Waltham Holy Cross
Introduction and manors

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Victoria County History

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W.R. Powell (editor)

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1966

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151-162

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'Waltham Holy Cross: Introduction and manors', A History of the County of Essex: Volume 5 (1966), pp. 151-162. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=42718 Date accessed: 30 August 2014.


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WALTHAM HOLY CROSS

The parish and urban district of Waltham Holy Cross is about 15 miles north-east of London. The western boundary follows the River Lea, which divides the parish from Cheshunt (Herts.). The eastern boundary runs through Epping Forest, much of which lies in Waltham. (fn. 1) This was one of the largest ancient parishes in Essex, with an area of 11,016 a. in 1931. (fn. 2) A local board was set up for Waltham in 1850, and the parish became an urban district under the Local Government Act, 1894. (fn. 3) By the Essex Review Order, 1934, a small part of Waltham was transferred to Chingford Urban District, and the total area is now 10,958 a. (fn. 4) The principal place in the urban district is the small town of Waltham Abbey, which lies near the river. This name for the town, distinguishing it from the parish of Waltham Holy Cross as a whole, and from Waltham Cross in Cheshunt, seems to have originated in the 16th century, (fn. 5) but there has often been inconsistency in the use of the two names. The great abbey around which the town grew has already been described in this History. (fn. 6) For poor rate and other purposes the ancient parish was divided into four: the town, and the hamlets of Upshire, Holyfield, and Sewardstone. High Beech is a modern ecclesiastical parish on the borders of Epping Forest.


Waltham Holy Cross Urban District. Argent, on a cross engrailed sable, a lion's face between four crosses bottenee, or

The land rises gradually from the rich alluvial marshes and meadows near the river to a plateau of London clay in the east, 200–300 ft. above sea level, on which stands Epping Forest. This plateau is flanked on the west by a belt of gravel. The River Lea follows a meandering course, and in the north of the parish divides into several channels. In the south its course has been covered by the King George V Reservoir, opened in 1913. A new cut for navigation was made in the 18th century. (fn. 7) Cobbins Brook, a tributary of the Lea, crosses the parish from east to west.

Palaeolithic implements have been found in the parish. (fn. 8) Ambresbury Banks, which lies in the forest on the border between Waltham Holy Cross and Epping Upland, was an Iron Age hill-fort. (fn. 9) A few Roman remains come from High Beech and Warren Wood. (fn. 10) Waltham ('forest homestead') was probably one of the oldest Saxon settlements in this part of Essex, since it gave its name to the hundred. The shrine built during the reign of Cnut by Tofig to house the miraculous cross discovered at Montacute (Som.), gave Waltham the suffix to its name. Tofig's foundation, enlarged by Harold and re-founded by Henry II, became the richest monastery in Essex. To the west and south of it the town grew up. It appears to have depended very much on the abbey, and to have declined for a time after the Dissolution. (fn. 11) In the 17th century, however, a gunpowder mill was opened at Waltham Abbey. This was taken over by the government in 1787, and was greatly expanded during the next century. The choice of Waltham as the place for this industry was no doubt due to the combination of good river communications and the empty marshland by the Lea. Waltham proved less suitable for the manufacture of high explosives in 20th-century conditions, and the factories were closed in 1943. During the past forty years, however, there has been a considerable growth of light industry in and near the town. Outside Waltham Abbey the parish has always been rural, and agriculture is still the principal occupation over a large part of it. In the present century this has increasingly taken the form of nursery gardening.

The medieval population of the parish was considerable. A rental of c. 1235 lists about 170 tenements in Waltham manor and about 80 in Sewardstone. (fn. 12) In 1662 there were about 320 houses in the parish, (fn. 13) which suggests that the population may not then have been much greater than in the 13th century. In 1801 the population was 3,040. Since then it has grown steadily, to 6,549 in 1901 and 10,958 in 1961. (fn. 14) In spite of the increase the ancient pattern of settlement has changed little. This is reflected in the road system. Most of the present roads can be traced on a map published in 1777, (fn. 15) and some of them on a sketch map drawn about 1590. (fn. 16) The road from the north enters the parish from Nazeing Long Green, and keeps to the high ground above the most easterly channel of the Lea, running south through Holyfield, past Waltham Abbey to Sewardstone. To the north and east of Waltham Abbey the road is called Crooked Mile. It was previously called Trikerslane (recorded 1414) or Crykettslane (1516). (fn. 17) West of Crooked Mile is a wide expanse of marsh and meadow split into islands by the channels of the river. The medieval town grew up immediately east of the point where the channels unite. Waltham Abbey lies on a road that runs through the centre of the parish, westwards over the river to Waltham Cross and Cheshunt, and eastwards, crossing the north to south road ¼ mile east of the town, and continuing to the 'Wake Arms' in the centre of Epping Forest, where it joins roads running east to Theydon Bois, north-east to Epping, south-west to Woodford (the Epping New Road) and south to Loughton. For part of its easterly course this road from Waltham Abbey is called Honey Lane, a name recorded in 1408. (fn. 18) There are a number of other roads in the parish, mostly east to west, among them one which runs through Upshire and past Copped Hall to the Epping road. Several sections of this road bear medieval names: Paternoster Hill (recorded 1467), Pick Hill (1467), Horseshoe Hill (1414). (fn. 19)


WALTHAM ABBEY c.1945

WALTHAM ABBEY c.1945

While the main features of the road system are undoubtedly medieval there have been various alterations since the 16th century. Norden's Map of Essex (1594) shows two roads in the parish. (fn. 20) One runs from the Lea through Waltham Abbey to Theydon Bois, on approximately the line of the present road. The other, running from Waltham Abbey past Copped Hall to Epping, is apparently the Upshire Road mentioned above, which has lost the importance it seems to have had in the 16th century. Its decline probably began early in the 17th century, when a new road was made through the forest from Epping to Loughton. (fn. 21) This crossed the road from Waltham to Theydon Bois and provided an alternative route from Waltham to Epping. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, when Warlies Park and Copped Hall Park were being developed, their influential owners secured the closure of several lanes and footpaths in the neighbourhood, (fn. 22) and they may have discouraged the public use of those remaining. During the same period similar developments took place at Sewardstone Green, in the south of the parish, where the extension of Gilwell Park caused the closure or diversion of at least one road. (fn. 23) In the extreme north of the parish a road running over Galley Hill from Aimes Green to Nazeing Long Green, which seems to have been important in the 18th century (fn. 24) is no longer practicable for wheeled traffic.

There are many bridges in the parish, the maintenance of which often caused controversy. In the Middle Ages some of the smaller marshland bridges were repaired by land-holders. Thus in c. 1270 William de Brandeshacche, Walter Quyet and Thomas Curiol were responsible for repairing two bridges at Sewardstone while the Abbot of Waltham had to maintain four bridges. (fn. 25) In 1294, soon after the erection of the Eleanor Cross at Waltham Cross, Edward I ordered an enquiry into the maintenance of the bridges and causeways between the Cross and the town of Waltham. The jurors could not say who made the bridges or who was legally responsible for their repair but said that in practice two chaplains dwelling by the causeway had repaired the bridges out of alms and legacies received from passers-by. (fn. 26) In 1362, after a similar inquiry, it was found that the bridges were maintained by voluntary gifts and were not the liability of the abbot or his tenants. (fn. 27)

Before the Lea Navigation was completed in the 18th century the only navigable branch of the river was the King's Stream; over this a raised bridge was constructed at least as early as 1355, when the high bridge of Waltham (from which High Bridge Street was named) was mentioned. (fn. 28) A bridge over the Small River Lea was mentioned in 1380, when the king granted permission to three men of Cheshunt and three of Waltham Holy Cross to levy pontage for four years to repair it. (fn. 29) From 1581 or earlier Small Lea Bridge was maintained jointly by the counties of Essex and Hertfordshire. (fn. 30)

By the early 19th century the county had also taken over Broomstick Hall and Cobbin bridges. (fn. 31) Some bridges were being repaired by the parish vestry as early as the 17th century, (fn. 32) but in 1888 it was stated that the maintenance of most of the bridges lay with the lord of the manor. (fn. 33) The War Department then maintained the bridge by the refinery, while the parishioners seem to have maintained the bridge near the Romeland and one on the Sewardstone road. (fn. 34) The Lea Navigation Co. had always been responsible for the bridge over the Navigation. (fn. 35)

Until the end of the 18th century the town of Waltham Abbey consisted only of the main street and a small area to the south of it. (fn. 36) Since then it has expanded considerably especially to the east and south. In the centre there has been much rebuilding, so that few old houses remain. But in spite of these changes the street plan of the medieval town has persisted. The main street enters from the west as High Bridge Street. In 1390 and later this was called West Street. (fn. 37) Further east it becomes Church Street for a short distance before entering the Market Square. (fn. 38) Beyond the Market Place it becomes Sun Street: that name, taken from the Sun Inn, goes back to the 17th century; previously this was East Street, mentioned in 1447. (fn. 39) West of the abbey, behind the north side of High Bridge Street, is the Romeland, an open space now used as the cattle market. It has been suggested that this name, found in 1331, denotes a connexion with Peter's Pence, but it probably means merely 'empty land'. (fn. 40) Running south from the Market Square is Sewardstone Street. This was formerly Ellford Street, a name going back to the 12th century. (fn. 41) Branching from the east side of this street is Quaker Lane; this may be identical with Foot's Lane, which may have taken its name from the 13th-century family of Foot. (fn. 42) Silver Street, running south-west from the Market Square to Fountain Place, was known in 1342 as School Street and in the 18th century as Kilhogs Lane. (fn. 43) Beyond it, towards the meadows, was the town refuse dump, which drained into the Black Ditch. (fn. 44) East of Silver Street, running south, is Paradise Street, leading to Paradise Row. 'Paradyce gardyn', in this area, occurs in 1468. (fn. 45) At the north end of Paradise Street was the Baker's Entry, a timber building with an upper story supported on pillars and arches of oak forming a covered footpath. Here is said to have been the abbey bakehouse: the ancient oven was still in use until the building was demolished in 1846. (fn. 46)

