land, 8 acres of meadow, 200 acres of wood, and 6s. 8d. rent. This transaction appears to have been of a temporary nature only, though Nicholas Dudley presented to the church in 1396 and on 23 April 1398 held his court there. (fn. 20) On 29 June 1400 the manor was conveyed to Robert Burdet and Joan his wife, (fn. 21) to whom Richard Bushell of Dry Marston, co. Gloucester, and Margery his wife, (fn. 22) quitclaimed the manor. After her husband's death Joan, on 8 August 1434, (fn. 23) granted the manor to her nephew Nicholas Metley, (fn. 24) son of her sister Margaret, retaining her right to reside in the Hall. In 1437 Nicholas died and by his will directed that the manor of Baddesley Clinton should be sold to provide four priests to say mass for his soul. (fn. 25) According to Dugdale Robert Catesby, (fn. 26) one of Metley's executors, purchased the manor and resided there until 1460. There is, however, record (fn. 27) that Joan Burdet enfeoffed John Sperman, John Baxter, and John Brome junior in the manor of Baddesley for a penny rent; and from 23 April 1438 the courts are described (fn. 28) as being of John Brome, junior, 'lord of this vill'. From John Brome, who was murdered at White Friars, London, in 1468 by John Herthill, (fn. 29) it descended to his son Nicholas, who is said to have avenged his father's death by killing Herthill, and also to have killed the parish priest for chucking his wife under the chin. (fn. 30) Nicholas Brome died in 1517 seised of the manor of Baddesley Clinton. (fn. 31) He left two daughters, of whom Constance married Sir Edward Ferrers. The manor was settled on them in 1531, (fn. 32) a rent of £12 13s. 4d., for the second moiety, being assigned to Dorothy wife of Francis Cokayne and her heirs. (fn. 33) Her mother Isabel Marrow was sister of Constance and co-heir of Nicholas Brome. (fn. 34) After Constance's death in 1551 the manor descended to her grandson, Edward Ferrers, (fn. 35) to whom livery was made of the manor, park, advowson of church and water-mill in 1553. (fn. 36) The manor descended in the family of Ferrers, the lord in 1937 being Cecil Ferrers, esq., (fn. 37) but since that date the estate has been sold to Mr. Walker of Knowle.


Brome. Sable a cheveron argent with three sprigs of broom thereon.


Ferrers. Gules seven voided lozenges or and a quarter ermine.

Part of Baddesley Clinton had a distinct and separate history, though it has been held since the reign of Henry VIII by the lord of the manor. (fn. 38) It consists of fields now known as Great and Little Wallis, but formerly as Whalleys and Wales. It is a parcel of the Duchy of Lancaster, and is possibly what is called the manor of 'Radesle' in Warwickshire, late of Henry, Duke of Lancaster, that the king, with the consent of Maud, one of the Duke's daughters, assigned to his own son John and Blanche his wife, the other daughter. (fn. 39) The land was leased to Nicholas Brome (fn. 40) by Edward IV in 1469 and the grant was renewed to him and Edward Ferrers jointly in 1507, by Henry VII. (fn. 41) Subsequently the lands called Whalles alias Wales were granted for ever to Edward Ferrers by Henry VIII in 1513. (fn. 42) A special reference is made to this tenure at the death of Edward Ferrers in 1564 (fn. 43) and of Henry Ferrers in 1638. (fn. 44)

There are very few references to mills at Baddesley Clinton. In 1531 a water-mill is mentioned, (fn. 45) and again in 1538 (fn. 46) and at subsequent dates down to 1668. (fn. 47)

CHURCH

The parish church of ST. MICHAEL (once St. James) (fn. 48) consists of a chancel, nave, and west tower. The nave dates from the 13th century. From the eastward position of the side doorways it is probable that the plan was then a plain rectangle including a chancel.

The west tower was built about 1500 by Nicholas Brome, as recorded by an inscription on the south wall. The clearstory was added at the same time, (fn. 49) and it was probably then that the chancel arch was inserted.

