All Saints' church
The new church; clergy and lecturers

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Eneas Mackenzie

Year published

1827

Pages

302-322

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'All Saints' church: The new church; clergy and lecturers', Historical Account of Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Including the Borough of Gateshead (1827), pp. 302-322. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=43356 Date accessed: 30 September 2014.


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THE NEW CHURCH.

HISTORY.

The act for pulling down and rebuilding the church of All Saints, in Newcastle upon Tyne, received the royal assent the 27th of June. 1786. (fn. 1) The building committee had, in the mean time, advertised for plans for the new church, which was intended to accommodate fifteen hundred persons with convenient seats. Several architects presented plans; but the competition lay between Mr. David Stephenson of Newcastle, and Mr. Harrison of Lancaster. At length, the preference was unanimously given to that of Mr. D. Stephenson, who, at the same time, was appointed architect, to superintend the execution of his design. Mr. Harrison's plan was a semicircle, a form, in some respects, possessed of peculiar advantages, but which were also, in a great measure, attached to the adopted plan. The chord line formed the south front, and was adorned with a handsome Doric portico, similar to the one which superseded the original design of Mr. Stephenson, which was a colonnade of coupled Ionic columns along the south front: the great expense of this elegant design prevented its adoption.

All the necessary arrangements being made, the foundation-stone of the new building was laid by the Rev. James Stephen Lushington, A.M. vicar of Newcastle, on Monday the 14th of August, 1786. In the stone was deposited a brass plate, bearing the following inscription:—

"Ut omnipotentis Dei cultus decorus
et Christi humani generis salvatoris
Evangelium floreant et augeant,
hoc primum saxum ædis sacræ novæ
(antiqua omnino collapsura)
a Jacobo Stephano Lushington
Novi Castri vicario ponitur
nono decimo kalendarum Septembris,
et in milissimo septingessimo
octo gesimo sexto anno salutis;
Davide Stephenson architecto."

A gentleman then present paid into the hands of one of the church-wardens ten guineas, which, with the exception of a donation from Mrs. White of twenty guineas, and one afterwards made by Mrs. Atlee, was the only donation received by the trustees towards defraying the expenses of the erection of this structure, which was done by an assessment of two shillings in the pound per annum, paid equally by the landlords and tenants of property in the parish.

While the question was discussing whether the pews of the new church should be constructed of mahogany or oak, Mrs. Atlee, in a letter addressed to Alderman H. Hornby, one of the trustees, dated February 16, 1787, observed, "that as mahogany was both more durable and ornamental than oak, and understanding that the difference of price only amounted to about £100, she proposed to give that sum as soon as the wood work was begun." This generous proposal was not less acceptable to the trustees, than creditable to the worthy donor, to whom the thanks of the trustees were immediately conveyed, with an intimation that they would gladly avail themselves of her munificent benefaction. Mr. Thomas Thompson contracted to execute the masonry of the new church, and Mr. Peter Paxton the carpentry. The work was prosecuted with such diligence, that the roof was placed on the church in November. 1787. That part of the tower which rises from the balustrades of the church, and forms the belfry, was commenced in May, 1788, and was completed, up to the diminution below the clock, in June, 1789. The superstructure was then intended to have been very different from that which was ultimately adopted, being a plain octagonal tower, of uniform width, rising from the arch on which the clock tower now stands, to the height of 37½ feet, and terminating with a semicircular dome, 12 feet in diameter, making a total height of 143 feet from the ground. Its tame and spiritless appearance, however, happily caused its rejection, though not until proposals for its erection had been delivered and accepted. A model of the present handsome and superior design was exhibited to the trustees in August, 1790, and finally adopted by them on the 12th of September following.

The ceiling of the church was chiefly executed during the summer of 1788, and completed in the spring of the following year, by Messrs. William Burnup and John Stokald, whose proposals were accepted May 19, 1788. The stair-case leading from the west door to the gallery was also erected about the same time.

In September, 1789, forty-three pews, containing 283 seats, in the new edifice, were sold for £2061, 19s. to freehold proprietors in the parish, to be annexed to their property for ever.

On Monday, November 16, 1789, the Right Rev. Thomas Thurlow, Lord Bishop of Durham, arrived in Newcastle, and was entertained at the Mansion House by the Right Worshipful Hugh Hornby, Esq. mayor, and one of the trustees for building the new church of All Saints, the consecration of which took place on the following day. At eleven o'clock, his lordship proceeded to the edifice, where the usual prayers of consecration were read with great solemnity, and an excellent sermon preached on the occasion, by the Rev. Hugh Moises, A. M. rector of Greystock, and morning lecturer of All Saints', from Leviticus, chapter xix. ver. 30, "Ye shall keep my Sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary. I am the Lord." After divine service, the Right Worshipful the Mayor gave a grand entertainment to the bishop. the clergy then in town, the trustees for building the church, the church-wardens, and a number of other gentlemen.

The erection of this structure was completed in 1796, ten years after its commencement, by placing the top stone of the spire, on October 21. in that year. The expenses attendant on its completion cannot be exactly ascertained, from the variety of disbursements unconnected with the new building. £1617 were expended in the purchase of houses, for the enlargement of the church-yard; £190, 9s. 8d. for pulling down the old church: £928, 10s. 8d. for salaries, printing, and other incidental expenses. The organ and other ornaments cost £634. 3s. Repairing churchyard walls, and other charges unconnected with the building of the church, £1609, 9s. 3d, These particulars are from a paper in the hand-writing of Malin Sorsbie, Esq. one of the trustees: and in a paper in the possession of Mr. Thomas Milner, one of the trustees, the following items are mentioned:—David Stephenson, architeet, for his plans and attendance. £300. Peter Paxton, for roof. £240. Ditto, for inside work, £766. Mr. Thompson, stone-mason, £3282. Mr. Peacock, for smithwork £309. Timber, £900. Composition window-frames. £294, 19s. Erection of a wall at the east side of the church-yard, £400. The total amount, in 1789, was £21, 629, 19s. 8d. exclusive of the cost of the upper part of the steeple, the erection of which, with other expenses of inclosing the church-yard, and finishing the interior, is stated to have increased the total amount to about £ 27,000, which is generallyconsidered to be the entire cost of this elegant structure.

On Thursday, January 8, 1802, about one o'clock in the morning, about thirty yards of the high wall of the church-yard fell down into Silver Street, with a tremendous crash, exposing to view many coffins and vast quantities of human bones. The house of Mr. John Stokoe was greatly injured, the repairs of which, with the erection of a new wall, and other incidental expenses, amounted to £249, 12s. 1d.

On December 16th, 1814, during a destructive hurricane, which commenced in the morning, and continued with great violence during the day, part of the parapet wall, which surrounds the roof of the church, was blown into Silver Street. About the same time also, the under sash of one of the gallery windows, immediately west of the steeple, was forced out of its place, and being carried, by the force of the wind, over the gallery, without touching any part of it, fell on the pews, in the centre of the ground-floor. The expense of rebuilding the battlement, with some other repairs made at the time, amounted to £130.