Waltham Abbey grew very little between the 16th century and the end of the 18th. The expansion of the gunpowder mill, which began in 1787 and continued intermittently for over a century, demanded new houses for the mill workers. Many of these were built in Waltham New Town, on the Hertfordshire side of the parish and county boundary. Others were provided by extensive rebuilding in the older parts of Waltham Abbey. Some of the rebuilding involved slum-clearance, in which the local board was engaged as early as 1892. (fn. 47) Most of the new houses built during the 19th century were of cottage type, in terraces. They gave Waltham a mean appearance, upon which a writer commented in 1876: 'the town lies low and looks damp; the streets are narrow and crooked; the houses are mostly small, commonplace, and many very poor'. (fn. 48) Examples of such development can still (1963) be seen to the east of Sewardstone Street. Since the Second World War the urban district council has swept away much of this 19th-century terraced housing, particularly in the central area to the south-west of the Market Square. By the early 1960's nearly all the older buildings in Silver Street, Fountain Place, and the adjoining streets had been demolished and the area was being laid out with new terraces, blocks of flats, and old people's bungalows. In 1961 the Market Square was enlarged by setting back its south-west angle and erecting there an L-shaped block containing five new shops. During the present century, also, the town has expanded to the east, along the road to Upshire, and south along Sewardstone Road.

Until the early 19th century there were still many old buildings in Waltham Abbey, but most of these have disappeared. (fn. 49) There are, however, three small groups of timber-framed houses left in the town, all adjacent to the Market Square. The Welsh Harp Inn stands on its north side, part of the ground floor forming an open lych-gate to the churchyard. (fn. 50) It is thought to date from the 15th century with 17th-century additions and is probably the only surviving medieval building in the town apart from those associated with the abbey. (fn. 51) On the south side of Church Street, adjoining the square, are two timber-framed and plastered houses of the 16th and 17th centuries, one of which has a carved fascia above its carriage entry. A row of timber-framed houses forms the north-east angle of the square and extends along the south side of Sun Street. The corner house has a gabled cross wing and a projecting upper story supported at the angle by a carved bracket in the form of a hermaphrodite figure holding a jug. Other timber-framed houses include one on the west side of Market Square, the Queen Anne Inn on its east side (refronted later), the Vicarage, and a single example in Sewardstone Street. There are two impressive 18th-century brick frontages in the centre of the town: Essex House in Sewardstone Street (No. 20) is of three stories and five bays and has the date 1722 on its rainwater heads; St. Kilda's in High Bridge Street (No. 31) has a slightly later two-storied front of six bays and a projecting Roman Doric porch. The Green Dragon Inn in Market Square is another 18th-century building. Sun Street, the long narrow street leading east from Market Square, is lined on both sides with two-storied buildings, mostly of the 18th and early 19th centuries, their ground floors now occupied by shops.

Holyfield hamlet occupies the north-eastern part of the parish, between the Lea and Cobbins Brook. It is still sparsely populated, and not easily accessible except by the road between Nazeing Long Green and Waltham Abbey. Here were the manors of Holyfield Hall, Hooks and Pinnacles, Claverhambury, and Harold Park. Here also was a property called from its medieval owners Moundegomes, later corrupted to Monkhams. (fn. 52) During the 19th century this became an important estate under the ownership of the Colvins. (fn. 53) In this hamlet, about 1541 Henry VIII made a large park called Waltham Park, occupying most of the area between Crooked Mile and Cobbins Brook. The park appears to have been thrown open again in the 17th century. (fn. 54) The oldest house now surviving in Holyfield hamlet is probably Stubbins, a timber-framed building about ½ mile south of Holyfield Hall, thought to date from the 16th century. (fn. 55)

South of the town is Sewardstone hamlet. This comprised one manor, the original house being at Sewardstonebury, near the Chingford boundary. A line of ancient houses, comprising Sewardstone village, stood along the road running south. (fn. 56) Of these the most important were Pentensary, which took its name from the 'pittancer' of the abbey, and Gilwell House, said to have been a royal hunting lodge, developed about 1790 into a country estate. (fn. 57) The present Gilwell Park house is of early-19th-century date. It now belongs to the Boy Scouts Association. Gilwell farmhouse, in Gilwell Lane, Netherhouse, in Sewardstone Road, and Carrolls, at Sewardstone Green, all dating from the late 17th and early 18th centuries, are among the few old houses still standing in this hamlet. Sewardstonebury is now a residential extension of Chingford, and the area to the north-east of it is occupied by the West Essex Golf Course.

Upshire hamlet is east of the town, between Cobbins Brook and Sewardstone, standing, as its name indicates, on higher ground. Here were the manors of Mores and Ansteys, Pyenest, Woodredon, and part of Copped Hall (Epping). Here too was Warlies, an estate deriving its name from Richard de Warley, who owned land at Upshire in 1338. (fn. 58) In the 17th century it was the home of Samuel Foxe, son of the martyrologist. In the 18th century it became an important estate under the Morgan family; in 1848 it comprised 477 a. (fn. 59) It was later held by the Buxtons. (fn. 60) The present house is of the late 18th century with alterations and extensive additions of 1879 designed by S. S. Teulon. (fn. 61) The south front of the older block has a tall bow-fronted Ionic portico. In the park are three 18th-century features, a classical rotunda and two obelisks. The latter are said to commemorate the death of Queen Boudicca. (fn. 62) Since 1915 Warlies has belonged to Dr. Barnardo's Homes. (fn. 63) There are several groups of weather-boarded 18th-century cottages near the church at Upshire. Upshire Hall, formerly known as South End, (fn. 64) stands in a small park and is approached by a drive from Honey Lane, where there is an early-19th-century lodge, with a thatched roof and ogee-headed windows. The house itself is of brick and probably dates from the early 18th century.

High Beech, which became an ecclesiastical parish in the 19th century, had been partly in Sewardstone and partly in Upshire. The manor of Pyenest (Pinners) lay in this area, and other early settlements are suggested by medieval references to such places as Lippitts Hill and Skillet Hill. (fn. 65) By the end of the 18th century a considerable village had grown up on the edge of the forest at or near High Beech. (fn. 66) Sewardstone manor house, dating from c. 1700, (fn. 67) is in this area and by the middle of the 19th century there were several other substantial houses in their own grounds, including Roseville, Wallsgrove House, and Beech (later Arabin) House. The Owl public house, and Springfield farmhouse, both on Lippitts Hill, are 18th-century weather-boarded buildings. It was at High Beech, in 1882, that Queen Victoria declared Epping Forest open to the public. The clearings on high ground near the King's Oak hotel are still the favourite resort of visitors to the forest. The present hotel building dates from 1887, but there was an inn of the same name on the site in the 18th century. (fn. 68)

For communications the parish has always depended very much on Waltham Cross, which is on the main road from London to Ware. In 1725 there were daily coach services from London to Waltham Abbey, and the journey took less than two hours. (fn. 69) In c. 1840 land transport to London was provided by a coach and two carriers, while two other carriers ran services down the Lea. (fn. 70) The Northern and Eastern Railway from London to Cambridge, opened in 1840–2, included a station at Waltham Cross. (fn. 71) In 1848 a 'bus ran several times a day between this station and Waltham Abbey. (fn. 72)

Early postal services to Waltham Abbey were also provided through Waltham Cross, which had a post office by 1771. (fn. 73) Sewardstone was being served from Chingford by 1810. (fn. 74) By 1848 there was a sub-post office at Waltham Abbey, and one at High Beech, the latter served from Woodford. (fn. 75) By 1870 the post office in the town provided a telegraph service. (fn. 76)

Among notable persons connected with the parish was John Foxe the martyrologist who lived at Waltham Abbey between 1565 and 1570. By 1749 his house in Sun Street was a popular show-place. (fn. 77) Thomas Fuller, author of The Worthies, was curate of Waltham. (fn. 78) The Buxtons, owners of Warlies in the 19th century, belonged to a family well known for philanthropy and public service. (fn. 79) It was at Waltham Abbey, in 1526, that Thomas Cranmer, later Archbishop of Canterbury, proposed his plan for Henry VIII's divorce. (fn. 80) Alfred, Lord Tennyson lived at Beech Hill House, High Beech, from 1837 to 1840. (fn. 81)

MANORS.