The chancel is said by Dugdale to have been lengthened 12 ft. in 1535, but it was entirely rebuilt in 1634 by Edward Ferrers; as is recorded on a tablet in the chancel. The 16th-century east window with its ancient glass was retained in place, or re-set, as was also the tomb of Sir Edward Ferrers, who died in 1535. The addition to the nave roof was probably also part of the same work.


Plan of Baddesley Clinton Church.

The chancel (26½ ft. by 16½ ft.) has an early-16th-century east window of five cinquefoiled four-centred lights under a four-centred head with an external hood-mould; the window has a plain transom. The jambs outside are hollow-moulded. In the middle of the north wall is a single window of two square-headed lights. The south wall has two similar windows each of three lights. East of the second is a priests' doorway with chamfered jambs and a four-centred head with a moulded drip-stone. It had a drawbar inside. Between that and the eastern window is the tombrecess mentioned below. The walls are of red sandstone ashlar and have chamfered plinths. The east wall is gabled, and has an old coping and gable-cross. The roof-timbers are hidden by a modern plastered barrel-vaulted ceiling.

The chancel arch has plain chamfered jambs and a two-centred head, difficult to date. The wall is of ashlar and only 2 ft. thick; as it supports the east end of the clearstory it must be of the same date or earlier.

The nave (about 31 ft. by 16 ft.) has two north windows. The eastern, right against the east wall, is of two plain pointed lights under a two-centred head of the 13th century. The other, near the west end, is a late-14th-century window of two narrow trefoiled lights, and foiled piercings in a square head. The north doorway, east of the second, is a 13th-century opening with chamfered jambs and two-centred head with a plain external hood-mould, and a segmental rear-arch. The door is unused and is fixed; it is ancient, of ridged battens and hollow-chamfered ribs.

In the south wall the only lower window is one against the east wall, which forms its east reveal, while the west splay is of rough ashlar. It is of two squareheaded lights and is probably a late (17th or 18th century) window put in to light the pulpit. Below it outside are traces of a former window. The south doorway is in the middle of the wall; it is of two sunk chamfered orders with a two-centred head and hoodmould, probably late-13th-century. The walls are of sandstone rubble, much of it squared, without plinths. A toothed joint marks the junction of the 17th-century chancel wall on the north side, and on the south is some brickwork at the junction. A patch of shaly rubble east of the south doorway may indicate a destroyed window.

Above is an early-16th-century clearstory of ashlar, with a low-pitched east gable on which is built the higher 17th-century gable wall. The eaves-courses are moulded and carried across the east end as a parapet string-course. It is lighted by three windows each side, each of three cinquefoiled lights under a square head. The jambs have wide casement hollows.

The ceiling is of the same date and is divided into three bays by moulded beams or ties supported by curved braces that have spandrels of varying tracery and carvings, one a Tudor rose. The corbels supporting them are plain, except one on the south side which is crudely carved with a human head and bust holding a shield. The joists or rafters have foiled panelled soffits and are supported by a ridge-pole and two purlins; carved bosses cover the intersections of these; wide boarding covers the backs of the rafters. The higherpitched roof above is a 17th-century addition with later repairs; it has braced collar beams. The east gable is of smaller ashlar than the 16th-century wall below it and has an old coping. The roofs are tiled.

The west tower (about 8 ft. square inside) is of three stages divided by string-courses. The walls are of ashlar with a moulded plinth and embattled parapet with carved spouts at the string-course level. At the west angles are diagonal buttresses and at the east square buttresses flush with the east wall, of four stages with moulded offsets. Next to the south-east buttress is a projecting stair-turret reaching to the parapet, where it is of semi-octagonal plan. It is entered by a fourcentred doorway in the south wall which has an ancient oak door.