In 1816, in consequence of the top stone being inclined considerably out of its place, and to effect some other repairs which were deemed necessary, a scaffold was erected from the upper lantern to the top of the steeple, when many persons availed themselves of the opportunity of visiting this elevated situation. The vane was taken down and re-gilt; and the brass plate, formerly placed on the top stone, was renewed. (fn. 2) The walls were also pointed with Roman cement; and the oak cross beams, above the clock-room, having decayed, were strengthened by strong iron plates, firmly screwed around them. This necessary repair was under the direction of Mr. John Dobson, architect. It was, indeed, extremely fortunate that the state of these timbers was discovered at this time, or the most serious consequences might have ensued. The interior of the church, at the same time, was cleaned, and the ceiling coloured.

DESCRIPTION.

This church stands on the summit of a steep bank, which rises abruptly from the river Tyne. On three sides the scite is considerably elevated, which would add much to the general view of the structure were it less obstructed by dwelling-houses. It consists of an ellipse, the conjugate and transverse diameters of which are 86 feet and 72 feet; the former extending nearly in the direction of a true meridian line. At the south end is the square tower, or base of the steeple, forming the vestibule; adjoining which, on each side, are uniform wings: that on the west side containing a chapel, appropriated for morning prayer, and the services of baptism and burial; the other, on the east side, forms a spacious vestry room. The south front of the church consists of the base of the steeple, with a Doric portico in front, and the wings above-mentioned extending on each side: above, there is seen the elliptic body of the church, receding from the farther side of the steeple: and the view, in this direction, terminates in two circular projections, which respectively form the west entrance and the chancel.

"From a large iron gate, the handsome stone pillars of which have been lately renewed, a broad flagged path extends to the entrance of the cemetery. From this path, a stone staircase, 30 feet wide, forming a noble ascent of 12 steps, leads to the south or principal entrance of the church. The portico in front of this consists of four stately fluted columns, of the Doric order, supporting a pediment, the entablature of which is enriched with dentils, and contains the tryglyphs and other decorations peculiar to the order. The proportions are selected from the beautiful Roman architecture of the ancient theatre of Marcellus. The apex of the pediment is surmounted with a large stone vase, and the whole forms a splendid ornament to the exterior of the church. Corresponding to the columns of the portico are pilasters on the base of the steeple, between which is the principal door of the church. The intervening spaces of the walls are rusticated.

"The wings on each side are exactly uniform, and are enriched with numerous architectural decorations. In the centre of each is a window of considerable size, divided into three compartments by stone mullions, adorned with Ionic pilasters, supporting a fluted frize. Above this, the upper part of the window forms a circular segment, from which, on the walls, diverge radiating bars of rusticated work. On each side of the windows, from plain pedestals and attic bases, rise handsome coupled pilasters, of the Ionic order, the capitals of which present a fine specimen of the grace and freedom of ancient architecture. The cornice is adorned with dentils and small beads, and continues quite round the church, forming a distinction between the upper and lower divisions of the building.

"From the Doric portico rises the steeple, the elevated spire of which forms so prominent an object from the neighbourhood of the town. The height and numerous enrichments of this structure justly excite the admiration of the stranger, who, after contemplating the venerable memorial of past ages presented by St. Nicholas' steeple, turns with pleasure to observe so fair a monument of the taste and munificence of modern times.

"All Saints' steeple consists of a square tower, 96½ feet in height, from which rises a succession of stages, which terminate in a light and elegant spire, surmounted by a large gilt vane. At the lower part of the tower, and immediately above the Doric portico, are large windows on three sides. They are similar in size and form to those of the wings below; and the frize. which is fluted, continues round the whole of the edifice. Above this is a cornice and pediment of very commanding appearance, enriched with large modillions and pateras. This beautiful cornice continues round the church, and contains a line of small beads. which has a very chaste and delicate effect. The pedestal, on the south side of the steeple, supports a handsome fluted urn. Above these are the semicircular windows of the belfry: they are considered much too small for the emission of the sound of the bells and chimes, which, by that means, is deprived of much of the clearness and strength it would otherwise possess. At a short distance above these windows, a bold projecting moulding, with large modillions, forms a happy relief to those below, and greatly contributes to the beauty of the tower, which terminates a few feet above, and is ornamented at the corners with four large and beautiful vases.

"The summit of this tower is formed by a very strong vaulted roof, which supports the clock tower, each of the four sides of which contains a large painted dial, by which the hour of the day may be seen at a considerable distance. The upper part of the tower is lighted by four large glazed windows, which, on public rejoicings, have been occasionally illuminated; and, owing to their size and elevation, they produce a very novel and brilliant effect. The cornice at the upper part is supported by coupled columns, rising from pedestals on each side of the dials, and surmounted at each corner with a large vase. Rising from the summit of this tower is the lower lantern, which is the first open stage: it is surrounded with a handsome circular balustrade. The floor of this stage is covered with lead; and in the middle is a trap door, communicating with a staircase in the interior of the steeple, by which convenient access may be had to this elevated situation.

"From the lower lantern four strong square pillars arise, and support the upper lantern, which has four open windows, with columns on each side, rising from the balustrades; and at each corner are large Tuscan columns, the entablature of which extends round the steeple, and terminates the square of this light and elegant lantern, from the roof of which rises an octagonal spire, the base of which is surrounded with a wavy embrasure, and, at the height of twenty-eight feet, terminates with a large projecting stone, in which is deposited a brass plate, bearing the following inscription:

'Ecclesia haec nova
Sanctus Omnibus sacra
erat finita
die duodecimo kalendas Novembris.

A. D. MDCCXCVI.

Davide Stephenson Armigero Architecto Samuele Lawton Armigero Thesaurario Thoma Thompson Lapicida.'

"On the reverse,—

'This spire was repaired June, 1816.

Robert Oliver.Matthew Wheatley.
Thomas Coulson.John Coulson.
Church-wardens.'

"From the centre of the top stone rises an iron spindle, supporting a large gilt vane, which terminates the steeple, at a height of 202 feet from the ground. (fn. 3)

"The appearance of the church from the south-east corner of the cemetery well deserves the attention of the observer, as the united mass of building is here exposed to view, while the numerous decorations of its walls are sufficiently near to be seen to advantage. The end of the Doric portico and its stately pillars, seen in perspective, have a commanding effect. The side of the vestry, continuing from the south front of the east wing, is adorned with a colonnade of coupled Ionic pilasters, between which are large windows, similar to those on the south side. The whole of the remainder of the walls is beautified with rusticated work. The circular projection of the chancel commences at the north extremity of this wing, and contains three large windows, with circular arched tops: these are separated by single Ionic columns, corresponding to those of the wing, and which continue to divide the windows of the basement story at the north end of the church. Above the windows of the chancel are handsome balustrades, over which are pannels containing very rich ornaments cut in stone. The gallery windows rise from balustrades, and continue round the body of the church, the curvature of which is remarkably elegant. A beautiful frize and moulding, with large modillions, continues round the upper part of the building, and are surmounted by a parapet wall with open balustrades, the alternate pillars of which are ornamented with stone vases, &c.

"The west entrance is formed by a circular projection corresponding to that of the chancel. This beautiful piece of architecture presents a composition of the Ionic and Doric orders, arranged with a delicacy and symmetry truly admirable. The door is enriched with fluted Doric columns, which, with the entablature, are included between Ionic pilasters similar to those already described. The passage to this entrance is by a terrace and descent of twelve steps, leading from an iron gate, with rusticated pillars, in Silver Street.