Tofig the Proud, who founded the church (later the abbey) of Waltham during the reign of Cnut, appears to have held lands in WALTHAM and to have granted some of them to that church. (fn. 82) He died soon after 1042; his son Athelstan forfeited his Waltham lands to Edward the Confessor, who granted them to Harold son of Godwin. (fn. 83) When Harold converted the church into a college of secular canons in 1060 he endowed it with 3 hides in Northland in Waltham. (fn. 84) The remainder of his land in the parish, comprising 40 hides, passed at the Conquest to William I and was granted by him about 1075 to Walcher, Bishop of Durham, in order to provide the bishop with a home near London. (fn. 85) Later sources show that Walcher also acquired 2½ of the 3 hides held by the college in Northland, (fn. 86) and it seems probable that he established some degree of control over the abbey itself. (fn. 87)

In 1086 William of St. Calais, Walcher's successor as bishop, held Waltham. Two sokemen belonging to the manor held 5 hides; in 1066 they had held 6 hides but half a hide had been taken by the canons of Waltham and half by William de Warenne. Four other sokemen who belonged to the manor held 2 hides and half a virgate. Another tenement, consisting of 1 hide less 15 a., had been taken by William de Warenne, and Ranulf brother of Ilger had taken 30 a. land and 4 a. meadow. (fn. 88) There is no reference to Warenne's seizure in the account of his own fief. (fn. 89) Ranulf, brother of Ilger, held a manor in Nazeing and Epping, in the account of which it is stated that a virgate formerly belonging to the canons of Waltham had been added to the manor. (fn. 90) That was clearly the tenement seized by him in Waltham. The Bishop of Durham also held, as appurtenant to the manor of Waltham, 12 houses and a gate (Aldgate) in London. (fn. 91) The Domesday survey does not mention the three hides in Northland which Harold had given to the college of Waltham. In 1086 the college appears to have held only ½ hide in Waltham.

Some of this Domesday information is difficult to interpret. The location and later history of the sokemen's lands, and the exact relationship between these and the capital manor are unknown. There may have been links between the sokemen's lands and some of the later manors, for example Claverhambury, but proof of this is lacking. The extent and location of the capital manor itself is also obscure. One thing, however, seems clear: substantial parts of the estates listed in Domesday Book as being in Waltham extended into Nazeing and Epping. In 1086 at least 40 hides were said to be in Waltham, (fn. 92) while in Epping and Nazeing together there were only 15 hides and 1½ virgate. The later areas of the ancient parishes were, however: Epping, 5,319 a., Nazeing 3,952 a., Waltham 11,017 a. (fn. 93) Between 1086 and 1189 the canons of Waltham gradually gained possession of all or most of the large manor held at Domesday by the Bishop of Durham, and probably also of most of the lands in Epping and Nazeing which had belonged to Ranulf, brother of Ilger.

Between 1088 and 1091 the lands of Durham were in the king's hands as the result of a dispute between William II and Bishop William. (fn. 94) It may have been during this period that the king despoiled the church of Waltham of many of its precious furnishings to enrich that of St. Stephen, Caen. (fn. 95) This robbery had a sequel fortunate for Waltham. About 1096, when the lands of Durham, sede vacante, were again in the king's hands, William II was seized with remorse and granted to the college, by way of compensation, villam Walthamensem cum omnibus ei adiacentibus. (fn. 96) It is clear from the context that the lands thus given had previously belonged to the Bishop of Durham, but later evidence suggests that the college acquired at this time only part of the bishop's large manor of Waltham. (fn. 97) The rest of that manor was again merged in the royal demesne, either during the episcopal vacancy of 1096–9 or during the exile of Bishop Flambard in 1100–1, and was granted in dower to several successive queens. (fn. 98) The connexion between Waltham and Durham was not, however, completely severed at this time. not, however, completely servered at this time. Several 12th-century deans and canons of Waltham were included in the Durham obituary, and the cathedral priory of Durham was granted land in Epping about 1115. (fn. 99)

Henry I granted to his first wife Maud 'Waltham with all things appertaining to it and the service of the canons and their men'. (fn. 100) Maud also held Aldgate 'with the soc pertaining to it, which was in her demesne'. (fn. 101) This was undoubtedly the gate in London which the Bishop of Durham had held in 1086. The canons of Waltham seem to have pressed their claim to it, for when Maud founded the Priory of Holy Trinity, Aldgate, in 1108, she granted them a mill or mills in Waltham to free the priory from subjection to the church of Waltham. (fn. 102) Maud also restored to the canons the 2½ hides taken away from them by Bishop Walcher. (fn. 103) Adeliza, second wife of Henry I, held Waltham by his grant, and gave the canons the tithes of the manor. (fn. 104) She carried it in marriage (1138) to her second husband William D'Aubigny, later Earl of Arundel. (fn. 105) Stephen, soon after his accession, gave Waltham to his queen Maud. (fn. 106) The Empress Maud, probably after her victory in 1141, confirmed the manor to Adeliza. (fn. 107) D'Aubigny appears to have held it until his wife's death in 1151. In 1144 he was involved in a struggle with Geoffrey de Mandeville, during which Geoffrey set fire to the town of Waltham. (fn. 108) The 12th-century chronicler of Waltham was hostile to D'Aubigny, alleging that his marriage had turned his head. (fn. 109) Whether D'Aubigny held the manor after Adeliza's death is not clear, but it seems unlikely. In 1156–62 there were references in the pipe rolls to the land of the queen (Eleanor of Aquitaine) in Waltham. (fn. 110) In 1163 it was stated that Otuel de Cruis had paid £20 8s. 6d. into the Exchequer for Waltham but had not rendered his account. (fn. 111) This was the first occasion in the reign of Henry II when a special payment was received in the Exchequer for Waltham. In 1164 John the Clerk and Puhier rendered account of £100 for the farm of Waltham. (fn. 112) It seems therefore that from 1163–4 the manor there formerly held by the queen was no longer in her hands. In 1165 it was farmed by John the Clerk, Aucher the Huntsman, and Ralph Napier, also for £100. (fn. 113) This continued to be the farm until 1189; small annual allowances were set against it for land or rents granted by the king to the Knights Templars, to Aucher the Huntsman and his sons Richard and Turstin Fitz Aucher. (fn. 114) Guy Ruffus, Dean of Waltham, took over the farm in 1166 and held it until 1175. (fn. 115) In 1170 John Fitz Adam (alias John the Clerk of 1165), Ralph Napier and all the inhabitants (tota villata) of Waltham were associated with Guy in rendering the account. (fn. 116) In 1176 Aucher the Huntsman resumed the farm; he held it until 1184 but from 1178 in association with William Napier. Napier was sole farmer from 1185 to 1189. (fn. 117) In 1177, however, Henry II refounded the college of Waltham as a priory for canons regular, and added to its endowments land in Sewardstone and Epping valued at £28 a year. (fn. 118) In the following year he granted the canons a further 17s. 1d. in Waltham. (fn. 119) In subsequent years these sums were set against the granted the canons a further 17s. 1d. in Waltham. (fn. 120) In subsequent years these sums were set against the farm of the king's land of Waltham, which continued to be rendered as a separate account in the pipe rolls.

In 1189 the abbot and canons of Waltham paid 300 marks to Richard I for a grant of the whole manor of Waltham, with the great wood and park (Harold's Park), the vill of Nazeing and the half hundred of Waltham. All these were to be held for an annual fee-farm rent of £60. (fn. 121) This rent is not shown in the pipe rolls for 1190–1203, but from 1204 until the end of John's reign the abbot appears there as paying £60 a year for the farm of Waltham, (fn. 122) and the rent was paid to the Crown or its assigns throughout the Middle Ages. (fn. 123) The foregoing account shows that the grants of 1177 and 1189, although important, were only part of the process, occupying the whole of the 12th century, by which the canons of Waltham Abbey consolidated control over their own parish. Much of this was probably due to Guy Ruffus, dean from about 1164 until 1177. He was a prominent servant of Henry II who acted as a baron of the Exchequer, itinerant justice and diplomatist. (fn. 124) It was during his rule that the royal lands at Waltham were put out to farm and for ten years he was himself the farmer. The year 1163–4, when the farming started, was perhaps as significant as 1177 and 1189. What remain obscure, however, are the reasons for the changes in the farmers between 1163–4 and 1189, and the relations between the canons of Waltham and the laymen who acted as farmers for part of that period, especially Aucher the Huntsman, a powerful local figure (fn. 125) and William and Ralph Napier. (fn. 126) These changes, taken in conjunction with an early13th-century reference to the burgesses (or borough) of the king's fee at Waltham (fn. 127) may reflect an attempt by the laymen, resisted by the canons, to secure borough status. The only particular change of farmer for which any reason can be suggested is that of 1175. Guy, who ceased to hold the office in that year, had been suspended from his deanery late in 1174. (fn. 128)

In and after the 13th century the abbey exercised jurisdiction over the whole parish through the manor courts of Waltham and Sewardstone. (fn. 129) Its demesne was large. In the 19th century 4,320 a. in the town, Holyfield, and Upshire hamlets were tithe free 'as demesne of the former monastery', and a further 869 a. in Sewardstone were exempt, presumably for the same reason. (fn. 130) At the Dissolution the principal demesne estates were Waltham Grange, Claverhambury (acquired in or after the 13th century), Harold's Park, Sewardstone, and Woodredon. There were also a number of free tenements held of the manor of Waltham, of which the most important were Hooks and Pinnacles, Mores and Ansteys, Pyenest; Holyfield Hall, whose early history is obscure, was probably in the same category. Waltham Grange, which adjoined the abbey, was the home farm of the manor. All the other demesne estates and free tenements are separately treated below.

