Historical events
1783 - 1825

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Eneas Mackenzie

Year published

1827

Pages

66-88

Citation Show another format:

'Historical events: 1783 - 1825', Historical Account of Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Including the Borough of Gateshead (1827), pp. 66-88. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43321 Date accessed: 30 July 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

1783 – 1825

William Alexander was executed on the Town Moor, Newcastle, on November 17, 1783, for the forgery of a bill of exchange, purporting to be drawn by Samuel Jenkinson, of New York, on Messrs. Grey and Ogilvie, London. He died with great firmness and decency. His Meditations, Letters, and Speech at the place of execution, were afterwards printed. (fn. 1)

A balloon was set off from the Sandhill, Newcastle, on August 9, 1784, by Mr. Clarke, jun. for the benefit and enlargement of an eminent teacher, then in Newgate for a debt contracted when in sickness. The subscription answered the benevolent purpose.

On the 26th of the same month, James Chambers and William Collins, seamen, were executed on the Town Moor, Newcastle, for robbing Mr. Jasper Anderson, of Coxlodge, near his own house.

Late at night on September 8, 1785, the extensive sugar-house of Messrs. Forster and Co. fronting the river, in the Close, Newcastle, was discovered to be on fire; and about two o'clock the following morning, the flames burst forth, and presented a most awful and tremendous spectacle. This large erection, with Mr. Clapham's brewery adjoining, were soon reduced to ashes; and the buildings opposite received considerable damage.

On June 28, 1786, (fn. 2) Joseph Smith, a servant to Graham Clarke, Esq. Newcastle, was killed by a boar in the narrow lane between High Friar Street and the town's wall. He was endeavouring to drive back the animal, which had escaped from confinement.

On August 18, the mayor, aldermen, sheriff, and common council of Newcastle upon Tyne, agreed to address his majesty, on the attempt upon his life by Margaret Nicholson. It was presented to the king by the Duke of Northumberland.

Henry Jennings was executed on the Town Moor, Newcastle, on August 30, for horse-stealing. At the gallows he gave an explanation of the cant terms used by robbers, pickpockets, &c. which he desired to be published for the benefit of the public.

On Thursday, September 19, Mr. Lunardi, the aeronaut, proposed to ascend from Newcastle. During the process of inflation, Mr. Lunardi drew a plug from the funnel, to ascertain the force of the effervescence produced by the addition of some acid, when the noise caused by the emission of the gas alarmed some gentlemen who held the balloon, and who rushed from their stations. One side of the balloon being thus deserted, the neck where it joined the barrel was torn, and, notwithstanding Mr. Lunardi's exertions, the alarm became general, and the balloon was liberated. Unhappily, Mr. Ralph Heron had a rope, which was fastened to the top of the balloon, coiled round his hand and arm, by which he was carried up to an immense height with great velocity, when his weight having turned the balloon, and tore off the top and the netting, this accomplished young gentleman fell into a garden adjoining, amidst the groans and exclamations of thousands of spectators. In a few hours he expired, though he did not appear to have received any external contusion from the fall.

On January 30, 1787, the body of a female, without a head, wrapped in a coarse cloth stained with blood, was discovered a few inches below the surface in the north side of St. John's church-yard. The coroner's jury, on view of the body, returned a verdict of wilful murder by some person or persons unknown. The corporation offered a reward of twenty guineas for such information as should lead to the discovery of the murderer or murderers, "or to a satisfactory explanation of the circumstance occasioning the suspicion."

Four prisoners, on the 15th of August, effected their escape out of the gaol at Newcastle. On the 20th, John Howard arrived in that town, on his philanthropic tour through England and Scotland.

On April 1, 1788, the tobacco and snuff manufactory, and some dwelling-houses, at Chimney Mills, near Newcastle, were consumed by fire.

The renowned pickpocket, Barrington, was apprehended in Newcastle on the night of June 27, charged with attempting to steal a watch from the Rev. Mr. Warrilow, Roman Catholic priest, in the theatre. He was sent to London on another charge, of which he was acquitted.

On Sunday, November 9, the house of Mr. Sweet, baker, in the Castle Garth, with 53 sacks of flour, was destroyed by fire.

On Sunday, February 22, 1789, Thomas Atkinson, tailor, in resenting an insult offered to him in a public house at Newcastle, by John Elliott, a whitesmith, bruised the latter so severely that he died on the Wednesday following. Atkinson was tried at the assizes for manslaughter, fined 6s. 8d. and discharged.

There was a very brilliant illumination in Newcastle, on March 19, this year, for his majesty's restoration to health after his severe indisposition. At noon, on August 21, two prisoners escaped from Newgate; but they were both retaken the same day. On the 15th of November, the body of a woman was found in Stepney-lane, mangled in a most shocking manner. Fletcher Reynoldson and Robert Grey, two keelmen, were apprehended, and confessed the murder, each charging the other with the actual commission of the crime; but at the assizes they were acquitted, no bill being found.

Thomas Watson was executed at the Westgate, Newcastle, on August 5, 1790, for shooting George Gibson. His body was given to the surgeons for dissection.

About twelve o'clock at night on March 16, 1791, a fire broke out in the house of Mr. Powell, surgeon, in the Bigg Market, Newcastle, by which it was soon consumed. And on August 18, about the same time at night, the extensive warehouses behind the High Crane were discovered to be on fire. All that range of buildings from the house occupied by the Tyne Bank to the Exchange (the west end of which was damaged) was entirely destroyed.

In July, this year, Dr. Graham, to shew the nature and safety of earth-bathing for the cure of various diseases, had himself, and a young woman, troubled with a scorbutic disorder, placed naked in the earth, and covered up to their lips, in a field in Hanover Square, Newcastle, from twelve o'clock at noon to six in the evening of two succeeding days. Great numbers attended to see this curious exhibition.

In the year 1792, the volcano of the French Revolution burst forth in all its terrific grandeur, and fixed the attention of every civilized country; while the Bourbon throne, upheld by the veneration of fourteen centuries, was shaken to the foundations. The moral agitation reached England, and the "natural and imprescriptible rights of man" became the subject of keen and angry disputation. At this period, Thomas Paine, having attacked, with peculiar asperity, both the religious and political establishments of this country, was burnt in effigy in almost every town and considerable village in the north, which exhibitions were exultingly related in the Newcastle Advertiser; but the wisdom of the magistracy of Newcastle saved that town from such a foolish, disgraceful, and riotous expression of popular opinion.

In May, 1792, the mayor of Newcastle refused to call a public meeting, for the purpose of consulting on the proceedings of a society called "The Friends of the People;" in consequence of which, the requisitionists signed resolutions against any change in the representation of the people, and which, after lying for some days at the Exchange for signatures, were transmitted by Christopher Fawcett, Esq. to his majesty's secretary for the home department.

On July 17, there was in the neighbourhood of Newcastle a most tremendous storm of thunder, lightning, and rain. In the county of Durham, the hail, or rather pieces of ice, destroyed many fields of corn, broke windows, and inflicted damage which altogether was calculated to amount to £4749, 15s. 10d. A subscription was raised for the sufferers, and a committee formed to superintend its distribution.

On August 10, William Winter, Jane Clark, and Eleanor Clark, were executed at the Westgate, Newcastle, for the murder of Margaret Crozer, an old woman, at Elsdon, in Northumberland. Winter was hung in chains on Whiskershields Common; but the bodies of his female associates were sent to the Surgeon's Hall for dissection, and afterwards interred. (fn. 3)

The Northumberland militia was ordered to assemble at Alnwick on Monday, December 10. On Thursday the 13th, the common council of Newcastle passed resolutions expressive of their determination to support the constitution, to repress the dangerous spirit of disaffection, and to promote a veneration for the laws; and on Monday the 17th, a meeting of the gentlemen, clergy, freeholders, burgesses, and inhabitants of the town, was held in the Guildhall, when resolutions were adopted to support the magistracy in preserving the peace, and in bringing to legal punishment all persons concerned in seditious publications.

In February, 1793, the seamen belonging to the port of Newcastle associated to defend themselves against the threatened impress. A subscription was opened at this time to encourage volunteers to enter into his majesty's navy, from which fund 320 able-bodied seamen received one guinea, and 77 ordinary seamen half a guinea each. The common council of Newcastle also offered two guineas for every able, and one guinea for every ordinary seaman, that volunteered into the navy. These measures did not, however, prevent the impressment of seamen, which commenced at Shields on the 15th of February.