"From the Doric portico at the south front of the church, á stately door of oak opens into a lofty vestibule of circular form, having a noble vaulted roof, supported by eight coupled Ionic pilasters, the capitals of which are finely executed in the Grecian style, and enriched with the chaste and elegant decorations peculiar to the order. The upper part of the frize is adorned with carved foliage work, supporting a cornice, which, by its projection, has a bold effect. The planceer is ornamented with seven leafed pateræ, which, being directly exposed to view, greatly add to the appearance of the cornice. These decorations continue round the vestibule, and by their whiteness form a chaste contrast to the stone colour of the walls.

"Immediately opposite the principal entrance are handsome mahogany folding doors, leading into the interior of the church. On the left is a corresponding entrance to the morning prayer chapel; and, on the right, uniformity is preserved by the door of the vestry. On entering the interior of the church from the vestibule, the spectator is pleased and surprised by the union of elegance and convenience exhibited throughout the whole of its decorations and arrangement. The beautiful curvature of the pews, the fine perspective of the columns which support the gallery, the chaste and elegant ornaments of the chancel, and the numerous windows here presented to the view, combine in producing an effect rarely equalled in ecclesiastical structures of modern date. On advancing further into the church, new objects of admiration present themselves, especially the ceiling, which, by its extent and beauty, commands the attention of every observer.

"From this principal entrance, an aisle of considerable width, flagged with large stones, descends by four steps to the level of the area or central part of the church, and continues along three sides of the fourteen pews which form the auditory of this part. The back and front of these pews are curved: the latter is separated from the chancel by an aisle, the floor of which is boarded and raised a few inches above the other aisles, from which it is separated at each end by small gates of mahogany rails. A spacious communication is thus formed with the principal parts of the church; the aisles in the centre containing numerous free sittings for the accommodation of the public. At the north end a floored aisle ascends by four steps to a passage extending nearly round the church, in which also are free sittings for the public. From this latter passage two aisles descend, and communicate with all the pews on the west side of the church. Here a recess is formed by an arched canopy of considerable height, the lower part of which is occupied by a staircase, rarely equalled for beauty and ingenuity. Two handsome folding doors, and a beautifully curved screen of mahogany, conceal the small vestibule or west entrance, from which the stairs ascend on each side by the circular walls of the recess, and, after meeting in the centre, again diverge to the walls, and enter the gallery on each side of the organ, which occupies the upper part of the recess. The staircase is lighted, at the meeting in the centre, by a handsome arched window, with fancy bars of cast iron, and which, on the exterior, forms the upper part or fan-light of the west or gallery door.

"On the east side of the church, a recess, similar to that which has now been described, forms parts of the chancel, and occupies a considerable portion of the space between the ends of the gallery, which terminate at this side of the church, 30 feet asunder. A mahogany pannelling, which continues quite round the church, of a uniform height with the pews at the west side, is here, owing to the descent of the aisles, considerably higher; and part of it forms a door, from which a passage communicates with the vestry. The chancel is separated by handsome mahogany rails from the front aisle of the area, above which it is raised one step, which, on the outside of the rails, forms a kneeling board for the communicants in the sacrament, and at other times, during divine service, a seat for the female scholars of the charity-school of the parish; an ornament more truly becoming a Christian church than all the profuse and magnificent decorations of art.

"Inclosed by these rails is the communion table, being a fine marble slab, supported on a mahogany frame, handsomely carved, and covered with crimson velvet. Immediately behind this, and considerably elevated, is the reading desk, from the front of which a screen of mahogany pannelling descends uniformly on each side, and continuing beyond the recess of the chancel, terminates by forming the fronts of two commodious pews: that on the south side immediately adjoins the door leading to the vestry, and is thus conveniently situated for the use of the clergymen, to whom it is appropriated: the other, on the north side, is reserved for the accommodation of the church-wardens. From these pews a handsome staircase ascends uniformly on each side to the pulpit, which is placed against the wall, immediately behind the reading desk. It is of mahogany, the corners enriched with carved foliage, and the upper part surrounded with a handsome frize. It is surmounted by an octagonal sounding board of mahogany, the appearance of which is heavy, in proportion to the general lightness and elegance which prevail. On each side of the pulpit, and contained within the circular arch of the recess, is a large window. The whole is included between four elegant fluted columns of the Corinthian order, forming a colonnade, terminated at each end by a corresponding pilaster. The rich foliage of the capitals is beautifully executed,' the entablature is enriched with dentils, and from it springs the arched canopy of the recess, divided into pannels by ribs springing from each column.

"The gallery is uncommonly spacious, containing sixty pews, besides the organ, and numerous accommodations for the children of the charity and Sunday schools, which adjoin the walls. An aisle extends on each side, from the staircase, along the top of the gallery, from which access is gained to the whole of the pews, by small aisles, descending by nine steps of six inches each. The pews at the north and south ends of the church are straight, but those on the west side are curved uniformly with the building. From the seats at the north side of the gallery, the principal beauties of the church are seen to great advantage. The beautiful curvature and decorations of the ceiling have a beautiful effect, from the bold perspective in which they are here seen: and the centre of the gallery derives much beauty from the brilliant appearance of the organ.

"Less picturesque, but not less curious or beautiful, is the appearance of the church when viewed from the chancel, as it is here that the whole of the auditory is presented to the view, and the columns and other ornaments are seen uniformly. The regularity and compactness of every part of the church are peculiarly striking. The front of the gallery is here seen to great advantage. Twelve beautiful fluted columns, of the Doric order, rise from pedestals and attic bases of mahogany: the former are adorned with pannels, and correspond in height to that of the front pews, which they adjoin. The columns are of cast iron, cased with mahogany, supporting a frize, with fluted tryglyphs and guttæ. The front of the gallery rises from the entablature, and contains fifty-one pannels, alternately raised and lying, which being formed of very handsome mahogany, have a rich appearance. The gallery staircase, and mahogany pannels which support it. form a beautiful object when viewed from the chancel: especially as from this place alone its connection with the arched canopy above can be seen, together with the fancy compartments of the circular fan-light above the west door.

"The ground-floor of the church is lighted by two windows of the chancel, and by other eight windows extending round the north end of the church. and connected by an ornamented plaster moulding. On the gallery floor are fifteen windows: the bars are of cast iron, and their general appearance is light and elegant. Immediately above the arches of these windows, an Ionic cornice, exceedingly beautiful and rich, with massive and highly ornamented modillions, extends round the church. From this extends a coved ceiling, of which no description can convey an adequate idea, and which is, indeed, possessed of singular beauty. Near the edge is a large plaster frize, or border, richly ornamented. The space included by this is thrown into twelve compartments, divided by ribs, which diverge from an ellipse in the centre, the border of which, together with the diverging ribs, is studded with large pateræ, formed of plaster, with radiating leaves, and surrounded with a border of suspending drops. In the central ellipse is a handsome ornament, resembling diverging feathers, from the middle of which the chandelier is suspended."