The manor of Waltham remained in the possession of the abbey until the Dissolution. In 1541 the king leased Waltham Grange to (Sir) Anthony Denny, (fn. 131) while retaining some land in the parish for a park. (fn. 132) Denny subsequently acquired Holyfield (in 1542) and Claverhambury, Harold's Park, Hooks and Pinnacles, Sewardstone and Woodredon (1547). In 1547 he was granted the reversion in fee of Waltham Grange, for his services to Henry VIII. (fn. 133) On his death in 1549 his widow Joan succeeded to his estates, and in 1553 she bought the reversion in fee of the manor of Waltham. (fn. 134) She died in the same year, leaving Henry Denny her son and heir. (fn. 135) Henry died in 1574 leaving two sons, Robert and Edward and a daughter Anne, who later married George Goring. (fn. 136) Robert, the elder son, died in 1576 and was succeeded by Edward Denny, who was created Baron Denny of Waltham (1604) and Earl of Norwich (1626). On his death in 1637 the barony and lands of Waltham devolved upon his grandson James Hay, 2nd Earl of Carlisle. (fn. 137) Carlisle died in 1660 without issue and his widow Margaret, who later married Edward Montagu, Earl of Manchester, retained the manor until her death in 1676. (fn. 138) After that the manor reverted to the sisters of Charles Goring, Earl of Norwich, grandson of the above Anne, daughter of Henry Denny. (fn. 139) They sold the estate to Sir Samuel Jones, who left it to his great-nephew Samuel, fifth son of Sir William Wake, Bt. (fn. 140) Samuel Wake, who took the surname of Jones, left the manor to his nephew Charles Wake, who also took the name of Jones. (fn. 141) By this time the estate was considerably reduced. Holyfield had been sold in 1627, Sewardstone and Woodredon soon after 1660. Harold's Park was also detached about 1700.

Charles Wake Jones died in 1740, leaving Waltham to his nephew Sir Charles Wake, Bt., who in his turn took the name of Jones. (fn. 142) Sir Charles Wake Jones died without issue in 1755 and was succeeded by Sir William Wake, Bt., grandson of the Sir William Wake mentioned above. The manor of Waltham has subsequently descended with the baronetcy. In or before the 19th century Hooks and Pinnacles and Claverhambury were detached from the estate, but the Wakes remained great landowners in the parish. In 1842 Sir William Wake owned 841 a. titheable land, in addition to a large area tithe-free. (fn. 143)

After the Dissolution the lords of the manor lived for some time at Dallance, a mile north-east of Waltham Abbey. Dallance probably derived its name from the family of John Daloun (1414). It had previously been known as Saxpyes from the family of Edward Sakespee (1254). (fn. 144) Early in the 16th century it belonged to Sir Humphrey Browne, who conveyed it to Henry VIII. (fn. 145) Along with the abbey estates it came to the Denny family. Joan, Lady Denny, and her son Henry Denny both died there. (fn. 146) A map of c. 1590 shows Dallance surrounded by 'Waltham Park', which covered a large area between Honey Lane and Crooked Mile. (fn. 147) This park was created about 1542 by Henry VIII, for whom Sir Anthony Denny acted as keeper. (fn. 148) It is shown on Speed's Map of Essex (1610) but not on that of Ogilby and Morgan (1678). Dallance ceased to be the manor house about 1600, when Edward Denny built the Abbey House on part of the Abbey site, probably making use of material from the ruins. (fn. 149) Early in the 18th century Charles Wake Jones enlarged this house. The exact details of his alterations are not known, but he probably re-fronted the old building. (fn. 150) An engraving of Wake's house shows a half-H shaped front, the central block having a portico with four Tuscan columns. (fn. 151) He also laid out the grounds in elaborate fashion. A celebrated tulip tree then grew in the garden. (fn. 152) The house was demolished in c. 1770. (fn. 153) Sixteenth-century panelling from it was placed in an old house in Green Yard, (fn. 154) and was removed in 1899 to the Victoria and Albert Museum. (fn. 155) The site of the Abbey House is now a nursery garden. The red-brick wall enclosing it, which dates from the 15th or 16th century, survives.

The manor of CLAVERHAMBURY lies near the eastern boundary of the parish, south-west of Harold's Park. Its name is derived from the family of Claverham. (fn. 156) Pain of Claverham was holding a small estate in Waltham in 1168, 1180, and later. (fn. 157) He granted to Waltham Abbey 2 a. of his demesne in Fridesheie, later known as Frithey. (fn. 158) Adam, son of Pain, and William de Claverham were tenants of the abbey in c. 1235. (fn. 159) Claverhambury was part of the Waltham Abbey estates at the Dissolution. It was then leased to George Stoner. (fn. 160) In 1547 it was granted, with most of the abbey lands, to Anthony Denny. (fn. 161) It descended along with the capital manor and was among the possessions of Edward Denny, Earl of Norwich, at his death in 1637. (fn. 162) During the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I it was leased to a family named Hall. (fn. 163) By his will the Earl of Norwich left a rent-charge of £100 a year from Claverhambury for the support of the curate of Waltham Holy Cross. (fn. 164) The subsequent descent of Claverhambury is not clear; the manor probably descended as part of one of the larger local estates. In 1842, when it comprised 186 a., it belonged to George Palmer of Nazeing Park. (fn. 165) In 1933 the owner was William G. Loving (fn. 166) and in 1935 Mrs. Loving. (fn. 167) Claverhambury was subsequently acquired by the Clapton Stadium, for use as training kennels.

In 1189 Richard I granted to the canons of Waltham inter alia all his manor of Waltham with the great wood and the park called HAROLD'S PARK to enclose and to keep as a park. (fn. 168) Harold's Park, later styled a manor, lay in the extreme north-east corner of Waltham parish, and extended into Nazeing. Its name suggests that it had belonged before the Conquest to Earl Harold; no doubt it had been part of his Waltham estate. (fn. 169) The manor remained part of the abbey's demesne until the Dissolution. In 1253 the canons were given permission to enlarge the park by 60 a. (fn. 170) In 1547 Harold's Park was granted to John Dudley, Earl of Warwick, who immediately conveyed it to (Sir) Anthony Denny, (fn. 171) who also held the capital manor of Waltham. It was then in the tenure of George Stoner. (fn. 172) In 1559 John Tamworth (or Thomworth) the executor of Joan, Lady Denny, obtained a lease of Harold's Park. (fn. 173) During the reign of James I Sir Edward Greville, who had married Lady Elizabeth (Grey), widow of Henry Denny, resided at Harold's Park. He was followed by his son-in-law Sir Francis Swift. (fn. 174) Harold's Park descended with the manor of Waltham until the death in 1660 of James Hay, Earl of Carlisle. His will directed that it should be sold to pay his debts. (fn. 175) His widow Margaret, later Countess of Manchester, retained it as her jointure until her death in 1676, but before that time the reversion had been mortgaged to Richard Boyle, Earl of Cork (later Earl of Burlington), and had subsequently become his absolute estate. (fn. 176) Burlington took possession of the manor in 1677. (fn. 177) About 1698 it became the property of Matthew Kenrick, a Turkey merchant, after whose death in 1712 it was sold to Sir James Bateman, Bt., who in 1716 devised it to his son Richard. (fn. 178) In 1758 Richard Bateman sold it to Joseph Bird, whose son Joseph was in possession in 1814. (fn. 179) Harold's Park subsequently passed to Shearman Bird, whose daughter, Mary Ann D. Bird was holding it as a minor in 1827. (fn. 180) In 1848 the manor was held by George Palmer the younger, of Nazeing Park, and others, devisees of the late John Barker Hoy. (fn. 181) It later belonged to a Mr. Smith, then to Thomas Rippin. (fn. 182) In 1904 the owner was the Marchese Guadagni. (fn. 183) Between the two World Wars Harold's Park was owned by the Overland Trading Co. In 1954 it was the property of Mr. J. Mackie, (fn. 184) who is the present (1962) owner.

The approach to the manor house was originally from Epping Long Green, as shown on Chapman and André's Map. (fn. 185) Later a new road, bordered by trees, was made up the hill from Bumble's Green. (fn. 186) Recently the trees became dangerous and were felled, but a new avenue has been planted. The present house dates largely from the 19th century and was restored after 1954 by Mr. Mackie. Nothing appears to survive of the previous building, described by Winters. (fn. 187)

The manor of HOLYFIELD HALL lay near the Lea and the Nazeing boundary. Its history before the 15th century is obscure. Before that time there are many references to land in Holyfield hamlet, but most of them seem to relate to the manor of Hooks and Pinnacles (q.v.).