On Thursday, February 13, the North York militia arrived at Newcastle from Richmond; and on Monday and Tuesday, the 11th and 12th of March, the Northumberland militia marched into Newcastle, on their route to Beverley, Scarborough, &c. They were welcomed by the ringing of bells, and the congratulations of thousands of the inhabitants.

The commencement of hostilities operated unfavourably upon public credit, and occasioned an alarming run upon the provincial banks. Those in Newcastle were obliged to suspend payments in specie; and on Tuesday, April 9, a meeting was convened in the Guildhall, to deliberate on the best means of restoring the public credit. A committee was immediately appointed to investigate the affairs of the banks in Newcastle, and which next day reported that the issue of the banks of Ridley, Cookson, and Co.; Surtees, Burdon, and Co.; Baker, Hedley, and Co.; and Lambton and Co. did not exceed £230,000. A number of gentlemen then signed a paper, binding themselves to advance, if required, the sum set opposite to their names, and of which the total amount was £498,600. The public seemed satisfied with this guarantee; and all the banking houses were re-opened as usual, except the Commercial Bank, the proprietors of which determined not to resume.

The shop and house of Mr. Richardson, painter, head of the Painter Heugh, was, on November 2, destroyed by fire. An adjoining house was much damaged.

In the morning of Saturday, January 25, 1794, a dreadful storm commenced at Newcastle. The wind, which was preceded by lightning, blew from the north with uncommon violence. The highest vanes of St. Nicholas' and Gateshead churches were destroyed, several keels were lost in the river, five ships were driven from their moorings into Jarrow Slake, three were carried upon the Herd Sands, of which two went to pieces, and one was driven upon the Black Middens. During this storm, one man was lost on the Shields road, and three on the military road west of Newcastle.

On May 28, Mr. Mollison's bake-house and dwelling-house, at the foot of the Side, Newcastle, were entirely consumed by fire.

A public meeting was held in the Guildhall, Newcastle, on June 17, to consider the propriety of co-operating in the measures adopted by other counties for the internal defence of the kingdom. The meeting immediately commenced a subscription for that purpose, which soon amounted to £993, of which the corporation gave £50. This sum was added to the subscription of the county of Northumberland, which was stated at £6248. Subsequently, the total subscription for the town and county of Newcastle and the county of Northumberland exceeded £8300.

A numerous meeting of the ship-owners and underwriters of the port of Newcastle was held in the Trinity-hall, on October 4, when it was resolved to memorialize government on the very defective protection granted to the trade in the North Seas.

On December 14, the North York militia, which had been quartered in Newcastle since the commencement of the war, received orders, by express, to march to Berwick upon Tweed. This corps was succeeded in Newcastle by the West York militia, from Tynemouth.

In the beginning of July, 1795, encampments were formed at the under-mentioned places on the coasts of Durham and Northumberland, which were composed of the following regiments:—Hendon—Northumberland militia, Roxburghshire fencibles, and the Berwickshire fencibles, commanded by General Dalrymple. Whitburn— 8th regiment of foot, Durham militia, and Durham fencibles, by General Osburne. Whitley—37th regiment of foot, Royal Lancashire volunteers, North York militia, and a considerable park of artillery, by Lord Mulgrave. Hartley—4th dragoons, 21st light dragoons, 44th regiment of foot, 115th ditto (Prince William's), and the 1st West York militia, by Prince William of Gloucester. Cowpen—7th light dragoons, 16th ditto, 55th regiment of foot, 84th ditto, and the Leicestershire militia, by General Balfour. The camps broke up in October.

On August 8, Thomas Nicholson was executed on the Town Moor, Newcastle, for the murder of Thomas Purvis; after which, his body was conveyed to the Surgeon's Hall for dissection.

The Newcastle volunteers, commanded by Colonel Blakeney, received their colours from Mrs. Mayoress, at the Forth, on Tuesday, August 25; and, on the following morning, this corps was inspected in Pilgrim Street, by his royal highness the Duke of York, who, on Thursday, proceeded to inspect the troops encamped between the rivers Tyne and Blyth. On Friday, about 7000 men were reviewed by his royal highness on Blyth sands, in presence of upwards of 30,000 spectators. His royal highness immediately returned to Newcastle, where he partook of an entertainment at the Mansion-house, and on the following day visited the camps between the Tyne and Wear. During his stay in Newcastle, the mayor and aldermen waited upon his royal highness, and presented him with the freedom of the corporation.

On the 9th of September, the 33d or Ulster regiment of light dragoons, which had just arrived at Newcastle, hearing that they were about being incorporated with the 21st or Beaumont's regiment of light dragoons, assembled in various parts of the town in rather a tumultuous manner; and, about five o'clock, a party broke open the repository for the regimental stores, and took from thence a large supply of powder and balls. About nine o'clock at night, the 4th regiment of dragoons, and, about eleven, the 37th regiment of foot, arrived from the camps. The gates of the town were immediately guarded; and strong parties patrolled the streets, while others were active in disarming the mutinous soldiery. Next morning, they were assembled in Northumberland Street, when General Smith explained to them the necessity of submitting to orders; and being informed that they had not received the bounty promised to them, he assured them that all arrears should be paid off before twelve o'clock the next day, which restored tranquillity. It was suspected, probably without any just cause, that some of the inhabitants assisted in fomenting these disturbances. The following caution was therefore issued:— "That all sober-minded inhabitants will refrain from collecting in the streets, lest, from an idle curiosity, they should mix amongst those ill-intentioned people, and expose themselves to the misfortunes that may happen."

Great numbers of the working classes assembled on November 10, in the several markets in Newcastle, and, in presence of the town's officers, retailed the butter at the reduced price of 8d. per lb. the wheat at 12s. per boll, and potatoes out of the warehouses at 5s. a load. No violence was committed, except what was necessary in enforcing this illegal and temporary regulation of the market.

His royal highness the Duke of Bourbon, son of the Prince of Conde, passed through Newcastle on April 21, 1796, on his road from Edinburgh to London. And on May 30, his royal highness Prince William of Gloucester arrived in Newcastle, to assume the command of the troops in the northern district. In July, encampments were again formed on the coast of Northumberland.

On the 5th of October, three transports arrived at Shields, from Guernsey and Jersey, with 295 emigrant clergy and 10 women on board, under convoy of the Serpent sloop of war. These unfortunate strangers were received with a degree of kindness and hospitality honourable to the English character.

The house occupied by Alexander Graham, gingerbread baker, in Hillgate, Gateshead, was, on November 8, this year, entirely consumed by fire. The family with difficulty escaped by a window in the upper story.

In the beginning of 1797, the rapid and enormous increase of the national debt, and the alarm of invasion, caused a general run upon the provincial banking houses. The proprietors of the Newcastle banks therefore agreed, on Saturday, February 18, to suspend their payments early on Monday morning for a short time. In the mean time, a great number of gentlemen and tradesmen signed a declaration, to take as usual the notes of all the banks in Newcastle, Durham, and Sunderland. On the 26th, the privy council issued an order, prohibiting the Bank of England from issuing cash; and which was followed by a parliamentary enactment, authorising the bank to issue notes in payment instead of cash, and preventing any person from being held to bail who offered Bank of England notes in discharge of a debt. This bill revived public credit, and paper money became the general circulating medium.

There was a grand illumination in Newcastle and Gateshead, on October 29, in honour of the victory obtained by the British fleet under Admiral Duncan. The Mansion-house, Infirmary, and the towers of All Saints' and Gateshead churches, made a brilliant shew.

On Thursday evening, January 25, 1798, (fn. 4) the dwelling-houses of Mr. Matthew Brown, printer, and Mr. John Rankin, in Dean Street, Newcastle, were destroyed by fire. Mr. Thomas Elliott, in whose shop the fire originated, was committed on a charge of wilfully occasioning the same; but at the following assizes he was acquitted.

The common council of Newcastle, on February 28, subscribed £500 annually, to defray the expenses of the war. It was also resolved, at this desponding period, that the use of the Mansion-house, and all the occasional and public entertainments usually given there, should be discontinued after the following Michaelmas-day, during the existing calamitous state of public affairs.

The numerous troops which the Executive Directory of France were, at this time, assembling on the coasts of the ocean, called the Army of England, under the command of the great conqueror, Citizen General Bonaparte, excited serious apprehensions of an invasion; while a rebellion raged in Ireland. The impending danger roused the martial spirit and patriotic ardour of the people, who eagerly took arms in defence of their country. Newcastle was not behind other towns in this patriotic movement; for a meeting was held at the Guildhall, on May 3, for the purpose of forming an armed association for its defence. On the 31st of July following, eight companies of this corps were drawn out on the Town Moor.