Such is the description given of this church by Mr. Sopwith, and which has evidently proceeded from admiration of the light and graceful style of its architecture. But though this structure displays considerable skill and judgment, yet its most striking ornaments are certainly inappropriate and in bad taste. No architectural ornament ought ever to be introduced without its use or purpose be apparent. Utility constitutes the basis of chasteness; but this principle has not been regarded in the decorations of this church. For instance, the pilasters stuck round the outer wall of the chancel support nothing but a slight cornice, and appear to have no business to be there. The pediment below the belfry is also extremely absurd. Such erections are used for carrying off the rain, and ought never to be built into walls. Indeed, all this part of the steeple, up to the clock, is ill designed; though the propriety of attaching any steeple to such a building may be questioned. But this building was erected before the late revival in architecture, and the architect himself lived to perceive and acknowledge the defects of his plan. (fn. 4)

Several eminent architects have betrayed, in their erections, much ignorance of the science of acoustics. Such is the case in the present building, in many parts of which the voice of the preacher was nearly inaudible. To remedy this serious defect, a concave sounding board was tried, but without producing the desired effect. In March, 1790, the pulpit and reading desk were removed, and a temporary reading desk placed in front of the communion rails. In the month of September following, the pulpit was removed from the east wall to the front of the pews in the area, in which situation it remained until the year 1812, when the middle window of the chancel was closed up, and the pulpit placed immediately against it. Mr. Stokoe, who conducted this alteration, conceived that the concave arch of the recess, together with a large sounding board, would prevent the dispersion of the sound above the gallery and centre of the church. This has, in some degree, been effected; but still the inconvenience exists to a great extent. It has been proposed to place a flat ceiling under the present concave one, to hang transparent paintings to the inner side of the windows on each side of the pulpit, to apply large ornamented brattices at the upper parts of the walls, and to cover part of the walls and the front of the gallery with drapery. No doubt, means might be adopted for producing the desired effect. (fn. 5)

THE ORGAN.

The organ of this church stands above the gallery staircase, and in front of the chancel. It was enlarged and improved by Mr. Donaldson, at a cost of £ 203, when erected in the new building. It has since undergone frequent repairs. In 1812, it was cleaned and tuned by Mr. T. Russell, of London, and the flute stop removed from the great organ to the choir, for which he received £50; and in 1819, the movement part was renewed, and other considerable additions made, under the direction of Messrs. Wood and Co. Edinburgh, the expenses of which amounted to £250. 7s.

The great organ contains nine stops: open and stop diapason, principal, twelfth, fifteenth, sesquialtra, cornet, mixture, and trumpet. The choir has open and stop diapasons, principal, flute, and vox homina: annexed is a fine swell, containing a diapason, principal, hautboy, trumpet, and dulciano. The frame-work is mahogany, adorned with handsome carving and mouldings. In the front are three towers, each containing five large pipes: the middle tower has the royal arms neatly painted on it. Between these are numerous pipes, richly gilt. The whole is surmounted with a dentil cornice and other ornaments. The organist's salary is £40 per annum, which includes for instructing the choir, by whom an anthem is sung, during morning and evening prayers, on Sundays.

THE CHAPEL.

The chapel occupies the west wing of the building, and contains a reading desk and twelve commodious pews of solid mahogany. At the north end stands the font, in a circular recess. It is a small, but richly ornamented octagonal pillar, formed of Coad's artificial stone; and in eight niches are placed allegorical representations of life, and of the Christian virtues, Prudence, Justice, Temperance, Fortitude, Faith, Hope, and Charity.

THE VESTRY.

The vestry, which is large and convenient, occupies the east wing of the vestibule. In a stone closet, with an iron door, the parish registers and other documents are carefully preserved. (fn. 6) The register of baptisms, marriages, and burials, begins in the year 1600.

THE BELLS.

From the vestibule, a dark winding staircase leads, by an ascent of 60 steps, to the bell-loft. The bells, which were cast by Mr. Thomas Mears. of London, were opened on the 11th of October. 1797. by the Union Society of Newcastle, with a peal of Holt's gransire triples, consisting of 5040 changes, in three hours and one minute, in celebration of Admiral Duncan's victory over the Dutch fleet, off Camperdown. This peal is commemorated by an inscription.

THE CLOCK.

In a vaulted room, above the belfry, stands the movement of an excellent turret clock, of three parts, made by Mr. John Thwaites. Clerkenwell, London, under the direction of Mr. Thomas Greaves, of this town, and fitted up in the steeple by Mr. William Hale, of London, February, 1798. The pendulum is 12 feet in length, and vibrates once in two seconds. It is wound up every morning, and has been kept in repair, since its erection, by Mr. Greaves. The chimes are struck on the first, second, third, and sixth bells. From the clock-room, a wooden staircase ascends, by a succession of stages, to the lower lantern, which, with the remainder of the spire, has been already described.

SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS.

The following are some modern inscriptions in the burying-ground of this church, and a few old ones not before noticed:—

"The burial place of Michael Hymers, Dorothy his wife departed this life the 4th. of Feby. 1790 aged 75—Also lies here interred the body of Michael Hymers the above named who departed this life on the 25th of May 1799 in the 78th year of his age."

"Henry Wallas Hoastman and Mary his wife and their children Henry departed this life ye 6th day of Feby. 1689—John dep'ted ye 17 of Xber 1691—Humphrey dep'ted ye 13th day of Xber anno 1698—The burial place of Joseph Watson and Jane his wife and their children He departed this life the 28th of November 1735."

"This is the burial place of William Hutchinson Merchant Adventurer who departed this life ye 6th of March 1680—Jonathan Hutchinson Esqr. died June 11th 1711 Mary his wife daughter of Mr. Ambrose Barnes died Jany 11th 1724. William their son died Sepr. 20th 1710,—Mr. Joseph Airey Merchant who married Ruth Hutchinson their daughter—He died 2nd of Feby 1748 and is interred here—She died 4th Novr. 1767 aged 77 and is interred here—Julia Airey wife of Joseph Airey Esqr. and daughter of Christopher Fawcett Esqr. obiit 29th Sepr. 1792 aged 30 years, and on the 30th of Jany 1794 Joseph Airey Esqr. aged 34 years."

"Here lie interred the remains of Ann Cramlington second wife of William Cramlington Esqr. who died 23rd March 1804 aged 70 years—The above William Cramlington Esqr. died 12th May 1810 aged 85 years."

"The buriall place of Richard Elbrough Master and Mariner—Sepulchrum Richardi Burdus Not. Pub. et Marle uxoris ille obiit 20 Decembris 1719—Hæc obiit 23 Augusti 1723 et Thomas Burdus Not. Pub. filius eoru obiit 26 die Septembris A0 Dom. 1726—Richard Burdus son of Thomas Burdus died Aug. 16. 1775 aged 50 Ann Burdus wife of Thomas Burdus died Sep. 7. 1775 aged 80.

"William Kent Merchant died 27th of Feby. 1801 aged 70 years."

All the above grave-stones are adorned with armorial bearings. Most of the burying-places in the cemetery are covered with flat stones, which now nearly occupy the whole space. Few of the inscriptions are remarkable, and there are only two or three epitaphs attempted in rhyme. The following are a few of the inscriptions which may be noticed:—On a table monument, "The burying-place of Henry Moorhouse, M. D. who departed this life the 17th Feb. 1794, aged 35 years;" also his son and daughter.—"1781, The burying-place of Matthew Bell, Esq."—"The buryingplace of Thomas Robson, wharfinger, who departed this life Dec. 30th, 1815, aged 58 years." Here are likewise the burying-places of Henry Atkinson, Hoastman—Richard Dunn—George Dunn—Lancelot Atkinson—Ralph Atkinson—Joseph Garnett—John Bell, tide-waiter, &c.

LECTURERS OF ALL SAINTS'.