The archway towards the nave is two-centred and of two chamfered orders, the inner with an impost moulding. The west door has jambs of two hollow-chamfered orders and a four-centred arch in a square head with weather-worn carved spandrels—one apparently a Tudor rose—and moulded label having lozengeshaped volute stops. The west window is of three cinquefoiled ogee-headed lights and vertical tracery in a two-centred head with an external hood-mould having human-head stops, one crowned. In the second stage are small square-headed windows to the west and south. The bell-chamber has a window in each wall, of two trefoiled lights in a three-centred head and with a transom. The roof is a low-pitched gable covered with tiles.

On the south wall inside is the inscription: NICHOLAS BROME ESQUIRE LORD OF BADDESLEY DID NEW BVILD THIS STEEPLE IN THE RAIGNE OF KING HENRY THE SEAVENTH. HE DIED IN OCTOBER 1517.

In the east window is some early-16th-century and 17th-century coloured glass. Above an inscription in memory of Sir Edward Ferrers and Lady Constance, who had the window put up, are their kneeling figures with three sons and five daughters, and scrolls with the inscriptions 'Sancte Georgi ora pro nobis' and 'Sancta Katerina, ora pro nobis'. Below him is a shield of 32 quarters with unicorn supporters, and below her is one of eight quarters on a shafted canopy. Under these again are four other shields in shafted canopies: dexter, one of Ferrers impaling Hampden (named Henry son of Sir Edward and Lady Constance) and another of Ferrers impaling White (Henry son of Sir Edward and Lady Bridget); sinister, two others with names, first Edward son of Sir Henry married Bridget daughter of William, Lord Windsor, 1548, died 1564, and second, Edward son of Henry and Jane, married Anne Peto 1611: she died 1618.

The communion table is of the 17th century with turned legs and carved rails. The chancel is lined with a dado of 18th-century panelling adapted from former pews. In the chancel arch is an oak screen dated 1634. It has moulded posts, dividing it into four bays, the middle pair being doors. It has closed panelling below the middle rail, and is open above with curved bracketpieces, a moulded top rail and above it an open-work cresting with posts and curved brackets. The top rail is inscribed: HIC QVÆRITE REGNA DEI [1634] PROCVL HINC PROCVL ESTE PROPHANI, and the rail in the cresting: MEMOR ESTO BREVIS ÆVI.

The font is a simple octagonal one of the 15th or 16th century renovated. The bowl has the eye for one of the staples for the former lid.

In the nave four of the benches have 17th-century standards with tri-lobe poppy-heads and humped shoulders.

A chest 3½ ft. long is of late-16th-century date. It has some ornamental ironwork and had three locks.

On the south side of the chancel is an altar-tomb projecting from a moulded four-centred recess. It is to Sir Edward Ferrers, son of Sir Henry and Margaret (Hekstall) his wife, died 29 August 1535; also to Constance (Brome) his wife, died 30 September 1551; and to Henry their eldest son, who married Katherine Hampden and died 1526 leaving issue Edward, who married Bridget daughter of William, Lord Windsor of Bradenham, in 1548 and died 1564. The top slab has moulded edges and the front is divided into three bays of traceried panels enclosing shields of arms of Ferrers, plain and impaling Brome and Hampden.

On the south wall is a sunk panel inscribed in Roman capitals: EDWARD FERRERS ESQ. SONNE & HEIRE OF HENRY FERRERS & JANE WHITE HIS WIFE DID NEW BVILDE AND REEDIFY THIS CHANCELL AT HIS OWNE PROPER COSTES & CHARGES ANO. DOMI. 1634 THIS CHVRCH IS DEDICATED TO ST IAMES. It has a painted shield of Ferrers impaling Peto. (fn. 50)

A modern tablet records twelve generations of the Ferrers family from 1535 to 1830.

There are three bells; (fn. 51) (1) inscribed 'Sācte Nicolae Ora Pro W Nobis H', by William Hasylwood of Reading c. 1500; (2) by Henry Bagley 1678, and (3) inscribed 'S. Toma' by Thomas Newcombe (1562– 80) of Leicester. The oak cages are ancient, but the stocks are new and the wheels have been removed.