On October 5, a general illumination and rejoicings took place in Newcastle, in consequence of the decisive victory obtained by Admiral Nelson, at the mouth of the Nile, over the French fleet under Admiral Brueys.

The Newcastle Armed Association, commanded by Colonel Sir M. W. Ridley, Bart. was presented by Lady Ridley with an elegant pair of colours, in the Nun's Field, on the 3d of January, 1799. A troop of horse under Captain Burdon, attached to the infantry, received a standard at the same time.

On August 28, about six o'clock in the morning, a fire broke out in the warehouse of Mr. Bulman, saddler and ironmonger, head of the Side, Newcastle. A quantity of gunpowder was lodged in an upper warehouse; but two intrepid men mounted a ladder, and conveyed the heated barrels, which were near the conflagration, into St. Nicholas' church! A considerable part of the extensive stock was burnt; but the fire, by great exertions, was subdued within an hour.

In November, 1799, General Sir Ralph Abercrombie and his suite landed at Shields from the Helder; and a few days after, seven transports, through stress of weather, put into this harbour, having on board 1600 Russians and Cossacs, bound for Guernsey. Several of the officers came to Newcastle, where their strange uniforms excited much curiosity. The people of Shields were also much amused with the singular tastes and nasty habits of the privates.

In the beginning of the year 1800, no less than 69 colliers, out of 73, were wrecked on their passage to London. On May 11, 144 vessels sailed from Shields, under convoy, for the Baltic, having on board, besides other commodities, 11,600 Newcastle chaldrons of coals.

The bad harvest in 1799, and the effects of the war, combined to produce such a dearth, that wheat in the Newcastle market sold at one guinea a Winchester bushel. On January 4, 1800, a public meeting was held in the Guildhall, Newcastle, for the purpose of establishing a public soup-kitchen for the relief of the poor, and to which benevolent scheme the corporation gave 50 guineas. (fn. 5) At this period of suffering and ill-humour, the public viewed all those who trafficked in the necessaries of life with an evil eye; and on August 18, a meeting was held to devise means for bringing to punishment all forestallers and regraters!

On June 4, this year, Sir M. W. Ridley, Bart. presented an address to the king, from the corporation of Newcastle, congratulating his majesty on his escape from intended assassination.

On July 29, 1801, the North York militia marched from Newcastle, and encamped at Whitburn. A general illumination took place in Newcastle and Gateshead on the 15th of October, on account of the preliminaries of peace between Great Britain and France being signed.

Peace was proclaimed in Newcastle on the 4th of May, 1802, when the members of the corporation, with the regalia, appeared on the Sandhill, attended by the sergeants at mace, 18 free porters with battle-axes, 16 with javelins, 16 with halberts, the Newcastle Volunteers, the Armed Association, and the Gateshead Volunteers. The reading of the proclamation was preceded by the sound of trumpets, when the town-sword was sheathed. The procession then moved to the square north of St. Nicholas' church, where, and at the White Cross, the proclamation was also read. On returning to the Sandhill, a feu de joie was fired, wine was handed to the magistrates and the military, and the occasion drank amidst general acclamations. In June, the French clergy, who had taken refuge in Newcastle and the neighbourhood, returned to their native land.

The peace of Amiens being soon violated, the Newcastle Loyal Armed Association was again formed, and mustered on the Town Moor August 24, 1803. This corps contained upwards of 1200 men, and was divided into ten companies, under the command of Colonel Sir M. W. Ridley, Bart. They received their muskets on the 24th of October, and their colours on the 22d of November. The Newcastle Volunteers, including a rifle company, commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Clennell, were also reembodied, and received their colours on the 4th of October. The Gateshead Volunteers, under Colonel Ellison, of Hebburn, were likewise re-organized on the 16th of November.

On Wednesday afternoon, February 1, 1804, a considerable degree of bustle and confusion prevailed in Newcastle. The drums of the Staffordshire militia beat to arms, and both horse and foot were instantly in motion. Strong musters were made of the Armed Association and Volunteers, the Gateshead Volunteers, Usworth Legion, and Derwent Rangers. The alarm of invasion pervaded both the counties of Northumberland and Durham; but on Thursday, it was inferred that these apprehensions had originated in mistaking the burning of whins on Lammer-muir hills for the lighting of the signals. To prevent similar alarms, the corporation of Newcastle published the following notice:—"In order to prevent any Alarm in the Country, Notice is hereby given, that the under-mentioned Signals, intended to be made use of in case of Invasion, but only in the Event of the General Officer, commanding his Majesty's Forces in this District, giving Orders for the Removal of the Inhabitants and Stock of this Town, will be made for the information of the Inhabitants, on Tuesday the 20th Day of March instant, between 12 and 1 o'Clock at Noon, and between 8 and 9 o'Clock in the Evening; and that such Signals will be a Red Flag by Day, and a Light by Night, hoisted at the following Places; (viz.)—The Castle, St. Nicholas Church, All Saints Church, St. Andrew's Church, and the Tower at the Westgate, accompanied by Five Minute Guns, fired at each of the following Places: (viz.)—The Castle, All Saints Church, Newgate, and Westgate. Thomas Smith, mayor.—Newcastle, 16th March, 1804." Agreeably to notice, the signals were tried at the above places, and were sufficiently seen in every direction to answer the purpose for which they were intended.

The Newcastle waggon train, containing upwards of 160 waggons, carts, &c. was mustered on the Town Moor on August 31. This corps was commanded by Captain Davidson, two lieutenants, and five ensigns; and, except the royal waggon train, was the only regular establishment of the kind in England.

On August 16, Thomas Clare, a private in the 2d Staffordshire militia, was executed at the Westgate, Newcastle, for the murder of William Todd, while the regiment was encamped near Hartley. On the 19th of this month, the colourmanufactory of Messrs. Parker, at the Ouseburn, was almost totally destroyed by fire. The damage was estimated at above £4000.

The corporation of Newcastle, on November 21, 1805, agreed to an address, congratulating his majesty on the grand naval victory obtained by Admiral Lord Nelson at Trafalgar. A piece of plate, valued at 150 guineas, was voted to Vice-admiral Collingwood; and it was also resolved, instead of an illumination, to subscribe 100 guineas in aid of the patriotic fund at Lloyd's.

January 9, 1806, being the day appointed for the funeral of Lord Nelson at St. Paul's cathedral in London, the bells of St. Nicholas' and All Saints' churches in Newcastle rung muffled peals at intervals through the day.

Early in the morning of February 8, 1806, the premises occupied by Messrs. Beilby and Hawthorne, watch-glass manufacturers, in Bell's Court, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle, was totally destroyed by fire. The stock lost amounted in value to between two and three thousand pounds. The work-shop of Mr. John Anderson, joiner and cabinet-maker, in the Bigg Market, was also consumed by fire on December 3, this year.

Arrived at Newcastle, September 10, on a tour through the British Islands, their most serene highnesses Prince Frederick Augustus, and Prince Paul George of Holstein Oldenburgh, attended by Count Holmer and Baron Maltzahn.

On Christmas-day, a furious hurricane of wind from the west was experienced in Newcastle and its neighbourhood. Several stacks of chimneys fell, and the wood work of the Vicar's Pump in Westgate Street was torn away.

A tremendous thunder-storm took place in Newcastle on May 1, 1807; and on Sunday, September 6, the river Tyne was so swollen by heavy and incessant rains, that the islet called the King's Meadows was entirely under water, and several coalkeels were loaded with the grain in sheaf that came floating down the current. On the 12th of November, almost all the shops, cellars, and lower stories of the houses standing below the high banks in Newcastle, were inundated, in consequence of a heavy fall of sleet and snow. Much damage was occasioned by the overflowing of the Ouseburn.

Three desperate offenders made their escape from the gaol in Newcastle on the 29th of December.

On April 27, 1808, the bark-mill, with two hay-stacks, belonging to Mr. Isaac Richardson, in his tan-yard near the White Cross, were consumed by fire.

At this period, great exertions were made to cherish the military ardour of the people. On Monday, June 4, all the troops in Newcastle marched to the Town Moor, to celebrate his majesty's birth-day. The first line was formed by the following corps: four troops of the Enniskillen Dragoons, the Gibside Cavalry, the Axwell Park ditto, the Tyne Legion ditto, a brigade of artillery, the East York militia, the Newcastle Volunteer Infantry, the North Shields and Tynemouth ditto, the Hexham and Corbridge ditto, the Newcastle Associated ditto, and Wallsend Rifle Corps. The second line consisted of a brigade of artillery, the Wiltshire militia, the Sunderland Volunteer Infantry, the Tyne Legion ditto, the Gateshead ditto, and the Sunderland Volunteer Artillery. The two lines together contained upwards of 5000 men. Early the following morning, the two columns proceeded by different routes to Throckley Fell; the right column under the command of Lieutenant-general Dundas, and the left under the command of Major-general Johnstone. After being reviewed, the troops returned to Newcastle, where they arrived about five o'clock in the evening.