Robert Jennison, S. T. P. occurs about the year 1622 (fn. 7)

Dr. Wishart appointed October 18, 1639. (fn. 8)

William Morton invited to be pastor of this church July 5, 1641. (fn. 9)

John Shaw, afternoon lecturer, occurs December 17, 1643. (fn. 10)

Richard Prideaux and William Durant appointed July 5, 1647. (fn. 11)

Thomas Davison, A. M. was appointed to this lectureship March 20, 1656. (fn. 12)

William Cock appointed, on Davison's resignation, March 23, 1664.

William Bickerton, on the resignation of Mr. Cock, January 26, 1666. (fn. 13)

Leonard Shaftoe, A. M. appointed May 8, 1671. (fn. 14)

William Maier, A. M. appointed August 30, 1676. (fn. 15)

Nathaniel Ellison, on the death of Maier, in November, 1686. (fn. 16)

Thomas Knaggs appointed afternoon lecturer December 2, 1687. (fn. 17)

Nathaniel Chilton, A. M. morning lecturer, succeeded Ellison about April 30, 1695. (fn. 18)

Leonard Shaftoe appointed morning lecturer July 14, 1698. (fn. 19)

Ralph Emmerson. A. M. afternoon lecturer September 21, 1697. (fn. 20)

Charles Ward, afternoon lecturer, occurs in 1711. (fn. 21)

Hugh Farrington succeeded Ward as afternoon lecturer in 1715. (fn. 22)

Henry Featherstonhaugh, B. D. appointed afternoon lecturer in September, 1731

Robert Swinburne. A. M. morning lecturer, appointed September 24, 1739. (fn. 24)

Hugh Moises. A. M. morning lecturer, succeeded Swinburne April 24, 1761.

Henry Ridley. A. M. appointed afternoon lecturer June 14, 1779. (fn. 26)

Cuthbert Wilson. A. M. afternoon lecturer, appointed December 17, 1783.

William Haigh. A. M. who succeeded Mr. Wilson, first occurs May 3, 1797.

Edward Moises. A. M. morning lecturer, on Haigh's removal to Wooler.

CURATES OF ALL SAINTS. (fn. 27)

John de Harpham occurs in the year 1380.

Robert Croft in 1407.

William Daggett in 1424.

Robert Hart in 1558 and in 1562. (fn. 28)

George Gray, clerk, occurs December 4, 1576.

Cuthbert, alias Robert Ewbank, occurs February 1,1577. (fn. 29)

Edward Cleton occurs both in 1585 and in 1586.

Thomas Edgar is mentioned in 1596.

John Wood occurs in the parish register in 1610.

Samuel Barker, clerk, is mentioned in 1617, and again in 1633.

Robert Bonner. A. B. licensed December 17, 1639 (fn. 30)

Ronald Salkeld in the year 1660.

John Wolfall, A. B. ordained priest March 15,1662.

Stephen Hegg occurs in 1664.

Reynold Horsley in 1665.

Timothy Fenwick in 1672.

Ralph Grey was curate in 1683.

Joseph Bonner (afterwards vicar of Bolam) curate in 1688,

Peter Straughan succeeded Bonner in 1695.

Anthony Procter was curate in 1697 or 1699.

Robert Musgraye, A. B. in 1703.

Cuthbert Ellison, M. A. in 1708. (fn. 31)

Henry Bourne, M. A. appointed in 1722. (fn. 32)

Thomas Maddison, M. A. licensed September 7, 1733.

William Alderson, clerk, head curate in 1758.

George Stephenson, clerk, head curate December, 1774. (fn. 33)

George Emerson, clerk, succeeded Stephenson in 1791. (fn. 34)

Robert Green, M. A. appointed in September, 1817.

ASSISTANT CURATES.

Mr. John Pinkney, one of the two clerks of this parish, dying in 1708, it was thought more convenient for the parishioners, as also for the minister, who had a very laborious cure, to have an assistant curate. "He was allowed," says Bourne, "the fees of the clerk, for weddings, burials, and christnings, which amounts to £50 per annum." Abraham Wilcox, A. M. was appointed. He was succeeded by Ambrose Fenwick, A. M. afterwards vicar of Stamfordham. (fn. 35)

William, alias George Hall, appointed April 30, 1722.

Thomas Gates succeeded Hall in 1722. (fn. 36)

William Alderson, clerk, occurs in 1754.

George Stephenson, clerk, is the next assistant curate named.

John Hogarth, clerk, December, 1774. (fn. 37)

Joseph Birkitt, A. B. is the next that occurs.

William Haigh. A. M. first occurs May 3, 1797.

REGISTERS, &c.

The register of baptisms, marriages, and burials, belonging to this church, begins in the year 1600. There is a hiatus in the register of baptisms, from March, 1635, to March. 1637, as also from March. 1643. to January. 1644. The first baptism performed in this church is entered as follows:—" Baptized. September the 1st. Robert son of Rev. John Hogarth, born Jany 25th, 1788, and was the first child received in ye new church."

The plate belonging to this church consists of two tankards, four plates, four cups, two bread-plates, one large dish, one silver funnel, and one baptism-bason.