Holyfield Hall manor is first mentioned by name in 1536, when it was sold by Helen Babington, widow, to Thomas Cromwell. (fn. 188) Helen was sister of Thomas Langridge, daughter of John Langridge, and grand-daughter of Walter Langridge, whose heir she was. In 1534 Cromwell had been negotiating for the custody of 'Langridge's lands near Nazeingbury', upon which the king had distrained for debt. (fn. 189) In 1540, after Cromwell's fall, Holyfield Hall was forfeit to the Crown, and its custody was granted to Sir Richard Rich. (fn. 190) In the same year part of the demesne lands of the manor were leased for 21 years to John Cary, a page of the Privy Chamber. (fn. 191) In 1542 the manor, including the reversion of lands thus leased, was conveyed to Sir Anthony Denny. (fn. 192) It descended along with the capital manor of Waltham to Edward Denny, Earl of Norwich, who in 1627 conveyed Holyfield Hall to Thomas Coteel. (fn. 193) It was later in the possession of the Collard family. (fn. 194) William Collard was first mentioned there in 1651. (fn. 195) He died in 1668 and was followed by his son William (d. 1674). William Collard, son of William, died in 1698 and was succeeded by his brother Ady. (fn. 196) On Ady's death in 1747 Holyfield passed to his niece Charlotte, and her husband Alexander Hamilton (fn. 197) and in 1748 they leased the manor to Lomax Martyn. (fn. 198) At that time it comprised 120 a. land and 30 cowleazes in Odey Marsh. In 1766 Alexander Hamilton released the manor to his son William. (fn. 199) On William's death in 1811 the estate passed to his brother Anthony Hamilton, Archdeacon of Colchester. (fn. 200) Anthony died in 1812 and was succeeded by his son William. (fn. 201) William R. Hamilton held Holyfield from 1827 or earlier (fn. 202) to about 1865. (fn. 203) In 1842 the estate comprised 283 a. (fn. 204) Holyfield later became part of the Monkhams estate, held by the Colvins. (fn. 205) In c. 1814 the farm was let to John Chapman (fn. 206) and the tenancy remained in his family until 1933 or later. (fn. 207)

Holyfield Hall farmhouse is a red-brick building apparently of c. 1700, but perhaps incorporating earlier work. About a mile south of it was an early17th-century building demolished since 1921, called Holyfield Farm; in the 18th century this was known as Barwick. (fn. 208)

The manor of HOOKS AND PINNACLES, which was a free tenement held of the manor of Waltham, derived its name from a house called 'the Pinnacle' and the lands of a family called Hook. It lay in the hamlet of Holyfield, probably between Fisher's Green and Clapgate Lane, near Monkhams. Hooks is marked on a map of c. 1590 but no house is depicted. (fn. 209) The tithe map shows Pinnacle field adjoining Clapgate Lane, Great Hooks and Little Hooks just south of Fisher's Green, and Hooks Marsh a little further west by the river. (fn. 210)

Early in the 12th century Viel owned the Pinnacle. His son and heir Philip Fitz Viel is said to have committed adultery with Edith, wife of Aucher the Huntsman, (fn. 211) thus incurring the enmity of Aucher's son Richard, who procured the judicial murder of Philip on a false charge of robbery and arson and secured his land from the king. (fn. 212) These events probably took place in, or shortly before, 1177. In that year, apparently, Richard Fitz Aucher began to pay the king 10s. rent for land in Waltham. (fn. 213) That this had been Philip Fitz Viel's land is strongly suggested by a statement, made in 1212, that Fitz Aucher had formerly paid the king 10s. rent for Fitz Viel's land in Waltham. (fn. 214) Associated with Pinnacles, in the record of 1212, was another small estate, formerly held by a certain Puhier. From 1166 Richard Fitz Aucher was paying the king 13s. 4d. rent for this. (fn. 215) Puhier's land has not been certainly identified. In 1229 William le Poer, presumably a relative of Puhier, was paying a rent of 13s. 4d. to the heirs of Fitz Aucher. (fn. 216) 'Poeresland', comprising 60 a., was held of the Fitz Auchers in 1303. (fn. 217) It may have been near Copped Hall. Richard I granted the two rents, of 10s. for Pinnacles and 13s. 4d. for Puhier's land, to Waltham Abbey, and from that time, therefore, Fitz Aucher paid them to the abbey. (fn. 218)

Pinnacles descended along with Copped Hall, Epping, in the Fitz Aucher family throughout the 13th century. Henry Fitz Aucher (d. 1303) held it of the Abbot of Waltham. (fn. 219) It is next mentioned by name in 1429, by which time it was united with Hooks.

The early history of Hooks is obscure. The family from which the estate took its name lived at Waltham in the 13th and 14th centuries. Richard Hook was a tenant of the abbey in c. 1235. (fn. 220) A few years later Nicholas Hook and his wife made a grant of a piece of land in Frithey and another on the border of Nazeing Wood. (fn. 221) John Hook occurs in charters of 1338 and 1347. (fn. 222) In 1380 John Hokele and Mary his wife conveyed to Matthew Langridge and Margaret his wife about 120 a. land, mainly arable, and 13s. 4d. rent in Waltham Holy Cross. (fn. 223) Later references show that this property was Hooks. It is possible that 'Hokele' was a variant of Hook, but perhaps more likely that the name was derived from the Essex parish of Hockley. In 1389 John Couper, chaplain, and others, mortgaged Hooks (named as such) to John Matthew, Vicar of Nazeing, and others. (fn. 224) In 1391 Matthew and his associates conveyed Hooks to Adam Bamme and others by a deed which states that the estate formerly belonged to Matthew Langridge and his wife Margaret. (fn. 225) In the same year Matthew Langridge, fishmonger of London, and Margaret his wife, quitclaimed the estate to Adam Bamme and his associates and the heirs of Adam. (fn. 226) In 1424 Walter Langridge and Margaret his wife conveyed to John Kyrkeby and others 3 a. marsh and a fishery in the river Lea at Waltham. (fn. 227) In 1429 John Marwe conveyed to John Kyrkeby and Elizabeth his wife a 'tenement and toft called Hooks and Pinnacle' which had formerly belonged to John Marwe's father Walter. (fn. 228) This is the first occasion when Hooks and Pinnacles are mentioned together, but they had probably been united during the 14th century. Matthew and Margaret Langridge, who held Hooks, were probably related to William Langridge, who held Langridge in Nazeing in the late 14th century. (fn. 229) Langridge, like Pinnacles, had belonged in the 13th century to the Fitz Auchers.

By charter, not precisely dated but probably executed soon after 1429, Hooks and Pinnacles were settled on John Kyrkeby and Joan his wife. (fn. 230) In 1438 John and Joan conveyed to Robert Symond, Walter Gorfen and Edward Broket 'the manor of Hooks and half the manor of Pinnacle'. (fn. 231) This was confirmed in 1441 by a final concord in which Symond was omitted and remainder was to the heirs of Walter Gorfen. (fn. 232) The estate then comprised about 250 a., including a little meadow, wood, and marsh, and 13s. 4d. rent in Waltham and Nazeing, with pasture for a bull and 20 cows in Holyfield Marsh and a fishery in the Lea. In 1449 William Say, clerk, John Say and Lawrence Cheyne his son-in-law (fn. 233) were listed as tenants of a group of manors including Hooks. (fn. 234) Sir John Say died in 1478 holding Hooks and Pinnacles of the Abbot of Waltham. (fn. 235) He was succeeded by his son Sir William. (fn. 236) In 1515 Robert Turbervyl, at the request of Sir William Say, granted this manor to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, steward of Waltham Forest during the minority of John de Vere, Earl of Oxford. (fn. 237) Dorothy, daughter and heir of Sir William Say, brought this manor to her husband William, Lord Mountjoy. (fn. 238) Their only daughter Gertrude married Henry Courtenay, Marquess of Exeter, in 1519, and the manor subsequently came into Exeter's possession. (fn. 239) In 1539 he was attainted and this manor was forfeit to the Crown. (fn. 240) With many others it was granted to Sir Ralph Sadler in 1547 (fn. 241) and later in the same year was alienated to Sir Anthony Denny. (fn. 242) Thereafter it descended with the manor of Waltham and lost its identity. In the 19th century most of it was incorporated in the Monkhams estate. The area is now a golf course.

The manor of MORES and ANSTEYS, which was a free tenement held of the manor of Waltham, lay in Upshire, north-east of Pinners Green, near Honey Lane. It derived its name from two families who held land there in the 14th century. In 1340 Christine, daughter of John Bogeys (?) of London, and Maud, daughter of Simon de Canterbury, granted to John de Anesty and Beatrice his wife all their land in the hamlet of Upshire. (fn. 243) In 1363 Robert Anstey granted to Richard de Wymbysh and Maud his wife, in fee farm, a tenement with two arable crofts in Upshire, which once belonged to William Brodeye. (fn. 244) The land which William Brodeye had held, perhaps about 1300, had included a field called 'Le More'. (fn. 245) Richard atte More, whose family may have taken their name from 'Le More', was holding 3 arable crofts in Upshire some time before 1380. This tenement later came into the hands of John, son of Bartholomew Langridge, who granted it to son of Bartholomew Langridge, who granted it to John Bolton and his wife Maud. (fn. 246) After Bolton's death Maud held it for life. (fn. 247) In 1380 she leased it to Simon Waryn for life. (fn. 248) This apparently contravened the terms of the charter granted by John Langridge. Maud's son John Bolton therefore seized the property, and in 1385 granted it to Robert Anstey. (fn. 249) In 1387 Isabel, widow of John Bolton the younger, released to Anstey ⅓ of 'a tenement and 3 crofts called Moris in Upshire next to Honey Lane end' which came to her on the death of her husband and which Anstey had held by grant of Bolton. (fn. 250)

Robert Anstey was dead by 1418, when his estate was confirmed by his trustees to his daughter Isabel and her husband Robert Olyver. (fn. 251) It then comprised about 230 a., mainly pasture. In 1432 Robert and Isabel conveyed Mores and Ansteys to Ralph Mullynges and Joan his wife. (fn. 252) After Mullynges's death his sister and heir Thomasine Walter granted the estate to Roger Trevanyon, who in 1461 conveyed it to Thomas Colt and Joan his wife. (fn. 253) Colt was a Yorkist who acquired other lands in this part of Essex about the same time. (fn. 254) By 1480 the manor was in the hands of William Dunthorn of London, who had previously secured it by a suit against Colt in the King's Bench. (fn. 255) Dunthorn was also lord of Pyenest (q.v.) in which manor Mores and Ansteys seems to have been merged from that time.