On August 8, Newcastle and its neighbourhood were visited by one of the most awful thunder-storms ever remembered. Several houses in Westgate Street were damaged, and many singular escapes from the lightning were related. A similar storm was experienced on the 3d of August in the following year. The house and furniture of Mr. David Sutton, in Prince's Street, were much injured; as was also the house of Mr. Francis Humble, near the Forth. The bark-mill near St. Andrew's church was set on fire; and the works of a gold watch, hanging up in Mrs. Hawkes' house at Jesmond, were melted. On the 12th of the same month, a long and violent shower of rain swelled every brook and rivulet to an alarming height. The small stream of water that runs through Pandon rose, and inundated most of the houses at the Stock Bridge to the depth of three or four feet. A boy named George Innis, about five years old, was swept away by the current near the mustard-mill in Pandon Dean, carried through an inclosed conduit 300 yards in length, and precipitated with great fury down a fall of 16 feet, when he was perceived by a man, who succeeded in snatching him out of the current. The boy recovered. On the same day, several cows and horses, at the fair on the Cowhill, were scorched with lightning; and one man with four horses were killed at the Cowgate.

The Jubilee, on his majesty George III. entering into the 50th year of his reign, was celebrated in Newcastle on October 25, 1809, with public rejoicings and acts of enlightened benevolence. In lieu of an illumination, above £600 was subscribed for founding a public school on the improved plan of education. By another subscription, ten debtors were liberated from prison. To this last the corporation subscribed 50 guineas, and the members for the town 30 guineas, making in all £186, 17s. 6d. The mayor and magistrates, Lieutenant-general Dundas and his staff, the Newcastle Associated Volunteer Infantry, the West Suffolk militia, the Royal Artillery, and the 6th dragoons, attended St. Nicholas' church, where a sermon was preached by the Rev. John Smith, A. M. vicar. After this, the above-mentioned corps, with the Newcastle Volunteers and the South Tyne Legion, marched to the Town Moor, and fired three volleys. The Volunteers then proceeded to the Sandhill, and, as usual, repeated the firing. The mayor, with the principal gentlemen and officers in the town, dined afterwards at Loftus's, the Turk's Head inn. Upwards of 500 poor persons, belonging to the parish of St. Nicholas, dined in the yard of the poor-house of that parish. By the hospitality of Major Anderson and a few other benevolent burgesses, the poor members of the Freemen's Hospital dined together on the green before the house. The boys and girls in each of the charity-schools were treated by order of a party of gentlemen, who, after the children had dined, ordered the teachers a dinner, and a bottle of wine each. Sir Cuthbert Heron. Bart. distributed beef and bread to 50 poor house-keepers in Gallowgate. The congregation of the Rev. William Turner, in Hanover Square, gave to each of the poor belonging to that chapel, beef, bread, porter, tea, and lump-sugar, to be used at their own houses. Lieutenantcolonel Burdon presented the officers of the South Tyne Legion with a dinner, at Forster's, the Queen's Head; and an elegant cup, of the value of £120, was presented by the non-commissioned officers and privates of that regiment to their commandant, who provided a dinner for them in a field near West Jesmond. In the evening, there was a ball and supper at the Assembly Rooms, which was numerously attended.

Early on the morning of February 22, 1810, the steam corn and paper mill, on the premises of Mr. Harrison, baker, Gateshead, was discovered to be on fire; and, in a short time, the mill, Mr. Harrison's dwelling-house, and an adjoining house occupied by Mr. Anderson, grocer, were levelled with the ground. The house tenanted by Mr. John Marshall, printer, was with difficulty saved. There was a liberal subscription for the sufferers.

On December 28, 1811, the house of Mr. Cooke, ship-biscuit baker, New Pandon Street, with the one adjoining, were consumed by fire.

In the evening of August 9, 1813, the paper-hanging manufactory of Messrs. Goodlad and Co. in Westgate Street, Newcastle, was consumed by fire. The warehouses of Mr. R. Pearson, dry-salter, and the work-shop of Mr. Hodgson, coachmaker, were also much damaged. A building, with its contents, adjoining the New Chapel, in Clavering Place, was likewise burnt down on the 20th of November this year.

On January 15, 1814, the river Tyne at Newcastle was completely frozen over. For several days, the ice was covered with crowds of people, and the scenes exhibited resembled a country fair or race-ground. Booths were erected for the sale of liquors, and fires were kindled. Many races, for various kinds of prizes, took place, both with and without skaits; while fruit and cake sellers, fidlers, pipers, razor-grinders, recruiting parties, &c. were perambulating in all directions. A horse and sledge, and a horse and gig, were brought upon the ice. The brilliancy of the moon at this time caused the sports to be continued till a late hour every night. The ice finally broke up on Sunday the 6th of February. Its average thickness was 10 inches.

On May 1, the petitions to parliament from Newcastle, against any alteration in the corn-laws, were transmitted to the representatives for that town. They were signed, in the course of three days, by 11,500 persons.

On Tuesday, May 10, an illumination and great rejoicings took place in Newcastle, on account of the peace of Europe. The shot-tower at Low Elswick, being illuminated with coloured lamps, had a fine effect. The town was filled with strangers, who came to witness the brilliant spectacle. Many persons wore white cockades.

June 25, peace was proclaimed by the mayor, attended by the other officers of the corporation, upon the Sandhill, in the Wheat Market, Newgate Street, and the Castle Garth.

December 16, a most violent hurricane did great damage to the churches and several dwelling-houses in Newcastle. The river came rolling down like a sea, and the spray was carried by the wind into the lower parts of the town, where it fell like a shower of rain. The ships at the Quay were obliged to strike their topgallant-masts. A sailor, in performing this duty, was blown from the mast, and, falling upon the deck, was killed instantly.

On Sunday, March 5, 1815, the Newcastle petitions against the corn-bill were sent off to London. There were three petitions, each 60 yards long, which contained 25,500 signatures.

On June 27, Count Lynch, mayor of Bourdeaux, who was the first to hoist the white flag in France, arrived in Newcastle, on his way to visit his relation, John Clavering, Esq. of Callaly. The populace assembled before the Queen's Head, and congratulated this Bourbonist with repeated huzzas on the defeat of Bonaparte at Waterloo.

Mr. Sadler, the aeronaut, on September 1, ascended from the Bowling Green, now Prudhoe Street, Newcastle. In 21 minutes he descended at Whitley Park, within 200 yards of the sea.

The sudden reduction of the navy happening at the time of the arrival of the ships from the fisheries and other trades, a great body of seamen were at once thrown out of employment. They endeavoured to remedy this evil, by insisting that every ship should have a complement of five men and a boy for every 100 tons register admeasurement; and, in order to enforce this demand, they laid an embargo on all vessels in the port of Tyne. On the 20th of September, they mustered 7000 men on Cullercoates sand, while their organization and discipline rendered such meetings extremely dangerous. But on the 25th of October, the navy and military, aided by the civil power, dissolved the combination, when near 200 vessels proceeded to sea.

On December 9, their imperial highnesses the Archdukes John and Lewis of Austria, with their suite, arrived at Newcastle. After visiting the principal coal, iron, glass, and lead works in the neighbourhood, they proceeded on their way to the south.

In consequence of a rapid thaw, accompanied by wind and rain, on the 30th of December, the river Tyne rose to a great height, and immense loss was sustained by the flood. All the lower parts of the Close and Quayside were overflowed. The Carlisle London trader tore up the cannon to which she was moored, and broke adrift; but was soon after brought up and secured. Most of the other vessels at the Quay sunk the stems of their anchors into the pavement. A keel got fixed lengthwise across the second arch from the north of the bridge, when the cries of the keelmen induced a man and a spirited youth to put off in a boat for their rescue. On returning from the keel, the boat was swamped; and though the keelmen were saved, the two generous fellows who had gone off to their assistance were drowned. The arches of the bridge being choaked up with keels, ice, and pieces of timber, great apprehensions were entertained for its safety. At Shields, upwards of 30 vessels drifted from their moorings, and were driven on the Herd Sands. Several keels were also blown to sea, with their crews, some of which were seen off Flamborough Head. The timber in the river, that was carried away by the violence of the current, was valued at £20,000. (fn. 6)

In the night of July 10, 1816, the premises in the Pudding Chare, occupied by Mr. Beeney, painter and glazier, as a varnishing room, and Mr. Lawson, as a currier's shop, were discovered to be on fire. By great exertions, the fire was confined to the upper stories of the building, which were destroyed.