Footnotes

1 The following gentlemen were appointed by the act for putting it into execution, any five of whom were declared competent to act:—Rev. John Sharp, D.D. archdeacon of Northumberland.—Rev. James Stephen Lushington, A. M. vicar of Newcastle.—Rev. George Stephenson, minister.—Rev. John Hogarth, curate.—Rev. Hugh Moises, lecturer.—Rev. Cuthbert Wilson, lecturer; and the ministers, curates, and lecturers of the parish, for the time being.—Peter Wilson, John James, Malin Sorsbie, Robert Yelloly, church-wardens, and the church-wardens for the time being.—William Yielder, Esq. mayor of Newcastle, and the mayor of Newcastle for the time being.—The recorder of Newcastle for the time being.—Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bart. George Colpitts, Esq. William Peareth, Esq. John Hall, Esq. William Cramlington, Esq. James Rudman, Esq. Hugh Hornby, Esq. William Kent, Esq. Henry Shadforth, junior, Thomas Curry, Robert Cram, Samuel Lawton, Snow Clayton, William Lloyd, gentlemen, owners of land, and parishioners of All Saints'. On the death of Thomas Curry, George Weddell was chosen in his stead. Mr. John Stokoe succeeded Snow Clayton, Esq.; and in 1790, Henry Ibbetson, William Row, and Richard Huntley, Esqrs. were also elected trustees.
The act authorised the purchase of certain lands, tenements, and hereditaments, for the purpose of enlarging the cemetery, and making proper avenues thereto. It was enacted that no grave or vault should be made in or under the new church; and that, while it was building, the solemnization of marriage, baptism, and divine service, in this parish, should be performed in St. Ann's chapel; and also that Trinity Chapel should be open for divine service on Sundays and holidays.
2 When the round stone on the top of the steeple was first placed by the workmen, October 21, 1796, John Burdikin, a private in the Cheshire Militia, raised his body upon his head, with his feet in the air, and remained in that inverted position for some time upon this stone, the diameter of which is 2 feet 6 inches, and it is 195 feet above the ground. This man is now a barber in Gateshead. What is also remarkable, his son, a bricklayer, performed the same bold feat when the above repairs took place.
3 The following are some of the principal dimensions of the steeple, from accurate admeasurement:—
                                                                           Ft.    in.
Height of the basement tower                         96     6
Height of the clock tower                               38     0
Height of the lanterns                                      31     6
Height of the spire                                           29     0
Height of the spindle                                         7     0
Total height of the steeple                            202     0
Breadth of the basement tower                       31     0
Height of the urns on the basement tower       5     9
Diameter of the pillars of the clock tower       1     9
Height of the urns on the clock tower              7     0
Diameter of the lower lantern                         14     5
Breadth of the upper lantern                             7     9
Height of the urns on the upper lantern            4     6
Diameter of the pillars of the upper lantern     1     6
Thickness of the top stone                                0     8
Diameter of the top stone                                 2     6
Length of the vane                                             5     9
Breadth of the vane                                           1     8
4 "This church is certainly a neat, smart, modern structure; but it is totally devoid of that solemn religious grandeur which distinguishes the ancient Gothic churches, and which is so excellently calculated to produce those feelings of awe and veneration which constitute the very basis of devotion. The clergy of the establishment are too indifferent to the construction of their places of worship. In compliance with the taste of the times, they have divested religion of almost all its auxiliaries, and refined it into insipidity. Our new churches have the plainness and modish coldness of a tabernacle, without having the deficiency supplied by that zeal and fervency in the speakers which so powerfully captivate the senses."—8vo. ed. Hist. of Northumb. vol. ii. p. 707.
5 It was before noticed that interments are not permitted within this church. But the brass plate that adorned the funeral monument of Roger Thornton is preserved in the vestibule. It was carefully cleaned in 1816; and some injuries subsequently caused by the dampness of its situation were repaired in 1825.
On the east side of the vestibule is a handsome marble monument, erected by the Rev. Edward Moises, A.M. to the memory of his only son. It consists of a tablet of grey marble, supporting an obelisk and two urns, with the following inscription on white marble:—
"Cæmeterio adjacente
requiescit
Edvarrus Moises
Filius Edvardi et Mariæ unicus
Multisque nominibus merito charissimus;
Qui æquori glaciali heu! nimium fidens
Prima juventute præreptus
Parentibus sororibus notisque omnibus
Flebilis occidit
Natus est 2 Feb. A. D. 1798—Obiit 20 Nov. 1813
Pater filio Deamato
Supremum hunc tribuit honorem.
HPΠHAΓH MH KAKIA AΛΛΛΞH ΣϒNEΣIN AϒTOϒ,
H ΔOΛOΣ AHATHΣH ΨϒXHN."
Beneath is the watch, whose pointers yet indicate the hapless moment which deprived it of motion, and its unfortunate possessor of life.
6 Items in the church-wardens' disbursements:—
                                                                                                                                                                             L.     s.     d.
1631,   given to 4 poore dutchmen wh were taken by dunkirkes                                                                      0     2     8
             paid for making Robart Pearsons coatt & for a new hatt and a pair of shoes for him                       0     6     10
1633,   to John Pattison for Blowinge organs wch was dew the 21st of November 1632                             0     4     0
             Itm for charges for Two churchwardens and five Joyners riding to Branspeth wth mr Chancellor   1     5     0
             Itm paid for ringing att the kings Matie his comeing to Towne                                                           0     6     0
             Itm paid for ringing att his Maties returne                                                                                             0     4     2
             Itm given to a poore Bohemian Minister                                                                                               0     6     0
1638,   pd for Copr for a new faine                                                                                                                    0     1     6
1639,   Charles Robson plaisterer for plaistering and whitening ye whole church about                               9     0     0
             Rich. Wallis the painter for marbleing all the pillars and coulering ye bowes about                         4     8     0
             for ringing the Bells wn the kings maiegty came to the towne in his Northerine exspedition           0     3     4
             ffor a new large bible of the last English Translation and a new Common prerye booke by speciall iniunction              from ye Archd. at ye visitation                                                                                                               3     4     0
1640,   Im. for an halfe houer glass                                                                                                                    0     0     8
1641,   Given to Mr James Jamison a Scotch preacher for his extraordinary pains upon the fast                  2     0     0
             ffor ringinge at ye kings Maties going into Scotland Aug                                                                    0     4     6
1642,   pd 2 Massons and 6 labourers for Bringing the fonte stones to a small place where they for merly stood and              placing them wright                                                                                                                                0     6     6
1663,   paid for a Scutcheon and Coate of Armes in memorial of Mr John Cosyn a good Benefactor          1     5     0
1665,   pd for wyne when Mr Wormes preacht                                                                                                  0     3     4
1669,   pd ye Bookbinder for mending the kings Book                                                                                     0     1     0
1674,   pd for wine for stranger Ministers this year                                                                                          2     12     0
             pd for 2 New Allmanacks for ye Church                                                                                               0     0     6
1694,   Given to a poor Scotch Minister at the request of ours
1696,   that the Church owed Widdow Grundy                                                                                                 0     4     0
1698,   Paid ye Constable for carrying a Drunkard to ye Stox                                                                          0     0     4
1699,   Augt 12th Paid for Binding King Charles I. his works and putting in 2 quire of large paper            0     7     6
1702,   Sep. 29. To candles upon the news of Prince Eugines Victory                                                            0     0     5
1705,   Paid for 2 Quarts of Bear for the Committe                                                                                         0     0     7
1725,   Pd. for 2 otters heads                                                                                                                              0     0     8
1727,   Pd for a Badgers head                                                                                                                             0     1     0