The manor of PYENEST, a free tenement held of the manor of Waltham, was situated in the neighbourhood of Pinners (formerly Pyenest) Green. It is shown on a map of c. 1590 to the west of the Green. (fn. 256) In 1337 John Lesturmy, Kt., and Maud, his wife, acquired from William de Rotington and Maud his wife 4 houses and about 250 a. land, mainly arable, in Upshire and Nazeing with remainder to their son, Edmund Lesturmy, to be held of the chief lords. (fn. 257) In 1341 John Lesturmy, lord of Pyenest, had licence to take small game in Waltham Forest. (fn. 258) He died in 1343, holding Pyenest of Waltham Abbey jointly with his wife Maud and his son Edmund. (fn. 259) An inquisition of the same year names a son Robert Lesturmy as heir. (fn. 260)

In 1382 Ralph Standish, Kt., was holding Pyenest. (fn. 261) In 1390 his widow Elizabeth leased it to Thomas Naylor. (fn. 262) She later married Thomas Lampet, Kt., and in 1408, again a widow, conveyed Pyenest to trustees. (fn. 263) In 1416 another group of trustees settled the manor on her. (fn. 264) By 1419 Pyenest had passed to Joan, daughter of Ralph Standish and wife of John Dande, broiderer of London. (fn. 265) Alice, daughter of Joan and John Dande, married Thomas Lacheford, grocer of London; in 1440 Thomas conveyed Pyenest to trustees who in 1446 settled it upon him for life with remainder to Ralph Standish. (fn. 266) In 1479–80 Alexander, son of Ralph Standish, conveyed the manor to William Dunthorn, (fn. 267) who also acquired Mores and Ansteys. (fn. 268)

In 1538 Robert Fuller, Abbot of Waltham, made a general release of his claims to lands (not named) to Jane, widow of William Welsh, her son Anthony Welsh, and John and Thomas Hanchett. (fn. 269) In 1540 Jane Welsh conveyed Pyenest to John and Thomas Hanchett and others, who were probably trustees. (fn. 270) In 1572 Christopher Welsh and Anne his wife conveyed the manor to Edward Downing. (fn. 271) Downing was succeeded on his death by his daughters Dorothy, Judith, and Elizabeth. Dorothy apparently died unmarried. In 1617 Judith and her husband Edward Alford of Effington (Suss.), and Elizabeth Kempe of Hereford, widow, and John Smith her son, leased Pyenest to Edward Fettiplace and Thomas Badby. (fn. 272) In 1649 Sir Edward Alford and Ann his wife, Sir Thomas Eversfield and Jane his wife, and Elizabeth Alford conveyed the manor to John Beresford, (fn. 273) who in 1655 conveyed it to Nathan and Benjamin Wright. (fn. 274) In 1683 Sir Benjamin Wright, Bt., and Nathan his son were holding Pyenest. (fn. 275) Sir Nathan Wright, Bt. conveyed the manor in 1728 to William Compton. (fn. 276) In 1746 and 1751 Philip Goeing and his wife held the manor. (fn. 277) In 1792 Samuel and Jeremy Bentham conveyed the manor to William Brown. (fn. 278) In 1814 Thomas Taylor and his wife Susan conveyed it to John Wainwright. (fn. 279) The descent of the manor has not been traced further; it was probably divided or incorporated into other estates.

The manor of SEWARDSTONE occupied the southern part of the parish between the forest and the river. It was probably part of the Bishop of Durham's gre t manor of Waltham (fn. 280) and like Waltham subsequently passed to the Crown. Sewardstone was first mentioned by name in 1177, when Henry II granted land there and in Epping to the canons of Waltham. (fn. 281)

In 1278 Robert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, claimed Sewardstone as the right of his wife Alice, daughter of Gilbert de Sandford. (fn. 282) He asserted that in the time of Henry II (proavi domini regis) the manor was held by a certain Adam, Alice's great-great-grandfather. The Abbot of Waltham successfully opposed this claim by producing his royal charters, and Sewardstone remained part of the abbey's demesne until the Dissolution. It was treated as a separate estate and from the 13th century had its own manor court. (fn. 283)

In 1547 the king granted Sewardstone to Sir Ralph Sadler, who in the same year conveyed it to Sir Anthony Denny. (fn. 284) It descended along with the capital manor of Waltham until the death, in 1660, of James Hay, Earl of Carlisle. His executors, who included William Russell, Earl (later Duke) of Bedford, sold it in 1665 to William Pocock (fn. 285) from whom it was purchased in 1674 by James Sotheby. (fn. 286)

The Sotheby family held Sewardstone for over two centuries. Mary Sotheby, widow of James, was owner in 1693. (fn. 287) Their son James held his court there in 1699 and 1715. (fn. 288) In 1722 he devised the manor to his brother William, (fn. 289) who held it in 1755. (fn. 290) He was dead by 1769, having left a son and heir William, then a minor. (fn. 291) Sewardstone was occupied for some time after the death of William the elder by his widow Elizabeth, who had married Nash Mason. (fn. 292) William Sotheby the younger, poet and literary patron, held the manor until his death in 1833. (fn. 293) He was succeeded by his son Capt. (later Rear-Adml.) Charles Sotheby, on whose death in 1854 (fn. 294) Sewardstone passed to Charles W. Sotheby, who was holding it in 1888. (fn. 295) It appears to have passed out of his family soon after that time. (fn. 296) In 1922 Harold H. J. Baring was lord of Sewardstone. (fn. 297) It was held in 1954 by his daughter Mrs. Brenton. (fn. 297)

The ancient manor house was Sewardstone Bury, in the extreme south of the parish. In the 19th century, and perhaps earlier, the Sothebys lived at Sewardstone Manor House, High Beech. (fn. 298) This is a building of chequer red and grey brickwork, dating from c. 1700, and having two original projecting wings with Dutch gables at the front. Nineteenth-century alterations included a block between the wings with a similar gable, and a large addition to the north.

The manor of WOODREDON lay on the eastern edge of the hamlet of Upshire. Its name means a forest clearing and suggests an origin in the extensive assarting which was permitted to the canons of Waltham by the charter of Richard I. (fn. 299) A map of c. 1590 shows 'Woodridden groundes' as a large enclave in the forest. (fn. 300)

Woodredon belonged to Waltham Abbey at the Dissolution, when it was on lease to Oliver Rigby. (fn. 301) It subsequently descended with the manor of Sewardstone until 1660. With Sewardstone it was vested in the Earl of Bedford and his co-executors, but it was not sold with that manor. It remained in the hands of Bedford and his family until 1738 when John Russell, Duke of Bedford, sold it to Mary Greene, who immediately conveyed it to her daughter and son-in-law, Mary and John Gibson. (fn. 302) In 1764 John Henniker began to acquire the manor from the Gibsons and their relatives. (fn. 303) This process does not appear to have been completed until 1792. (fn. 304) Henniker, who succeeded to a baronetcy in 1781 and was created Baron Henniker in the Irish peerage in 1800, died in 1803. (fn. 305) By 1801, however, he had been succeeded as lord of Woodredon by his grandson John Minet Henniker, who held the manor until his death in 1832. (fn. 306) It was then put up for sale, and was bought in 1834 by William St. John Arabin. (fn. 307) He was succeeded in 1842 by Richard Arabin, (fn. 308) who built Beech House (now Arabin House) at High Beech in 1848. (fn. 309) Richard still held Woodredon in 1852 (fn. 310) but soon after it came into the hands of the Buxtons and was merged in the Warlies estate. (fn. 311) Woodredon farmhouse is a mid18th-century red-brick house with a pedimented porch. It probably represents the manor house as rebuilt by the Gibsons. The present Woodredon is a large gabled building which stands 400 yds. to the north-west and dates from 1889. (fn. 312) In 1963 it was occupied by Sir Thomas F. V. Buxton, Bt.