On September 7, James O'Neill was executed on the Town Moor, Newcastle, for robbing George Angus, the Mickley carrier, on returning from the preceding October Cow-hill fair. The body was waked in a public house near the gaol, and afterwards interred in St. Andrew's church-yard.

On Saturday December 14, the Grand Duke Nicholas of Russia and suite arrived in Newcastle, and immediately after inspected the Royal Jubilee School. From thence the prince proceeded to Wallsend colliery, where the mode of working and ventilating the mines and shipping the coals was explained to him. Mr. Bewick had afterwards the honour of laying before the grand duke specimens of his skill in the art of wood engraving. On the following morning, Sir Thomas Burdon, the mayor, paid his respects to his imperial highness, to tender him the honours and hospitality of Newcastle; but his highness, being on the point of setting out northward, was obliged to decline the invitation.

On February 8, 1817, the mayor, aldermen, sheriff, and common council addressed his royal highness the prince regent, "on the providential defeat of the late traitorous outrage" against his royal person.

At this time of general distress, a liberal subscription was raised in Newcastle, for the purpose of giving employment to the industrious and unengaged poor; as will be more particularly noticed hereafter.

The new silver coinage was delivered from the mint-office, in the Close, Newcastle, on February 13. On the 30th of January preceding, 18 waggons belonging to the artillery passed through the town to Scotland, under a military escort, with 24 tons of the new silver coin.

On October 11, a numerous company of gentlemen connected with the coal-trade dined at the Queen's Head inn, Newcastle, J. G. Lambton, Esq. M. P. in the chair, when a superb service of plate was presented to Sir Humphrey Davy for his invaluable discovery of the safety-lamp.

November 19, being the day appointed for the funeral of the Princess Charlotte, it was observed in Newcastle and Gateshead with every mark of public solemnity and sorrow. Business of every kind was suspended.

Charles Smith was, on December 3, executed upon the Town Moor, Newcastle, for the murder of Charles Stuart. His body was afterwards removed to the Surgeon's Hall for dissection.

On January 12, 1818, a respectable party of gentlemen dined at the Assembly Rooms, Newcastle, C. J. Brandling, Esq. in the chair, on the occasion of presenting a piece of plate to Mr. George Stephenson, for the service rendered to science and humanity by the invention of his safety-lamp.

At a public meeting, held in the Guildhall, Newcastle, on Wednesday, February 11, it was agreed to petition parliament to suppress the present mode of sweeping chimneys by means of climbing boys.

The Grand Duke Michael of Russia, accompanied by his suite, arrived at Newcastle on August 1, when he visited the Royal Jubilee School, Heaton colliery, and the Low Glass-houses. Next morning, the illustrious stranger proceeded to Alnwick Castle.

On August 4, the mayor and other officers of the corporation waited upon the Duke of Northumberland, and presented to him the freedom of the town, which had been previously voted to him.

M. Cotter, a French judge, attended the assizes at Newcastle this year, in order to observe and report to his government the British mode of administering justice.

His imperial highness the Archduke Maximilian of Russia, with his suite, arrived in Newcastle on November 3, on a tour to observe the mines, manufactures, and architectural curiosities of this kingdom.

December 2, being the funeral day of her majesty queen Charlotte, it was observed in Newcastle with the usual indications of mourning and respect.

On April 15, 1819, a subscription masked ball and supper took place at the Assembly Rooms, Newcastle. Invention was exhausted to impart interest and elegance to this entertainment.

On Saturday, August 14, his royal highness Prince Leopold and suite arrived at the Queen's Head inn, Newcastle. In the evening he visited the Northumberland Glass-house; and next day, being the Assize Sunday, he attended divine service in St. Nicholas' church, accompanied by Sir William Scott (Lord Stowell), after which he partook of a collation at the Mansion-house, and then set off for Alnwick Castle, to dine with his grace the Duke of Northumberland. The public shewed him much respect, and he was saluted by the guns of the castle.

On September 30, the mayor, recorder, aldermen, sheriff, and common council of Newcastle, voted "a dutiful and loyal address" to his royal highness the prince regent, deprecating the popular doctrines of Reform; and assuring his royal highness that they would always be ready to repel, to the utmost of their power, the traitorous attempts of those who should endeavour, either by open violence or under any delusive pretext, to erect the standard of anarchy and atheism upon the ruins of the existing government of the country.

On Tuesday the 5th of October, a requisition, signed by about 300 of the inhabitants of Newcastle, was presented to Archibald Reed, Esq. who had been elected to the mayoralty on the preceding evening, requesting him to convene a general meeting, "for the purpose of taking into consideration the late proceedings in Manchester." (fn. 7) His worship refused to agree with the requisition, but, expressing his firm reliance upon the good sense and prudence of the people, gave permission for holding the meeting, which he promised not to molest, either with the police or the military. Notices were immediately issued by "the United Committees of Political Protestants in Newcastle and Gateshead," (fn. 8) signed "W. Weatherston, Secretary," announcing that a general meeting of the inhabitants of Newcastle and the vicinity, for the above mentioned purpose, would be held on the Parade Ground, on Monday, October 11, at twelve o'clock at noon precisely. (fn. 9)

About half past eleven, on the day of meeting, the Reform Societies of Sunderland, Gateshead, Aydon Banks, Winlaton, Swalwell, and North and South Shields, began to pass through the town, and were followed by those of Benwell, Fawdon, and Newcastle. The hustings, which was in the rear, consisted of a covered platform, raised upon the frame and wheels of a waggon, and drawn by three horses decorated with red ribbons. This erection was hung round with black cloth, and on the front were inscribed the words, "Truth! Order! Justice!" The members of the different societies walked hand in hand, four abreast, under the direction of their leaders, who carried white rods surmounted with crape. The divisions were distinguished by banners or flags, bearing various devices and mottos; and some of them were preceded by a person carrying a Roman fasces. Several bands of music played popular airs. The procession halted at the Parade Ground, which being deemed not sufficiently capacious to hold the prodigious numbers that attended, it moved forwards to the Town Moor. The whole body was one hour and a quarter in passing the Barras Bridge at a quick pace; from which circumstance it was calculated that above 20,000 men were in rank. The space occupied by the compact body of the meeting was measured, and would easily hold 76,000 persons. This is exclusive of the distant and straggling spectators. (fn. 10)

Several persons addressed the meeting; and resolutions were passed, condemning the "outrage at Manchester," and recommending a subscription for affording relief, and procuring justice, to the sufferers. After this, the societies re-formed, and marched back in the most admirable order. Not a single straggler remained in the town; and so obedient were these men to their orders, that a division of seamen, from Shields, drank nothing but water during the day, and passed by the ale-casks on the road-side without regret. Even in the town, notwithstanding the excitement of the day, the patrols did not apprehend a single disorderly person. (fn. 11)

The extent and organization of this meeting was viewed with the greatest surprise, and which in many was combined with the deepest alarm. Some, who thought it necessary to purge themselves of all suspicion of participating in the popular wish for reform, drew out, on the following day, "a Declaration of Loyalty and Attachment to the Constitution." (fn. 12) A great many persons were sworn as special constables; and the magistrates invited the "loyal inhabitants" to offer "their services as a Volunteer Corps, for the protection of property, and in aid of the civil power."

On Thursday, October 14, the mayor, with a party of civil officers, proceeded down the river, to restore the freedom of its navigation, which had been interrupted by the riotous conduct of the keelmen. Having retired to the Northumberland Arms inn, the mob on the New Quay attacked the Speedwell steam-packet, containing the peace officers, with stones; when the marines in his majesty's boats fired, and one man was killed. The infuriated mob, conceiving that the mayor had ordered the marines to fire, attacked the inn with threats of vengeance; but happily his worship, with Mr. J. Donkin, the high constable, escaped out at a back door.

In December, this year, the Northumberland and Newcastle Volunteer Corps of Cavalry was formed, under the command of Charles John Brandling, Esq. of Gosforth House; and a troop of Dismounted Yeomanry (the measure having been sanctioned by his majesty's government), to act with the cavalry, was raised in Newcastle, and was commanded by Captain Archibald Reed, the mayor. The corporation voted 100 guineas to aid in equipping this corps. (fn. 13)

In the evening of January 6, 1820, a dreadful explosion of gas took place in the house of Mr. Benjamin Slater, Forth Street, Newcastle. The upper part of this house, and the whole back part of the one adjoining, were blown out and destroyed. Seven men and women were injured, some of them severely; and one child was killed.