1730,   pd for a Foomrts Head                                                                                                                           0     0     4
1734,   Jan. 30, Muftels for the bells                                                                                                                 0     1     0
1736,   Jan. 30, Bell Ringer for Chyming on this day                                                                                       0     2     6
1737,   Paper and Evergreens at Xmas                                                                                                               0     1     4
1745,   Sep. 19, paid the Gravedigger for concealing and Securing of the Church Plate                               0     5     0
1764,   By Peter Wilsons Note for Whitewashing the Church                                                                        8     12     0
             By Mr. Gunn levelling the Church as per Note                                                                                  26     3     0
1783,   Mr Rob: Gray & Redford for building the New Vestry                                                                     52     0     0
1784,   Paid Charles Avisons Note for tuning the Organ, &c.                                                                        0     15     0
1806,   Pancake Bell                                                                                                                                           0     1     0
1812,   By Stokoe for Alteration in Church                                                                                                 189     0     0
1815,   Paid Mr. John Reed for rebuilding Battlement of Church and pointing the Old Work as per              Agreement                                                                                                                                          130     0     0
1816,   Sep. 28th By Lewis Forsyth for Repairing Church Steeple                                                             117     0     0
             Dec. 13th By Work done by Jacob Sopwith at Church                                                                      36     3     7
             Do. Do. Do. L. Forsyth at Do.                                                                                                           53     10     0
             Do. Do. Do. T. Coulson at Do.                                                                                                         65     7     3
1819,   April 9th Wood, Small, & Co. Repairs of Organ, Total Amount                                                   250     7     0
             June 29th By W. Mountain, Wire Gauze for Church Staircase and fitting up                                45     0     0
7 At a vestry held December 26, 1622, a motion was made by the church-wardens to the Right Worshipful Sir Peter Ridall, Knt. and the rest of the Four-and-Twentye, that "wheras Mr Doctor Jenison now present lecturer whose paines and labours in this parish is extraordinar amongst us, for better incuradgment of his sayd paynes we whose names be here under written ar content willinglie to pay quarterlie those severall sumes under mentioned for his stypand." A subscription of £10, 5s. follows. He was afterwards vicar of Newcastle. (See p. 282.)
8 Dr. Wishart succeeded Dr. Jennison by order of the king. He was afterwards lecturer at St. Nicholas'. (See pages 287 and 288.)
9 In the MS. Life of Barnes, quoted by Brand, it is said, "In the beginning of the war, Mr. Morton, a very worthy man, left Newcastle, went into the Parliament's army, and was one of the divines in the assembly at Westminster."
10 Mr. Shaw was ejected from this church, as also from his rectory at Whalton in Northumberland, and with difficulty kept his living at Bolton in Craven.
11 Mr. Durant was a man of some property, and married the sister of Sir James Clavering, Bart. After being ejected from this church, he continued to live in his own house, which probably was in Pilgrim Street, forming part of the northern range from the gate leading into Anderson Place; for in this place, called by the servants "The Dead Man's Hole," Brand discovered a grave-stone, with the following inscription :—"Parentis venerandi Gulielmi Durant, A. M. Ecclesiæ Christi D. V. hac in urbe Pastoris vigilantissimi, Officii pietatis ergo, Funeri subjacenti Sepulchrale hocce marmor Lu. mœ. posuit Johannes Durant F. Josh. cap. ult. ver. 29, 30, 32, 33, 1681." Calamy says, "He died in the latter end of king Charles' reign, and was buried in his own garden, not being allowed to be interred in what was called Holy Ground." This explains the scripture reference at the end of the margin. He is represented as having been a man of peace, seldom meddling with controversy in his sermons. Mr. John Durant dedicated the Woman of Canaan, being the sum of certain sermons on Matthew xv. 22, to the magistrates, ministers, and inhabitants of Newcastle upon Tyne, thanking them for their singular respect to his dear brother William Durant, who was carrying on the work of the gospel among them in that town. 1660, 8vo.—The above grave-stone was given by Msjor Anderson to the Hanover Square Society of Dissenters, and now stands in their chapel, below the organgallery.
This John Durant was (according to Granger, vol. iii. p. 44) a minister of special note at Canterbury. His writings afford many amusing specimens of the canting style of this age. In his "Lips of Sweetness," upon Isaiah xl. 11, reprinted in 1662, are the following passages:—" Will gently lead those that are with young;" that is, "Christ will be very kind to those saints that step aside." And he thus comforts those that are big with young in a sinful sense: "O ye sinning ewes, who have been big with young! hath not he gone after you, and found you, and laid you upon his shoulders rejoicing? It may be thou hast been wandering, like Dinah, from thy father's house, and art big with young, and afraid to go home; but fear not, go and try, he will not cast you out of doors, though you come with big bellies: he will deal gently with you, though with young. And then it is our glory to be Christ's ewes; and then when a woman is big with young, and cries out, O my belly, my belly ! here is a point of comfort, that Christ is sweet to such persons." Afterwards he exclaims, "O blessed ewes! O believing ewes! and O believing bees, that suck the honey of sinhatred out of the wormwood of sin-acted!" In another place, he tells us that Christ accounts their very stammering sweet: "Meih ! Meih ! saith the little one, and the mother counts it music."
Mr. Prideaux, it appears, conformed, for on August 27, 1662, he occurs as being settled here to preach both forenoon and afternoon. He belonged to the sect called "The Congregational Judgement."
12 His salary, according to the common council books, was £150 per annum. He was of St. John's, Cambridge, and is supposed to have been the same person who published the Fall of Angels laid open, &c. a sermon preached before the mayor, &c. of Newcastle—London, 1685, 4to.
13 Bickerton's salary was £100 per annum. He had been pastor of Wolsingham during the usurpation. He died in the year 1671.
14 He was both forenoon and afternoon lecturer, with a salary of £ 70 per annum.
15 He was removed from the lectureship of St. Nicholas. His salary was £90.
16 He resigned in 1694, on being appointed vicar of St. Nicholas'. See page 283.
17 Mr. Knaggs was of Emanuel College, Cambridge. He occurs with the degree of A. B. when presented to Merrington vicarage in April, 1682. In the MS. life of Barnes it is said, "At All Hallows was Mr. Knaggs, who, quarrelling with Dr. Atherton, a strong passive obedience man, got himself many potent enemies—removed to the rectory of St. Giles', London." In the title of a sermon, preached before the lord mayor and court of aldermen, at Bow church, November 5, 1693, he is called lecturer of St. Nicholas' and chaplain to Ford Lord Grey. Another sermon, preached at Trinity chapel, in the parish of St. Martin's in the Fields, February 4, 1700, is dedicated to Lady Sarah Brooke, "by Thomas Knaggs, M. A. lecturer in Newcastle, and chaplain to the Right Honourable Ford, Earl of Tankerville." He died May 12, 1724. His salary as lecturer was £70.
18 He was recommended by the bishop of Carlisle when Mr. Ellison was removed to the vicarage. He died three years after his appointment.
19 This person was the son of Mr. L. Shaftoe, appointed lecturer in 1671. His salary was £100, and £10 for Thursday's lecture. He died August 27, 1731, rector of Gateshead. Bourne says, "He was a very useful preacher, a man of great generosity and hospitality, a hearty and sincere friend, and one of extensive charity and benevolence."
20 He was appointed, on the removal of Mr. Knaggs to the rectory of St. Giles', London. His salary was £80.
21 He published The Duty of Charity to the Souls of Men, a sermon preached before the mayor and aldermen of Newcastle, at All Saints' church, on All Saints' day this year, at the anniversary public examination of a charity-school there. Mr. Bourne says, "He was an excellent preacher." He died in the year 1715.
22 In 1731, he was removed to the morning lecture. He died September 3, 1739.
23 He was fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. A sermon which he preached at St. Nicholas' church, Newcastle, January 30, 1724, was published. He died in 1779. See account of monuments in St. John's church.
24 He was of University College, Oxford, and died April 17, 1761. His salary was £100.
25 For an account of this able lecturer and excellent scholar, see Grammar-school.
26 See page 289.
27 The king pays the curate £4, 6s. 11d. Bourne says, "The curate of this church is the minister of it. The vicar pays him £4 per annum, and the crown £5. The rest of his income arises from the surplice fees, register, &c. It was formerly the custom to have two clerks for this church."
Boundaries of All Saints' Parish.