The communion plate includes a silver chalice inscribed with the date 1723.

The registers date from 1747.

In the churchyard is an ancient yew tree, partly hollow.

Two low posts framed into cross-sills, now connected by an iron tie rod, may have been the standards for former stocks.

ADVOWSON

The chapel of Baddesley was evidently included in the grant of the church of Hampton-in-Arden to Kenilworth Priory made by Roger Mowbray in the 12th century. (fn. 52) Shortly after the church of Hampton was appropriated, in 1217, (fn. 53) William de Arden, lord of that manor, disputed the right of the priory, but a compromise was reached in 1221, one of the clauses of which assigned the tithes of the chapel of Baddesley to the vicar of Hampton. (fn. 54) The chapel had become an independent parish church before 1298, when John de Clinton held the advowson of Roger Mowbray. (fn. 55) It was poorly endowed, (fn. 56) being only worth £4 6s. 8d. in 1535. (fn. 57) The advowson followed the descent of the manor but, owing to the Ferrers family being Roman Catholics, the living has in recent years been in the gift of the University of Oxford.

CHARITIES

William Knight by will dated 18 Feb. 1716–17 gave to the poor of Baddesley Clinton a yearly sum of 10s. to be given away on Good Friday. The gift is now secured on property at Chadwick End and is distributed by the chairman of the parish meeting to the poor in kind.

Joseph Wheeler by will proved 1 May 1895 bequeathed one-half of the residue of his estate to the Roman Catholic Bishop of Birmingham, the Roman Catholic Priest of Baddesley Clinton, and the Reverend Mother Abbess of the Convent of Poor Clares, upon trust to invest the same and apply the income for such charitable purposes in the parish as they shall determine. The legacy is now represented by £3,600 7s. 8d. Consols producing an annual income of £90 which is distributed by the trustees to the poor in kind.

Edward Heneage Dering by will proved 27 Jan. 1893 gave £300 to the Roman Catholic Priest of Baddesley Clinton, the interest to be distributed to the poor of the parish in bread and meat. By a Scheme of the Charity Commissioners of the 26 May 1925 the trustee was authorized to supply other articles in kind in addition to those directed in the will. The endowment now produces £6 18s. 6d. annually.