On the 26th of January, a meeting was held in Fletcher's Long Room, for the purpose of petitioning parliament for "a moderate and constitutional reform in the representation of the people." This petition received 3016 signatures.

The accession to the throne of his majesty George IV. was proclaimed in Newcastle on the 3d of February. The procession consisted of the mayor, aldermen, and other members of the corporation, accompanied by General Sir Andrew Bernard, with his staff, and two troops of the 6th Dragoon Guards, with the band of that corps. On the 16th of the same month, the funeral day of his late majesty George III. was observed in Newcastle with all the ceremonies of a public mourning.

In the beginning of July, this year, an address was sent by the Reformers to her majesty the queen, signed by about 6000 of the inhabitants of Newcastle and the vicinity; and on September 14, a meeting was held at the White Hart inn, Newcastle, to consider the propriety of co-operating with the committee in London, for raising subscriptions, at one shilling each, to present to queen Caroline a service of plate. This measure was adopted, a committee formed, and the subscriptions commenced.

On the abandonment of the Bill of Pains and Penalties, a trial of strength and address took place between the Reformers and the Whigs; though some few viewed the question apart from political creeds. The former held a meeting at Fletcher's Long Room, on Thursday, November 16, to congratulate her majesty on the occasion; and the latter assembled for the same purpose in the Guildhall, on the Wednesday following. (fn. 14) This last meeting voted an address to the king, expressive of their reprobation of the conduct of his majesty's ministers, throughout the late proceedings. On Monday, the 20th of this month, the friends of her majesty in Newcastle and Gateshead joined in expressing their joy by illuminating their houses. Mr. Price's house, in Gateshead, was one entire blaze of lamps, of various tints and the most brilliant lustre. The mayor, apprehensive of tumult, had requested the inhabitants of Newcastle not to illuminate; but the general fervour could not be repressed. Though a party of dragoons were, late in the evening, brought into the town, yet no act of riot or disorder was committed, nor was any insult offered to those who did not illuminate. An address of congratulation to the queen was at this time signed by near 7000 females in Newcastle and the vicinity. These addresses were followed by one from the corporation of Newcastle, professing attachment to his majesty person and government. (fn. 15)

On Thursday, July 19, 1821, the coronation of his majesty George IV. was celebrated in Newcastle. Early in the morning, thousands of strangers poured into the town, to witness the rejoicings. At six o'clock, a royal salute from the guns of the Castle, the hoisting of flags and colours, and a peal of bells from the several churches, announced the commencement of the rejoicings. A boat-race, from Walker Quay to the Tyne Bridge, attracted an immense concourse of people to the river side. (fn. 16) At half past nine o'clock, the mayor, recorder, aldermen, sheriff, and common council, voted a congratulatory address to his majesty; after which, the mayor, George Forster, Esq. was invested with a gold a chain and medallion, which was ordered to be worn by all future chief magistrates of that town. The gentlemen of the corporation then walked in procession, preceded by music, to St. Nicholas' church, where a sermon was preached, from 1 Kings, chap. i. ver. 39, by the Rev. John Smith, A. M. vicar. An elegant pant, 12 feet high, and surmounted by an imperial crown, had been erected in the centre of the Sandhill, from which it was intended to supply the populace with wine. When the magistrates returned, and appeared at the great window of the Town's Court to drink his majesty's health, which was accompanied by a royal salute from the Castle, the wine began to flow from the pant. An indescribable scene of the most indecent uproar ensued; and one man clung to the top of the erection until all the clothes were torn from his body. When the wine ceased to flow, the pant was torn into pieces, and the mob began to throw about the pots, soaked hats, caps, &c. Galleries were erected on the tops of some houses, to witness this disgusting spectacle. In the mean time, an ox, that had been roasted at the bottom of the Old Flesh Market, was hoisted upon a platform, and cut into pieces, which were thrown amongst the crowd. This insulting mode of distribution was promptly resented, and the persons on the stage were pelted off with the pieces of meat and bones. The remains of the animal were then dragged, by the chain of the crane, through the streets to the Sandhill; the furnace was pulled down; and the procession of mail coaches passing at the time was wantonly assailed with brickbats. The distribution of another ox, at the Spital, was attended by nearly similar circumstances. The ale-pant in the Old Flesh Market was demolished while the beer was running. The Spital pant was also pulled down. The beer-pant at the Milk Market was chiefly surrounded by women and children. About three o'clock, the multitude was attracted to the Moor, to witness the race, which tended to preserve the peace of the town. At night, the police succeeded in dispersing the disorderly crowds that continued to demolish the temporary erections in the Spital and the Old Flesh Market.

On this occasion, the inmates of the corporation hospitals and the poor-houses, the prisoners in the gaol and house of correction, and the children of the endowed charityschools, partook of the bounty of the corporation. There were grand dinners at the Mansion-house and Trinity-house. In the evening, there was a ball at the Assembly Rooms; and the pit and gallery of the Theatre were opened to the free burgesses gratis. About 340 children of St. Edmund's chapel were assembled in the rectorygarden, Gateshead, where they sung "God save the King," and received each a glass of wine, a cake, and sixpence. A sum of money, which had been subscribed by the inhabitants, was distributed amongst the poor of this parish.

On July 26, part of the soap-house of Messrs. Clapham and Co. at the Ouseburn, Newcastle, was destroyed by fire; and on August 9, the extensive glass-works and warehouses of the Northumberland Glass Company, in the Close, with some adjoining dwelling-houses, were burnt down. The only part left standing was the cone of the furnace near the river.

On the night of November 30, a tremendous gale commenced at Newcastle, which did much injury to many buildings. An old widow, named Elizabeth Robson, 86 years of age, was killed in her bed, in Johnson's Chare, Sandgate, by the chimney falling through the roof.

In March, 1822, the Reformers in Newcastle petitioned the House of Commons to liberate Henry Hunt, Esq. from prison. This petition, which was presented by J. G. Lambton, Esq. was rejected, as being insulting to the house. (fn. 17)

On May 24, part of the Northumberland Flax-mill, at the Ouseburn, near Newcastle, with some of the stock, and machinery, were destroyed by fire.

His royal highness the Duke of Sussex honoured Newcastle with his presence on the 2d of September, 1822. The populace drew the royal visitor, amidst loud cheers, from Gateshead toll-bar to the Tyne Bridge, where he was welcomed by the sheriff of the town, and then drawn by the people of Newcastle to the Mansion-house. Here his royal highness was addressed by the recorder, and presented with the freedom of the town. After partaking of a cold collation, he followed the Masonic procession to the scite of the new building for the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle, where a throne had been prepared for him. The Masonic ceremony of laying the foundation-stone then took place, after which his royal highness adjourned to the Concert-room, in the Bigg Market, where an especial Grand Lodge of the Ancient Free Masons of England had been opened. About five o'clock, his royal highness dined at the Assembly Rooms, with about 300 gentleman; Sir M. W. Ridley, Bart. in the chair. At nine o'clock, the duke took his leave, and proceeded with Sir Matthew to Blagdon.

On October 24, during a strike of the keelmen of the Tyne, a number of seamen proceeded to force the crews from some vessels loading at the spouts. The mayor of Newcastle, Robert Bell, Esq. immediately proceeded down the river in his barge, with a party of volunteers and police, and took 32 of the rioters into custody, who, after being guarded all night in a king's cutter, were next day brought to the Castle of Newcastle. A number of seamen accompanied their captured companions; and, in the Castle Garth, their conduct was so turbulent, that the riot act was read. Thus this intended strike of the seamen was frustrated at the commencement. The keelmen, after a suspension of ten weeks, resumed their labours in the beginning of December. During part of this time, the Swan cutter was moored opposite to Newcastle Quay.

In January, 1823, the north of England was visited by a dreadful snow storm, that continued nearly six weeks. For a whole week, all communication between Newcastle and Edinburgh was completely intercepted. On Gateshead Fell, the snow in one place was level with the top of a two-story house; and the turnpike west of Newcastle, when cut through, presented in many places a snow dyke 12 and 14 feet high. When the storm had a little abated, the mails were sent northwards on saddlehorses.