This parish, observes Bourne, "is one of the largest cures in the kingdom." It is bounded on the south by the river Tyne. The Lort-burn forms the boundary on the west, including the east side of the Sandhill, of the Foot of the Side, and of Dean Street. This boundary line passes between the Theatre and the Post-office, and includes not only the east division of the shops in the New Flesh Market, but also the south-east range of the west division. From the north gate of this market it proceeds eastward along the High Bridge, and, crossing Pilgrim Street, runs along the south side of the Black House premises down to Erick-burn. It then turns up this burn for about 80 yards, when it crosses the ground (formerly the Carliol Croft) in a direct line to the north side of Plummer Tower. From this place it runs northwards up the road now formed on the scite of the town-wall, and, at the north-west corner of the Lying-in Hospital, turns down New Bridge Street, including the south side, to the water of Pandon-dean, below the New Bridge. This burn forms the boundary line to near the water-mill, when it turns up the hedge that protects the small gardens on the bank side. The brick-field on the bank top is included within the boundary line, which next proceeds along the hedge adjoining the foot-path leading to Sandyford Stone Bridge, where a small runner of water, that joins the Ouseburn, divides this parish from Jesmond township. The line passes down the Ouseburn to the southwest corner of Sir M. W. Ridley's plantation, the hedge of which forms the boundary on the north. From the termination of this plantation it proceeds in a direct line to the public house at the north end of Byker Hill. Here it crosses the Shields turnpike road, and runs along the east side of the cottages, until it joins the scite of the Roman Wall, which divides it from Walker lands for the distance of 222 yards, when the line turns southwards to the river, passing along the hedges which separate the lands of the burgesses of Newcastle in Long Benton parish from the lands of Byker.
Byker Township, in All Saints' Parish.
This parish is divided into All Saints' within the town and county of Newcastle upon Tyne, and Byker township in the parish of All Saints in the county of Northumberland. The boundaries of the town on the east are also the boundaries between the parish within the town and Byker township, each of which divisions are rated separately, and are under different civil jurisdictions.
This township commences at the boundary stone marked 53, near the entrance into Shield-field from Sandyford Bridge. From this stone the line of demarcation stretches along the field to another stone, a little south of Old Shield-field House. From hence the line passes on the west side of the corn-mill, through the oil-mill field, and crosses the road to the corner of Red Barns, or Stepney garden-wall. Opposite the oil-mill there is another bounder stone, marked 57. From this the line proceeds along an old fence, which separates the grounds of Sir M. W. Ridley and Sir H. Lawson. At the foot of the bank is another bounder stone, from which the line passes round the house of Mr. Mark Jobson; and taking in the north part of premises belonging to Sir Thomas Burdon, it proceeds close by the corner of the Northumberland Flax Spinningmill, and, crossing the Ouseburn, joins the Shields turnpike road east of Coxon's public house. On the south side of the road is a bounder stone, marked 59, from which the line runs behind Quality Row to the east side of East Ballast Hills, from whence it passes southward to St. Peter's Quay, where is a small rivulet, which divides this township from Newcastle.
It appears that some uncertainty exists respecting the proper boundary line from the Red Barns to the Ouseburn. Formerly, it is said, the old road ran close to Sir M. W. Ridley's property; but, in consequence of taking clay from the ground it occupied, another road was made, a little further to the north. Mr. Coulson, of Byker, surveyed this line in 1814; and appended to the plan is the following observations:—" The Newcastle freemen, about fifteen or sixteen years ago, in perambulating, or rather circumambulating the boundary, passed over the top of the house marked B (the pottery house). The last two or three times of their course, they took the liberty of extending it so far as to place that house altogether within their Liberties (which are certainly both great and frequent). About forty-three years back, the public road lay near to, and along the north side of the old fence, which they passed along in great part, and which road was always repaired by the township of Byker. This fence, no doubt, is the proper boundary: it divides the lands of two proprietors, Sir Henry Lawson and Sir M. W. Ridley. In the title deeds of the former, his land and other property are all described to be in the county of Northumberland. It is in the memory of persons now living, that Mr. Mark Jobson's house did stand all, or most of it, in Northumberland—now the Newcastle men have circled it in. * * * How, or by what order of geometry, those multiform arcs are obtained, is unknown. In fixing the boundaries of all other places, a mark is set at every angle, and straight lines between the angles become simply at all times a certain boundary: not so with Newcastle freemen; they form between each pair of angles a great diversity of curve, of various radiuses, all bending outwards. These curves, all varying, cannot otherwise be generated than from some variable point situated within the Liberties; and this point must be in the sanctum sanctorum of some corporate pericranium."The boundaries of this township include an area of about 850 acres, with a population of above 4000 persons.—See Hist. of Northumb. vol. ii. p.. 479 & 480.
28 This curate and the three preceding ones are mentioned in Randall's MSS.
29 He was ordained deacon October 10, 1573. He again occurs by the title of curate of All Hallows January 19, 1582. William Brown is mentioned as his assistant.
30 He was sequestered and imprisoned, during the civil wars, for his attachment to the cause of Charles I.
31 Mr. Ellison was of Lincoln College, Oxford. He afterwards became vicar of Stannington. He was author of "The Babler, in two Sermons on Acts, xvii. xviii. preached in St. Nicholas' church, before the corporation of Newcastle, May 15th, and Nov. 27th, 1726, by Cuthbert Ellison, A. M. vicar of Stannington, in Northumberland"—published 1745, pr. 6d. 8vo.—also of "A Pastoral between Corydon and Thyrsis;"—also of a most pleasant description of Benwell village, called, "A Trip to Benwell,"1726, 8vo. He died February 13, 1744.
32 Henry Bourne was a native of Newcastle. His father was a tailor, who, after giving him an ordinary education, bound him an apprentice to a glazier in the Side. In this situation he discovered such an extraordinary aptitude in acquiring knowledge, that some persons procured his emancipation, and he was again sent to school. From hence he was transferred by his generous patrons to Christ's College in Cambridge, in which he was admitted a sizar about the year 1719 or 1720. His tutor was the Rev. Thomas Atherton, a fellow of that society, and his countryman. Here he continued until he commenced A. B.: he subsequently took the degree of M. A. On leaving the college, he returned to Newcastle, and, in 1722, was licensed and appointed curate, as stated above. He wrote "Antiquitates Vulgares;"which, becoming very scarce, and selling at a high price, was, in 1777, republished by the Rev. J. Brand, with observations and additions. He also published, in 1727, "A Treatise upon the Collects, Epistles, and Gospels of the Book of Common Prayer," which he dedicated to Granville Wheler, Esq. In the following year, some of his parishioners founded a lecture for the instruction of the people in the Rubrick and Liturgy, which was very properly settled upon him. But the great work that occupied most of his attention was, "The History of Newcastle upon Tyne," a thin folio volume, which was published by subscription, three years after his death, for the benefit of his young children, Henry and Eleanor. This work, he complains, was compiled in the midst of "malice, ill-nature," and "disappointments;" unpleasantries which, perhaps, all local historians are doomed to experience. He, however, executed this arduous undertaking with unwearied and successful industry; and his book formed an excellent ground-work for the more enlarged superstructure of his successor, Brand. It being a posthumous work, "both apologizes and accounts for the various contradictions with which it abounds." After a very lingering illness, he died February 16, 1733, when in the very prime of life. His wife Margaret died August 8, 1727, in the 30th year of her age, and was buried in All Saints' church, under a stone with a Latin inscription, which formerly belonged to one Blount. Bourne appears to have been a sincere, plain, unassuming man, diligent in his studies, and in the discharge of his clerical duties. Had his useful life been prolonged, he would, without doubt, have prosecuted his topographical researches, and his illustrations of our local antiquities. Considering the extent and utility of his labours, his memory was certainly entitled to more respect than Mr. Brand has thought proper to bestow upon it.
33 Mr. Stephenson was presented in 1769, by Eton College, to the living of Cottisford in Oxfordshire, worth £120 per annum, which he exchanged with a fellow of Baliol College, Oxford, for Long Benton in the county of Northumberland, to which the said Baliol College had appointed the latter. Mr. Stephenson was buried October 11, 1791. He was chaplain to the Trinity House, Neweastle.
34 Mr. Emerson died January 7, 1817.
35 For an account of the Rev. A. Fenwick, see Hist, of Northumb. vol. ii. p. 232. Mr. Hall died in the, year 1741.
36 He was of St. John's College, Cambridge. He was found dead in the Shield-field.
37 He was curate of Middleton in Teesdale, and afterwards vicar of Kirknewton.