Footnotes

1 O.S. Map 2½", sheets TQ 39 and 49, TL 30 and 40. For disputes about the boundary with Cheshunt see p. 163.
2 Census, 1931.
3 See p. 169.
4 Kelly's Dir. Essex, 1937; Census, 1951.
5 J. Norden, Map of Essex (1594).
6 V.C.H. Essex, ii. 166.
7 See p. 166.
8 E. Nat. viii. 164; xv. 48.
9 Recent excavations by London University Board of Extra-Mural Studies. Cf. also V.C.H. Essex, i. 278–9.
10 V.C.H. Essex, iii. 197.
11 Cf. the decline of the market, noted in 1560: Cal. Pat. 1558–60, 350.
12 B.M. Cott. MS. Tib. C. ix, f. 232.
13 E.R.O., Q/RTh 1.
14 Census, 1801–1961.
15 See pls. f. pp. 117, 154.
16 E.R.O., T/M 125.
17 P.N. Essex, 32.
18 Ibid. 33.
19 Ibid. 33, 39.
20 E.R.O., edn. of this map.
21 B. Winstone, Epping and Ongar Highway Trust, 91.
22 E.R.O., Q/RHi 1/6 (1733); Q/RHi 1/9 (1736–7); Q/RHi 1/12 (1743–4); Q/SBb 407 (1807).
23 E.R.O., Q/SBb 356/20 (1793); cf. Chapman and André, Map of Essex, 1777, sheet xvi [pl. f.p. 154 in this vol.], and later maps.
24 Chapman and André, Map, 1777, xi, xvi.
25 B.M. Add. MS. 37665, f. 278.
26 B.M. Harl. MS. 391, f. 63 b.
27 B.M. Add. MS. 37665, f. 278.
28 Cal. Inq. Misc. iii. 189.
29 Cal. Pat. 1377–81, 583.
30 E.R.O., Q/CP 2, f. 30; Q/ABz 3.
31 E.R.O., Q/ABz 2/1, 2/2.
32 E.R.O., Q/CP 3, f. 160; D/DJg O13.
33 Winters, Waltham, 51–52.
34 Ibid.
35 Ibid.; E.R.O., Q/RUo 10.
36 See pl. f.p. 154.
37 Winters, Waltham, vii.
38 For the markets see p. 165; for the Market Square see pls. f.p. 164, 165.
39 Winters, Waltham, 48.
40 P.N. Essex, 30.
41 Ibid.
42 E 326/10198.
43 Winters, Waltham, xiv.
44 Ibid. 56.
45 S.C. 2/173/38.
46 Winters, Waltham, 64; Wright, Hist. Essex, ii, pl. f. p. 449.
47 Rep. Waltham M.O.H. 1892, 11.
48 J. Thorne, Handbk. of Environs of London, ii. 650.
49 For examples of rebuilding see Winters, Waltham, 63; for descriptions of demolished timber-framed buildings see R.C.H.M. Essex, ii. 245–6. For some details of the town's antiquities see also E.A.T. ii. 41–55, and N.S. xxiii. 1.
50 See pl. f.p. 164.
51 See p. 171.
52 E.R.O., D/DP M1154; cf. P.N. Essex, 32.
53 Kelly's Dir. Essex, 1906.
54 See p. 158.
55 R.C.H.M. Essex, ii. 246.
56 See pl. on f.p.
57 Winters, Waltham, 8 n; P.N. Essex, 29, 33; for Gilwell Park compare pl. on f.p. in this vol. and E.R.O., Photo of O.S. Map 1", orig. drawings c. 1800.
58 B.M. Harl. Ch. 80 H. 60.
59 E.R.O., T/P 153; D/CT 381/1.
60 Winters, Waltham, 10.
61 Pevsner, Buildings of England, Essex, 380; date on building.
62 See pl. f.p. 154; inf. from Sir T. F. V. Buxton.
63 Inf. from Waltham Holy Cross U.D.C.
64 See pl. f.p. 154.
65 P.N. Essex, 29, 33.
66 See pl. f.p. 154.
67 See p. 162.
68 Date on building; see pl. f.p. 154; and water-colour at Queen Elizabeth's Hunting Lodge, Chingford.
69 Hist. MSS. Com. Buccleuch, i. 82.
70 Robson's Dir. Essex, 108.
71 White's Dir. Essex, 1848, p. 29.
72 Ibid. 286.
73 G.P.O., Establishment Bks. 1771.
74 P.M.G., Reps. V. 29 (1810), f. 591.
75 White's Dir. Essex, 1848, p. 283.
76 Kelly's Dir. Essex, 1870.
77 D.N.B.; Winters, Hist. Waltham, 55.
78 See p. 171.
79 E.R. iv. 157.
80 D.N.B.
81 Ibid.
82 V.C.H. Essex, ii. 166.
83 Ibid.; Freeman, Norman Conquest, i. 590; ii. 441.
84 V.C.H. Essex, ii. 166.
85 Symeon of Durham, Opera et Collectanea (Surtees Soc. 1868), i. 232; Stubbs, Foundation of Waltham Abbey, 32–33.
86 See below.
87 Symeon of Durham, Hist. Works (Rolls Ser.), i. 113: 'locum egregium, scilicet Waltham, cum ipsius nobili ecclesia, quae canonicorum congregatione pollet, adquiesivit'.
88 V.C.H. Essex, i. 446a.
89 Ibid. 473 ff.
90 V.C.H., Essex, i. 539.
91 V.C.H. Essex, i. 446a. For the identification of the gate see below.
92 The figures are ambiguously stated, and may indicate more than 40 hides in all.
93 V.C.H. Essex, ii. 352.
94 D. C. Douglas and G. W. Greenaway, Eng. Hist. Docs. ii. 610 ff.
95 Stubbs, Foundation of Waltham Abbey, xx. 32–33.
96 Ibid.
97 See below.
98 There is no mention of Waltham in any of the documents by which Flambard recovered his lands: see Archaeologia Aeliana (4th ser.), xvi. 133 ff.
99 Stubbs, Foundation of Waltham Abbey, xxi–ii; and see under Epping, manor, p. 118.
100 Stubbs, Foundation of Waltham Abbey, 50.
101 Regesta Regum Anglo-Normannorum, ii, pp. 83, 85.
102 Ibid.
103 Ibid. 84.
104 B.M. Add. MS. 37665, f. 10.
105 J. H. Round, Geof. de Mandeville, 322–4, and King's Serjeants, 142; Complete Peerage, i. 233–5.
106 Stubbs, Foundation of Waltham Abbey, 52.
107 Ibid. 52–53; cf. xxi.
108 Ibid. 42.
109 Ibid. 41.
110 Pipe R. 1156–8 (Rec. Com.), 23, 73, 133; ibid. 1162 (P.R.S.v.), 72.
111 Ibid. 1163 (P.R.S. vi), 24.
112 Ibid. 1164 (P.R.S. vii), 38.
113 Ibid. 1165 (P.R.S. viii), 26.
114 Pipe Rolls, 1165–89, passim.
115 Pipe R. 1166 (P.R.S. ix), 128; to ibid. 1175 (P.R.S. xxii), 79.
116 Ibid. 1170 (P.R.S. xv), 111.
117 Ibid. 1176–89, passim.
118 Pipe R. 1177 (P.R.S. xxvi), 156; Dugdale, Mon. Angl. vi. 63–64.
119 Pipe R. 1178 (P.R.S. xxvii), 37.
120 Dugdale, Mon. Angl. vi. 65–66.
121 Pipe R. 1204 (P.R.S. N.S. xviii), 36 and later rolls.
122 See e.g. Cal. Pat. 1216–25, 1; Cal. Chart. R. 1300–26, 416; Cal. Close, 1396–9, 248.
123 R. W. Eyton, Itinerary of Henry II, 75, 85, 122, 130, 135, 186, 210; Pipe R. 1168 (P.R.S. xii), 67, 105, 182 and later rolls.
124 See p. 167.
125 For the Napiers see Bk. of Fees, i. 126.
126 See p. 168.
127 Eyton, Itin. of Hen. II, 186.
128 See p. 168.
129 E.R.O., D/CT 381/1, 2.
130 L. & P. Hen. VIII, xvi, p. 727.
131 Ibid. xvii, p. 354; xviii (1), p. 262; xxi (1), p. 270. Probably Waltham Park. See below.
132 Cal. Pat. 1547–8, 243.
133 Cal. Pat. 1553, 58–59.
134 C 142/98/23.
135 Morant, Essex, i. 43.
136 Complete Peerage, vi. 767–9; E.R.O., D DQt 122.
137 Complete Peerage, iii. 32–34.
138 Morant, Essex, i. 44; Complete Peerage, vi. 709: ix. 767.
139 Burke, Peerage and Baronetage (1907), 1689; Farmer, Hist. Waltham, 157; V.C.H. Northants. General. Vol., 328.
140 Farmer, ibid.