During the representation of Tom and Jerry, in the Theatre-royal, Newcastle, on February 19, a very melancholy accident happened. Some gas was escaping from a pipe in the lower tier of boxes, which a person who was seeking for the place of escape set on fire, when the flame and smoke penetrated through the crevices into the gallery. The fire was almost instantly extinguished; but the cries of "Fire!— fire !—Save your lives !" caused an irresistible rush to the stairs, when seven persons were either suffocated or trampled to death, and a number were bruised and injured. Mr. De Camp, the manager, did all in his power to dissipate the apprehensions of danger, or the calamity would have been still more deplorable.

On March 20, forty-seven of the Gentlemen Bachelors of Newcastle gave a most splendid fancy dress ball and supper, which was attended by 467 ladies and gentlemen, attired in all the splendour, brilliancy, and variety that could be devised.

On July 29, the cordwainers of Newcastle celebrated the festival of St. Crispin, by holding a coronation of their patron saint in the court of the Freemen's Hospital at the Westgate, and afterwards walking in procession through the principal streets of the town. This caricature show produced much laughter and mirth; but, considering the rapid increase of knowledge, it is probably the last exhibition of this kind that the craft will exhibit in this place.

On September 12, the workmen employed in several of the glass-houses on the Tyne and Wear walked in procession, with music and flags, through Newcastle and Gateshead; each man being decorated with glass ornaments, and bearing some specimen of the art, remarkable either for its curious construction, or its beauty and elegance. The day was fine; and the rays of the sun, falling upon the glittering column, gave it a richness and grandeur of appearance that defy description. A salute was fired several times from a fort mounted with glass cannon, to the astonishment of the spectators; and a glass bugle, which sounded the halts, was much admired for its richness and sweetness of tone. This novel and interesting spectacle, in which were exhibited some of the finest efforts of human genius and industry, received the general and unqualified approbation of all classes. (fn. 18)

In the night of December 10, the engine-house of the saw-mill belonging to Messrs. Brown and Son, at the head of Northumberland Street, was entirely destroyed by fire; as was also an adjoining hay-stack, belonging to Mr. Lax.

A meeting was convened at Newcastle, by the high sheriff of Northumberland, on March 26, 1825, to receive the report of a committee appointed at the Summer Assizes in 1824, to enquire into the practicability of improving the existing communication between Newcastle and Carlisle. The meeting resolved that a rail-road between these towns was "an object worthy the countenance of the county." The capital required for this undertaking is £300,000, divided into 3000 shares, at £100 each; of which, one-sixth was reserved for the land-owners of the country through which the line passes. The shares were soon subscribed for; the line is now surveying; and application will be made to parliament, at the ensuing session, for powers to carry this useful and important scheme into effect.