Footnotes

1 The entrance front really faces northeast, but for convenience of description is here called north, the south-east the east, &c.,following Mr. Oliver Baker's precedent.
2 Mr. Oliver Baker in his description of 1891 in the B. and M. Inst. Trans. xvii suggests that the original Great Hall was in the destroyed west range. The modern wing was being built at the time of his survey.
3 Mr. Oliver Baker (B. and M. Inst. Trans. xvii) produced a drawing to explain the operation of the drawbridge.
4 The bill of 1459 for the construction at a cost of 14s. 9d. is extant.
5 Mr. Oliver Baker discovered that this chamber in the tower had a trapdoor leading down to the underground passage and that the square aperture seen in the east front had a sliding stone slab shutter closing the east end of the passage. This could be raised from the chamber to allow one to escape through the trapdoor and aperture by means of a plank crossing the moat. The passage was deep enough to enable a man to stand upright at the west end, but the floor sloped upwards towards the aperture to give a tilt to the plank so that it reached the higher east bank of the moat: B. and M. Inst. Trans. xvii.
6 They are described in detail by Mr. Baker, as well as the furniture and pictures in the house. The tapestries that hung in the Banqueting Room have been removed.
7 V.C.H. Warw. i, 320a, note.
8 Norris, Baddesley Clinton, p. 2. This account is largely based on Norris, as his account is derived immediately from original documents.
9 Chan. Inq. p.m. 1 Hen. IV, no. 71b. Knights' fees of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk; Baddesley Clinton ¼ knight's fee.
10 In 1638: Chan. Inq. (Ser. 2), dxxxiii, 14, Ferrers held Baddesley of Theophilus, Earl of Lincoln and Lord Clinton.
11 Dugd. 970, and Norris, op. cit. p. 2, from original documents in the Ferrers Collection.
12 Cal. Inq. p.m. ii, 245.
13 When he confirmed a grant of land in Baddesley to Robert Purfere of Warwick; but on 11 July 1323 a further confirmation was granted by Thomas, son and heir of James.
14 Feudal Aids, v, 180.
15 Norris, p. 8, from original deed in Ferrers Collection.
16 Ibid. p. 11. Cf. Wrottesley, Peds. from Plea Rolls, 73.
17 Norris, p. 12; Feet of F. Warw. Hil. 29 Edw. III.
18 Norris, p. 13; Feet of F. Warw. Mich. 18 Rich. II
19 Norris, p. 14.
20 Ibid.
21 Ibid., p. 16.
22 Daughter of John Foukes and Joan daughter of Thomas de Clinton.
23 Ferrers Collection. Norris, p. 16.
24 Courts were held there in his name 6 Dec. 1434 and 8 Sept. 1437: Norris, p. 17.
25 Dugd. 970, from the original in Ferrers Collection.
26 Dugd. 970. This document is not mentioned by Norris. According to Dugdale John Hugford, who had married Metley's daughter and was steward to the Earl of Warwick, ousted Robert Catesby, but was himself evicted by Nicholas, Robert's son, who sold his title to John Brome. Probably this refers to the manor-house, the lordship being already in the hands of John Brome, as shown by the court rolls.
27 Norris, p. 18.
28 Ibid., p. 20.
29 Dugd. 971–2.
30 Ibid.
31 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xxxii, 42.
32 Feet of F. Warw. East. 23 Hen. VIII; Recov. R. Hil. 22 Hen. VIII.
33 This fee farm rent was sold in 1596 by Edward Cokayne to William and John Skynner (Feet of F. Trin. 38 Eliz.), and in 1612 by John Skynner to Edmund Brudenell (ibid. East. 10 Jas. I).
34 Dugd. 971.
35 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xcvii, 122. Where Constance is returned as holding only half the manor, Francis and Dorothy Cokayne holding the other half, though they had granted it for an annual rent to Constance and Edward.
36 Fine R. 1 Mary 38.
37 For pedigree of Ferrers see Burke, Landed Gentry.
38 Norris, p. 29.
39 Cal. Fine R. vii, 164. The Duke had died seised of land in Baddesley Clinton held of John Coningsby (then lord of the manor) for a rent and suit at his court (Cal. Inq. p.m. xi, p. 94), but probably later owners of the duchy ignored the rights of the lords of Baddesley.
40 Norris, p. 29.
41 Ibid.
42 Duchy of Lanc. Misc. Bks. 20, fol. 31.
43 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxli, 10.
44 Ibid, dxxxiii, 14.
45 Feet of F. Warw. East. 23 Hen. VIII.
46 Ibid. Div. Cos. East. 30 Hen. VIII.
47 Recov. R. Hil. 20 Chas. II, ro. 130.
48 In 1730 there was 'on the partition of the chancel' the inscription: 'Haec parva Ecclesia est sancto sacrata Jacobo': Dugd. 974.
49 A former epitaph recorded that he raised the body of the church 10 ft. higher: ibid. 972.
50 Other monuments formerly in the church are described in Dugd. 973–4.
51 Tilley and Walters, Church Bells of Warwickshire.
52 Dugd. 956.
53 Ibid.
54 Selden Soc. lix, p. 295.
55 Cal. Inq. p.m. iii, p. 360. Cf. Selden Soc. xxi, 118.
56 The two Baddesleys, Clinton and Ensor, are not distinguished in the Inq. Non. of 1340; one was worth 2 marks, the other £3 6s. 8d.: op. cit. 447, 448.
57 Valor Eccl. (Rec. Com.), iii, 80.