141 Burke, Peerage and Baronetage (1907 edn.), 1689.
142 E.R.O., D CT 381/1.
143 P.N. Essex, 28.
144 Winters, Waltham, 29.
145 C 142/98 23; Winters, Hist. Waltham, 12.
146 E.R.O., T M 125.
147 L. & P. Hen. VIII, xvii, p. 692; xviii (1), p. 262.
148 E.R. ii. 120; Bodl. MS. Top. Gen. e. 18, f. 115 (loose leaf).
149 Farmer, Hist. Waltham, 159; Bodl. MS. Top. Gen. e. 18, f. 115.
150 Farmer, Hist. Waltham, f.p. 159.
151 Ibid. 160 and pl.
152 Winters, Hist. Waltham, 34;but cf. pl. f.p. 154 in this vol.
153 Ibid.; E.R. ii. 118.
154 V. & A. Museum, The Panelled Rooms, VI: The Waltham Abbey Room.
155 P. N. Essex (E.P.N.S.), 28.
156 Pipe R. 1168 (P.R.S. xii), 40; ibid. 1180 (P.R.S. xxx), 7, and later rolls.
157 B.M. Harl. MS. 391, f. 143 a.
158 B.M. Cott. MS. Tiberius C. ix, f. 232.
159 S.C. 6/964 m. 108.
160 Cal. Pat. 1547–8, 243–5.
161 C 142/529/68.
162 C.P. 40/1190 ro. 102; Waltham Holy Cross Burial Regs. 1583 (Robert Hall), 1615 (Robert Hall).
163 E.R.O., D/DQt 122.
164 E.R.O., D/CT 381/1. For post-17th cent. descent cf. E.R.O., Acc. 3054.
165 Local inf.; cf. Kelly's Dir. Essex, 1933.
166 Char. Com. File 117637.
167 Dugdale, Mon. Angl. vi. 65.
168 See above, p. 155.
169 B.M. Harl. MS. 391, f. 56 b.
170 Cal. Pat. 1547–8, 252, 166.
171 Ibid. 244.
172 B.M. Harl. Ch. 80, F. 12.
173 Winters, Memorials of the Pilgrim Fathers, 19.
174 E.R.O., D/DQt 122.
175 Hist. MSS. Com. 9th Rep. II, 92 b.
176 Ibid.
177 C.P. 25 (2)/829 Trin. 10 Wm. III; Winters, Pilgrim Fathers, 19; Ogborne, Essex, 198.
178 Ogborne, Essex, 198; E.R.O., Q/RSg 4.
179 E.R.O., Q/RSg 5.
180 E.R.O., D/CT 249.
181 Winters, Pilgrim Fathers, 19.
182 E.R.O., D/DJg B30.
183 Inf. from Epping R.D.C.
184 See pl. f.p. 117.
185 Winters, Pilgrim Fathers, 19.
186 Ibid.; see also R.C.H.M. Essex, ii. 246.
187 C 54/407, Nos. 10–12.
188 L. & P. Hen. VIII, vii, p. 446.
189 Ibid. xvi, p. 139.
190 Ibid. p. 175.
191 Ibid. xvii, p. 57.
192 C.P. 25 (2)/415 Trin. 3 Chas. I.
193 Morant, Essex, i. 44.
194 C.P. 25 (2)/550B Mich. 1651.
195 Morant, Essex, ii. 450.
196 Ogborne, Essex, 197.
197 E.R.O., D/DB T140.
198 Ibid.
199 Ogborne, Essex, 197.
200 Ibid.
201 E.R.O., Q/RSg 5.
202 E.R.O., Q/RPc Waltham Holy Cross.
203 E.R.O., D/CT 381/1.
204 Local inf.
205 Ogborne, Essex, 198.
206 Winters, Waltham, 5; Kelly's Dir. Essex, 1933.
207 R.C.H.M. Essex, ii. 246; see pl. f.p. 117 in the present vol.
208 E.R.O., T/M 125.
209 E.R.O., D/CT 381/1.
210 Of Copped Hall, see p. 121.
211 B.M. Harl. MS. 391, f. 69.
212 Pipe R. 1177 (P.R.S. xxvi), 135; cf. ibid. 1204 (P.R.S. N.S. xviii), 36. For confirmation of these grants by Richard I, see B.M. Harl. MS. 391, f. 54 b.
213 Bk. of Fees, i. 126.
214 Pipe R. 1166 (P.R.S. ix), 128. For the confirmation of this grant by Henry II see B.M. Harl. MS. 391, f. 30 b.
215 Feet of F. Essex, i. 85.
216 B.M. Harl. MS. 391, f. 68.
217 Bk. of Fees, i. 126.
218 B.M. Harl. MS. 391, f. 68 b. For Copped Hall see p. 121.
219 B.M. Cott. MS. Tib. C. ix, f. 232.
220 Cat. Anct. D. ii, B. 2744.
221 E 326/10218; B.M. Harl. Ch. 80, C. 52.
222 Feet of F. Essex, iii. 192.
223 E 326 9186.
224 Cat. Anct. D. i, A. 781.
225 Feet of F. Essex, iii. 217.
226 Ibid. iv. 4.
227 Cal. Close R. 1422–9, 468.
228 See p. 143.
229 E 210/4392.
230 E 326/9183.
231 Feet of F. Essex, iv. 29.
232 D.N.B. John Say.
233 Cal. Pat. 1446–52, 253.
234 Morant, Essex, i. 42–43.
235 E 326/6662.
236 E 315/36, no. 64.
237 Complete Peerage, ix. 340.
238 Ibid. iv. 331.
239 Ibid. v. 216.
240 Cal. Pat. 1547, 159.
241 Cal. Pat. 1547–8, 225.
242 B.M. Harl. Ch. 76 C. 46.
243 B.M. Harl. Ch. 76 A.1.
244 B.M. Add. Ch. 24701 (undated).
245 B.M. Harl. Ch. 76 C. 58.
246 Ibid.
247 Ibid. C. 57.
248 Ibid. C. 58.
249 Ibid. H. 48.
250 Ibid. H. 27.
251 B.M. Harl. Ch. 79 E. 15.
252 Ibid. 77 D. 33.
253 See p. 101; V.C.H. Essex, iv. 266; Morant, Essex, ii. 491.
254 B.M. Harl. Ch. 77 G. 22; cf. D. 34.
255 E.R.O., T M 125.
256 Feet of F. Essex, iii. 44.
257 Cal. Chart. R. 1341–1417, 8.
258 Cal. Close, 1343–6, 46; cf. Morant, Essex, i. 265.
259 Morant, Essex, i. 265.
260 B.M. Harl. Ch. 80 D. 59.
261 Ibid. E. 2.
262 Ibid. E. 3.
263 B. M. Harl. Ch. 77 G. 40.
264 Ibid. G. 28.
265 B. M. Harl. Ch. 78 1. 52; ibid. 80 H. 9.
266 B.M. Harl. Ch. 75 E. 13; ibid. 80 E. 9.
267 See above.
268 B.M. Harl. Ch. 75 G. 13.
269 Ibid. 80 H. 74.
270 C.P. 25 (2) 129/1647.
271 E.R.O., D/DA T466.
272 C.P. 25 (2)/550B Trin. 1649.
273 C.P. 25 (2)/551 Eas. 1655.
274 C.P. 25 (2)/655 Eas. 35 Chas. II.
275 C.P. 25 (2)/1120 Hil. 1 Geo. II; C.P. 43/579 ro. 265.
276 C.P. 43/654 ro. 313; C.P. 25 (2)/1123 Trin. 24 & 25 Geo. II.
277 C.P. 43/838 ro. 339.
278 C.P. 43/923 ro. 41.
279 See p. 155.
280 Dugdale, Mon. Angl. vi. 63; Pipe R. 1177 (P.R.S. xxvi), 156.
281 B.M. Harl. MS. 391, f. 29.
282 See p. 168.
283 Cal. Pat. 1547–8, 259–60, 225.
284 E.R.O., D/DQt 122 f. 11; Ogborne, Essex, 196; C.P. 25 (2)/653 Hil. 20 & 21 Chas. II; E.R.O., D/DB M190.
285 C.P. 25 (2)/654 Mich. 26 Chas. II.
286 E.R.O., D/DQt T285 64.
287 Ibid. T285 47, 66.
288 E.R.O., D/DU 182/114.
289 E.R.O., Q/RS g 3.
290 Ibid. 4.
291 E.R.O., D/DU 182/114.
292 E.R.O., Q/RPI 949–1001; D.N.B.
293 E.R.O., Q/RPc Waltham Holy Cross, 1832 f.; D.N.B.
294 Winters, Waltham, 6; E.R.O., Q/RPc Waltham Holy Cross, 1856 f.
295 Cf. Kelly's Dir. Essex, 1894, 1898.
296 Ibid. 1922.
297 Local inf.
298 Winters, Our Parish Regs., Waltham, 230; Kelly's Dir. Essex, 1870 f.
299 B.M. Add. MS. 37665, f. 20 b.
300 E.R.O., T/M 125.
301 S.C. 6/964 m. 108.
302 E.R.O., D/DBu T2.
303 E.R.O., Q/RSg 3; C.P. 25 (2)/1307 Mich. 7 Geo. III.
304 C.P. 43/838 Mich. 33 Geo. III, ro. 251.
305 Complete Peerage, vi. 437–8.
306 Ibid. 438; E.R.O., Q/RSg 4; Ogborne, Essex, 197; E.R.O., Q/RPI 980–1001.
307 E.R.O., D/DJg B32.
308 E.R.O., D/CT 381/1; cf. Q/RPc Waltham Holy Cross (1852).
309 White's Dir. Essex, 1848, p. 282.
310 E.R.O., Q/RPc Waltham H.C. (1852).
311 Ibid. (1861 f.); Winters, Our Parish Regs. 61.
312 Inf. from Sir T. F. V. Buxton.