Footnotes

1 This man came to Newcastle in the month of April preceding, under the name of George Ross, surgeon of his majesty's ship Resolution. After negotiating the forged bill at the Tyne Bank, he went to Liverpool, where he was apprehended, and sent down hither by a writ of Habeas Corpus. He was indicted by the names of William Alexander, alias George Ross, alias George Christie, which names he had assumed at different times. One of the jury who tried him not having been returned on the sheriff's panel, though summoned instead of his father in mistake, Alexander was respited till the 17th of November, that the informality might be submitted to the consideration of the twelve judges. This young man was evidently a person of cultivated mind, and was supposed to belong to some respectable family in Scotland. From some expressions in his dying speech, he had been a votary of fashion and pleasure, until, his means being exhausted, he had adopted this illegal method to support his extravagance. He expressed his gratitude in strong terms for the kindness of the sheriff, jailor, the Rev. Mr. Brown, the ordinary of Newgate, and the Rev. Mr. Grant, a Presbyterian minister. He was buried in St. Andrew's church-yard. Mr. John Sykes, of Newcastle, has in MS. a poetical Soliloquy, with notes, on this execution, written by J. Davidson, of the High Bridge, who was clerk to Mr. Heron, solicitor.
2 The following strange narrative of human suffering is given by Brand from the Universal Register, Monday, March 18, 1786:—
"On Friday morning last, was found dead in his bed, at an obscure lodging near Chiswell Street, Mr. Swan. He was the only surviving male heir of the late Thomas Swan, Esq. alderman and mayor of Hull, in Yorkshire, who left estates to the amount of £20,000 per annum, which he had been trying (in vain) for above twenty-five years to recover. The history of this unfortunate man is no less remarkable than that of his father, who, when nine years of age, in 1705 (to disinherit him), was trepanned from his father's house, Richard Swan, Esq. of Benwell Hall, near Newcastle, and put on board the new Britannia brig, was wrecked on the rocks of Scilly with Sir Cloudesley Shovel's fleet, and was afterwards taken by an Algerine vessel, sold for a slave, and, after four years imprisonment, was set at liberty by the Redeeming Friars. After this he was again taken prisoner, carried and sold for a slave to a planter at South Carolina, where he suffered almost every human woe. He returned again to England, after a banishment of twenty years, in 1726, and was identified at Newcastle by his nurse and father's footman. He directly laid claim to the estate alluded to; but having neither money nor friends living to assist him, all his efforts proved abortive. After this he settled at North Dalton near Hull, where he married one Jane Cole, by which marriage he left the above unfortunate William Swan: he afterwards died of a broken heart at the above village in 1735."
3 These criminals belonged to a party of faws that were a terror to the county. John the father, and Robert the brother of Winter, after a course of the most daring and shameless villainy, were hanged at Morpeth, in 1788, for housebreaking; and Walter Clark, the father of the two girls, with one Margaret Dunn, was executed at Morpeth, in 1793, for burglaries.
4 Mr. James Palmer died in Sandgate, Newcastle, in January this year. He had been a private soldier in the royal army in the year 1715. After this, he served for some time in the navy, where he held the situation of servant and occasional assistant to a surgeon. Having by this means picked up some little knowledge of the healing art, he came to Newcastle, and boldly assumed the appellation of Doctor. His medicines were mostly vegetable compositions; and his skill was very highly esteemed by the good people of Sandgate, amongst whom he practised during a very long period. He dressed in the old costume of the profession, and contrived, amidst all his convivial extravagancies, to maintain his medical dignity. Though drunk almost every night for the last 30 years of his life, yet he attained the great age of 100 years. This fact might appear singular, were it not added that he was an early riser.
5 The corporation also erected a large and convenient kitchen at the east end of the Poultry Market, in the High Bridge. The scheme of furnishing the poor with nourishing, cheap soup, had been carried on during the winter of 1797 and 1798; and, after this time, was occasionally revived with great success. The ingredients for 30 gallons were in about the following proportions:—beef, 7 lb.; potatoes, 23 lb.; crushed peas, 10 lb.; pearl barley, 12 lb.; besides pepper, salt, onions, and other vegetables.
6 Thomas Thompson, merchant, died at his house near the Windmill Hills, on the 9th of January, 1816, aged 43 years. His death was caused by cold and fatigue, in his exertions to save his timber from the ravages of the above destructive flood. He was born in the Back Row, Newcastle, and, from an humble origin, raised himself, by his talents and merits, to a respectable rank in society. His dexterity, both in computations and in mercantile correspondences, frequently excited surprise. "He was endeared to all (and they were many) who knew him, by a temper good-natured in the extreme; and his obliging inclinations were such, that the mere stranger, who sojourned but the moiety of a day under his roof, conceived for him a lasting sentiment of regard; for, whether in acts of hospitality or otherwise, he was ever most eager to render useful assistance to those who had any claim for his friendship. But, alas! mute is that tongue which so often charmed the social circle, and set the table in a roar. It were unnecessary to say how much his company was courted, wherever humour and vivacity were considered as ingredients contributing to social recreation. There are few in this neighbourhood who have not been entertained with his local songs, written by himself in the pure Newcastle dialect, and sung by him with a playfulness and humour that transported every genuine Northumbrian." Besides being the author of "Canny Newcastle," and other descriptive local songs, he wrote also several graver pieces, of considerable poetic merit.
7 At this period of agitation, the working classes of the community were experiencing the severest privations. This rendered them sober and thoughtful; and numerous reading parties associated to trace the causes and the cure of their sufferings in the cheap Registers of William Cobbett, the Black Dwarf of Jonathan Wooler, and other popular writings of the same kind. Thus the principles of Radical Reform were spread, and espoused "with all the fervour of a moral or religious feeling;" while the indignation expressed at the violent dispersion of the Manchester meeting was loud and general. In this alarming state of the public mind, the friends of the ministry considered Radicalism as a compound of every thing bad, violent, and treasonable; while the Reformers conceived that their opponents were actuated by motives the most base, cruel, and selfish. Those who professed to take a middle course were hated and scorned by both parties.
8 The Political Protestants were first organized when Major Cartwright visited Newcastle, on the 6th of October, 1815. This Union does not appear to have performed any public act until February 16, 1818, when the members petitioned parliament for reform in the representation, by twenties, agreeably to a plan proposed by the major. In the summer of 1819, the society became numerous, and began to meet regularly in classes of twelve each, every member of which was required to pay one penny per week. But very little cash was raised in these clubs, the payments being generally considered optional; while the very poor and unemployed members were altogether exempted from any contribution.
9 The hand-bill containing the notice of this meeting included the following orders:—"It is essential to the preservation of order and decorum, that those friendly to the object of the meeting walk in ranks. Those from the neighbourhood of Gateshead, to assemble in the Main Street, above the entrance of Bensham road; and those from the eastward, to form at the Ballast Hills: such as belong to the town and its northern and western suburbs, to join the general committee near the castle. The whole body to walk to the place of meeting by way of Pilgrim and Northumberland Streets, and to return by way of Percy and Newgate Streets. Those who are not inhabitants of the town are requested, in returning, not to halt within its jurisdiction. General costume, black, in memory of those who fell at Manchester, on the 16th August last.—No person to be permitted to ascend the hustings who has not special business to perform. It is deemed scarcely necessary to recommend to those who meet on that day, in support of the cause of justice and mercy, to join in repressing any attempts of the evil-disposed to excite tumult and disorder."
10 An humorous, satirical, and poetical jeu d'esprit, called "Radical Monday, a Letter from Bob in Gotham to his Cousin Bob in the Country," describing this meeting, was sent anonymously to a respectable bookseller in Newcastle. A few copies, it appears, were obtained surreptitiously; and, in 1821, it was printed by John Marshall, Newcastle.—Archibald Dick engraved and published a view of this meeting, royal 4to. price 1s.
11 The thanks of the meeting on the Town Moor were given to the mayor; and, at a meeting of the stewards of the incorporated companies of Newcastle, held on Thursday October 14, the thanks of that body were also voted to his worship, for "his firm and conciliating conduct" on the 11th inst. "On that day," says this address of thanks, "an assemblage of persons was collected in Newcastle, larger than has been known in the annals of the town: their numbers alarmed the timid, and induced the violent to suggest measures which might have been followed by the most fatal consequences. But you were not diverted from the line of conduct previously determined on by yourself, and the result has fully justified its wisdom."
The mayor, however, appeared to have caught the contagion of fear; for, in a communication to Lord Viscount Sidmouth, dated October 17, he says, "It is impossible to contemplate the meeting of the 11st instant without awe, more especially if my information is correct, that 700 of them were prepared with arms (concealed) to resist the civil power. These men came from a village about three miles from this town; and there is strong reason to suspect that arms are manufactured there: they are chiefly forgemen." About the end of this despatch he says, "The reformers are now in a state of almost rebellion."
The uninterrupted peace preserved in Newcastle, whilst most other populous districts were disturbed by acts of turbulence and vindictiveness, is in a great measure to be attributed to the moderation and forbearance of the magistracy, who have seldom shewed an inclination to exercise a rigour beyond the law. Only one solitary instance of this kind can be quoted; that of Alexander Whyte, baker, who was tried and acquitted of a political libel, at the quarter sessions, held for the town and county of Newcastle upon Tyne, on Wednesday, July 17, 1793. Mr. Whyte, it seems, was one morning drinking in Loggie's public house, in the Grindon Chare, upon the Quayside, when he began to read a paper, that was borrowed of him by John Ridley, a butcher, who afterwards reading it in the Angel inn, Sergeant Punsheon snatched it out of his hand, and carried it to a magistrate. For this offence, Whyte was kept five months in rigorous confinement in Newgate, excessive bail being required, which he had no means of obtaining. He defended himself with great acuteness and ability, and afterwards published an account of his trial, for the benefit of his family.
12 No account exists of the presentation of this address to the prince regent. The Political Protestants of Newcastle, Gateshead, &c. also published a Declaration of their Political Faith, and a disavowal of "the wicked, absurd, and impracticable design of levelling all distinctions in society, and of proposing equalization of property." It is dated November 1, 1819. At this time, the press at Newcastle and the neighbouring towns teemed with papers, tracts, and pamphlets, on political subjects, many of which are already forgotten, or only preserved by the collectors of curiosities. The following pamphlets are now before the writer. Printed by John Marshall, Old Flesh Market, Newcastle:—A full Account of the general Meeting, &c. on Monday the 11th of October, 1819.—The Crimes of the Reformers.—The White Hat.—Address of the Reformers of Fawdon, &c.—Declaration and Rules of the Political Protestants, &c.—True Religion and Superstition compared and contrasted.—A Letter on the Persecution of W. H. Stephenson, a Methodist Preacher.—A Dialogue between a Methodist Preacher and a Reformer.—The Principles of British Parliamentary Reform. —Marshall on the People's Right to Annual Parliaments.—Brayshaw's Tract on Reform. Printed by Edward Walker, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle:—A Letter from a Reformer to a Radical, on the Newcastle Meeting.—The History of Thomas Whitehead.—Dialogue between a Radical and a Labourer.—Remarks on Wooler and his Black Dwarf.—The Englishman's Adviser, a periodical Paper, by the Rev. John Davison, of Washington. Printed by Joseph Clark, Newgate Street, Newcastle:—The Ground of National Grievances examined, &c.—National Reformation, by a Radical Reformer. Printed by J. and R. Akenhead, Sandhill, Newcastle:—Cursory Remarks on the Subject of Reform. Printed by W. A. Mitchell, St. Nicholas' Churchyard, Newcastle:—An Examination of the late dreadful Occurrences at Manchester.—H. A. Mitchell on Annual Parliaments. Printed by George Angus, Side, Newcastle:—Philips' Speech at the Foreign and British Auxiliary Bible Society. Printed by S. Hodgson, Union Street, Newcastle:—A Dialogue between a Christian and a Reformer. Printed by William Hall, New Wheat Market, Newcastle:— Rules of the Independent Methodist Church. Printed by Reed and Son, Sunderland:—Reform or Ruin. Printed by G. Garbutt, High Street, Sunderland:—Cobbett's Reflections on Religion.—Ditto on Politics.—Cobbett's Life of Thomas Paine. Printed by F. Humble and Co. Durham:—The Life of Thomas Paine.—Cayley's Address to the Pitmen, Keelmen, &c. on the Tyne and Wear. In addition to these Publications, an immense quantity of cheap political tracts, from London and Edinburgh, were distributed; while placards, hand-bills, songs, squibs, &c. on the subject in dispute, appeared in quick succession.
13 This troop, or company, was formed of fine-looking men, smartly dressed; but, in consequence of the popular prejudice against yeomanry corps in time of peace, they were subjected to many taunts and sarcasms, and distinguished by the scoffing appellation of Noodles.
14 A satirical description of these meetings, by the author of "Radical Monday," was sent to the gentleman before alluded to. This performance, though less lively and correct than the preceding one, contains many happy strokes of genuine humour. The anonymous writer has authorised the printer of "Radical Monday" to publish this also if he pleases.
15 These popular movements were, in this district, accompanied by a furious paper war, on the conduct of ministers and the character of the queen, and in which considerable talents were displayed by the contending parties.
16 The prizes for this race were, for the 1st boat, 6 sovereigns; 2d boat, 3 ditto; 3d boat, 2 ditto; and the 4th boat, 1 ditto, given by the corporation; in addition to which, the Trinity-house was to present the first boat with an elegant blue silk flag, on which was gilt a crown and suitable inscription. This flag was the great object of ambition to the competitors, and for which 13 boats had been entered. In consequence of a dispute, the prizes were not adjudged until the competitors again tried their skill on August 1 (the anniversary of the battle of the Nile), when the flag was won by the Laurel Leaf, belonging to Stella.
17 The following is the objectionable passage:— "That your petitioners are aware, that all unnecessary cruelty in the execution of the laws has a manifest tendency to bring the administration of justice into contempt; and as your honourable house has frequently exerted its influence to soften the rigours of justice in behalf of political offenders, as in the late instance of Sir Manasseh Lopez, they cherish the hope that the same sympathy will be extended to Henry Hunt, Esq. which was so benevolently bestowed on that much injured individual." The same petitioners applied to parliament, in March, 1823, for a Reform of the representation, which is the last petition on this subject sent from Newcastle.
18 When the ludicrous and boyish shew of the glassmen in 1789 (intended to ridicule the silly exhibition of the cordwainers) is contrasted with this procession, the improved knowledge and taste of this valuable class of workmen must appear very conspicuous.